WorldWideScience

Sample records for school policy issues

  1. School Health: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Constance M.

    1994-01-01

    Despite data suggesting a relationship between investment in children's health and improved academic performance, school health financing is inadequate, inequitable, and fragmented. Strategies for improving school health programs include leadership from the nursing profession; collaboration among health professionals; consolidation of funding…

  2. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  3. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  4. Secondary School Admissions Policies in Eastern Africa: Some Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W. T. S.

    1974-01-01

    This discussion considers some regional issues implicit in current procedures regulating admission to secondary education in four countries of Eastern Africa and places these procedures in their general political context. (Author)

  5. Linking Housing and School Integration Policy: What Federal, State and Local Governments Can Do. Issue Brief No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This Issue Brief states that, in spite of the obvious "reciprocal relationship" between housing and school policy, government housing and education agencies have rarely collaborated to promote the common goals of racial and economic integration. Recent efforts to promote collaboration among housing and school agencies have focused on…

  6. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  7. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  8. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  9. Accrediting Professional Education: Research and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Robert H.; Florio, David H.

    Research and legal issues that relate to accreditation policy questions for schools, colleges, and departments of education are reviewed, and strategies for integrating empirical information and social/professional values are presented. The discussion divides into three sections: (1) information concerning a variety of contextual issues that…

  10. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  11. Policy issues in interconnecting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    To support the activities of the Federal Research Coordinating Committee (FRICC) in creating an interconnected set of networks to serve the research community, two workshops were held to address the technical support of policy issues that arise when interconnecting such networks. The workshops addressed the required and feasible technologies and architectures that could be used to satisfy the desired policies for interconnection. The results of the workshop are documented.

  12. School Discipline: Special Issues. School Management Handbook Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Elementary School Principals, Arlington, VA.

    This part of the School Management Handbook provides the elementary school administrator with an overview of civil rights issues affecting school discipline policy. The first section treats the requirements for providing due process and avoiding discrimination against minority groups when following disciplinary procedures. Section 2 covers…

  13. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  14. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Schools of Education: Legal and Political Issues of Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Robert H.; Florio, David H.

    1977-01-01

    A policy-making forum created to examine substantive issues related to the formulation of a national accreditation policy for schools of education will help sort out and accommodate differences in ideological positions. (Author)

  16. Strengthening Pennsylvania's Charter School Reform: Findings From the Statewide Evaluation and Discussion of Relevant Policy Issues. Year Five Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Gary; Nelson, Christopher; Risley, John

    In 2001, the Pennsylvania Department of Education contracted with Western Michigan University to evaluate Pennsylvania's charter schools and charter school initiative over two years. The study used site visits, work sample review, document review, focus groups, portfolios and surveys to gather data regarding the movement's effectiveness, progress,…

  17. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  18. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  19. Charter School Replication. Policy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2009-01-01

    "Replication" is the practice of a single charter school board or management organization opening several more schools that are each based on the same school model. The most rapid strategy to increase the number of new high-quality charter schools available to children is to encourage the replication of existing quality schools. This policy guide…

  20. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  1. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  2. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  3. CLASP Middle School/High School Boys of Color Policy Scan and Information Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Crowell, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide an analysis of policy issues affecting middle school and high school-aged boys and young men of color in the areas of education, health, and pathways to employment. This policy scan and subsequent recommendations will provide valuable background knowledge to inform the future direction of policy efforts…

  4. Perceptions and Implications of No-Fee School Policy: School-Based Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naong, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The inception of no-fee schools and a school-fee exemption policy has become a contentious issue but also an exciting one for school managers in South Africa. Managers opposed to the policy have cited amongst others things, academic standards dropping, as well as parents who can afford to pay jumping on the bandwagon and refusing to pay. While the…

  5. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  6. Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

  7. Advocacy and policy issues Tutorial 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial is aimed at those who are new to the area of repositories and who want to learn more about key advocacy and policy issues. The tutorial will include information and advice on putting together an institutional advocacy campaign and developing policies for your repository. There will be opportunities for participants to share experiences and to ask questions. The tutorial will include a practical exercise in developing an advocacy presentation. Participants with experience of advocacy are welcome to attend the session to share their experiences, but should bear in mind that it is aimed primarily at those looking for help and advice in advocacy matters.

  8. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  9. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Seelman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehomecare, Telepsychiatry, Telepractice

  10. State Policy Regimes and Charter School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Mikael L.

    2015-01-01

    The policy diffusion framework is critical to understanding the spread of policy innovations such as charter schools in the United States. This framework, however, is less instructive in explaining the state-by-state configuration of these policies. What explains the wide variation in charter school policy among states? This study addresses this…

  11. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  12. The Influence of Conflict Resolution Programs on Student Conduct Violations in Middle Schools with a School Uniform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    School safety is a very important issue for school staff, parents, and students. When school safety is lacking, students suffer in emotional, academic, and social areas. One recent intervention middle schools are examining is the student uniform policy. In some cases, school uniforms have been shown to have a profound effect on school safety,…

  13. Overall program status and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Under the terms of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) will permanently dispose of high-level radioactive waste from defense activities and spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. The waste management system authorized by the NWPA, as amended in 1987, is to include three major components: a geologic repository for permanent disposal, a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for packaging and temporarily storing waste, and a system for transporting the waste to the MRS and to the repository. This paper discusses DOE's objectives for the waste management system, including the priority DOE places on maintaining and enhancing schedules for accepting waste; current policy and programmatic issues; and the strategies being employed for dealing with these issues. These strategies include efforts to ensure that site characterization activities support licensing requirements, the use of contingency planning, the application of systems integration, and systems studies of the role of an MRS. This paper reports briefly on the status of the site characterization program, including DOE's efforts to (a) strengthen quality assurance, (b) prepare for construction of the exploratory shaft facility that will be used to conduct underground tests, (c) clarify US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements and expedite the licensing process, (d) comply with applicable environmental regulations, and (e) monitor and mitigate the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of site characterization activities

  14. School Counselors: A Review of Contemporary Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to review the topic of school counselors and the contemporary issues surrounding this profession. An introduction to the profession and overview of its history provides a comprehensive basis on which to understand today's school counseling profession. An examination of contemporary themes of school counseling will include job…

  15. Issues of Cultural Diversity in School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Explores cultural diversity in school mathematics and the issues raised for mathematics education. Examines the curricular roots of school mathematics in relation to scholarly mathematics, and the mathematics of past generations and different social groups. Notes some of the complexities in seeking to 'culturalize' school mathematics by bringing…

  16. International challenges and public policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of current public policy issues relating to biological standardisation and control, drawing on the extensive background material assembled for two recent international reviews, and previously published work. It identifies a number of factors which are destabilising the current system and promoting a climate for change. These include the squeeze on public sector resources, the growth in volume and complexity of biologicals, developing world needs, concerns about harmonisation and new social and ethical issues. It is argued that this situation presents important opportunities for reviewing the existing boundaries between regulatory scientists, industry, and the public, for international agreement on priorities and for harmonisation and mutual recognition. While considerable progress has already been made on these issues at national, regional and global level, there is a need for fuller international participation and the additional impetus that would come from a higher-profile commitment by governments. Such commitment will also be important for the vital questions of sustaining the scientific base and securing the resource for an effective, truly worldwide programme of standardisation and control. An international approach will also be essential in steering biologicals control through the difficult social and ethical questions of the future. WHO, in collaboration with national authorities, has a key role to play in these developments.

  17. School Finance Reform. At Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Californians are very concerned about funding for their K-12 public schools. They consistently say that K-12 education should be protected from spending cuts over and above any other area of the state budget. California's system of school finance is in trouble. Many studies have found it to be inequitable, with wide variation in per-pupil funding.…

  18. Economic and policy issues in climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Global climate change has emerged as one of today's most challenging and controversial policy issues. In this significant new contribution, a roster of premier scholars examines economic and social aspects of that far-reaching phenomenon. Although the 1997 summit in Kyoto focused world attention on climate, it was just one step in an ongoing process. Research by the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been ongoing since 1988. An extensive IPCC Working Group report published in 1995 examined the economic and social aspects of climate change. In this new volume, eminent economists assess that IPCC report and address the questions that emerge. William Nordhaus's introduction establishes the context for this book. It provides basic scientific background, reviews the IPCC's activities, and explains the genesis of the project

  19. Uranium issues and policies: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    US policy is to reestablish the viability of nuclear energy and to expand the useful energy derived from uranium. A comprehensive assessment of US uranium resources is a key part of this effort. This assessment should lead to resolution of issues regarding adequacy of US uranium resources and production capability to meet long-term need in an economic manner. DOE programs on ore-reserve estimation, resource appraisal (particularly NURE), and production capability analysis are responsive to these information needs, as well as concerns regarding uranium demand, market growth, uranium prices, and foreign supply and demand. The cooperation of industry, particularly in providing basic information needed for DOE studies, is a vital element of this activity

  20. Implementation of School Uniform Policy and the Violation of Students’ Human Rights in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the violations of students’ human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School’s Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods. Black girls claimed they were discriminated against and the protest serves as an example to demonstrate students’ human rights violations when schools implement school uniform policies. Inequality in schools is rife in South Africa. School uniform policies with regard to dress codes are expected to reduce school violence, prevent discipline issues, and improve in school safety. Students have rights and their rights can include issues regarding cultural, economic, and political freedoms. Students, especially adolescents, respond very negatively to school uniforms.

  1. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  2. Forcing the issue on radiation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    1999-01-01

    For those frustrated by an inability to get a fair hearing on evidence that challenges current radiation policy, the recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA's arbitrary and capricious rule-making process. The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon. Radiation protection is associated in many people's minds with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), but other agencies have also been involved. Radon, like second-hand smoke, has been tolerated for generations, and EPA has the burden of proving that it is a public hazard. The law and the unwritten rules of science are quite explicit in defining what must be done to make such a finding. In the case of radon, there is no prior basis for public concern. In fact, the public uses radium spas with radon concentrations up to one million times as high as the EPA permissible limit. In many countries, such spa usage is formally prescribed by physicians and paid for by national health insurance. The health effects, if any, from radon, as from second-hand smoke, are hard to quantify. But, this does not justify--in either case--the EPA's straying from its published criteria and procedures for testing whether such health effects occur. A Federal court has now demonstrated its willingness to judge and strike down the EPA's actions regarding second-hand smoke on their own merits, without attempting to be an arbiter of science. The result is a welcome breath of fresh air and an object lesson for those concerned about the mounting costs of treating radon as a major public health hazard

  3. Broadening health policy education in medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nur, Aqib Chaudry, Amar SodhaFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Malik et al1 exploring medical studentparticipation in health policy roles. As medical students who recently completed anintercalated degree in healthcare management at Imperial College London, we spent alarge proportion of our time learning about health policy. Thus, we can offer a uniqueperspective on this issue.    We firstly commend the authors for identifying factors that act as barriers to medical student involvement in health policy roles. Noteworthy barriers impacting student involvement included: a lack of knowledge regarding health policy, an unawareness of opportunities available, and a lack of time. It was found that 43% identified lack of time as a barrier to their involvement in health policy.1 Bicket et al similarly found that time commitments and opportunity costs were the main drawbacks for students not pursuing their interests in leadership roles in medical school.2View the original paper by Malik and colleagues.

  4. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  5. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  6. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2011. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presented here are the top 10 issues most likely to affect public higher education across the 50 states in 2011, in the view of the state policy staff at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). This listing is informed by an environmental scan of the economic, political and policy landscape surrounding public higher…

  7. Concussion Management in Schools: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Angela I.; Pierson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The school psychology literature base is lacking in information and resources for working with students with traumatic brain injuries, and concussions specifically. This special issue includes five articles from school psychology based researchers committed to increasing the awareness of the identification, assessment, and intervention for…

  8. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  9. Schools as Radical Sanctuaries: Decolonizing Urban Education through the Eyes of Youth of Color. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Large, comprehensive urban high schools were designed and constructed with the belief that they could meet the needs of all its students, academic and otherwise. By and large, however, these schools have only done a good job of sorting students for specific jobs in a society based on capitalism and White supremacy. Consequently, students schooled…

  10. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  11. Networked publics: multi-disciplinary perspectives on big policy issues

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Dutton

    2018-01-01

    This special issue of Internet Policy Review is the first to bring together the best policy-oriented papers presented at the annual conference of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR). This issue is anchored in the 2017 conference in Tartu, Estonia, which was organised around the theme of networked publics. The seven papers span issues concerning whether and how technology and policy are reshaping access to information, perspectives on privacy and security online, and social and lega...

  12. Fostering Policies That Enhance Positive School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheras, Peter L.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Schools have a considerable influence on children's development, through proximal factors such as teachers and curriculum, but also through indirect effects of school policies. Although some policies and programs have the potential to increase stress and burden on students, educators, as well as the broader educational context, several programs…

  13. Drug Testing in Schools: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Public concern about substance abuse, fueled by political and media attention, is causing school administrators to consider a variety of approaches beyond traditional drug education. No procedures, methods, or rules regarding drug testing should be established in the absence of clear school board policy, and no policy decisions should be made…

  14. Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…

  15. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  16. School wellness policies and foods and beverages available in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-08-01

    Since 2006-2007, education agencies (e.g., school districts) participating in U.S. federal meal programs are required to have wellness policies. To date, this is the only federal policy that addresses foods and beverages sold outside of school meals (in competitive venues). To examine the extent to which federally required components of school wellness policies are associated with availability of foods and beverages in competitive venues. Questionnaire data were collected in 2007-2008 through 2010-2011 school years from 892 middle and 1019 high schools in nationally representative samples. School administrators reported the extent to which schools had required wellness policy components (goals, nutrition guidelines, implementation plan/person responsible, stakeholder involvement) and healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages available in competitive venues. Analyses were conducted in 2012. About one third of students (31.8%) were in schools with all four wellness policy components. Predominantly white schools had higher wellness policy scores than other schools. After controlling for school characteristics, higher wellness policy scores were associated with higher availability of low-fat and whole-grain foods and lower availability of regular-fat/sugared foods in middle and high schools. In middle schools, higher scores also were associated with lower availability of 2%/whole milk. High schools with higher scores also had lower sugar-sweetened beverage availability and higher availability of 1%/nonfat milk, fruits/vegetables, and salad bars. Because they are associated with lower availability of less-healthy and higher availability of healthier foods and beverages in competitive venues, federally required components of school wellness policies should be encouraged in all schools. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Munro, Geoffrey; Buykx, Penny; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John; Clark, Madeline

    2017-08-01

    Children's positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults' alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government) schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults' alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals' and school communities' beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults' use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  18. Macro Issues of Mikro Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bray

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mikro Primary School is an Afrikaans medium public school whose governing body refused to accede to an order of the Western Cape Department of Education to change the language policy of the school so as to convert it into a parallel medium Afrikaans/English school. The Supreme Court of Appeal held that section 29(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, means that everyone has a right to be educated in an official language of his or her choice at a public educational institution to be provided by the State if reasonably practicable, but not the right to be so instructed at each and every public educational institution, subject only to it being reasonably practicable to do so. The court held that the language policy and admission policy of Mikro were not contrary to any provision of the Constitution, the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996, the Western Cape Provincial School Education Act 12 of 1997 or the Norms and Standards. The MEC and the department were prohibited and restrained from compelling or attempting to compel the school or its principal to admit learners for instruction otherwise than in compliance with its language policy and applicable provisions of the Schools Act and the Norms and Standards. The court declared the conduct of the department’s officials to be an unlawful interference with the government and professional management of the school in contravention of section 16 of the Schools Act and prohibited and restrained them from interfering unlawfully. The court rejected a previous interpretation of the term “organ of state” and relied on the Constitution which determines that any institution exercising a public power or performing a public function in terms of any legislation is an organ of state (section 239(b(ii. This means that the public school (acting through its governing body is clearly an organ of state because as an institution it exercises a public-education power and performs public

  19. Client Privacy and the School Counselor: Privilege, Ethics, and Employer Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Loren; Mehring, Teresa

    1993-01-01

    Notes that number of school counselors are confused about issues of confidentiality. Discusses issues of privileged communication, confidentiality, and employer policies. Concludes with section on law, ethics, employer policy, and the counselor. Provides six recommendations for school counselors to use in their day-to-day practice to avoid…

  20. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  1. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-12-01

    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children.

  2. Solar Access: Issues and Policy Options | State, Local, and Tribal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governments | NREL Solar Access: Issues and Policy Options Solar Access: Issues and Policy Options June 06, 2017 by Alison Holm Distributed solar capacity in the United States is on the rise : approximately 2,580 megawatts (MW) of new residential solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity was brought online in

  3. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy: Structures and Institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined issues pertaining to structures and institutional arrangement for agricultural extension policy. It highlighted the broad objectives of the new policy thrust in agriculture in Nigeria, and identified sub-policies that were expected to facilitate growth of the agricultural sector of the economy. Agricultural ...

  4. Contract Training: Progress and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Drisko, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Provides results of a national survey of community college contract training programs, including data on the extent of the colleges' involvement, centralization/decentralization of contract training, problems and benefits, and future trends. Discusses future policy trends. (HB)

  5. Selected Legal Issues in Catholic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Mary Angela

    This book examines legal issues that affect Catholic high schools. Chapter 1 discusses sources of the law and how fairness and due process, federal and state statutes, and various guidelines shape the law. Tort law, corporal punishment, search and seizure, defamation of character, and negligence are covered in chapter 2. Chapter 3 details issues…

  6. Restructuring Schools: Promising Practices and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Maureen T., Ed.

    Chapters in this book focus on a wide array of educational issues that command attention at the end of the 20th century. Various aspects of contemporary schooling are explored, and models of school organization and functioning are proposed in the following chapters: (1) "Achievement-Oriented School Design" (James S. Coleman); (2)…

  7. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    global issues on which the Obama Administration has sought to work with China are the international financial crisis, climate change, and nuclear non-proliferation. In remarks in July 2009, President Obama declared that partnership between the United States and China was a prerequisite for progress on many of the most pressing global challenges. Continuing major bilateral issues in the relationship include trade and...into the Obama Administration, U.S. officials point to some successes in their efforts to work with China on global issues , including

  8. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  9. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  10. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  11. Issues in International Climate Policy: Theory and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Gupta, J.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change is currently at the center of scientific and political debate, and the need for well-designed international climate policies is widely recognized. Despite this, the complexity of both the climate change problem and the international negotiation process has resulted in a large number

  12. Navigating School Safety Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Kelly; Rossen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives designed to improve school safety and conditions for learning have become central to education reform efforts at the local, state, and national levels. These efforts often target the reduction and prevention of bullying, discrimination, and harassment in schools. While most states currently have some form of law or policy designed to…

  13. Policy and Management Issues in Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Issues in Higher Education Budgeting Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two papers appearing in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Faults M.J. Bowman, B. Millot, and E. Schiefelbein's tax burden study for excluding background information on educational goals in France, Chile, and Malaysia. Criticizes L. R. Jones, F. Thompson, and W. Zumeta for viewing budgeting as limiting expenditures, rather than…

  15. Health care technology as a policy issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions

  16. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  17. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  18. Policy issues in Ethiopian energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    One of the most serious constraints to current survival and future development in Ethiopia is energy. The question of energy for survival is dependent on biomass which is being rapidly depleted;at the current rate of deforestation, Ethiopia will be bare of forests in 20 years. There are several points to emphasize in establishing a forestry policy which include: 1) Accurate costing of per unit of production 2) Selection of appropriate species by ecological zone 3) Land management improvements 4) Suitable Land Tenure Systems It is possible to outline general principles for energy-forestry management, namely: 1) Around densely settled areas, encourage the production of trees as a cash crop 2) In dry areas, encourage agroforestry to enchance total biomass productivity 3) Require state farms and all new settlement as far as possible to be self supporting in fuel through settlement woodlots 4) Enforce 'Green (Energy) Belts' around major urban areas. Without forestry, there will be no fuel. Except for hydroelectricity and geothermal, there are no substantial, really proven indigenous reserves: even the exploitation of hydropower and geothermal potential is totally dependent on foreign technology.

  19. Virtual K-12 Public School Programs and Students with Disabilities: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This policy forum proceedings document contains a short introduction section that describes the current status of virtual public school programs in general and special education programs in particular. Next, this document provides a state-of-the-nation report that describes the exponential growth these programs and the evolving policy issues for…

  20. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  1. Data Speak: Influencing School Health Policy through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Keller, Teresa; Hine, Beverly; Christeson, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    School nurses occupy a unique position in relation to school health policy. In addition to facing the demands of promoting and maintaining the health of students, they collect the information that is used to document the implementation of school health policy. Effective school health policy is guided by reliable, credible data regarding what…

  2. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  3. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  4. Modeling policy issues in a world of imperfect competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model the beha......General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model...... the behavior of oligopolistic firms. In order to provide a conceptual foundation for the analysis of policy issues in the case of imperfect competition, we discuss ways to formulate the objective of a strategic firm. In particular, we investigate the concept of real wealth maximization that is based on profits...

  5. A Survey of Sun Protection Policy and Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Buller, Mary Klein; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2006-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for school programs to reduce skin cancer. Objective Personnel at U.S. secondary schools were surveyed to describe sun protection policy and education prior to these recommendations. Methods School principals or other personnel at 484 secondary schools in 27 cities responded to a telephone survey in January and February 2002 (response rate = 31%). Results A sun protection policy was reported at 10% of the schools but sun protection education occurred at nearly all schools (96%). Policies were more prevalent in regions with high ultraviolet radiation (pprotection was a low policy priority for U.S. schools. Sun safety education was prevalent but written materials were used infrequently. A substantial proportion of school personnel were receptive to the CDC’s advice. PMID:16488293

  6. Australian uranium exports: nuclear issues and the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trood, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction; formulation of uranium policy (the public debate; the Ranger Enquiry into all environmental aspects of a proposal by the AAEC and Ranger Uranium Mines to develop certain uranium deposits in the Northern Territory of Australia; the Government's decision); issues (non-proliferation and uranium safeguards policy; uranium enrichment in Australia; government involvement in uranium development; U development and environmental protection; U development and the Australian aborigines); conclusions. (U.K.)

  7. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K. (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  8. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K.

    2011-12-01

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  9. India and Iran's nuclear issue: the three policy determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajiv, S. Samuel C.

    2011-01-01

    Three broad policy determinants can be discerned in Indian reactions to the Iranian nuclear issue. These include: 'strategic autonomy' as it relates to Indian foreign policy decision making; concerns regarding 'regional strategic stability' as it relates to events in its 'proximate neighbourhood'; and 'national security' implications on account of operative clandestine proliferation networks. Issues relating to the role of the US in influencing Indian policy positions at international forums and vis-a-vis domestic policy were prominent as regards the first determinant. Threats and 'advice' by American policy makers and law makers on specific issues like the Indo-US nuclear deal and the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline gave further grist to critics. However, an analysis of India's concerns regarding the other two policy considerations, i.e., strategic stability and national security were 'real and present' and also dominated public discourse as well. With India having become a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from January 2011, it should be the task of Indian diplomacy, at the UNSC as well as at other bilateral and multilateral settings, to help expand the space for the application of 'satisfactory strategies' and reduce the range of 'unsatisfactory strategies'. (author)

  10. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise

  11. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  12. Macro issues of Mikro Primary School | Bray | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mikro Primary School is an Afrikaans medium public school whose governing body refused to accede to an order of the Western Cape Department of Education to change the language policy of the school so as to convert it into a parallel medium Afrikaans/English school. The Supreme Court of Appeal held that section ...

  13. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  14. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  15. Dilemmas of American Policy; Crucial Issues in Contemporary Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel DuBois; And Others

    This volume contains four papers dealing with key social issues confronting American society; racial conflict; education (especially concerning national policies and goals); rationale for limited war for a nonmilitaristic nation; and the generation gap. Dr. Cook discusses black identity and white response and the problem of inculcating hope where…

  16. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    as Putin’s attempt to test how far he can go in destabilizing Ukraine while avoiding the imposition of additional sanctions by the EU and United...cooperative threat reduction and other nonproliferation activities with Russia. Figure 1. Ukraine Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

  17. Regional and Special Issues in Social Policy & Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finer, Catherine Jones; Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and elaboration of regional and special issues of Social Policy & Administration (SP&A) from the contrasting perspectives of the two editors principally involved in their production as a distinctive feature of the journal. Catherine Jones Finer, who retired from......-to-date range of documents to trace trends and developments over time, not merely in the content of the regional and special issues themselves, but in the increasingly international and supra-national social policy environment to which they relate....... editorial involvement in2007, writes from memory of her own experience (which featured the introduction of regional then special issues as an ongoing series) drawing on the run of printed copies of SP&A still in her possession. Bent Greve then draws on his own access to a much wider and more up...

  18. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  19. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  20. Issues surrounding orphan disease and orphan drug policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    An orphan disease is a disease with a very low prevalence. Although there are 5000-7000 orphan diseases, only 50 orphan drugs (i.e. drugs developed to treat orphan diseases) were marketed in the EU by the end of 2008. In 2000, the EU implemented policies specifically designed to stimulate the development of orphan drugs. While decisions on orphan designation and the marketing authorization of orphan drugs are made at the EU level, decisions on drug reimbursement are made at the member state level. The specific features of orphan diseases and orphan drugs make them a high-priority issue for policy makers. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss several issues surrounding orphan disease and drug policies in Europe. The present system of orphan designation allows for drugs for non-orphan diseases to be designated as orphan drugs. The economic factors underlying orphan designation can be questioned in some cases, as a low prevalence of a certain indication does not equal a low return on investment for the drug across its indications. High-quality evidence about the clinical added value of orphan drugs is rarely available at the time of marketing authorization, due to the low number of patients. A balance must be struck between ethical and economic concerns. To this effect, there is a need to initiate a societal dialogue on this issue, to clarify what society wants and accepts in terms of ethical and economic consequences. The growing budgetary impact of orphan drugs puts pressure on drug expenditure. Indications can be extended for an orphan drug and the total prevalence across indications is not considered. Finally, cooperation needs to be fostered in the EU, particularly through a standardized approach to the creation and use of registries. These issues require further attention from researchers, policy makers, health professionals, patients, pharmaceutical companies and other stakeholders with a view to optimizing orphan disease and drug policies in

  1. Nuclear fuel assurance: origins, trends, and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-02-01

    The economic, technical and political issues which bear on the security of nuclear fuel supply internationally are addressed. The structure of international markets for nuclear fuel is delineated; this includes an analysis of the political constraints on fuel availability, especially the connection to supplier nonproliferation policies. The historical development of nuclear fuel assurance problems is explored and an assessment is made of future trends in supply and demand and in the political context in which fuel trade will take place in the future. Finally, key events and policies which will affect future assurance are identified

  2. Flexibility in faculty work-life policies at medical schools in the Big Ten conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Julie L; Wiehe, Sarah E; Palmer-Smith, Victoria; Dankoski, Mary E

    2011-05-01

    Women lag behind men in several key academic indicators, such as advancement, retention, and securing leadership positions. Although reasons for these disparities are multifactorial, policies that do not support work-life integration contribute to the problem. The objective of this descriptive study was to compare the faculty work-life policies among medical schools in the Big Ten conference. Each institution's website was accessed in order to assess its work-life policies in the following areas: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of probationary period, part-time appointments, part-time benefits (specifically health insurance), child care options, and lactation policy. Institutions were sent requests to validate the online data and supply additional information if needed. Each institution received an overall score and subscale scores for family leave policies and part-time issues. Data were verified by the human resources office at 8 of the 10 schools. Work-life policies varied among Big Ten schools, with total scores between 9.25 and 13.5 (possible score: 0-21; higher scores indicate greater flexibility). Subscores were not consistently high or low within schools. Comparing the flexibility of faculty work-life policies in relation to other schools will help raise awareness of these issues and promote more progressive policies among less progressive schools. Ultimately, flexible policies will lead to greater equity and institutional cultures that are conducive to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty.

  3. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Mary

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  4. Debatable Issues of Regulatory Policy of Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Daniil Petrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the debatable issues of regulatory policy in the sphere of nanoindustry. The nanotech industry has interindustry character that is caused by interdisciplinarity of a nanoscience therefore it is necessary to recognize objectively impossible exact definition of its branch structure. As a result of terminological uncertainty, the state support and regulation of nanotech industry is a difficult process. The substantial expansionism of the term “nanotechnology” and metaphorism of the concept “nanoindustry” is reasoned. The need of creating more detailed classification (by 1-2 orders of nanotechnologies and allocation of at least three subindustries of nanotech industry is proved. The deficiency of convergent orientation of policy of regulation of the Russian hi-tech industries is revealed. The conceptual discrepancy of nanoindustrial policy of the Russian Federation combining elements of traditional policy of import substitution and new industrial policy is shown. The expediency of transition from universal policy of nanoindustry regulation to the development of a package of the segment-focused strategies of development of different types of nanotechnologies and the nanotechnological activities is proved. The special attention is paid to a safety control problem (combination of obligatory certification and voluntary marking of nanoproduction, strengthening the role of nanotech industry self-regulation and active integration of stakeholders into the system of strategic planning.

  5. Using public policy to improve outcomes for asthmatic children in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jewlya; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Zimmer, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    School-based services to improve asthma management need to be accompanied by public policies that can help sustain services, scale effective interventions, create greater equity across schools, and improve outcomes for children. Several national organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have recommended specific public policies the adoption of which in school settings can improve asthma outcomes for children. Although many states and school districts have adopted some of these policies, adoption is not universal, and implementation is not always successful, leaving inequities in children's access to asthma services and supports. These issues can be addressed by changing public policy. Policy change is a complex process, but it is one that will benefit from greater involvement by asthma experts, including the researchers who generate the knowledge base on what services, supports, and policies have the best outcomes for children. Asthma experts can participate in the policy process by helping to build awareness of the need for school-based asthma policy, estimating the costs associated with policy options and with inaction, advocating for the selection of specific policies, assisting in implementation (including providing feedback), conducting the research that can evaluate the effectiveness of implementation, and ultimately providing information back into the policy process to allow for improvements to the policies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of school peanut-free policies on epinephrine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M; Huffaker, Michelle F; Sheehan, William J; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Petty, Carter R; Leibowitz, Robert; Hauptman, Marissa; Young, Michael C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-08-01

    Children with food allergies spend a large proportion of time in school but characteristics of allergic reactions in schools are not well studied. Some schools self-designate as peanut-free or have peanut-free areas, but the impact of policies on clinical outcomes has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of peanut-free policies on rates of epinephrine administration for allergic reactions in Massachusetts public schools. In this retrospective study, we analyzed (1) rates of epinephrine administration in all Massachusetts public schools and (2) Massachusetts public school nurse survey reports of school peanut-free policies from 2006 to 2011 and whether schools self-designated as "peanut-free" based on policies. Rates of epinephrine administration were compared for schools with or without peanut-restrictive policies. The percentage of schools with peanut-restrictive policies did not change significantly in the study time frame. There was variability in policies used by schools self-designated as peanut-free. No policy was associated with complete absence of allergic reactions. Both self-designated peanut-free schools and schools banning peanuts from being served in school or brought from home reported allergic reactions to nuts. Policies restricting peanuts from home, served in schools, or having peanut-free classrooms did not affect epinephrine administration rates. Schools with peanut-free tables, compared to without, had lower rates of epinephrine administration (incidence rate per 10,000 students 0.2 and 0.6, respectively, P = .009). These data provide a basis for evidence-based school policies for children with food allergies. Further studies are required before decisions can be made regarding peanut-free policies in schools. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. School Improvement Policy--Site-Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Have administrative functions of principals changed in schools practicing site-based management (SBM with shared governance? To deal with this issue we employed the Delphi technique and a panel of 24 experts from 14 states. The experts, which included educational specialists, researchers, writers, and elementary school principals, agreed that the implementation of SBM dramatically influences the roles of the principal in management/administration and leadership. Data revealed that the elementary principal's leadership role requires specialized skills to support shared governance, making it necessary to form professional development programs that adapt to innovations evolving from the implementation of SBM.

  8. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  9. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  11. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    occupations (67.3%) and Management , Business , and Financial occupations (65.0%), and Production occupations (63.7%). Occupations with lower shares of...married a spouse of the same sex, regardless of the employee’s … state of residency.” (U.S. Government, Office of Personnel Management , Fact Sheet: Family ...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues Gerald

  12. Teacher Evaluation Policy as Perceived by School Principals: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2018-01-01

    In Flanders (Belgium), a new teacher evaluation policy was issued which placed a lot of autonomy with school principals to develop and implement a new teacher evaluation system. In this study, we explore how Flemish principals perceive the new teacher evaluation policy and what influences their perception. Results demonstrate that principals…

  13. K-12 Teachers' Perceptions of School Policy and Fear of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990s, schools have focused their attention on policies designed to improve school safety. Most researches on school violence policies have concentrated on the needs of students and administrators. This study investigated the impact of school violence policies on K-12 teachers' fear. Using self-report data from 447 K-12 teachers from a…

  14. Zero Tolerance Policy in Schools: Rationale, Consequences, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses theory/policies supporting zero tolerance policy in schools, including rational choice theory in criminology and national crime policies based on deterrence. Potential consequences of zero tolerance policy implementation are described and shown to involve outcomes similar to those identified by researchers studying national crime policy.…

  15. Issues and Challenges Facing School Libraries in Selected Primary Schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Ash, Margie; Wilmot, Di

    2015-01-01

    There is no national policy for school libraries which compels school governing bodies and principals to have a library in their schools. It is thus not surprising that in 2011, only 21% of state schools had libraries, only 7% had stocked libraries and 79% of schools had no library at all (Department of Basic Education (DBE) Republic of South…

  16. The Integration of New Media in Schools: Comparing Policy with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nurzali

    2015-01-01

    Beyond policy, this paper investigates the actual practice related to the integration of new media in schools. Despite continuous government effort to integrate new media in schools, the use of digital technologies for teaching and learning in the classroom remains limited. This study suggests that, apart from the issue related to the state of…

  17. Acceptable Use Policies in a Web 2.0 & Mobile Era: A Guide for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium for School Networking (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications and mobile Internet devices have added new issues to the safety/access situation for schools. The purpose of this guide is to assist school districts in developing, rethinking, or revising Internet policies as a consequence of the emergence of Web 2.0, and the growing pervasiveness of smart phone use. The Consortium for School…

  18. Digital Technology, Schools and Teachers' Workplace Learning: Policy, Practice and Identity. Digital Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book advances an alternative reading of the social, political and cultural issues surrounding schools and technology and develops a comprehensive overview of the interplay between policy, practice and identity in school workplaces. It explores how digital technologies have become an integral element of the politics and socially negotiated…

  19. Political Justice, Schooling and Issues of Group Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article explores issues associated with schooling and political justice. Such issues are understood in light of the contention surrounding how Western schooling contexts might best represent marginalised groups--in ways that accord them a political voice. The significance of group identity politics is explored drawing on international debates…

  20. Stakeholder engagement for improved school policy: development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The health and education departments of government share a responsibility for promoting the health of children through policies in the school setting. These policies can be enhanced through the involvement of such stakeholders as school personnel, students, parents or caregivers, health professionals, the non-profit sector and industry. Although there is little evidence-based literature on the roles of stakeholders in school policy development and implementation, stakeholder involvement appears to be critical throughout the policy process. This article discusses stakeholder involvement in the development and implementation of school policies that promote and support healthy eating and physical activity. Canadian examples illustrate stakeholder engagement in this context.

  1. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  2. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  3. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and frameworks.…

  4. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N

    2003-11-01

    Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.

  5. Charter Schools: An Experiment in School Reform. ASPIRA Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Belinda Corazon; And Others

    Charter schools incorporate the focus of magnet schools but often go beyond their academic specialization to more social goals. They can operate at both elementary and secondary levels, although they are always quite small. The greatest difference, however, between charter schools and other public schools is their status as a bridge between public…

  6. Ethnic Conflicts in Schools. Multicultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Susan

    This book for young readers explores ethnic conflict in the schools. Public schools in the United States are among some of the places where members of a country's different ethnic and racial groups are brought together and required to work together more closely. A racial group is a group of people who share certain physical traits and often share…

  7. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  8. Comparison of School Food Policies and Food Preparation Practices before and after the Local Wellness Policy among Indiana High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Federal legislation requires local education agencies or school districts to develop a local wellness policy. No data-based research using a prospective cohort of a representative sample of secondary schools has been conducted to investigate the impact of the local wellness policy. Purpose: To investigate changes in school food…

  9. Exploring Issues of School Violence: The "Code of Silence."

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Irene M.; da Costa, Jose L.

    Although school violence has been a concern in the United States for over two decades, the topic has only recently generated serious study in Canada. Central to the development of effective violence-mitigation policies is an understanding of how and why student victims, perpetrators, and observers respond to the school-based violence they…

  10. Nuclear energy in Texas: major issues and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On December 15, 1978 the Texas Energy Advisory Council (TEAC) adopted the Texas Energy Policy, 1978 Update. The Council recognized the great complexity of technical, economic, social, and political issues which have an impact on nuclear power, and therefore decided that a special committee was needed to examine in greater detail the nuclear energy issues facing Texas. This report summarizes the work of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear energy. Topics discussed include: biological affects of low levels of radiation; transportation of radioactive material in Texas; uranium mining and milling; severance tax on uranium mining; alternate reactor designs and fuel cycles; financing nuclear plant construction; cost of disposing of nuclear wastes and decommissioning nuclear plants; low-level wastes; disposal of high-level wastes; commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; and transmutation of radioactive wastes

  11. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  12. Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy ... LMICs can direct their efforts to changing the environments and habits that promote ... Report Card that will be suited for advocacy work, and could be used to influence policy.

  13. Diversifying Schools and Leveraging School Improvement: A Comparative Analysis of the English Radical, and Singapore Conservative, Specialist Schools' Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of fierce global economic competition, school diversification and specialist schools have been seen by governments as cornerstones of education policy to engineer school improvement in both England and Singapore for more than a decade. In both systems, the policy has manifested in different school types, school names and…

  14. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  15. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  16. Power issues at school; Energie macht Schule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heup, Juergen

    2011-09-15

    Energy and power are not only current issues in politics and society but also subjects for the classroom. In these time of short budgets, energy consultants are able to offer free teaching materials. However, this is a controversial issue as they may take the opportunity to advertise themselves.

  17. Institutional issues of environmental policy; Institutionelle Probleme der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Institutions and institutional theory are important topics in contemporary economic theory. However, their application to issues of environmental economics still is in its infancy. The book summarizes the state of the art in research on institutional aspects of environmental economics, as seen from the angle of the economic and social sciences, and outlines a variety of perceivable approaches oriented towards integrating the institutional aspects in environmental economic theory. This process eventually leading to broader consideration of implementation problems, enforcement and organisational aspects, legal aspects or market factors and functions influencing environmental policy, theory and practice of environmental policy are expected to draw near to each other and thus create the long-hoped-for chance to commence a true interdisciplinary dialogue about the entire spectrum of environmental issues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Institutionen und Institutionentheorie nehmen in der aktuellen oekonomischen Diskussion einen breiten Raum ein. Ihre Einbeziehung auch in der umweltoekonomischen Diskussion steht freilich erst noch in den Anfaengen. Der Band beleuchtet aus wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Sicht den gegenwaertigen Forschungsstand und vermittelt einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Ansaetze einer fuer institutionelle Probleme offenen Umweltoekonomik. Die Beruecksichtigung von Implementationsproblemen, die Einbeziehung von Vollzugs- und Organisationsfragen, von Rechtsproblemen sowie der konkreten Funktionsbedingungen von Maerkten im Umweltschutz tragen nicht nur dazu bei, dass sich die Theorie und Praxis der Umweltpolitik deutlich naeherruecken, sie bieten auch die lange vermisste Chance eines echten interdisziplinaeren Dialogs ueber Umweltprobleme. (orig.)

  18. Weapons in Schools and Zero-Tolerance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph; Baughan, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Horrific events such as the fatal shooting of three high school students in Chardon, Ohio, in the winter of 2012 places tremendous pressure on state and local agencies to ensure that schools provide a safe and conducive learning environment for all students. To help curb school violence, schools have adopted zero-tolerance policies, which often…

  19. Bullying, Intimidation and Harassment Prevention School Policy. A Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a background and discussion regarding the need for school policy and procedures to prevent bullying, intimidation and harassment in schools. The paper is intended to focus discussion on the responsibility of school boards, administrators and staff in making the school environment a safe place for all students. In so doing,…

  20. School Violence and Its Effect on the Constitutionality of Public School Uniform Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Court of Appeals, in the first court decision regarding public school uniform policies, held that mandatory school uniforms do not violate students' First Amendment rights. Discusses the Arizona decision and its effect on the structuring of school uniform policies and their potential successful institution at the high school level. (31…

  1. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  2. Charter School Discipline: Examples of Policies and School Climate Efforts from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Nora; Kim, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    Students need a safe and supportive school environment to maximize their academic and social-emotional learning potential. A school's discipline policies and practices directly impact school climate and student achievement. Together, discipline policies and positive school climate efforts can reinforce behavioral expectations and ensure student…

  3. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  4. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  5. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  6. Internships in School Psychology: Selection and Accreditation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, W. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students in school psychology often report unique issues and challenges when seeking a doctoral internship. The number and range of accredited internship positions available to School Psychology (SP) students in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Match is quite limited, and they often obtain…

  7. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  8. Politica de las Construcciones Escolares (Policy for School Construction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storni, Adolfo Enrique, Ed.; And Others

    This document establishes the policy for school construction programs and projects to be conducted in Argentina. The first part establishes the bases for construction and defines the policy and its objectives. The second part discusses school construction in view of educational reform and planning and considers analysis of current systems,…

  9. Emerging Crucial Issues for School and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dwight W.

    This monograph contends that education in the future can best prepare students to deal with pressing social issues if it works toward three major objectives. These objectives are: (1) to prepare people to live according to a productive work ethic in which work and leisure pursuits are balanced; (2) to instill in students a life ethic in which…

  10. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  11. The policies of organ transplantation in Europe: issues and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defever, M

    1990-11-01

    Transplantation has evolved from an experiment to a routinely performed procedure for a widening range of organs. Transplantation in Europe is dominated by the scarcity of organs from deceased donors leading to problems of selection criteria for recipients, of legal protection for donors and of the empowerment of agencies for allocative decisions. Although public involvement is very emotional, there has been a benign neglect in several European countries by policy makers, accepting implicitly organ transplantation leading to a variety of programs for diffusion, organization, and financing of transplantation. Non-transplanting hospitals play a key role in organ procurement and transplant centers are increasingly subject to quality assessment, whereby the issue of the relation between improved outcome at higher volumes comes to the forefront. International cooperation is critical for the development of effective transplant programs in Europe.

  12. Avoiding Corporal Punishment in School: Issues for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Sinclair, Esther

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the legal status and societal values that promote the use of corporal punishment in public schools, and on the role of the elementary school counselor in helping teachers deal with punishment. Discusses factors affecting the effectiveness of punishment and suggests alternatives. (JAC)

  13. Exclusion: The Downside of neo-liberal School Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical, social-anthropological study of inclusion/exclusion in Danish public school education. The study sheds light on the downside of a neoliberal education policy that emphasizes achievement. In spite of the best intentions of Danish education policy that inclusion...... and 2015) in one school. By analyzing vignettes of the practice of teaching, as well as interviews and discussions with teachers, the study reports on the downsides of neoliberal education policy. This policy leads to a form of teaching which focuses on school subjects and student achievement, thereby...

  14. Planning, Promoting and Passing School Tax Issues. [Revised Edition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Robert L.; Pittner, Nicholas A.

    This book provides Ohio citizens with information on school tax issues and levy campaigning. The material is presented in a structural step-by-step process that lends itself to the practical application for preparing a levy. This book is a guide to understanding various tax issues, tax reduction factors, and the changing tax duplicate that affects…

  15. Wind power policy: Issues and challenges in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, C.J. [TMES Institute of Business Management and Computer Studies, Mandvi, Gujarat (India); Mistry, S.H. [C. K. Pithawalla Institute of Management, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2012-07-01

    The energy policy of India is much concerned with the country's ever increasing energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. About 70% of country's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels. Our nation is heavily dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands. It is estimated that by 2030; India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. So, renewable energy usage can be sustainable alternative to country's energy demand. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market. To promote the usage of wind energy, government have declared tax incentives and other incentives but still the most of the estimated wind potential is not realized for energy need of country. In this paper author tries to identify the issues and challenges for promotion of wind power promotion in India and will suggest for the correction in the existing energy policy. (Author)

  16. Lessons from a Pluralist Approach to a Wicked Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Chapman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The most difficult policy issues are those where there are profound disagreements about what is wrong, what should be done, and how things work. This paper describes a pluralist approach, based on the soft systems methodology, to youth nuisance on deprived estates in Manchester, UK, where there were profound disagreements between the agencies involved. When there are disagreements about the nature of the problem, its causes, or about how the system of interest actually functioned, a pluralist approach is required, and this is provided by Checkland’s soft systems approach. When the disagreements involve conflicts of value, it is necessary to adopt an adaptive approach that fosters change in the values, beliefs or behaviour of those involved. In the spectrum of public sector agencies involved, five different perspectives of agencies were identified, their descriptions indicating the need for the pluralist approach taken. The project was an experiment in using systemic approaches in public policy and the paper describes the learning associated with impacting outcomes. Processes used in the project included a “soft systems” workshop, which is described along with some effects on both the project participants and overall outcomes. The overall aim is to share the experience of this project so that it may inform those working with systemic approaches and other pluralist methods on wicked problems in the public sector.

  17. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  18. User satisfaction as a political technology in school policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    The paper discusses user satisfaction surveys as a policy instrument in education with a focus on local school policy, including the reasons for and the consequences of introducing user surveys in educational policy will be discussed. Empirical examples are drawn mainly from Danish municipalities....

  19. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  20. An Analysis of Policy Issues in Natural Gas Industry Restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    This report explores controversial issues and problems that could emerge in the process of implementing the government's restructuring plan for natural gas industry and aims to suggest policy directions regarding the restructuring. To begin with, it examines current conditions surrounding natural gas industry including domestic demand and supply conditions, world LNG market trend, structural changes of the industry in OECD countries, possibilities of introducing effective competition and assignment of existing import contracts. In doing so, we probe whether the direction of the natural gas industry restructuring is proper and suggest that the results be reflected when a more detailed restructuring implementation plan is formulated. Also, this report suggests possible schemes related to major institutional changes expected by the basic restructuring plan and the detailed restructuring implementation plan announced by the government. First, it presents several alternative ways to properly divide up the import/wholesales section of Korea Gas Corporation. Second, it examines critical issues such as the method of using gas supply facilities and gas balancing mechanism, and presents adoptable alternatives for each issue. These issues constitute the core of network and market operation rules which need to be in place when adopting an open access system, which in turn is a prerequisite for sales competition. Third, the report examines price systems, including gas commodity pricing and rate-making design for transportation service, by first anticipating the direction of changes in gas rate regulation. Specifically, it presents possible ways to design the service rate for each function of pipeline network and import terminals, and discusses controversial issues in determining total cost-of-service and allocating the cost-of-service to each functional service offered such as distance-related rates, interruptible service rate. Lastly, in relation to the opening of retail

  1. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  2. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  3. Accountability Policies at Schools: A Study of Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdag, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is now on its way to reforming compulsory education and having a more effective and efficient education system by creating more accountable schools. This research has been designed in a causative pattern to discover the effects of external academic performance pressures on school accountability policies and school accountability responses…

  4. Improving School Leadership. Volume 1: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    As countries strive to reform education systems and improve student results, school leadership is high on education policy agendas. But in many countries, the men and women who run schools are overburdened, underpaid and near retirement. And few people are lining up for their jobs. Based on an OECD study of school leadership practices and policies…

  5. Examining Charter School Policy and Public School District Resource Allocation in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the competitive pressure, or the threat of competitive pressure, generated by charter school policy. This paper uses longitudinal district-level data and multiple quasi-experimental designs to examine the relationship between two Ohio charter school policies and changes in public school district instructional resource…

  6. A public school district's vending machine policy and changes over a 4-year period: implementation of a national wellness policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Markey, T L; Wang, L; Schlotterbeck, S; Jackson, E A; Gurm, R; Leidal, A; Eagle, K

    2012-04-01

    The school environment has been the focus of many health initiatives over the years as a means to address the childhood obesity crisis. The availability of low-nutrient, high-calorie foods and beverages to students via vending machines further exacerbates the issue of childhood obesity. However, a healthy overhaul of vending machines may also affect revenue on which schools have come to depend. This article describes the experience of one school district in changing the school environment, and the resulting impact on food and beverage vending machines. Observational study in Ann Arbor public schools. The contents and locations of vending machines were identified in 2003 and surveyed repeatedly in 2007. Overall revenues were also documented during this time period. Changes were observed in the contents of both food and beverage vending machines. Revenue in the form of commissions to the contracted companies and the school district decreased. Local and national wellness policy changes may have financial ramifications for school districts. In order to facilitate and sustain school environment change, all stakeholders, including teachers, administrators, students and healthcare providers, should collaborate and communicate on policy implementation, recognizing that change can have negative financial consequences as well as positive, healthier outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Brener, Nancy D; McManus, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  9. Legal Issues & Education Technology: A School Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    Rapid development of new technologies has outpaced the development of related law, leaving educators in doubt about the management of copyright, privacy, liability, and security. A key provision of facilitating a healthy and safe environment for technology use is the school district's "Acceptable Use Policy" (AUP), which states that use…

  10. ERIC First Analysis: Agricultural Policy. 1986-87 National High School Debate Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Fraleigh, Douglas

    Designed to serve as a framework in which high school debate students, coaches, and judges can evaluate the issues, arguments, and evidence concerning which agricultural policies best serve the United States, this booklet provides guidelines for research on the 1986-87 debate resolutions selected by the National Federation of State High School…

  11. Physical Education Policies and Practices in California Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-02-01

    Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist. We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs. Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%). Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.

  12. Public policy and adolescent pregnancy: a reexamination of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessoro, A C; Blixen, C E

    1996-01-01

    In the United States 45% of female adolescents engage in premarital sex; 40% will become pregnant before reaching the age of 20; and 4/5 of these pregnancies will be unintended. Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with increased health risks for both the mother and the child. Only 6 in 10 adolescents will graduate from high school compared with 9 in 10 of their peers who delayed parenthood. The increasing number of single-parent families has contributed significantly to the increase in child poverty rates from 15% in 1960 to 20.3% in 1988. Further, such families cost billions of dollars to taxpayers because of public assistance and medical care. From a historical viewpoint the number of teen childbearing reached a peak in 1957 with 97.3 births per 1000 women 15-17 years old; it declined to 52.8/1000 by 1977 and to 51.8/1000 by the 1980s. The legalization of abortion in 1973 had a major impact on the resolution of adolescent pregnancies. Since the 1960s there has been a faster increase in early sexual activity, pregnancy, and birth among White adolescents than among minority groups. The United States has higher rates than western European countries, while it is also more ambivalent on sexuality issues. Tremendous change did take place in the 1960s in American culture as regards the family, and social and sexual relationships. Yet there is still a double standard with respect to female morality, and adolescents get a conflicting message about sexuality. Teenage mothers and their infants face an uncertain economic future because the much maligned welfare system is undergoing an overhaul and the market is shrinking for unskilled workers. Although increasing numbers of pregnant adolescents remained in school after amendments were passed to the education act, adolescent pregnancy has not been tackled at its very footing, its socioeconomic causes.

  13. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  14. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  15. Issues and challenges in implementing mobile learning in malaysian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Mariam; Woollard, John

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the issues and challenges in implementing mobile learning via mobile phones to support English Language learning in Malaysian schools. The findings are drawn from interviews of English subject leaders, ICT subject leaders, head teachers and deputy head teachers from 4 schools in the United Kingdom. In addition, the study also describes the perspectives from the experts in education in Malaysia. They are English subject leaders, ICT subject leaders, head teachers, deputy h...

  16. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in kn...

  17. Formulation and Realisation of Evaluation Policy: Inconcistencies and Problematic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedsmo, Guri

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the national evaluation system in the Norwegian education system can be described as a shift in the Norwegian educational policy from the use of input oriented policy instruments towards a more output oriented policy. The new tool-kit consists of different evaluation tools, such as standardised tests, diagonistic tests etc.…

  18. HEADMASTER POLICY OF SENIOR ISLAMIC SCHOOL TO INCREAS TEACHER PROFESIONALISM AT STATE SENIOR ISLAMIC SCHOOL 2 MODEL MEDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arifin Tanjung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available State Senior Islamic School 2 Model Medan oh of famous Islamic schools in North Sumatera. The issues in this writing are what are the formulation, organization, application, and evaluation of headmaster Policy of Senior Islamic School to Increase Teacher Professionalism at State Senior Islamic School 2 Model Medan. To explain the main issue in this writings, I have to observe and interview the Moslem population. Data has been collected will be explained detailly and analyzed by Islamic education management. Based on research, formulation of headmaster Policy of Senior Islamic School to Increase Teacher Professionalism at State Senior Islamic School 2 Model Medan is bottom up which ideas from teachers, beginning from teachers meeting in one subject, teachers meeting in one program, annual meeting in a month and annual meeting in a year, and finally in teamwork, for example, anual teachers meeting, seminar, workshop, coffee morning, study comparison to university and another school. It will motivate teacher in teaching, activity, and anything. Besides it, headmaster facilitates everything whatever teacher need it, for example, infocus, laptop, and everything. And the organization of headmaster Policy of Senior Islamic School to Increase Teacher Professionalism at State Senior Islamic School 2 Model Medan is cooperation with the school community and he helped by vices and head program and teachers and chairman of the student. The special of school organization is evaluation of teachers activity and relation to abroad. Headmaster states his position as a teacher who teaches students, a leader who leads teachers, a manager who manages, a motivator who motivate, a supervisor who supervise teachers activity, and facilitator for teachers. And finally evaluation of headmaster Policy of Senior Islamic School to Increase the Teacher Professionalism at State Senior Islamic School 2 Model Medan each level, beginning from teachers meeting in one subject

  19. Ventilation in school buildings. Special issue; Ventilatie in schoolgebouwen. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Bruchem, M.; Smits, E.H.J.; Van Dijken, F. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Joosten, L.; Clocquet, R. [DHV Bouw en Industrie, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Pernot, C. [TNO Bouw, Delft (Netherlands); Haans, L.; Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leenaerts, C.L.M.; Donze, G.J. [W/E adviseurs duurzaam bouwen, Gouda (Netherlands); Leysen, L.M. [Astma Fonds, Leusden (Netherlands); Blezer, I.H.W. [Hollman Adviseurs, Venlo (Netherlands); Meester, A.W.J. [Alusta, Natuurlijke Ventilatietechniek, Etten Leur (Netherlands); Bronsema, B. [Faculteit der Bouwkunde, Bronsema Consult, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    In this special issue one editorial and 9 articles are dedicated to several aspects with regard to ventilation in school buildings: (1) healthy and draught-free ventilation in schools; (2) air quality and comfort in primary schools; (3) preparatory study on the indoor environment in primary schools; (4) options to improve ventilation in school buildings; (5) the relation between the indoor environment in classrooms and the health of students; (6) the activities of the Asthma Fund to create healthy school buildings for children suffering asthma; (7) the necessity of mechanical ventilation in school buildings; (8) demand-controlled ventilation in schools; (9) first experiences with a newly built primary school. [Dutch] In deze speciale aflevering zijn 1 redactioneel artikel en 9 artikelen gewijd aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. ventilatie in schoolgebouwen: (1) onderzoek naar gezond en tochtvrij ventileren; (2) luchtkwaliteit en comfort op basisscholen: (3) voorstudie binnenmilieu basisscholen; (4) opties om de ventilatie in scholen te verbeteren; (5) de relatie tussen het binnenmilieu in klaslokalen en de gezondheid van studenten; (6) activiteiten van het Astma Fonds voor gezonde schoolgebouwen voor kinderen met astma; (7) de noodzaak voor mechanische ventilatie in schoolgebouwen; (8) vraaggestuurde ventilatie in scholen; (9) de eerste ervaringen in een nieuwe basisschool in Voorschoten.

  20. Association between School District Policies That Address Chronic Health Conditions of Students and Professional Development for School Nurses on Such Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2015-01-01

    Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…

  1. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  2. In Defense of Societal Issues as Organizers for School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Offers a defense of societal issues as organizers for school science programs in response to criticisms of this thesis discussed in SE 534 649. Indicates that there appears to be no evidence that using nontraditional topics as organizers will make science more subject to manipulation and perversion. (JN)

  3. State Policy Snapshot: School District Facilities and Public Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnick, Russ

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to the health of the public charter school movement is access to adequate facilities in which the schools operate. Public charter school facilities are rarely funded on par with school district facilities. Over the years, more states have come to realize that they have an obligation to ensure that all public school…

  4. Barriers to implementing a health policy curriculum in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.

  5. Connections with the Schooling Enterprise: Implications for Music Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores music education counterforces, examining whether and how (a) federal and state education policies can better address the in-service needs of special area teachers, particularly music teachers, in the school setting; and (b) policy organizations in the music education profession (i.e., The National Association…

  6. Policy-Making for Australian Schooling: The New Corporate Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The corporate federalism concept illustrates the way a national approach to policy development for Australian schooling has been utilized by the Hawke Labor government. Negotiated consensus at the Australian Education Council has been used to arrive at these policies and to circumvent politically the constitutional and financial realities of…

  7. Risk in Public Policy Making: A Neglected Issue in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Fleming, Euan M.; Lien, Gudbrand D.

    2008-01-01

    We argue for greater recognition of the risky nature of most policy decisions. In this context we discuss the gulf between public risk perceptions and attitudes and those of 'experts'. Public views of risk are often inconsistent and seemingly irrational. They nevertheless influence policy choices in a democracy. On the other hand, experts often claim unjustifiable levels of confidence in their predictions of policy choice outcomes, creating a lack of public faith in their recommendations. Whi...

  8. Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues. A Selection of the Proceedings of the Papers Dealing with Language Policy Issues in Canada at the Conference "Language Policy and Social Problems" (Curacao, Venezuela, December, 1983). Publication B-150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarrubias, Juan, Ed.

    The papers related to Canadian language policy at an international conference are presented: "Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues" (Juan Cobarrubias); "Multiculturalism and Language Policy in Canada" (Jim Cummins, Harold Troper); "Defining Language Policy in a Nationalistic Milieu and in a Complex Industrialized…

  9. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  10. Evaluation of School Uniform Policy in Turkey: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinoglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of current school uniform policies according to views of stakeholders. Descriptive case study method was used for this study to understand the concerns of the stakeholders about school uniforms. Data was collected through interviews with stakeholders and also reviewing the documents in TOKI…

  11. Teachers' participation in school policy: Nature, extent and orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, C.T.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Jong, F.P.C.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Against the background of several large-scale innovations in secondary agricultural education, this study explores the relation between teachers' professionality and their participation in school policy. For the research into this, 1,030 teachers of 98 schools for preparatory and secondary

  12. School Choice: Neoliberal Education Policy and Imagined Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The launch in Australia of a government website that compares all schools on the basis of student performance in standardized tests illustrates the extent to which neoliberal policies have been entrenched. This paper examines the problematic nature of choosing schools within the powerful political context of neoliberalism. It illustrates how key…

  13. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  14. EuroVisions in School Policy and the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John Benedicto

    2018-01-01

    by means of discursive imaginaries – the Knowledge Economy discourse in particular. As a result, discourses about the purpose of school, what counts as public good, and – by implication – teacher education, are fundamentally transformed. The transnational turn in European school and education policy...

  15. The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually the…

  16. Ideas for Changing Educational Systems, Educational Policy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat; Lingard, Bob; Wrigley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues the need for new ideas to assist in the creation of a new social imaginary post-neo-liberalism to frame rethought educational systems, policy and schooling. This is an attempt to reclaim progressive, democratic and social justice purposes for schooling well beyond dominant human capital renditions. While acknowledging the…

  17. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  18. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  19. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  20. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Font, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

  1. Implementation of Local Wellness Policies in Schools: Role of School Systems, School Health Councils, and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R.; Rubio, Diana S.; Eidel, G. Stewart; Penniston, Erin S.; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I.; Fox, Renee E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and…

  2. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  3. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  4. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  5. Examining Key Issues Underlying the Audit Commission Reports on SEN Policy Paper 1 (5th Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Beek, Chris; Richardson, Penny; Gray, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book is the first publication in the fifth series of seminars organised by the SEN Policy Options Steering Group to examine policy issues to do with special educational needs. The aim of the seminar was to examine in depth several underlying issues raised by the recent Audit Commission Reports on special educational needs. The seminar…

  6. Sun protection policies and practices in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Jopson, Janet A; Gray, Andrew

    2012-02-10

    For schools with primary age students, to report the percentages meeting specific requirements of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP). Schools were randomly selected, within geographic regions, from the Ministry of Education schools database. A questionnaire, mailed to school principals, assessed schools regarding 12 criteria for accreditation: policy, information, hats, 'play in the shade', sunscreen, clothing, role modelling, curriculum, planning, rescheduling, shade provision and review. Post-stratification weights (for achieving each criterion) were used to compensate for oversampling within some regions and differential response rates between regions, using the number of schools per region. 388 schools (representative in socioeconomic decile, size and type) participated. Less than 4% fully met accreditation criteria. Clothing (42%), curriculum delivery and shade (each 54%) requirements were met by the fewest schools. Staff role modelling (92%) was the most commonly met. Schools with uniforms tended to have more protective clothing expectations. Ongoing promotion is needed to consolidate gains and encourage comprehensive sun protection through policies, practices, environment and curriculum. Staff role modelling requirements may be strengthened by implementing existing occupational guidelines for mitigating UVR hazards. There is a need to further assist schools, particularly regarding sun protective clothing, curriculum delivery and environmental shade.

  7. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics: Uncertainty, Values and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as feasible, policies, targeting climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach. This special issue will identify the main challenges that climate change poses from social, economic, methodological and ethical perspectives by focusing on the complex interrelations between uncertainty, values and policy in this context. This special issue brings together scholars from economics, social sciences and philosophy in order to address these challenges.

  8. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  9. Physical inactivity as a policy problem: applying a concept from policy analysis to a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Gelius, Peter; Schow, Diana

    2013-03-07

    Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, "translates" into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a "policy problem" that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to "sell" to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government.We conclude that the new perspective on PI proposed in this article might be useful and important for i) describing and mapping policies to counteract PI in different contexts; ii) evaluating whether or not existing policy instruments are appropriate to the policy problem of PI, and iii) explaining the factors and processes that underlie policy development and implementation. More research is warranted in all these areas. In particular, we propose to focus on comparative analyses of how the problem of PI is defined and tackled in different contexts, and on the identification of truly effective policy instruments that are designed to "solve" the PI policy problem.

  10. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics: Uncertainty, Values and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Roeser, S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as feasible, policies, targeting climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach. This special issue will identify the main challenges that climate change poses from social, economic, methodological ...

  11. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem: The Case of Arizona Charter Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Gregg A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes how Arizona charter school policymakers succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions of the state's charter school program. Identifies four key features of policy implementation that created the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. (SLD)

  12. Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2009-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  13. Moving from Separate, to Equal, to Equitable Schooling: Revisiting School Desegregation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ezella

    2011-01-01

    For over a century after the 1896 "Plessy v. Ferguson" decision, researchers have been grappling with how to effectively implement educational reform policies to provide students with an equal education in American schools. This literature review examines previous school desegregation cases and school desegregation plans to investigate…

  14. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  15. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  16. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  17. Are public policies to school libraries necessary? Latin America situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Cárdenas Zardoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available School libraries are one of te main resources to enhance learning in students in the educational system in any nation. Every country invests important amounts of money in library resources in schools, which have the quality of stay and increase, as time passes, the school library may have an important collection to offer to students. Despite its undeniable value as contributor to the education of millions of citizens studying in the latin american schools, its potencial and ability are far from being used to its maximum. The reason for this is the lack of public policies that incorporate it to the education process.

  18. Administrator Perceptions of School Improvement Policies in a High-Impact Policy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO S. TORRES

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated school administrators’ perceptions of school improvement policies in a high-impact policy environment by measuring the impact of accountability, site-based management, professional development, and scheduling reform on the three dependent variables of a academic outcomes, b staff morale, and c parent and community involvement. Using a convenience sampling method, 49 public school principals from Texas participated and an online survey was constructed to gather both quantitative (i.e., Likert scale and qualitative (i.e., open ended response data. The findings clearly point to principals, regardless of geographical district type and grade level school type, viewing less controversial and more intrinsically oriented policies (i.e., site-based management and professional development as having a greater positive impact on outcomes as a whole than more radical alternatives (i.e., accountability and time and schedule reform. The evidence suggests that more aggressive school improvement policy approaches are likely failing to generate enough convincing outcomes to generate high commitment and confidence from school leaders. Further studies may look at the interaction of policy impact with minority student enrollments and with subgroup populations.

  19. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy.

  20. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  1. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  2. Scope of Policy Issues in eHealth: Results From a Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Nayani, Parvez; Fahim, Ammad

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is widely used as a tool for improving health care delivery and information. However, distinct policies and strategies are required for its proper implementation and integration at national and international levels. Objective To determine the scope of policy issues faced by individuals, institutions, or governments in implementing eHealth programs. Methods We conducted a structured review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1998–2008. A Medline search for peer-reviewed articles found 40 papers focusing on different aspects of eHealth policy. In addition, a Google search found 20 national- and international-level policy papers and documents. We reviewed these articles to extract policy issues and solutions described at different levels of care. Results The literature search found 99 policy issues related to eHealth. We grouped these issues under the following themes: (1) networked care, (2) interjurisdictional practice, (3) diffusion of eHealth/digital divide, (4) eHealth integration with existing systems, (5) response to new initiatives, (6) goal-setting for eHealth policy, (7) evaluation and research, (8) investment, and (9) ethics in eHealth. Conclusions We provide a list of policy issues that should be understood and addressed by policy makers at global, jurisdictional, and institutional levels, to facilitate smooth and reliable planning of eHealth programs. PMID:22343270

  3. Innovation Zones: Creating Policy Flexibility for Personalized Learning. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Susan; Gentz, Susan

    2016-01-01

    There is a new state education policy concept termed either innovation zones or districts of innovation. State education agencies interested in shifting their role from enforcing compliance to one of supporting innovation and building capacity in districts are working to spur new innovative instructional models and create space for…

  4. Electronic U.S. Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. federal information policy and its treatment of electronic information resources. Highlights include government publications; electronic government information; main providers of government information, including the Government Printing Office; the Freedom of Information Act; public access and use; information…

  5. Social Science Research and School Diversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheneka M.; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, policy makers, advocates, and researchers have been engaged in efforts to make educational opportunity more equal for students from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. A great deal of research has been conducted on their efforts; however, there is some disagreement on the extent to which the research has been…

  6. Policy Implications of Research on School Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin

    1983-01-01

    The allocation and use of time are considered important in the context of learning because time can be manipulated, measured, and applied to the design of instructional programs. After a clarification of terminology, an overview of current research on time is offered and policy recommendations discussed. (MJL)

  7. A qualitative study of junior high school principals' and school food service directors' experiences with the Texas school nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen M; Pobocik, Rebecca S; Deek, Rima; Besgrove, Ashley; Prostine, Becky A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to learn about the experiences of principals and school food service directors with the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to gain first hand reactions to the new nutrition policy. Data were gathered from Texas middle schools. Principals and food service directors from 24 schools randomly selected from 10 Texas Education regions were interviewed. Participants were interviewed about their reactions to the implementation of the Texas School Nutrition Policy. Two researchers, using thematic analysis, independently analyzed each interview. Differences in coding were reconciled and themes were generated. The themes that surfaced included resistance to the policy, policy development process, communication, government role, parental role, food rewards, fund raising, and leadership. Resistance to the policy was not extreme. In the future a wider array of school personnel who are affected by school food regulations should be included in the development of new policies. It is critical to communicate with all concerned parties about the policy.

  8. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  9. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    enjoyed having a voice in school matters and to deal with real life during health education. Teachers were very positive towards the integration of school health policy work into teaching the curriculum in Danish, Maths and Biology. However, the transferring from the classroom to the organizational levels....... Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....

  10. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting...... since it is more feasible to change student composition in schools than the socioeconomic status of the individual students.This article describes theoretically the circumstances under which total student achievement can be increased by reallocating certain groups of students. Empirical analyses......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  11. Multivariate Analysis of Schools and Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Herbert J.

    This report describes a multivariate analysis technique that approaches the problems of educational production function analysis by (1) using comparable measures of output across large experiments, (2) accounting systematically for differences in socioeconomic background, and (3) treating the school as a complete system in which different…

  12. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  13. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    benefit Kyiv for a while longer. Current Economic Situation After Russia proper, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of...greater strides in energy conservation, which has required a steep and politically unpopular hike in natural gas prices, including for households...or enthusiasm for funding social policies, Moscow has been bankrolling pensions, social benefits , and salaries of local officials and the separatist

  14. MODELING MONETARY POLICY RULES IN THE MENACOUNTRIES: ISSUES AND EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Husam Helmi

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the monetary policy reaction function for two sets of MENAcountries: The inflation target countries, (Turkeyand Israel) and the exchange ratetarget countries, (Jordan and Morocco). We motivateour empirical analysis byanalyzing a simple Taylor rule. This model looks atthe effects of inflation andoutput on setting the interest rate by the centralbank. Furthermore, we extendedour model by adding the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate ...

  15. Adaptation benefits and costs. Measurement and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper has three main objectives. The first to comment on the way in which adaptation to climate change is treated in the lead paper prepared for this workshop by Smith and Hitz (2002) and to summarise what the author sees as the main technical issues in evaluating the contribution of adaptation to avoiding climate change damages. The second is to show how these issues can be incorporated into a conceptual framework for characterizing adaptation in regional and multi-regional sectoral assessments of climate. The final objective is to show how this framework might be operationalised using a hypothetical example from a river basin

  16. MODELING MONETARY POLICY RULES IN THE MENACOUNTRIES: ISSUES AND EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Husam Helmi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the monetary policy reaction function for two sets of MENAcountries: The inflation target countries, (Turkeyand Israel and the exchange ratetarget countries, (Jordan and Morocco. We motivateour empirical analysis byanalyzing a simple Taylor rule. This model looks atthe effects of inflation andoutput on setting the interest rate by the centralbank. Furthermore, we extendedour model by adding the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate using similarmodel used by Clarida et al (1998 with using GMM estimator.Findings of this study yield some interesting results,all the central banks in thesample uses interest rate smoothing in managing their monetary policy. Inaddition, The Central bank in Turkey, Israel and Morocco focuses on achievinglow level of inflation. On the other hand, the Monetary Authority in Jordan caresabout stabilizing the output gap. Estimating the extended Taylor rule suggests thehighly significant effect of foreign interest rateon setting the interest rate inTurkey. Taken all together, the results lend support to the importance of followinga rule rather than discretionary in reducing the inflation rate and crediblemonetary policy. In addition, the simple Taylor rule can be applied on MENAcountries but it requires some modification such asadding the exchange rate andthe foreign interest rate.

  17. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  18. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  19. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  20. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  1. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  2. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  3. Health promotion in Danish schools: local priorities, policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Madsen, Katrine Dahl

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study mapping out the priorities, policies and practices of local authorities concerning health promotion (HP) and health education (HE) in primary and lower secondary schools in Denmark. The aim of the study was to identify the gaps, tensions and possibilities associated with the demand to increase the quality and effectiveness of HP in schools. The recent national school reform, which emphasizes the importance of health and well-being while simultaneously increasing the focus on performance and accountability in terms of subject proficiency and narrowly defined academic attainment, provides the broader political context for the study. Data were generated through a structured online survey administered to all 98 Danish municipalities. Respondents were educational consultants or others representing the administrative units responsible for the municipality's schools. The findings were discussed within the conceptual framework of Health Promoting Schools. The study points to a potential tension between the health and education sectors, despite evidence of intersectoral collaboration. While there is a strong policy focus on health and well-being in schools, it is disconnected from the utilization of the HE curriculum by the municipal consultants. The study also points to a lack of professional development opportunities for teachers in the field of HP in schools. On the basis of these findings and theoretical perspectives used, we argue that HP in schools needs to (re)connect with the core task of the school, education, and to integrate both health and education goals in local priorities, policies and practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a open-quotes consensusclose quotes among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states

  5. School nurse perspectives on school policies for food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Lauren M; Wang, Julie; Kagan, Olga; Russell, Anne; Mustafa, S Shahzad; Houdek, Diane; Smith, Bridget; Gupta, Ruchi

    2018-03-01

    Although school health care professionals are integral to the management of students with food allergy, their views on school food allergy policies have not yet been reported. To characterize food allergy policies currently being used in schools and their utility and potential barriers to implementation from the perspective of school health care professionals. An electronic survey was disseminated to school nurses at the 2016 National Association of School Nurses meeting and through the Allergy and Asthma Network listserv. Frequencies were calculated to describe participant characteristics and responses. Unadjusted associations were examined using χ 2 tests; adjusted associations were examined using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 242 completed surveys were included in the analysis. Thirty-two percent of nurses reported an allergic reaction in their school in the past year. Most schools used a variety of policies, including anaphylaxis training for staff (96.7%), stock epinephrine availability (81.7%), designated lunch areas (62.2%), and food guidelines for classrooms (61.8%). Barriers to implementation included financial, time, and attitudinal considerations. Schools with pre-K or kindergarten students had higher odds of having designated lunch areas (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-4.1; P schools with a full-time nurse (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3; P schools reporting at least 1 severe reaction in the past year (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.5; P school nurses reporting an allergic reaction in the past year, schools use many strategies to minimize allergen exposures and increase anaphylaxis preparedness. Most school nurses favor these policies and acknowledge barriers to implementation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  7. OECD Trilog Plenary Symposium : public policy issues in global freight logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This is the fifth plenary symposium on public policy issues in global freight logistics conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). OECD's Trilateral Logistics Project, Trilog Project, is aimed at clarifying the pub...

  8. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  9. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  10. Epinephrine Policies and Protocols Guidance for Schools: Equipping School Nurses to Save Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Clarke, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    In response to limited direction given by legislative bodies to school nurses about how to implement state-mandated or recommended stock epinephrine programs in their schools, NASN convened a workgroup of invested stakeholders. This workgroup was challenged to equip school nurses with the necessary tools to develop policies and protocols regarding stock epinephrine in their school districts. The dynamic workgroup subcommittees focused on policies, procedures, and reporting tools. This article reviews the results of the subcommittees' work and the overall collaboration within the workgroup. This article provides clear, nationally recognized guidance on the best practice for establishing stock epinephrine policies and protocols with reporting tools at the local school district level. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. PRIORITIES OF REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: THE ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Kudryavtseva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of eliciting priority ecological problems are analyzed in the article. The problem of air pollution is considered to be the foreground issue for both the Ural Federal District and Russia; that was due substantiated. An extended technique of setting priorities for air pollutants and techniques for integral ecological and social assessment of air pollution acuteness extent in the region have been offered; calculations for the Ural Federal District have been made according to the techniques mentioned.

  12. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect ...

  13. Implementation Issues in Multicultural Education: What Are Secondary Public School Educators Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVonne Fedynich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study sought to explore the issues that faced secondary teachers in a rural central Georgia public high school when attempting to implement a multicultural education program.  The key issues of this study centered on the teachers’ multicultural education training and the school’s multicultural education program. Data were gathered from a total of thirty randomly chosen teachers in the Social Studies, Math and English departments at the school. Twenty-five of the thirty teachers received a hard copy four question Likert scale survey to complete. The remaining 5 participants took part in face-to-face interviews discussing six open-ended questions.  The findings pointed to several issues facing the teachers such as the lack of an officially implemented multicultural education program, the lack of support from school administrators, no in-service training available for teachers, parental and student misapprehension, and a lack of an officially defined policy on implementation and support of a multicultural education program from administrators locally and district-wide.

  14. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  15. TOPICAL ISSUES OF DIVERSIFIED POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY OF AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Guliyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. It is revealed that the sharp drop in oil prices demonstrated the existing problems in oil-producing countries and created a situation of weakening the economic stability of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is established that sustainability of economy is the modern challenge for oil-producing countries of the CIS. The results of the analysis of the macroeconomic situation in the Republic of Azerbaijan on the basis of which it is confirmed that Russia is the largest trade and economic partner of Azerbaijan are given. It is proved that a diversified economy has the highest degree of stability, which is why diversification is today one of the main directions of economic policy of Azerbaijan. It is proved that industrial policy and import substitution should be adequate to global challenges.In order to increase the export potential of Azerbaijan, growth of production of competitive import-substituting products, attraction of foreign investment suggested the formation of technology parks and industrial districts based on new technology using incentives of supply, demand and market promotion of products of highest priority from the point of view of ensuring economic stability of the industries. To implement the specific strategic goals for sustainable development the use of mechanism of project financing is proposed. 

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  17. United States School Finance Policy, 1955-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes the past 25 years of school finance policy reforms, illustrates tensions among various value proponents, and distills commonalities of reform efforts and their effects. Speculations on the probable points of conflict for the 1980s are provided. (Author/LC)

  18. Internet Acceptable User Policies in Alabama School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; McLean, James E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current status of and need for acceptable use policies (AUPs) for students' use of the Internet in Alabama school systems. Alabama superintendents were questioned using an electronic survey that could be returned via e-mail on an anonymous Internet site. Primary questions were: (1) What is your level…

  19. Translanguaging in a township primary school: Policy and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While aware that they are transgressing the principal's language policy as well as knowing that their students are struggling with monoglossic examination requirements, teachers continue to translanguage for the pedagogic advantages this brings, despite the rigid, separatist language ideologies that inform school ...

  20. Drug Testing in the Schools. Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    Drug testing of district employees and students is examined from several perspectives: implications for school policy, legality, administration and protocol, and test reliability and accuracy. Substance abuse has become a major concern for educators, parents, and citizens as illegal drugs are more readily available. It is also pointed out that the…

  1. Policy and Challenges of Building Schools as Inclusive Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Svjetlana; Gabel, Susan L.; Zeitlin, Virginia; Cribaro-DiFatta, Shannon; Glarner, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address building inclusive communities by looking at school as a community, as a place where students participate in learning and also learn to participate in the life of a community and life in a broader inclusive society. At the international level, policies increasingly position education as a business organisation, with…

  2. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  3. Rights, Equality, and the Ethics of School Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Where a plurality of opinions exists, the effect of uniform educational policy denies a minority group's desires for equal rights and serves partisan views. Dworkin's theory of rights supports this perspective. Governmental imposition of uniform schooling practices on unwilling persons is an illegitimate devaluation of some citizens' lives. (36…

  4. Introduction: Family migration as an integration issue? Policy perspectives and academic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.

    2015-01-01

    "Family migration" and "integration" are intimately related concepts in policy discourses in Europe today. Assumptions about the relation between "family migration" and "integration" play a crucial role in shaping policies. This special issue aims to examine the axis between "family migration,"

  5. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics : Uncertainty, Values and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as

  6. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program. (Contains 3 tables, 1 figure, and 2…

  7. Subtyping Ageism: Policy Issues in Succession and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-01-01

    Ageism research tends to lump "older people" together as one group, as do policy matters that conceptualize everyone over-65 as "senior." This approach is problematic primarily because it often fails to represent accurately a rapidly growing, diverse, and healthy older population. In light of this, we review the ageism literature, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the still-active "young-old" and the potentially more impaired "old-old" (Neugarten, 1974). We argue that ageism theory has disproportionately focused on the old-old and differentiate the forms of age discrimination that apparently target each elder subgroup. In particular, we highlight the young-old's plights predominantly in the workplace and tensions concerning succession of desirable resources; by contrast, old-old predicaments likely center on consumption of shared resources outside of the workplace. For both social psychological researchers and policymakers, accurately subtyping ageism will help society best accommodate a burgeoning, diverse older population.

  8. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  9. Access Denied: School Librarians' Responses to School District Policies on the Use of Social Media Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson

    2013-01-01

    Public school districts often block access to online social media tools. While considered a preventive measure to ensure student safety and limit district liability, this policy strips school librarians and their collaborating teachers of opportunities to instruct students in using social media tools creatively and responsibly. Using one school…

  10. Exploring changes in middle-school student lunch consumption after local school food service policy modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine

    2006-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.

  11. School Autonomy and Government Control: School Leaders' Views on a Changing Policy Landscape in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Rob; Earley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition government elected in 2010 has argued contemporary reform will increase the autonomy of schools in England. Given the complexities that exist, however, in the balance between autonomy and control, we explore how school leaders view autonomy as it exists within the wider policy framework. The article…

  12. Comment 4 - policy for sustainable development: Some unresolved issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttan, V.W.

    1992-01-01

    We are now in the midst of the third wave of social concern since World War II about the implications of natural resource availability and environmental change for the sustainability of improvements in human well-being. The first wave of concern in the late 1940s and early 1950s focused primarily on the quantitative relationship between resource availability and economic growth. The response to this first wave of concern was technical change in raw material production. The second wave of concern, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, focused on the rising demand for assimilation by the environment of residuals derived from growth in commodity production and consumption - primarily at the local and regional level. Since the mid 1980s, these two early concerns have been supplemented by a third. This more recent concern centers around the implications for environmental quality, food production, and human health of a series of environmental changes such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, and others that are occurring on a transnational scale. Before actions to resolve these more recent challenges to sustainable economic growth are taken, a number of unresolved issues must be confronted to allow a commitment to this resolution to be translated into an internally coherent reform agenda. In this note, he discuss three of these issues

  13. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power

  15. The Teacher Workforce in Australia: Supply, Demand and Data Issues. Policy Insights, Issue #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the current teacher workforce situation in Australia. It highlights workforce trends and projected growth, and areas where the collection and analysis of additional data may assist in the targeting of effective policy. Demand for teachers is on the rise. The population of primary students is set to increase…

  16. Analytical and policy issues in energy economics: Uses of the FRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The relevant literature concerning several major analytical and policy issues in energy economics is reviewed and criticized. The possible uses of the Financial Reporting System (FRS) data base for the analysis of energy policy issues are investigated. Certain features of FRS data suggest several ways in which the data base can be used by policy makers. FRS data are collected on the firm level, and different segments of the same firm operating in different markets can be separately identified. The methods of collection as well as FRS's elaborate data verification process guarantee a high degree of accuracy and consistency among firms.

  17. Legal and Policy Issues for LGBT Patients with Cancer or at Elevated Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean R

    2018-02-01

    To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. LGBT health policy research. Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients. Using correct names and pronouns with transgender patients, and collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data can send an affirming message to LGBT patients, as well as inform decision support and preventive screenings, and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influencing school health policy: the role of state school nurse consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa; Howat, Holly; Stokes, Billy; Street, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The role of the State School Nurse Consultant has been well defined by the National Association of School Nurses. State School Nurse Consultants serve as a resource to school nurses on issues related to their practice, as well as a liaison between top-level educators and school nurses. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of the State School Nurse Consultant, and to present results of a survey of Louisiana school nurses related to their practice needs. A survey was administered via Survey Monkey to determine the perceived needs of Louisiana school nurses related to their professional practice. Eighty-eight members of the Louisiana School Nurse Organization participated in the online survey. Louisiana is 1 of 6 states that do not have a State School Nurse Consultant. Respondents to the survey indicated an overwhelming need to have a school nurse representative at the state level. Twenty-two of the respondents specifically stated that they would like to have a State School Nurse Consultant within the Department of Education. Budgetary constraints have resulted in a lack of funding for a State School Nurse Consultant in Louisiana. Partnerships with federally qualified health centers (FQHC) and billing of Medicaid for school nursing services are 2 examples of revenue sources for school nurses that Louisiana is investigating. Revenue from these sources may serve to supplement state funds so that this important resource for Louisiana school nurses can be put into place.

  19. Policy and technical considerations for high-level radioactive wastes: a statement of issues and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of issues that EPA must consider in translating broad policy considerations into environmental protection criteria for high-level and TRU-contaminated waste. This paper reviews these issues and suggests some questions for discussion at this workshop

  20. Roles of scientists as policy advisers on complex issues: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B.; Vasileiadou, Eleftheria; Devilee, Jeroen; Lebret, Erik; Petersen, Arthur C.

    Background and Aims: Policymakers frequently encounter complex issues, and the role of scientists as policy advisers on these issues is not always clearly defined. We present an overview of the interdisciplinary literature on the roles of scientific experts when advising policymakers on complex

  1. Roles of scientists as policy advisers on complex issues : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.; Knol, A.B.; Vasileiadou, E.; Devilee, J.; Lebret, E.; Petersen, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Policymakers frequently encounter complex issues, and the role of scientists as policy advisers on these issues is not always clearly defined. We present an overview of the interdisciplinary literature on the roles of scientific experts when advising policymakers on complex

  2. Using supervised machine learning to code policy issues: Can classifiers generalize across contexts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles

  3. Energy policy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G.

    1994-01-01

    Whilst recognising that the reduction of poverty levels in developing countries takes precedence to the improvement and protection of the environment, the author comments that any efforts geared to fostering socioeconomic development will indirectly address the environment issue. The aims of a broad strategy and a more specific energy strategy geared at fostering sustainable development in Latin America are discussed. It is suggested that development of hydropower should continue, that the share of natural gas in the regional energy balance be increased and that efforts be put into increasing energy efficiency and improving utilization technologies. Promotion of energy projects that generate employment, promotion of projects for the use of biomass as an energy source, and implementation of a series of joint ventures are ideas advocated. Possibilities of cooperation between the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Dutch government are aired

  4. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  5. ["Nudges": relevance, limitations and ethical issues, specifically in health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyard, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    The concept of "nudge" has recently spread accross the field of research that addresses the issue of health behaviours change. According to Thaler and Sunstein (2008) a nudge is "any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives". Similar concepts, such as persuasive technology or manipulation, have been studied for decades in the fields of design, psychology or communication. The novelty of the concept of "nudge"' lies in its particular political purpose, namely libertarian paternalism. Meanwhile, the analysis of the decision process induced by a nudge shows that it does not simply amount to a change in the environment and that its handling is ethically tricky. The main interest of this concept might actually lie in a better assessment and a better regulation of the public health impact of choice architecture for economic purposes, such as marketing and advertising. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  6. From policy to practice: implementation of physical activity and food policies in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Public policies targeting the school setting are increasingly being used to address childhood obesity; however, their effectiveness depends on their implementation. This study explores the factors which impeded or facilitated the implementation of publicly mandated school-based physical activity and nutrition guidelines in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 school informants (17 principals - 33 teacher/school informants) to examine the factors associated with the implementation of the mandated Daily Physical Activity (DPA) and Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) guidelines. Coding used a constructivist grounded theory approach. The first five transcripts and every fifth transcript thereafter were coded by two independent coders with discrepancies reconciled by a third coder. Data was coded and analysed in the NVivo 9 software. Concept maps were developed and current theoretical perspectives were integrated in the later stages of analysis. Results The Diffusion of Innovations Model provided an organizing framework to present emergent themes. With the exception of triability (not relevant in the context of mandated guidelines/policies), the key attributes of the Diffusion of Innovations Model (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability) provided a robust framework for understanding themes associated with implementation of mandated guidelines. Specifically, implementation of the DPA and FBSS guidelines was facilitated by perceptions that they: were relatively advantageous compared to status quo; were compatible with school mandates and teaching philosophies; had observable positive impacts and impeded when perceived as complex to understand and implement. In addition, a number of contextual factors including availability of resources facilitated implementation. Conclusions The enactment of mandated policies/guidelines for schools is considered an essential step in

  7. Improvements in middle school student dietary intake after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.

  8. The influence of school choice policy on active school commuting: a case study of a middle-sized school district in Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Yizhao Yang; Steve Abbott; Marc Schlossberg

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy has implications for school travel as it allows students to attend schools farther from their residence than their neighborhood schools. This paper uses a case study from Oregon to investigate how school choice affects parents’ school travel decision making and the degree to which school choice affects children’s walking or biking to school. The research shows that school choice is associated with lengthened school travel distance and parents’ greater willingness to drive...

  9. Translating epidemiology into policy to prevent childhood obesity: the case for promoting physical activity in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Chriqui, Jamie F; Burgeson, Charlene R; Fisher, Megan C; Ness, Roberta B

    2010-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem resulting from energy imbalance (when the intake of energy is greater than the amount of energy expended through physical activity). Numerous health authorities have identified policy interventions as promising strategies for creating population-wide improvements in physical activity. This case study focuses on energy expenditure through physical activity (with a particular emphasis on school-based physical education [PE]). Policy-relevant evidence for promoting physical activity in youth may take numerous forms, including epidemiologic data and other supporting evidence (e.g., qualitative data). The implementation and evaluation of school PE interventions leads to a set of lessons related to epidemiology and evidence-based policy. These include the need to: (i) enhance the focus on external validity, (ii) develop more policy-relevant evidence on the basis of "natural experiments," (iii) understand that policy making is political, (iv) better articulate the factors that influence policy dissemination, (v) understand the real-world constraints when implementing policy in school environments, and (vi) build transdisciplinary teams for policy progress. The issues described in this case study provide leverage points for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers as they seek to translate epidemiology to policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  11. How Effective Are Severe Disciplinary Policies? School Policies and Offending from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the stage environment and the person environment fit perspectives, the current study examined the relation between school disciplinary policies and offending from adolescence into young adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a.k.a., Add Health), hierarchical multinomial logistic…

  12. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…

  13. Mortality and health policy: main issues for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress and prospects for mortality reduction in the major regions of the world. The goals for mortality reduction as expressed in the World Population Plan of Action and other official international documents are presented and progress towards the attainment of those goals at the regional level is appraised. A quick review of trends in life expectancy at birth is then presented and major causes of death for developing and developed countries are summarized. The interrelationships between mortality and health levels and differentials, and development are considered. Factors leading to a sustained high mortality level or contributing to its decrease are investigated. Some factors reviewed are gross national product (GNP), structure of economic growth, dependency on foreign economies, recession, development strategies, education and agricultural development. For developed countries, focus is on per capita GNP, life styles associated with development and industrial pollution. Demographic, economic and social consequences of mortality and health improvement are then examined and main findings on differentials in mortality by sex, socioeconomic characteristics and geographical location are presented for developed and developing countries. The effects of selected health programs in areas like immunization, nutrition, maternal and child health, sanitation, environmental control and life-style interventions are considered and basic elements of primary health care strategy discussed. Primary health care strategies are characterized by some basic elements, including active community participation, provision of curative, preventive and health promotion services and use of paramedical personnel. The obstacles for health policy implementation are examined. A review is made of characteristics of the social system e.g. power structure, and a closer look is taken at specific characteristics of the health system such as health care management, planning and

  14. Economic School Integration: An Update. The Century Foundation Issue Brief Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    In 2000, an Idea Brief asserted that the best way to improve education would be to give every schoolchild the opportunity to attend a middle class public school (economic school integration). This brief reviews recent research and policy developments regarding economic school integration, noting that school segregation based on socioeconomic…

  15. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  16. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  17. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  18. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  19. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  20. Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Middle School Students Following the Implementation of a School District Wellness Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathleen D.; Snelling, Anastasia; Maroto, Maya; Young, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: In 2010, a large urban school district implemented a district-wide school wellness policy that addressed childhood obesity by requiring schools to increase health and physical education contact hours for students and to improve the nutritional standards of school meals. Schools were required to serve a different fruit and…

  1. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  2. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  3. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  4. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-04-12

    Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its implementation and its support by parents, teachers and principals. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to improve the school food policy and/or implementation at Dutch primary schools. Therefore, this study explores the school food policy and investigates schools' (teachers and principals) and parents' opinion on the school food policy. Data on the schools' perspective of the food policy was collected from principals and teachers by means of semi-structured interviews. In total 74 principals and 72 teachers from 83 Dutch primary schools were interviewed. Data on parental perceptions about the school food policy were based on a cross-sectional survey among 1,429 parents from the same schools. Most principals (87.1%) reported that their school had a written food policy; however in most cases the rules were not clearly defined. Most of the principals (87.8%) believed that their school paid sufficient attention to nutrition and health. Teachers and principals felt that parents were primarily responsible to encourage healthy eating habits among children, while 49.8% of the parents believed that it is also a responsibility of the school to foster healthy eating habits among children. Most parents reported that they appreciated the school food policy and comply with the food rules. Parents' opinion on the enforcement of the school food policy varied: 28.1% believed that the school should enforce the policy more strongly, 32.1% was satisfied, and 39.8% had no opinion on this topic. Dutch primary schools could play a more important role in fostering healthy eating habits among children. The school food policy could be improved by clearly formulating food rules, simplifying

  5. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  6. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its

  7. State-Level Guidance and District-Level Policies and Practices for Food Marketing in US School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi

    2018-06-07

    State agencies play a critical role in providing school districts with guidance and technical assistance on school nutrition issues, including food and beverage marketing practices. We examined associations between state-level guidance and the policies and practices in school districts regarding food and beverage marketing and promotion. State policy guidance was positively associated with districts prohibiting advertisements for junk food or fast food restaurants on school property. Technical assistance from states was negatively associated with 2 district practices to restrict marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages, but positively associated with 1 practice to promote healthy options. These findings may help inform the guidance that states provide to school districts and help identify which districts may need additional assistance to address marketing and promotion practices.

  8. A Mandatory Uniform Policy in Urban Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to examine the relations between a mandatory school uniform policy and student problem behavior. The study is based on the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS 2003-04 data. Analyzing data from 421 urban schools, the study found that schools adopting a mandatory uniform policy are negatively associated with rates of student problem behaviors except at the high school level. As with other school safety initiatives, parental involvement at the elementary school level, and teacher training and community efforts at the high school level were revealed as negative predictors of student problem behavior.

  9. December 2012 Policy Update: School Climate and Bully Prevention Trends State-by-State Assessment. School Climate Brief, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizio, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This December 2012 Brief updates NSCC's 2011 report "State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil School"s (www.schoolclimate.org/climate/papers-briefs.php). This Brief provides a summary of State level: (1) anti-bullying legislation; (2)…

  10. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  11. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  12. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  13. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  14. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan XIONG; W.James JACOB; Huiyuan YE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level,and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues.Content area experts on Chinese minority education from China,South Korea,and the United States were interviewed for this study.Findings include suggestions for helping to formulate government educational policies regarding issues related to language in Chinese minority education at the higher education level.This information is helpful to better understand and educate others in school and home settings where Chinese ethnic minority students reside.The advancement of Chinese minority education knowledge related to higher education will significantly strengthen and empower individuals,families,and communities throughout the People's Republic of China.

  15. Education policies, school organization and the work of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licínio C. Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Big changes in the state´s role in public education policies have occurred throughoutthe last decades by the action of transnational and supranational entities. An increasing process of subordination of education to economic imperatives in late capitalism and to entrepreneurial theories of school organization and leadership hasfollowed. Some dimensions of what is called by the author the managerialist canonand the hyper-bureaucratization of schools are analyzed with reference to international tendencies and also to the most recent Portuguese reform of the management system of state schools. Possible impacts of the political and organization changes introduced are suggested for future research, mainly concerning the working process of teachers and the tendencies towards competitiveness, deprofessionalization, subordination and alienation.

  16. An evaluation of public school district tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Colleen; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bach, Laura E; Cyr, Julianne

    2013-08-01

    One way to address tobacco use by youth is for primary and secondary schools to adopt and implement comprehensive tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri public school districts. We evaluated the strength of tobacco policies from all 23 public school districts located in the county using the Center for Tobacco Policy Research's School Tobacco Policy Index, a standardized tool for rating school tobacco policies. The districts averaged a score of 24.4 of 40 possible points on the Index. Policies scored highest on the Tobacco-Free Environment domain and lowest on the Enforcement domain. Policies averaged about half of the total possible points for the Prevention and Treatment Services and Policy Organization domains. Despite more than a decade of efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve school tobacco policies, this study shows that policies in St. Louis County districts have yet to meet the standard of comprehensiveness. It is recommended that schools adopt policies that are comprehensive and that address all domains of the School Tobacco Policy Index. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  17. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F.; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (location, racial/ethnic composition and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility [FRPL]) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) data were used for school characteristics (n = 505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included: 1) the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, 2) strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and 3) restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores [prevalence difference (PD)=13.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) -25.0,-2.3], and less likely to sell sports drinks (PD= -36.3, 95% CI: -51.8, -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD=17.7, 95% CI: 5.5, 29.9) and on school grounds (PD=15.6, 95% CI: 1.7, 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012 the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the impact of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. PMID:25441964

  19. The quality of school wellness policies and energy-balance behaviors of adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Yount, Byron W; Budd, Elizabeth L; Schwarz, Cynthia; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Green, Scoie; Elliott, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we 1) compared the quality of school wellness policies among schools participating in Moms for a Healthy Balance (BALANCE), a school- and home-based weight loss study conducted with postpartum adolescents in 27 states; and 2) assessed the relationship between policy quality with energy-balance behaviors and body mass index z scores of postpartum adolescents. As a part of BALANCE, we collected data on high-calorie food and beverage consumption, minutes spent walking, and height and weight for 647 participants. The School Wellness Policy Coding Tool was used to assess the strength and comprehensiveness of school district wellness policies from 251 schools attended by participating adolescent mothers. Schools averaged low scores for wellness policy comprehensiveness and strength. When compared with participants in schools with the lowest policy comprehensiveness scores, adolescent mothers in schools with the highest scores reported consuming significantly fewer daily calories from sweetened beverages while reporting higher consumption of water (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively). School wellness policy strength was associated with lower BMI z scores among adolescent mothers (P = .01). School wellness policies associated with BALANCE may be limited in their ability to promote a healthy school environment. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effect of the strength and comprehensiveness of policy language on energy balance in high-risk postpartum adolescents. Evidence from this work can provide additional guidance to federal or state government in mandating not only policy content, but also systematic evaluation.

  20. Modelling issues on climate change policies. A discussion of the GTAP-E model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremers, H.; Nijkamp, P.; Wang, Shunli

    2000-01-01

    Ater the Kyoto agreements the need has arisen to trace the implications of various international environmental strategies. In this paper, we discuss relevant modelling issues of incorporating important environmental policy measures in one of the popular applied general equilibrium models for international trade, the so-called GTAP model. Special attention is paid to an extended version, the GTAP-E (Global Trade Analysis Project - Energy) by addressing the question how to include the widely discussed instruments of International Emission Trading, Joint Implementation, and Clean Development Mechanisms. The paper will be concluded with some policy issues. 10 refs

  1. Modelling issues on climate change policies. A discussion of the GTAP-E model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremers, H.; Nijkamp, P.; Wang, Shunli [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    Ater the Kyoto agreements the need has arisen to trace the implications of various international environmental strategies. In this paper, we discuss relevant modelling issues of incorporating important environmental policy measures in one of the popular applied general equilibrium models for international trade, the so-called GTAP model. Special attention is paid to an extended version, the GTAP-E (Global Trade Analysis Project - Energy) by addressing the question how to include the widely discussed instruments of International Emission Trading, Joint Implementation, and Clean Development Mechanisms. The paper will be concluded with some policy issues. 10 refs.

  2. Polish Housing Policy in Com parison with the Housing Policy in the UE – Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the main principles of Polish housing policy and to compare it with the housing policy in the European Union. Poland, as an UE member, did not hammer out successful solutions which could facilitate the process of building new low-rental dwellings. The authors aim is to find the answer to research question: is it worth concentrating on fulfilling housing needs of low-income households in Poland and if yes, why? In order to do this the following hypothesis is put forward: on account of long-standing neglect connected with the Polish social housing finance there is an urgent need of housing reform oriented to the low-income housing growth.

  3. School Library Policy and Legal Opinions of Texas Public School Principals and Certified Librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Shupala

    2006-01-01

    This study involved a survey of the attitudes of Texas public school principals and certified librarians, perceptions andexperiences with regard to school library policy for media selection, and procedures for responding to complaints againstlibrary media. Analysis of the data included a methodology of mixed-methods explanatory design. Selection of the principalsand certified librarians was proportionate and stratified according to the state's 20 Education Service Centerregions. Of the 1,036 ...

  4. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  5. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  6. Key Issues in Empirically Identifying Chronically Low-Performing and Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the US Department of Education's key priorities is turning around the nation's persistently low-achieving schools, yet exactly how to identify low-performing schools is a task left to state policy makers, and a myriad of definitions have been utilized. In addition, exactly how to recognize when a school begins to turn around is not well…

  7. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  8. Buttoned down: Are School Uniform Policies a Perfect Fit for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messitt, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    In the 1999-2000 school year, only about 12 percent of U.S. public schools required their students to wear uniforms. Since then, the number of schools requiring uniforms has risen. Uniform policies are now in place at about a fifth of all public schools in the United States--but do school uniforms really level the playing field? New research has…

  9. Making Americans: UNO Charter Schools and Civic Education. Policy Brief 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feith, David

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the third in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. The UNO Charter School Network includes 13 schools serving some 6,500 students across Chicago. Located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods, the…

  10. The Policy of Principals Regarding the Implementations of Library School in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Arya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation‟s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of  principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in  schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act  No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The reseach was conducted in 6 schools and the quuesionnare was distributed to 6 prinsipals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out og 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.

  11. The Policy of Principals Regarding the Implementations of Library School in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Arya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation’s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The research was conducted in 6 schools and the questionnaire was distributed to 6 principals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out of 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.

  12. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2005-01-01

    to adapt its way of thinking to include the issue of context. They point out that clinical pharmacists today already adapt their decisons to each patient and patient group. Policy-makers are encouraged to adopt a similar approach because populations as well as particular market situations vary...

  13. Managing and Mobilising Talent in Malaysia: Issues, Challenges and Policy Implications for Malaysian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Norzaini; Sirat, Morshidi; Pang, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The future of Malaysia as a high-income and competitive nation largely depends on its pool of highly skilled human capital. Hence, the issue of human capital development has taken centre stage in numerous reform agendas of Malaysia. This paper seeks to provide examples of policy initiatives aimed at facilitating the management of highly educated…

  14. Empowerment and Accountability in Implementing a "No-Fee School" Policy: A Challenge for School Governing Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Empowerment, accountability and redress are prime objectives of school funding in the new South Africa. This is facilitated through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding. The application of the norms has led to the development of a "no-fee school" policy aimed at exempting poor parents from payment of school fees. The…

  15. The pathways of high school science teachers and policy efforts to alter the pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Tim

    2012-03-01

    There is currently much interest in improving the quality of science education in K-12 schools and encouraging more students, particularly minorities and women, to pursue careers in STEM fields. Two interrelated issues are at the forefront: the quality of science teachers and the supply of science teachers. Education research in general finds that the single most important school-based factor affecting student achievement is teacher quality. While there is little evidence that teacher credentials matter for student achievement in the lower grades, there is at least some evidence that content knowledge is an important determinant of teacher quality in middle and secondary schools. However, little is known about the pre-service preparation of high school science teachers and how the training of science teachers affects their performance in the classroom. While there are many efforts underway to increase the supply of science teachers, little is known about the supply of science teachers from different pathways and the factors that lead science teachers to leave the profession. In this presentation I discuss recent work on the supply of teachers from alternative pathways, focusing on high school science teachers. I also summarize the literature on teacher quality and attrition, emphasizing the current state of knowledge on secondary school teachers. Finally, I present current policy initiatives and discuss the likelihood of their success given current research findings.

  16. Modernizing Schools in Mexico: The Rise of Teacher Assessment and School-Based Management Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echávarri, Jaime; Peraza, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the evolution of the teacher assessment policy and the origins of school-based management initiatives in the Mexican education context from the late 1980s until the last 2012-2013 Education Reform (RE2012-2013). Mexico joined the Global Education Reform Movement during the 1990s through the National Agreement for the…

  17. School Library Policy and Legal Opinions of Texas Public School Principals and Certified Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shupala

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a survey of the attitudes of Texas public school principals and certified librarians, perceptions andexperiences with regard to school library policy for media selection, and procedures for responding to complaints againstlibrary media. Analysis of the data included a methodology of mixed-methods explanatory design. Selection of the principalsand certified librarians was proportionate and stratified according to the state's 20 Education Service Centerregions. Of the 1,036 independent school districts that employed the state population of 10,014 principals and certifiedlibrarians, 275 independent school districts (26.5 percent allowed participation in the survey. Although random samplingof the state population had not been possible, the demographic and employment characteristics of the study samplewere comparable to those of the state population. Two key findings were (a that the legal opinions of principals andcertified librarians were useful predictors of their opinions of library media selection policy and complaint proceduresand (b that the principals' appreciation of selection policy and complaint procedures sometimes differed from the librarians'because of the principals' different legal perspective of library selection policy and complaint procedures.

  18. Studies of self-pollution in diesel school buses: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Considerable interest has focused on levels of exhaust emissions in the cabins of diesel-powered school buses and their possible adverse health effects. Significantly different policy and engineering issues would be raised if compelling evidence found that inc-cabin contamination was due to self-pollution from bus emissions, rather than ambient pollution, neighboring vehicles, and/or re-entrained road dust. We identified 19 reports from 11 studies that measured diesel exhaust particulate in the cabins of 58 school bus of various type. Studies were evaluated in light of their experimental design, their data quality, and their capacity to quantify self-pollution. Only one study had a true experimental design, comparing the same buses with and without emission controls, while four others used intentional tracers to quantify tail pipe and/or crankcase emissions. Although definitive data are still lacking, these studies suggest that currently available control technologies can nearly eliminate particulate self-pollution inside diesel school buses.

  19. Fertility reduction policies and poverty in Third World countries: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D J

    1985-01-01

    This article begins with a discussion of the motivation for fertility reduction and related population policies. Next, it identifies the two major approaches to evaluating these policies in the population ethics literature: the individualistic approach and the international approach. Each approach is then characterized according to the kinds of policies evaluated, the ethical principles that are most prominent, and the major conclusions drawn. Major empirical gaps in the population ethics literature are identified, and pertinent social science issues concerning the effectiveness of family planning programs, the socioeconomic determinants of fertility, and the interpersonal or community determinants of fertility are discussed. Finally, these issues are linked with the United Nations World Population Plan of Action to identify ethical questions that warrant detailed scrutiny.

  20. Transnational issue-specific expert networking: A pathway to local policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cheryl

    2015-12-01

    This article reports on key findings from a study of subnational governments in Mexico and Nigeria (O'Brien, 2013). With empirical richness of the case study method and small-n statistical analysis across the subnational units for each country, this study asks: How can we push the needle toward more progressive policy change on violence against women in developing and democratizing contexts? This study finds that issue-specific expert networking is a civic pathway to subnational policy responsiveness in Mexico and Nigeria. The dynamics of this pathway illuminate local-global political connections, and this study shows how issue-specific expert networking is important for the diffusion of an international norm and policies on violence against women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  2. School Safety Policies With Emphasis on Physical Education, Athletics and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet outlines principles of hazard control, school accident problems, and the need for guidelines and policies. Suggested general school safety policies, guidelines for courses in safety education and for the provision of facilities and supplies, policies for the administration of first aid and emergency care, and procedures for reporting…

  3. School Board Policy as an Instrument of Empowering Leadership in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Curtis

    The role of school board policy as an instrument for empowering leadership is explored in this paper. Currently, the majority of policy handbooks are not designed to provide motivation or vision and are not part of an ongoing effort to create a congruence of district expectations. When policy becomes a statement of a school board's expectations…

  4. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…

  5. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  6. Health and schooling: evidence and policy implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-neto, J B; Hanushek, E A; Leite, R H; Frota-bezzera, R C

    1997-01-01

    Health and education are typically viewed as distinct topics from both the research and policy perspectives. Accordingly, the direct interactions between health status and education have been neglected in both research and policy making. The authors use survey data collected from students during the 1980s in Piaui, Ceara, and Pernambuco states as part of an evaluation of a major educational intervention program, EDURURAL, to investigate the complementarities of health with school attainment and cognitive achievement. A series of anthropometric measures for individual students in rural northeast Brazil are used in educational performance models. The promotion models and value-added achievement models both demonstrate the importance of students' visual acuity. Poor vision systematically leads to higher drop-out rates, more grade repetition, and lower achievement. The achievement models also point to the role of good nutrition.

  7. School Finance Policies and Practices. The 1980s: A Decade of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W., Ed.

    This book presents the ideas of several authors who share the viewpoint that social values play an important role in determining financial policies in public schools. The first section reviews the historic and social context of school financing, summarizing U.S. school finance policy from 1955 to 1980 and describing the political environment of…

  8. Safety vs. reputation: risk controversies in emerging policy networks regarding school safety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, J.; Kingma, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with risk controversies in emerging policy networks regarding school safety in the Netherlands. It offers a grounded account of the interpretations of school risks and safety measures by the various stakeholders of the policy network, in particular, schools, local government and

  9. Situating Texas School Finance Policy in a CRT Framework: How "Substantially Equal" Yields Racial Inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to conduct a critical race policy analysis of Texas school finance policy. This empirical article examines three chapters of the Texas education code (TEC) and identifies the racial effects that the school funding system has on seven majority-Mexican American school districts. Methodology: Critical Race…

  10. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  11. Emerging School Sport Development Policy, Practice and Governance in England: Big Society, Autonomy and Decentralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Chris; Liddle, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    International interest in developing mass sports participation through systems of school and community sports development has become a growing field of public leisure policy interest. This research paper considers the policy change from School Sport Partnerships to the new 2012 School Games model of networked partnerships to establish…

  12. Mind the Gap: How Students Differentially Perceive Their School's Attendance Policies in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva

    2016-01-01

    Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…

  13. Educating Adolescents in the Context of Section 504 Policy: a Comparative Study of Two Middle Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martha Asterilla

    2002-01-01

    EDUCATING ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SECTION 504 POLICY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO MIDDLE SCHOOLS By Martha Asterilla Taylor Jean B. Crockett, Ph.D. Chairperson Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (ABSTRACT) Section 504 "prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by school districts receiving federal financial assistance" (First & Curcio, 1993, p.33). In public schools, eligible students receive an Individualized Accommodation Plan (IA...

  14. Using an Online Tool to Support School-Based ICT Policy Planning in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, R.; Van Braak, J.; Tondeur, J.

    2010-01-01

    An important step towards the successful integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools is to facilitate their capacity to develop a school-based ICT policy resulting in an ICT policy plan. Such a plan can be defined as a school document containing strategic and operational elements concerning the integration of ICT in…

  15. Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in Ontario School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    A clear, well defined policy can help empower school personnel to make informed decisions on how to handle cases of suspected child abuse. This article presents an analysis of (N = 64) school board child abuse reporting policies and procedures in Ontario and explored what training, resources, and support school boards state they will provide to…

  16. Development of school energy policy and energy education plans: A comparative case study in three Wisconsin school communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Jennie F.; Floress, Kristin; Rickert, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Through a qualitative comparative case study, this investigation examined the process by which three school districts in Wisconsin, U.S.A., developed a school energy policy and complementary energy education plan. To guide the process, the researchers created an outline of recommended steps for the districts to follow. Although there were variations in the sequence and perceived ease of the steps, the Energy Task Force members involved in the process found the outline to be a supportive guide. Further analysis of the cases involved interviewing members of the Energy Task Forces to identify facilitating and obstructing factors. The study concluded that factors such as level of environmental literacy, along with aspects of the school culture and leadership, interacted to influence the successful drafting of school energy policies and education plans. In addition to introducing an outline of recommended steps that can be used by other school policy development teams interested in promoting energy efficiency, this study adds insights into the analysis of energy policy work within the context of a school setting. - Highlights: • School energy policy and complementary energy education plans can be successfully developed with guidelines for policy team membership. • Teacher agency, including environmental literacy, helps overcome barriers in developing school policy and energy education plans. • Administrative support of energy conservation is a key to the development of school energy policies and complementary energy education plans

  17. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  18. Accuracy of Principal and Teacher Knowledge of School District Policies on Sun Protection in California Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Reynolds, Kim D; Berteletti, Julia; Massie, Kim; Ashley, Jeff; Buller, Mary Klein; Meenan, Richard T

    2018-01-18

    Policy is a key aspect of school-based efforts to prevent skin cancer. We explored the extent and accuracy of knowledge among principals and teachers in California public school districts about the elements specified in their district's written sun safety policy. The sample consisted of California public school districts that subscribed to the California School Boards Association, had an elementary school, adopted Board Policy 5141.7 for sun safety, and posted it online. The content of each policy was coded. Principals (n = 118) and teachers (n = 113) in elementary schools were recruited from September 2013 through December 2015 and completed a survey on sun protection policies and practices from January 2014 through April 2016. Only 38 of 117 principals (32.5%) were aware that their school district had a sun protection policy. A smaller percentage of teachers (13 of 109; 11.9%) than principals were aware of the policy (F 108 = 12.76, P < .001). We found greater awareness of the policy among principals and teachers who had more years of experience working in public education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, F 106 = 4.71, P = .03) and worked in schools with more non-Hispanic white students (OR = 7.65, F 109 = 8.61, P = .004) and fewer Hispanic students (OR = 0.28, F 109 = 4.27, P = .04). Policy adoption is an important step in implementing sun safety practices in schools, but districts may need more effective means of informing school principals and teachers of sun safety policies. Implementation will lag without clear understanding of the policy's content by school personnel.

  19. Monopoly vs. Markets: The Empirical Evidence on Private Schools & School Choice. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This study presents new findings comparing public and private high schools using top-quality data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS), a long-term research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. The ELS project tracks individual data on thousands of students, allowing researchers to conduct much better analyses than are…

  20. Group Counseling in the Schools: Considerations for Child and Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Tony D.; Gustafson, Amy L.; Borges, Silvia M.

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists are increasingly being confronted with a wide spectrum of psychological, psychosocial, familial, and home-school issues impacting child development. With one in six children raised in alcoholic families, with divorce impacting approximately 60% of families, and with such issues as teenage pregnancy, parental neglect, as well…

  1. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  2. Policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinnagbe O. Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation are important, yet, frequently neglected functions in most organisations. In Nigeria, many programmes have been established over the years but only little monitoring and evaluation have been carried out because of many implementation problems and lack of realistic and/or stable policy framework. This paper was designed to X-ray policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural programmes in Nigeria. Inductive and deductive reasoning through a review of relevant literature was used in this philosophical paper. To improve the performance of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria, the following policy issues must be addressed: The questions of what should be monitored or evaluated, when should monitoring and/or evaluation be carried out and who should monitor and/or evaluate; and the methodology to be adopted in any project should be included in any agricultural programmes and/or policies. Manpower and financial resources, effective communication and the issue of accountability must be properly considered. The tools for monitoring and evaluation are also very crucial. The paper concluded that planning a good agricultural programme is not a problem in Nigeria but poor implementation is, as a result of poor monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, attention should be on when, how and who should be involved in monitoring and evaluation.

  3. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  4. Implementation of Local Wellness Policies in Schools: Role of School Systems, School Health Councils, and Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Rubio, Diana S; Eidel, G Stewart; Penniston, Erin S; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I; Fox, Renee E; Black, Maureen M

    2016-10-01

    Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and having a school-level wellness team/school health council (SHC), with stronger associations among schools without disparity enrollment (majority African-American/Hispanic or low-income students). Online surveys were administered: 24 systems (support), 1349 schools (LWP implementation, perceived system support, SHC). The state provided school demographics. Analyses included multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Response rates were 100% (systems)/55.2% (schools). Among schools, 44.0% had SHCs, 22.6% majority (≥75%) African-American/Hispanic students, and 25.5% majority (≥75%) low-income (receiving free/reduced-price meals). LWP implementation (17-items) categorized as none = 36.3%, low (1-5 items) = 36.3%, high (6+ items) = 27.4%. In adjusted models, greater likelihood of LWP implementation was observed among schools with perceived system support (high versus none relative risk ratio, RRR = 1.63, CI: 1.49, 1.78; low versus none RRR = 1.26, CI: 1.18, 1.36) and SHCs (high versus none RRR = 6.8, CI: 4.07, 11.37; low versus none RRR = 2.24, CI: 1.48, 3.39). Disparity enrollment did not moderate associations (p > .05). Schools with perceived system support and SHCs had greater likelihood of LWP implementation, with no moderating effect of disparity enrollment. SHCs/support may overcome LWP implementation obstacles related to disparities. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  5. Attitudes of School Administrators and Teachers towards the "Smoke-Free Air Zone" Policy in Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoglu, Köksal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Schools are likely to be better able to achieve compliance with smoke-free regulations if principals and teachers perceive the importance of a smoke-free policy. The purpose of this study was to measure teacher and administrator attitudes towards the smoke-free policy in Turkish schools, which promotes a total smoking ban. Method: The…

  6. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school…

  7. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: Room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A.J. Schuit (Jantine); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the

  8. Policy planning for nuclear power: an overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. (NHA)

  9. Nuclear energy policy and atomic energy law. Issues and developmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy policy and the atomic energy law recurrently have been a focal point of interest and an issue of political debate in Germany. However, this time the political debate is gaining a new dimension in the wake of the general elections held in September 1998 and the resulting change of government. The contribution compares aspects of the history of atomic energy research and nuclear technology with the current political situation and assesses the impacts of announced changes in government policy and legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  10. A Qualitative Examination of School Counselors' Training to Recognize and Respond to Adolescent Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Cynthia T.; Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of adolescent mental health issues and the impact they have on adolescent development and school success, school counselors are challenged to provide appropriate prevention and intervention services. Yet the sufficiency of school counselor training for these challenges is unclear. Qualitative procedures were used to examine…

  11. Free to Lead: Autonomy in Highly Successful Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ableidinger, Joe; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomy is a key component of the charter school concept. By allowing charter schools to have autonomy over decisions concerning finance, personnel, scheduling, curriculum and instruction, states have enabled many of these schools to produce stellar results for their students. This issue brief explores autonomy at five excellent charter schools…

  12. Mother-tongue education in primary schools in Malawi: From policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-tongue education in primary schools in Malawi: From policy to ... The policy remains fragmented, and suffers from a lack of appropriate planning and ... to bring about social change in terms of linguistic balance and social justice.

  13. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  14. Issues in the Seclusion and Restraint of Juveniles: Policy, Practice and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Ellis

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate use of seclusion and restraint (S/R is an important issue among juvenile justice professionals. Recent newspaper articles have brought the issue to the attention of the United States Senate, law enforcement agencies, and the general public. The result has been a series of investigations and publications by the Senate, law enforcement, and professional associations. Despite the attention this issue has received, professionals have yet to reach a definitive agreement as to what recent legislation and the professional and popular literature regarding the use of S/R. They identify major issues currently under discussion, highlight areas of consensus, and enumerate several dimensions that require further exploration. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of S/R for social work practitioners, including the importance of education and training, monitoring, hiring, policy advocacy, and ongoin research.

  15. Another issue comes out: gay rights policy voting in recent U.S. presidential elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie A

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.

  16. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Dragoset; Anne Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This brief describes exploratory work to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes that may be coming in policies and practices related to school meals and school food environments.

  17. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  18. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.

    Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  19. Strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD-D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios. The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. (author)

  20. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose…

  1. Policy Statements Issued by Scientific Societies: Why Less can be More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, P. F.

    2001-12-01

    The results of hydrological research are increasingly important to decision-makers grappling with problems as diverse as global climate change, non-point source pollution, extreme weather events, and damage from flooding. In some cases scientific aspects of these problems are interwoven with economic, political and social disputes, and policy makers often seek the consensus scientific opinion to help shape the debate. Policy or position statements issued by scientific societies like AGU can embody scientific consensus and thus inform the public and policy makers. But this is not always the case. The potential for creating public misunderstanding is ever present. Therefore, the process leading to a policy statement needs to be deliberative, inclusive to the extent possible, and circumspect. In contrast to advocacy organizations or trade groups, as a learned society AGU and members acting on its behalf should only advocate positions on political or social issues that are based solely on available geophysical data and recognized scientific debate. That does not mean that AGU and other scientific societies must refrain from entering a political debate. AGU has a responsibility to its members to adopt positions of advocacy on geophysical science issues based on their intrinsic merits and needs. However, a learned society like AGU should state only what is credible about the scientific aspects of a political debate and not overstep its authority as an objective source of analysis and commentary for the geophysical sciences. Before adopting an advocacy position, AGU's volunteers follow a process that includes checks and balances so that the final statement is based on sound scientific issues and reflects the interests of the Union as a whole. Any AGU member or committee can propose a position statement, but the Committee on Public Affairs (COPA) decides whether the proposal fall within the guidelines for advocacy. If it does and if COPA considers the issue worthy of an

  2. Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear energy policy issues after the 3.11 Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Commission (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident has become one of the worst accidents in nuclear history and it is not completely over yet. It will take at least 30 years or more to decontaminate and decommission the crippled nuclear reactors on site. Still, more than 140,000 people are away from home and restoring and assuring the life and welfare of those evacuated people is the top priority of Japanese government's nuclear energy policy. The government will release its new energy policy soon which will state that nuclear power is considered as an important base load electricity source, while committing to reduce its dependence as much as possible. For nuclear energy policy, there are certain important issues to be overcome regardless of future of nuclear power in Japan. They are: (1) spent fuel management and radioactive waste disposal, (2) restoring public trust (3) securing human resources and (4) plutonium stockpile management.

  4. Introduction of low-osmolar contrast agents in radiology: medical, economic, legal, and public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, P.D.; Rosenquist, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This case study of the public policy implications of introducing a new technology in radiology, namely, low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM), raises the issues of whether and how to place appropriate limits on new technologies. Although these contrast media represent small episodic costs, they may add up to an aggregate expenditure of nearly $1 billion per year if used for all contrast injections. As a result, this technology raises a number of important medical, economic, legal, and public policy questions. The cost-effectiveness analysis and an analysis of the medical evidence suggest that LOCM should be limited to high-risk patients. The authors discuss in this article how the legal system might respond to such limitations, and they consider various public policy options for adopting restrictions on use. They conclude that the medical profession should take the lead in developing protocols for appropriate assessment, reimbursement, and use of LOCM

  5. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  6. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  7. Proceedings of conference on public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a public forum in which to identify and discuss the legal, institutional, social, environmental, and other public policy issues relating to nuclear waste management. This volume is a comprehensive synthesis of the speeches, papers, and discussions during the plenary and luncheon sessions. Preliminary goals are proposed for nuclear waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for the ten papers. (DLC)

  8. Neglected Issues: How Charter Schools Manage Teachers and Acquire Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Hall, Stephanie M.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter schools are commonly discussed as being more effective at matching student and family interests with school mission, ensuring family choice of educational products and improving education quality and the efficiency of resource use as a result of the competitive dynamics they are assumed to generate between themselves…

  9. Successful School Turnarounds: Seven Steps for District Leaders. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Julie; Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2009-01-01

    President Obama and Secretary Duncan have called upon states, districts, and education leaders to change the lives of millions of children by dramatically improving the nation's 5,000 lowest performing schools. These chronically failing schools will require intensive intervention to turn around performance that has fallen short of expectations for…

  10. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  11. Policy planning for nuclear power: An overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This special report, Policy Planning for Nuclear Power: An Overview of the Main Issues and Requirements, has been prepared in response to the express request of a number of IAEA Member States for a document to assist makers in developing countries on the introduction of nuclear power. The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. Further information and details on the technical and other issues presented in this report are given in the list of related IAEA publications and documents at the end of this report

  12. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  13. Nutrition Services and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Terrence P.; Anderson, Susan; Miller, Clare; Guthrie, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate nutrient intake. This article describes the characteristics of both school nutrition services and the foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and…

  14. Beyond the Tipping Point: Issues of Racial Diversity in Magnet Schools Following Unitary Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article uses qualitative case study methodology to examine why the racial composition of magnet schools in Nashville, Tennessee, has shifted to predominantly African American in the aftermath of unitary status. The article compares the policy contexts and parents' reasons for choosing magnet schools at two points in time--under court order…

  15. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  16. Are School Policies Focused on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Associated with Less Bullying? Teachers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701

  17. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  18. School Violence, Role of the School Nurse in Prevention. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blout, JoAnn D.; Rose, Kathleen C.; Suessmann, Mary; Coleman, Kara; Selekman, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, healthcare providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs. The…

  19. Issues and challenges facing school libraries in selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    and 79% of schools had no library at all (Department of Basic Education (DBE) ... particularly in literacy and mathematics, as compared to national curriculum standards and international ... range of new and ever-changing technologies.

  20. The Influence of School Policy and Practice on Mathematics Achievement During Transitional Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet K. Holt

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of school policies and practices on math achievement growth, as students transitioned from middle to high school, were examined while controlling for school contextual variables. A pattern of accelerated growth in mathematics achievement from grades 8 to 12 occurred, in which higher achieving students in mathematics at grade eight accelerated more than lower achieving students in mathematics growth during the transition from middle to high school. Controlling for school context, school policy promoting parent involvement and academic counseling had significant positive impacts on the acceleration in growth during this period. The implications of using multilevel growth models to study growth during transition periods are discussed.

  1. Legal Issues in Educational Technology: Implications for School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses several legal issues involving the use of educational technology: Freedom of speech, regulation of Internet material harmful to minors, student-developed Web pages, harassment and hostile work environment, staff and student privacy, special education, plagiarism, and copyright issues. Includes recommendations for addressing technology…

  2. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-02-01

    Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school policies on smoking rates among youth in Florida. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a multiple regression analysis were used to determine whether the comprehensiveness and enforcement of tobacco-free school policies affect the youth smoking rates within Florida public school districts. The 2010 and 2014 youth smoking rates were calculated based on the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey results. The 2010 youth smoking rate and the inclusion of the enforcement component with provision of cessation resources were statistically significant predictors of the 2014 youth smoking rate. However, the comprehensiveness level of a policy and the inclusion of an enforcement component were not statistically significant predictors. The inclusion of an enforcement component with provision of cessation resources is important in efforts to reduce youth smoking rates. The content of the tobacco-free school policies seems to be less relevant to their effectiveness than the enforcement of the policies. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  3. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  4. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-01-01

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution

  5. NGOs and gender policy: some issues from the south Indian silk-reeling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1993-10-01

    In India, silk reeling, the middle stage in silk production, is potentially very profitable, and the silk industry has been required to adopt gender-aware policies such as appointing female staff and introducing gender sensitization training. To date, policies designed to encourage women's entrepreneurship in the reeling industry have been unsuccessful. Men have appropriated credit issued in women's names, and no women's cooperatives are currently in operation. The policies designed to encourage female entrepreneurship in reeling woefully overlooked the complexity of this work which involves a substantial investment of capital and significant risk. Women and girls continue to work as unpaid family workers and wage laborers without the benefits of governmental policies to protect their interests. In fact, attempts to introduce labor legislation to protect women have been blocked on the national level by the powerful Reelers' Association. Policies which address gender issues in the family and in the wider context of the silk industry are also lacking, and there is a wide variation in how women are able or unable to manipulate their positions to their advantage. Women's inabilities are the root cause of their inability to become entrepreneurs and improve their labor status. Nongovernmental organizations can enhance entrepreneurship and cooperative development by improving training in all aspects of running a business and in group formation. Women laborers must organize to improve wages and working conditions, and women must be able to increase their control over income and resources and their access to the outside world even as they decrease the time spent on unpaid reproductive labor.

  6. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-03-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of our study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (eg, location, racial/ethnic composition, and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics data were used for school characteristics (n=505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores (prevalence difference [PD] -13.7, 95% CI -25.0 to -2.3), and less likely to sell sport drinks (PD -36.3, 95% CI -51.8 to -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD 17.7, 95% CI 5.5 to 29.9) and on school grounds (PD 15.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012, the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (eg, limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, and banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the influence of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Dress Codes Blues: An Exploration of Urban Students' Reactions to a Public High School Uniform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCosta, Kneia

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…

  8. Guide to Policies and Contracts on Job Sharing in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Barbara; And Others

    Job Sharing--two persons sharing one full-time position--is becoming increasingly popular in the nation's schools. This guide provides information on policies and contracts and collective bargaining implications, based on practices in California, where the job sharing is allowed in 27 percent of the school districts. Provisions of policies and…

  9. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  10. The "Post-Racial" Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…

  11. Diverse Housing, Diverse Schooling: How Policy Can Stabilize Racial Demographic Change in Cities and Suburbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief provides a review of the social science evidence on the housing-school nexus, highlighting the problem of reoccurring racial segregation and inequality absent strong, proactive federal or state integration policies. Three areas of research are covered: (a) the nature of the housing-school nexus; (b) the impact of school…

  12. Adoption of Obesity Prevention Policies and Practices by Australian Primary Schools: 2006 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, N.; Wolfenden, L.; Williams, C. M.; Yoong, S. L.; Lecathelinais, C.; Bell, A. C.; Wyse, R.; Sutherland, R.; Wiggers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investment in many countries, the extent of schools' adoption of obesity prevention policies and practices has not been widely reported. The aims of this article are to describe Australian schools' adoption of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices over an 8-year period and to determine if their adoption…

  13. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  14. Homework policy review: A case study of a public school in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive ...

  15. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra

    2018-01-01

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  16. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-03-01

    Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  17. A survey of social media policies in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Webb, Chadleo

    2014-06-01

    Since social media sites began to appear in the 1990s, their popularity has increased dramatically, especially among younger individuals. With this widespread use of social media, institutions of higher education are finding the need to implement social media policies. The purpose of this study was to gather information from accredited U.S. dental schools on their social media policies. A survey sent to academic deans asked questions related to social media policies and violations of policies. The survey yielded a 35.9 percent (n=23) response rate. Social media policies at the university level were reported by 47.8 percent (n=11) of respondents, and 34.8 percent (n=8) had social media policies specifically in the dental school. Schools that had an institutional social media policy were more likely to have a social media policy in the dental school (p=0.01), and dental schools were more likely to have a policy if the academic dean had been in the position less than five years (p=0.01). All twenty-three responding dental schools have official social media pages. Dental educators and administrators may want to look for opportunities to raise awareness of social media professionalism in their dental schools.

  18. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. These policies create expectations of school leaders to bring about change in classrooms and across their schools, often described as bringing about ‘quality teaching’ and ‘school improvement’. These policies indicate that Australian children should develop ‘democratic values’, and that school principals should exercise ‘democratic values’ in their schools. The national approaches to the implementation of these policies however, is largely silent on promoting learning that fosters democracy through education, or about making connections between teaching and learning with technologies, school leadership and living in a democracy. Yet the policies promote these connections and alignments. Furthermore, understanding democratic values, knowing what is a democracy, and being able to use technologies in democratic ways, has to be learned and practiced. Through the lens of the use of technologies to build digital citizenship and to achieve democratic processes and outcomes in schools, these policy complexities are examined in order to consider some of the implications for school leadership.

  19. Schooling in modern Europe exploring major issues and their ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husén, Torsten

    1993-11-01

    Basing its arguments on a major study conducted on behalf of the Academia Europaea by a study group coordinated by the author, this paper sets out a number of important findings concerning problems besetting schooling in modern Europe. The paper begins by stressing the importance of studying the state of European education at a particularly significant time when major political changes are taking place, trade and labour markets are in a process of rapid integration, schools as institutions are becoming increasingly complex and there is a need to establish a new European identity and consciousness. The main questions examined, against the current background of industrialization, urbanization, changing demography and growing European integration, are those relating particularly to educational response to growing international competition and the consequences of changing family structure. Among problems considered are those arising from the changing capacity of schools to provide a substitute for the family and other influences in modern society at a time when, for various reasons, these are declining and schooling is generally being prolonged. Priority areas proposed for school education in the new circumstances include the promotion of European citizenship, the teaching of foreign languages to all, a preparation for working life geared to its rapidly changing structure and the expansion of appropriate scientific and technological education. The need to find solutions to the problems of educating immigrant groups and to develop evaluation systems in order to monitor quality maintenance are particularly highlighted.

  20. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tick Hui; Pang, Shen Yee; Chua, Shing Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Energy is essential to the way we live. Whether it is in the form of oil, gasoline or electricity, a country's prosperity and welfare depends on having access to reliable and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices. However, it is also one of the benefits taken for granted by many people, knowing little about the impact of electricity on their lives. Having dependent mainly on oil and gas for half a century, Malaysia has started to realize the importance to adopt renewable energy in the energy mix and continuously reviewed its energy policy to ensure sustainable energy supply and security. This paper examines and discusses the intricacy of the existing and new energy policies, issues and challenges in Malaysia. The overall approach in addressing the energy issues and challenges will continue to focus on adequacy, quality, security and sustainability of both non-renewable and renewable energy supply in the country's development and the promotion and implementation of its energy efficiency programs. The recently launched National Green Technology Policy is also discussed. (author)

  1. HEALTH POLICY INTERVENTION IN SCHOOLS PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AMONG THE PUPILS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    setting. For instance schools are expected to have food and nutrition policy (FNP), physical activity policy (PAP) and a health policy. However instead of seeing these policies as separate entities this paper speculate that there is a possible interrelatedness between the policies. In other words could......Today, more and more children are overweight or obese than ever before. Schools can play a prominent role in easing the situation. Schools have a great potential through the curriculum, health promoting programming and transportation to preventing children from becoming obese and overweight....... However schools are complex social systems that does not necessarily by themselves adapt to this new health promoting role and thus committed management support is needed. Since schools are complex organizational structures convenient organizational structure are needed to formalize the praxis...

  2. Physical education issues for students with autism: school nurse challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Elaine M; Brimer, Debbie

    2014-08-01

    Extant studies indicate persons with autism have difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, repetitive behaviors, and poor ability to generalize learned skills. Obesity has also been identified as significantly affecting children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Negative experience in physical education (PE) may be the antecedent behavior to lack of activities that are mediators to sedentary lifestyles and contributors to the chronic illnesses associated with overweight and obesity. Students with ASD often cannot perform required activities to meet required PE standards. It is imperative school nurses be aware of the many challenges students with ASD bring into a PE class. School nurses provide education for the members of the school community, including the Individualized Education Plan team, regarding the need for attention to limitations, including physical activity, of students with ASD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Understanding the direct involvement of parents in policy development and school activities in a primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin Bernie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that parental engagement with children’s learning and education is of vital importance. But, there is a tendency to confuse engagement with learning with engagement with the school. While all types of parents’ involvement can have a positive effect, it is actually what parents do with their child at home that has the greatest impact. However, unless parental involvement in learning is embedded in whole-school processes it is unlikely to as effective as possible. This paper documents an action research study that explores the inclusion of parents and home values in the construction of the teaching and learning environment. This was a small step towards positive parent-teacher collaboration, which allowed an exchange of knowledge, values and cultural background experiences. In acknowledging the ways in which the parents already engaged with their children’s learning, it began to enhance self-efficacy in their ability to directly affect this learning. This work has also provoked reflexive engagement of my influence and understanding of involving parents of children with additional and diverse learning needs. But, it also details the transformative journey that influenced my thinking about how we as a school could begin to develop whole-school processes to directly involve parents in policy development and school activities.

  4. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  6. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  7. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mi...

  8. Global Social Issues in the Curriculum: Perspectives of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Prøsch, Åsa Kremer

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss principals' perspectives on the priority given to the place in the curriculum of and the supporting practices related to health and sustainability education in schools in Denmark (for pupils aged 6-16). The study is situated within the discourses about critical health and sustainability education and treats the two…

  9. Raising the Issue of Domestic Abuse in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen; Macdonald, Elspeth; Paton, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that around 30 per cent of children may witness domestic abuse, by which we mean physical or mental violence perpetrated by men on women. This paper reports the views of older children--a group from which there is little direct evidence available. Ninety-eight percent of pupils in a Scottish Secondary School consented to…

  10. Professional Issues in School Counseling and Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents and has become a public health concern in the United States. In addition, certain groups of students are more at risk for suicide than others. School counselors have an ethical obligation to protect their students and are in an ideal position to educate students and staff about the risks…

  11. "STOP the Violence": FCCLA Program Tackles School Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "STOP the Violence--Students Taking on Prevention" is a program designed to involve students and address school violence at its core from the peer-to- peer perspective. Developed by members of the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), the program empowers young persons to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth…

  12. Enrichment in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Luck, Rachel; Wu, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This brief highlights key information about enrichment activities, which represent one of the main components of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative. Over time, the ELT initiative has supported over two dozen schools across the Commonwealth. A comprehensive evaluation of the ELT initiative found that implementation of the…

  13. On the Legal Issues of Teaching Evolution in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively teach evolution to all students, even those resistant to learning evolution, science teachers may question the extent to which religion can legally be discussed in the public high school science classroom. Evolution is taught from a variety of approaches, each of which has legal implications. Four approaches to teaching…

  14. Secondary School Curricula Issues: Impact on Postsecondary Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, Norma Jean

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the complex needs of students with disabilities in learning rigorous standards-based curricula, the need of educators to teach this population standards-based curricula effectively, and the contextual factors that affect teaching and learning standards-based curricula in secondary schools. Exemplary and promising practices…

  15. Florida's Public Education Spending. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes and explains Florida's education finance system. It explains the sources of revenue and the expenditure of funds, reporting figures for each of the state's 67 districts. It also analyzes the trend in current expenditures --that is, the day-to-day operating costs of schools--to address the question of whether they have been…

  16. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  17. Is Tolerance of Faiths Helpful in English School Policy? Reification, Complexity, and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Government policies for teachers and schools in England promote values including tolerance of faiths and beliefs alongside law keeping, democracy, and respect. Tolerance of faiths has been highlighted as a key value but complexities around tolerance make interpretations and applications of the policy difficult. Policy documents in this area are…

  18. When School Policies Backfire: How Well-Intended Measures Can Harm Our Most Vulnerable Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…

  19. (Re)Thinking the Adoption of Inclusive Education Policy in Ontario Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massouti, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advance a proposal for the analysis of how inclusive education policies in Ontario schools are adopted. In particular, I use the notion of "Policy Enactment" to re-conceptualize the processes of putting inclusive education policies into practice. The argument is that the traditional…

  20. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  1. Towards an Analysis of the Policies That Shape Public Education: Setting the Context for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Les; Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The environment in which school leaders and teachers work is shaped by educational policy. Policy is, in turn, derived from the dominant political ideologies at any particular time. The interrelationship between ideology and policy shapes both the overall organization of education and the operational practices and procedures of staff in schools…

  2. The Evolution of Policy Enactment on Gender-Based Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries--Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil--it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and…

  3. Transformation and Regulation: A Century of Continuity in Nursery School and Welfare Policy Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores policy development for under-fives and its implementation in nursery schools in the first two decades of the twentieth century and draws parallels with current policy initiatives such as Sure Start and the "Troubled Families" programme. It interrogates how discourse on British racial health shaped policy and…

  4. Do Your School Policies Provide Equal Access to Computers? Are You Sure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Phyllis A.; Schubert, Jane G.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines how school policies can unintentionally perpetuate gender discrimination in student computer use and access. Describes four areas of administrative policies that can cause inequities and provides ways for administrators to counteract these policies. Includes discussion of a program to balance computer use, and an abstract of an article…

  5. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  6. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  7. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  8. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  9. Can the EVIDEM Framework Tackle Issues Raised by Evaluating Treatments for Rare Diseases: Analysis of Issues and Policies, and Context-Specific Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Khoury, Hanane; Willet, Jacob; Rindress, Donna; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2016-03-01

    The multiplicity of issues, including uncertainty and ethical dilemmas, and policies involved in appraising interventions for rare diseases suggests that multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a holistic definition of value is uniquely suited for this purpose. The objective of this study was to analyze and further develop a comprehensive MCDA framework (EVIDEM) to address rare disease issues and policies, while maintaining its applicability across disease areas. Specific issues and policies for rare diseases were identified through literature review. Ethical and methodological foundations of the EVIDEM framework v3.0 were systematically analyzed from the perspective of these issues, and policies and modifications of the framework were performed accordingly to ensure their integration. Analysis showed that the framework integrates ethical dilemmas and issues inherent to appraising interventions for rare diseases but required further integration of specific aspects. Modification thus included the addition of subcriteria to further differentiate disease severity, disease-specific treatment outcomes, and economic consequences of interventions for rare diseases. Scoring scales were further developed to include negative scales for all comparative criteria. A methodology was established to incorporate context-specific population priorities and policies, such as those for rare diseases, into the quantitative part of the framework. This design allows making more explicit trade-offs between competing ethical positions of fairness (prioritization of those who are worst off), the goal of benefiting as many people as possible, the imperative to help, and wise use of knowledge and resources. It also allows addressing variability in institutional policies regarding prioritization of specific disease areas, in addition to existing uncertainty analysis available from EVIDEM. The adapted framework measures value in its widest sense, while being responsive to rare disease

  10. Socioscientific Issues and Multidisciplinarity in School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Helen

    2014-05-01

    The inclusion of socioscientific issues (SSIs) in the science curriculum is a well-established trend internationally. Apart from claims about its innate value, one of the rationales for this approach is its potential for helping to counter declining interest and participation. SSIs involve the use of science and are of interest to society, also raising ethical and moral dilemmas. Introducing such problems presents a significant and usually cross-disciplinary challenge to curriculum developers and teachers. The aim of this paper is to examine how this challenge has been met when judged against contemporary views of the issues concerned. It first explores how SSIs have been interpreted in an important and innovative science course for students aged 14-16 in England, entitled Twenty First Century Science. This paper analyses the Twenty First Century Science textbooks, focusing in detail on two SSIs, reproductive genetic technology and climate change. For each of these issues, the key ideas present in the social science literature surrounding the problems are outlined. This review is then used as an analytical framework to examine how the issues are presented in the textbooks. It is argued in this paper that the perspectives the textbooks take on these issues largely do not include perspectives from social science disciplines. It goes on to suggest that the development of future SSI-based curricula needs to take account of these wider, often interdisciplinary, perspectives.

  11. Work-life policies for faculty at the top ten medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Mirar N; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Cappola, Anne R; Sonnad, Seema S

    2008-10-01

    There exists a growing consensus that career flexibility is critical to recruiting and retaining talented faculty, especially women faculty. This study was designed to determine both accessibility and content of work-life policies for faculty at leading medical schools in the United States. The sample includes the top ten medical schools in the United States published by U.S. News and World Report in August 2006. We followed a standardized protocol to collect seven work-life policies at each school: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of the probationary period for family responsibilities, part-time faculty appointments, job sharing, and child care. A review of information provided on school websites was followed by e-mail or phone contact if needed. A rating system of 0-3 (low to high flexibility) developed by the authors was applied to these policies. Rating reflected flexibility and existing opinions in published literature. Policies were often difficult to access. Individual scores ranged from 7 to 15 out of a possible 21 points. Extension of the probationary period received the highest cumulative score across schools, and job sharing received the lowest cumulative score. For each policy, there were important differences among schools. Work-life policies showed considerable variation across schools. Policy information is difficult to access, often requiring multiple sources. Institutions that develop flexible work-life policies that are widely promoted, implemented, monitored, and reassessed are likely at an advantage in attracting and retaining faculty while advancing institutional excellence.

  12. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  13. Making Visible and Acting on Issues of Racism and Racialization in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Jhonel A.

    2017-01-01

    Schools, as social systems, may knowingly or unintentionally perpetuate inequities through unchallenged oppressive systems. This paper focuses on mathematics as a subject area in school practices in which inequities seem to be considered normal. Issues of racism and racialization in the discipline of mathematics are predominantly lived through the…

  14. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  15. An Exploration of School Leadership Issues Relating to the "December Dilemma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anna L.; Vasek, Austin; Davis, Derek

    2012-01-01

    School leadership is required to navigate difficult issues concerning the religious liberties of their students. December is a month filled with secular and religious holidays. It is the one month on the school calendar filled with joyous cultural celebrations. However, it can also become a quandary for leadership when attempting to balance the…

  16. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  17. Consistency and Variation in School-Level Youth Sports Traumatic Brain Injury Policy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Introduction of a New National Currency; Policy, Institutional, and Technical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Cortés Douglas; Richard K. Abrams

    1993-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have become independent or regained their independence. Many have chosen to issue their own currencies and more are likely to do so. This paper draws on these and earlier experiences in order to summarize the main policy and institutional arrangements necessary for the introduction of a new currency and to discuss the key features of, and procedures for, the conversion. The paper is designed as a workin...

  19. Perspective on US NRC Policy Issues Concerning Use of Risk Insights for Non-LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Kim, In Goo; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Kyun Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the PRA Implementation plan of US NRC (1994), PRA has been applied to all NPPs in USA and risk insights have been used for the regulation as a complement of the deterministic approaches. RIRIP (Risk-Informed Regulation Implementation Plan, 2000) and RPP (Risk-Informed and Performance-Based Plan, 2007) were announced by US NRC thereafter, which recommended enhanced use of risk insights. In the meantime, there have been lots of policy issues concerning use of risk insights for licensing Non-LWR designs, which will be discussed in this paper to understand the stream of perspectives on US NRC's approach

  20. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  1. Physical education and student activity: evaluating implementation of a new policy in Los Angeles public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert

    2013-02-01

    California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.

  2. Awareness, Facilitators, and Barriers to Policy Implementation Related to Obesity Prevention for Primary School Children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Camelina; Moy, Foong Ming; Lim, Jennifer N W; Dahlui, Maznah

    2018-03-01

    To assess the awareness, facilitators, and barriers to policy implementation related to obesity prevention for primary school children. A cross-sectional study administered using an online questionnaire. Conducted in 447 primary schools in a state in Malaysia. One school administrator from each school served as a participant. The questionnaires consisted of 32 items on awareness, policy implementation, and facilitators and barriers to policy implementation. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the awareness, facilitators, and barriers of policies implementation. Association between schools' characteristics and policy implementation was assessed using logistic regression. The majority (90%) of school administrators were aware of the policies. However, only 50% to 70% of schools had implemented the policies fully. Reported barriers were lack of equipment, insufficient training, and limited time to complete implementation. Facilitators of policy implementation were commitment from the schools, staff members, students, and canteen operators. Policy implementation was comparable in all school types and locality; except the policy on "Food and Drinks sold at the school canteens" was implemented by more rural schools compared to urban schools (odds ratio: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.69). Majority of the school administrators were aware of the existing policies; however, the implementation was only satisfactory. The identified barriers to policy implementation were modifiable and thus, the stakeholders should consider restrategizing plans in overcoming them.

  3. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  4. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  5. "No Fee" Schools in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Shireen; Sayeed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    40% of schools in South Africa, namely the poorest two-fifths as determined by poverty indicators, were declared to be no fee schools as of 2007. These schools receive larger state allocations per learner than other schools, as well as a higher allocation for non-personnel, non-capital expenditure. In other schools parents may continue to apply…

  6. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (Preward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and…

  8. The Impact of State Legislation and Model Policies on Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the coverage of state legislation and the expansiveness ratings of state model policies on the state-level prevalence of bullying in schools. Methods: The state-level prevalence of bullying in schools was based on cross-sectional data from the 2013 High School Youth Risk Behavior…

  9. Report of a Study of Ontario Medical School Admissions Policies and Practices, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Presented are the results of a study of admissions policies and practices in the five Ontario schools of medicine. The study consists of a review of published information and a detailed examination of 1975 statistics from the Ontario Medical School Application Service, supplemented by a series of interviews with medical school admissions officers,…

  10. School Policies on Bullying and Cyberbullying: Perspectives across Three Australian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Caitlin; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Spears, Barbara A; Butler, Des; Cross, Donna; Slee, Phillip; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of research, bullying in all its forms is still a significant problem within schools in Australia, as it is internationally. Anti-bullying policies and guidelines are thought to be one strategy as part of a whole school approach to reduce bullying. However, although Australian schools are required to have these…

  11. An Examination of Policies, Programs, and Strategies that Address Bullying in Virginia Public School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orobko, Angela Kowitz

    2009-01-01

    Bullying incidents in schools are getting more attention since the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999 in Littleton, Colorado. Many national and state policies have been enacted since that fateful day. In Virginia, legislation passed by the 1999 General Assembly (section 22.1-208.01) required local school boards to establish a…

  12. The Evidence Base on the Effects of Policy and Practice in Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses some of the common assertions made in the public debate about the merits and disadvantages of faith schools and tests them against actual research findings. It argues that there is a growing body of evidence showing that current policy and practice in faith schools creates social division and that faith schools need to do…

  13. School Curriculum, Policies, and Practices Regarding Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christa M.; Atlas, Jana G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined what elementary schools in New York State are doing to recognize lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families in terms of curriculum, policies, and practices. In all, 116 school psychologists completed an online survey regarding their districts. Findings indicated that even though most school districts serve…

  14. Leadership for Coping with and Adapting to Policy Change in Deprived Contexts: Lessons from School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, Thamsanqa Thulani; Myende, Phumlani Erasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores what, from school principals' perspectives, constitutes leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change within deprived school contexts. Using qualitative interpretive research, we drew from the practices of five principals that were purposively selected from a broader study, which focused on school principals'…

  15. Turkish preservice science teachers' socioscientific issues-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media

  16. MC ampersand A policy issues for international inspections at DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.; Zack, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent initiatives and executive decisions within the US have included an offer to place certain special nuclear materials from the former weapons stockpile under international safeguards inspections. The nuclear materials at issue are excess materials; other materials characterized as strategic reserve will not be subject to these international activities. Current Department of Energy requirements and procedures to account for and control these nuclear materials may need to be modified to accommodate these inspections. Safeguards issues, such as physical inventory frequency and verification requirements, may rise from the collateral safeguards activities in support of both domestic and international safeguards. This paper will discuss Office of Safeguards and Security policy and views on these international inspection activities at former nuclear weapons facilities, including implications for current domestic safeguards approaches currently implemented at these facilities

  17. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  18. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  19. School practices to promote social distancing in K-12 schools: review of influenza pandemic policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Schwartz, Heather L; Ahmed, Faruque; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; Meza, Erika; Baker, Garrett; Uzicanin, Amra

    2018-03-27

    During an evolving influenza pandemic, community mitigation strategies, such as social distancing, can slow down virus transmission in schools and surrounding communities. To date, research on school practices to promote social distancing in primary and secondary schools has focused on prolonged school closure, with little attention paid to the identification and feasibility of other more sustainable interventions. To develop a list and typology of school practices that have been proposed and/or implemented in an influenza pandemic and to uncover any barriers identified, lessons learned from their use, and documented impacts. We conducted a review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on social distancing interventions in schools other than school closure. We also collected state government guidance documents directed to local education agencies or schools to assess state policies regarding social distancing. We collected standardized information from each document using an abstraction form and generated descriptive statistics on common plan elements. The document review revealed limited literature on school practices to promote social distancing, as well as limited incorporation of school practices to promote social distancing into state government guidance documents. Among the 38 states that had guidance documents that met inclusion criteria, fewer than half (42%) mentioned a single school practice to promote social distancing, and none provided any substantive detail about the policies or practices needed to enact them. The most frequently identified school practices were cancelling or postponing after-school activities, canceling classes or activities with a high rate of mixing/contact that occur within the school day, and reducing mixing during transport. Little information is available to schools to develop policies and procedures on social distancing. Additional research and guidance are needed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of school

  20. The School of Energy Policy and Diplomacy of MGIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays when aspects of global energy security advanced to the forefront and Russia is going to reinforce its leading role in the world energy community, International institute of energy policy and diplomacy (MIEP organized for the first time in Russia the training of world class experts in the field of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, economics, law, management and public relations, all focused on international energy cooperation. Such energy professionals are extremely sought after by public authorities and international institutions as well as by major international energy companies. MIEP MGIMO is the only study center in Russia and in the whole worlds which is successfully training specialists armed with fundamental academic knowledge and detailed studying of global processes in the sphere of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, international energy cooperation. Alumni of MIEP are outstanding high-caliber professionals who can fluently speak several foreign languages. This day MIEP is a large study, methodic and scientific center ensuring high-quality professional and fundamental training based on the best practices of Russian education as well as on the practices of worldleading universities and business schools.This year International institute of energy policy and diplomacy celebrates its 15th anniversary. This article describes history, evolution of MIEP; unique specific departments and international institutions created in cooperation with prestige European universities; reveals specific features of training of specialists. Soon MIEP plans to accomplish a lot of research and development projects assisted by the best academic staff in close cooperation with international organizations, administrations of the largest petroleum producing regions, top oil and gas corporations-strategic partners (Rosneft, Transneft, Rosseti, Gazprombank, top universities and scientific centers all over the world.

  1. Review of policies and guidelines concerning adults' alcohol consumption and promotion in Australian government schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Buykx, Penelope; Munro, Geoff; Hausdorf, Katrin; Wiggers, John

    2014-08-01

    Schools are recognised as important settings for promoting student and community wellbeing through education, policies and the modelling of behaviour. Recently, there has been controversy regarding the promotion and use of alcohol by adults at school events. The aim of this study was to examine the policy approach of all Australian jurisdictions to the possession and use of alcohol, by adults, at government school events when students are present. A desktop review of Australian governments' alcohol in schools policy/guidelines documents was undertaken. Results Eighteen documents across eight jurisdictions were retrieved. There were inconsistencies between jurisdictions and lack of policy clarity regarding the promotion and/or use of alcohol by adults at events organised by schools for recreation, celebration and fundraising purposes. Clarity is needed about the role of alcohol in Australian schools, particularly in relation to its use of alcohol when there is a duty of care to children. The possession and/or use of alcohol by adults at school events may contribute to the pervasive role of drinking in Australian social life. SO WHAT? Clear and evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform school policies across all jurisdictions as to whether, when and under which circumstances it is appropriate for schools to promote and/or supply alcohol. This would also strengthen the ability of school principals and communities to make appropriate evidence-based decisions that focus on the interests of children.

  2. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  3. The Impact of Debt Limitations and Referenda Requirements on the Cost of School District Bond Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary H.; Munley, Vincent G.

    2011-01-01

    One distinction between the markets for corporate and municipal bonds involves institutional constraints that apply to some municipal bond issues. This research focuses on how public finance institutions, in particular explicit debt limits and referenda requirements, affect the borrowing cost of individual school district bond issues. The…

  4. Delivering School-Based Mental Health Services by School Psychologists: Education, Training, and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Morris, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with the priority goals of the 2002 Future of School Psychology Conference, the National Association of School Psychologists' "Blueprint for Training and Practice III" advocates for school psychologists becoming "leading mental health experts in schools." In this regard, the present article reviews the prevalence and incidence of…

  5. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  6. The influence of school leadership on teachers' perception of teacher evaluation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of teachers' perception of new educational policy is crucial since this perception shapes the policy's implementation. However, quantitative research in this area is scarce. This article draws on empirical data to investigate whether the school leader might influence his teachers' perception of the new teacher evaluation policy. The conceptualisation of teachers' perception consists of three policy characteristics: practicality, need and clarifying function. Our results indi...

  7. After compulsory licensing: coming issues in Canadian pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, J

    1997-04-01

    Bills C-22 and C-91 eliminated compulsory licensing for pharmaceutical products in Canada. However, in the wake of these bills there are pressing issues of pharmaceutical policy that need to be decided. The value of additional spending in pharmaceutical R and D has yet to be evaluated. There needs to be a public debate about how far government policy should go in encouraging pharmaceutical R and D as opposed to investing resources in other areas. There has been a continuing escalation in the cost of the average prescription, due to the introduction of newer, but not necessarily more effective, medications. So far government has not been willing to commit resources to promote cost-effective prescribing. Pharmaceutical companies are now lobbying for more rapid approval of products and an extension to the normal patent period to make up for the time that drugs spend in the regulatory process. The process that the government uses to resolve these issues will be just as important as the ultimate decisions.

  8. The central bank issuing policy and Fisher´s equation of exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of money and establishing interest rates are the main activities of central banks. Through this, the banks immediately influence the behaviour of households, companies, financial markets and the state with the impact on real outcome, employment and prices. When monitoring the issue of money, it is necessary to focus not only on its volume, but also on the attributes and functions carried by money. Among the first economists who considered the quality monetary aspect were J. Locke, D. Hume, D. Ricardo and others. The founders of modern monetarism of the 20th century were I. Fisher and M. Friedman. Fisher was the first to define the equation of monetary equilibrium in the present-day form. The objective of the paper is to point out different approaches to the equation and its modifications and different meanings of its variables. As regards the monetary aggregate M – Money – the paper also deals with the denomination of the aggregate to its various elements, which is significant for fulfilling monetary policy targets. This approach is very important especially at present in the time of crisis when central banks are performing their policy considering contradictory targets of price stability and economic growth.

  9. Evaluation of awareness and preparedness of school Principals and teachers on earthquake reduction effects issues - State's actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourou, Assimina; Ioakeimidou, Anastasia; Mokos, Vasileios; Bakas, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    It is generally accepted that the effects of the disasters can be mainly reduced if people are aware, well informed and motivated towards a culture of disaster prevention and resilience. Particularly, in earthquake prone countries, a continuous update and education of the public, on earthquake risk management issues, is essential. Schools can play a crucial role concerning training and building a disaster prevention culture, among various community groups. Principals and teachers have a key role to play in any school-wide initiative through developing and reviewing awareness policy, developing and revising emergency response plans, holding emergency drills and training the students. During the last decade, the Greek State have done a lot of efforts in order to better educate teachers and students in disaster preparedness and management, such as: a. implementation of the E.P.P.O.'s educational project "Earthquake Protection at Schools" which is addressed mainly to school Principals. The project started right after the 1999 earthquake in Athens. b. publication of educational material for students, teachers and people with disabilities and publication of guidelines concerning the development of emergency plans. c. implementation of projects and elaboration of innovative and mobile experiential educational material connected with school curricula. The aim of the present study is to assess levels of awareness and preparedness concerning earthquake protection issues, as well as risk mitigation behaviours, undertaken by teachers at individual, family and workplace level. Furthermore, the assessment of teachers' current levels of earthquake awareness and preparedness, could lead to conclusions about the effectiveness of State's current Policy. In this framework, specific questionnaires were developed and were addressed to Principals and teachers who were responsible for the preparation of their School Emergency Preparedness Plans. The sample of the survey comprises of

  10. The Edmonton Public Schools Story: Internationally Renowned Superintendent Angus McBeath Chronicles His District's Successes and Failures. Policy Brief. No. S2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Angus

    2007-01-01

    This publication is a transcript of Superintendent Angus McBeath's presentation to legislators and media at an Issues and Ideas Forum hosted by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy in Lansing, Michigan. McBeath discusses education reform in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, including: (1) Basic Elements of Reform; (2) School Employee Union Involvement;…

  11. The Global Financial Crisis: Countercyclical Fiscal Policy Issues and Challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doraisami, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region—Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which ar...

  12. Current issues of preventing tobacco use in secondary school graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Here is identified the tendency to reduce the effectiveness of anti-tobacco prevention work among graduating students of secondary school. This decline may be due to psychological and social reasons. It is shown that risk factors of involving in chemical dependency are meaningfully disclosed in longitudinal studies, whereas the dynamics of personal change during the formation of anti-addictive prevention skills are more fully disclosed in the comparative age sections. The typical phenomena, accompanying the downward trend in prevention, are the growth of problem behavior and the crisis of mass dropout. Such phenomena are so great that they are recognized as a crisis at a state level.

  13. School-University Partnerships: A Means for the Inclusion of Policy Studies in Music Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The need for music educators to become more actively involved in policy issues, including analysis, design, implementation, and research, is critical to the future of music education. Bridging the gap between policy and practice requires a collaborative effort among music professionals. This article explores the inclusive use of policy studies in…

  14. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  15. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  16. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  17. The Effect of Free Primary Education Policy on Late School Entry in Urban Primary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses W.; Oketch, Moses; Ezeh, Alex C.; Mutisya, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Late school entry is driven by several factors, one of the key ones being the cost barrier to schooling. Policies such as free primary education (FPE) that advocate for universal coverage are therefore partly aimed at removing the cost barrier. The Kenyan Government, like many in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), introduced FPE in 2003 with the aim of…

  18. School safety in rural schools: Are schools as safe as we think they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    school physical facilities, including school buildings and grounds, also pose safety ..... Figure 8 Existence and application of classroom safety rules policies, there is a ... All schools should expressly pay attention to safety issues and compile.

  19. Comprehensive mapping of national school food policies across the European Union plus Norway and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge in Europe. Schools are seen as an important setting to promote healthy diet and lifestyle in a protected environment and school food-related practices are essential in this regard. To understand what policy frameworks European countries have created to govern these practices, a systematic assessment of national school food policies across the European Union plus Norway and Switzerland ( n  = 30 countries) was carried out. The survey revealed that all 30 countries currently have a school food policy in place; a total of 34 relevant policies were identified, 18 of which were mandatory and the remaining 16 voluntary. Major policy objectives specified were those to improve child nutrition (97% of policies), to help children learn and adopt healthy diet and lifestyle habits (94%) and to reduce or prevent childhood obesity (88%). Most commonly (>90%), the policies offered food-based standards for menu composition, and portion sizes were guided by age-appropriate energy requirements. Lunch and snacks were the most widely addressed mealtimes for almost 90% of all policies examined. Other important areas covered included food marketing to children; the availability of vending services; training requirements for catering staff; and whether nutrition education is a mandatory part of the national curriculum. Evaluation was mentioned in 59% of the school food policies reviewed. Future analyses should focus on evaluating the implementation of these policies and more importantly, their effectiveness in meeting the objectives defined therein. Comparable and up-to-date information along with data on education, attainment and public health indicators will enable a comprehensive impact assessment of school food policies and help facilitate optimal school food provision for all.

  20. Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services Staffing: Policies in U.S. School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy; Demissie, Zewditu

    2018-06-01

    Schools are in a unique position to meet the mental and behavioral health needs of children and adolescents because approximately 95% of young people aged 7-17 years attend school. Little is known, however, about policies related to counseling, psychological, and social services staffing in school districts. This study analyzed the prevalence of such policies in public school districts in the U.S. Data from four cycles (2000, 2006, 2012, and 2016) of the School Health Policies and Practices Study, a national survey periodically conducted to assess policies and practices for ten components of school health, were analyzed in 2017. The survey collected data related to counseling, psychological, and social services among nationally representative samples of school districts using online or mailed questionnaires. Sampled districts identified respondents responsible for or most knowledgeable about the content of each questionnaire. The percentage of districts with a district-level counseling, psychological, and social services coordinator increased significantly from 62.6% in 2000 to 79.5% in 2016. In 2016, 56.3% of districts required each school to have someone to coordinate counseling, psychological, and social services at the school. Fewer districts required schools at each level to have a specified ratio of counselors to students (16.2% for elementary schools, 16.8% for middle schools, and 19.8% for high schools), and the percentage of districts with these requirements has decreased significantly since 2012. Increases in the prevalence of district-level staffing policies could help increase the quantity and quality of counseling, psychological, and social services staff in schools nationwide, which in turn could improve mental and behavioral health outcomes for students. This article is part of a supplement entitled The Behavioral Health Workforce: Planning, Practice, and Preparation, which is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration