Salehjee, Saima; Watts, Mike
An analysis of 12 semi-structured interviews with university-based scientists and non-scientists illustrates their life journeys towards, or away from, science and the strengths and impact of life occurrences leading them to choose science or non-science professions. We have adopted narrative approaches and used Mezirow's transformative learning theory framework. The areas of discussion from the result have stressed on three main categories that include 'smooth transition', 'incremental wavering transition' and 'transformative transition'. The article concludes by discussing the key influences that shaped initial attitudes and direction in these people through natural inclination, environmental inspirations and perceptions of science.
Azizul Ghofar Candra Wicaksono
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of science motivation and nature of science (NoS and the relationship between science motivation and nature of science in middle school students located in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The design of this study was survey followed by the correlation study to discover the relationship between science motivation level and nature of science comprehension. This research included 113 students as sample. The instrument used for data collection was SMQ and seven essay test from NoS indicator. This study revealed that the students had a median score of science motivation and the low score in nature of science comprehension. There were students’ science motivation and nature of science comprehension urgently need to be improved. It can be done by developing learning process and any support from school or family.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the possibility of differentiated study natural science at school on the basis of ecological educational process. Natural science is the science about nature as a single unity or totality of the natural sciences, which constituting a single unit. The main aim of the course is to develop student’s natural science competence through integrated mastering system knowledge about nature and man, the basics of environmental knowledge, ways of improving teaching and learning activities, development of value orientations in relation to the nature. There is strong need to review approaches to teaching nature science at schools, taking into account the general trend of greening of the educational process. The aim of the work is to analyze the possibility of practical application of modern approaches to differentiated teaching of the nature science at school greening within the educational process. In our view, the environmental component may be a basis to the formation and differentiated teaching in general. The environmental component of the educational sector has been aimed to the student’s environmental consciousness and compliance with rules of environmentally safe behavior in the environment. The learning of the integrated knowledge about nature and man can be submitted through the prism of action of the environmental factors according classic approach to their classification: abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. In parallel, it is reasonable to raise the issues of practical importance as some natural objects and actions of each of these factors. The new degree of the studying of the environment has been provided by the beginning of the systematization of knowledge about natural objects and structure of the universe, by the formation of primary concepts about the relationship between the world of the living and inanimate nature, between organisms and between human activities and changes that has been occurred in the
Lee, Young H.
Although helping students to achieve an adequate understanding of the nature of science has been a consistent goal for science education for over half a century, current research reveals that the majority of students and teachers have naive views of the nature of science (Abd-El-khalick & Akerson, 2004; Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). This problem could be attributed not only to the complex nature of science, but also to the way the nature of science is presented to students during instruction. Thus, research must be conducted to examine how the science is taught, especially in science textbooks, which are a major instructional resource for teaching science. The aim of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the first chapter of four high school biology textbooks, which typically discusses "What is science?" and "What is biology?" This research used a content analysis technique to analyze the four high school biology textbooks, using a conceptual framework that has been used often for science textbook analysis. This conceptual framework consists of four themes of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of thinking, (c) science as a way of investigating, and (d) the interaction of science, technology, and society. For this study, the four-theme-framework was modified to incorporate descriptors from national-level documents, such as Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as science education research reports. A scoring procedure was used that resulted in good to excellent intercoder agreement with Cohen's kappa (k) ranging from .63 to .96. The findings show that the patterns of presentation of the four themes of the nature of science in the four high school biology textbooks are similar across the different locations of data, text, figures, and assessments. On the other hand, the pattern of presentation of the four
Ball, Nadine Butcher
This qualitative study describes three middle-school science teachers' relationship-with-nature in personal and classroom contexts. Participating teachers had more than 7 years experience and were deemed exemplary practitioners by others. Interview data about personal context focused on photographs the teacher took representing her/his relationship-with-nature in daily life. Interview data for classroom context explored classroom events during three or more researcher observations. Transcripts were analyzed using a multiple-readings approach to data reduction (Gilligan, Brown & Rogers, 1990; Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 14, 141). Readings generated categorical information focused on portrayals of: nature; self; and relationship-with-nature. Categorical data were synthesized into personal and teaching case portraits for each teacher, and cross case themes identified. Participants indicated the portraits accurately represented who they saw themselves to be. Additional readings identified sub-stories by plot and theme. Narrative data were clustered to highlight elements of practice with implications for the relationship-with-nature lived in the classroom. These individual-scale moments were compared with cultural-scale distinctions between anthropocentric and ecological world views. Cross case themes included dimensions of exemplary middle-school science teaching important to teacher education and development, including an expanded conception of knowing and skillful use of student experience. Categorical analysis revealed each teacher had a unique organizing theme influencing their interpretation of personal and classroom events, and that nature is experienced differently in personal as opposed to teaching contexts. Narrative analysis highlights teachers' stories of classroom pets, dissection, and student dissent, illustrating an interplay between conceptual distinctions and personal dimensions during moments of teacher decision making. Results suggest teachers
Ozturk, Elif; Ucus, Sukran
Argumentation is highlighted as one of the most important activities of science education by many researchers. The main aim of this research is to examine primary school students' nature of science classes and argumentation skills in terms of their academic success in primary science classes. Thus, the main interest of the study is centered on the…
Ozturk, Elif; Ucus, Sukran
Argumentation is highlighted as one of the most important activities of science education by many researchers. The main aim of this research is to examine primary school students' nature of science classes and argumentation skills in terms of their academic success in primary science classes. Thus, the main interest of the study is centered on the…
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...
Høyen, Marianne; Mumiah, Rasmusen
the humanities and natural sciences influence the newly educated teachers’ understanding of the teaching profession. From earlier research on teachers in natural science subjects it became clear that teachers from the two major areas are in conflict. Mutual understanding is lacking; the organization...... of the consequences was that teacher students today must choose between to teach either language and literature or maths and therefore, and as a consequence, early in their studies choose between the main areas of culture and nature. Starting from this basis, we want to see if, and in which ways, perspectives from...... of the school day gives priority to cultural subjects; the physical design of the school implies that natural science subjects are of a special kind. and consequently teachers within cultural subjects appear to regard natural science subjects as peripheral educationally to pupils development. Our starting point...
Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…
Hendajani, F.; Hakim, A.; Lusita, M. D.; Saputra, G. E.; Ramadhana, A. P.
Many opinions from primary school students' on Natural Science are a difficult lesson. Many subjects are not easily understood by students, especially on materials that teach some theories about natural processes. Such as rain process, condensation and many other processes. The difficulty that students experience in understanding it is that students cannot imagine the things that have been taught in the material. Although there is material to practice some theories but is actually quite limited. There is also a video or simulation material in the form of 2D animated images. Understanding concepts in natural science lessons are also poorly understood by students. Natural Science learning media uses 3-dimensional animation models (3D) with augmented reality technology, which offers some visualization of science lessons. This application was created to visualize a process in Natural Science subject matter. The hope of making this application is to improve student's concept. This app is made to run on a personal computer that comes with a webcam with augmented reality. The app will display a 3D animation if the camera can recognize the marker.
Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio
This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…
Kleinhans, Maarten; Verkade, Alex; Bastings, Mirjam; Reichwein, Maarten
For various reasons primary schools emphasise language and calculus rather than natural sciences. When science is taught at all, examination systems often favour technological tricks and knowledge of the 'right' answer over the process of investigation and logical reasoning towards that answer. Over the long term, this is not conducive to curiosity and scientific attitude in large parts of the population. Since the problem is more serious in primary than in secondary education, and as children start their school career with a natural curiosity and great energy to explore their world, we focus our efforts on primary school teachers in close collaboration with teachers and researchers. Our objective was to spark children's curiosity and their motivation to learn and discover, as well as to help teachers develop self-afficacy in science education. To this end we developed a three-step program with a classroom game and sand-box experiments related to planet Earth and Mars. The classroom game Expedition Mundus simulates science in its focus on asking questions, reasoning towards answers on the basis of multiple sources and collaboration as well as growth of knowledge. Planet Mundus is entirely fictitional to avoid differences in foreknowledge between pupils. The game was tested in hundreds of classes in primary schools and the first years of secondary education and was printed (in Dutch) and distributed over thousands of schools as part of teacher education through university science hubs. Expedition Mundus was developed by the Young Academy of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and De Praktijk. The tested translations in English and German are available on http://www.expeditionmundus.org. Following the classroom game, we conducted simple landscape experiments in sand boxes supported by google earth imagery of real rivers, fans and deltas on Earth and Mars. This was loosely based on our fluvial morphodynamics research. This, in the presence of a
Bondima, Michelle Harris
This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher
I Ketut Ngurah Ardiawan
Full Text Available This present study aims at investigating the correlation between teachers’ professional competence and natural science learning achievement in elementary schools in Buleleng regency. The population in this study are all sixth grade teachers, which it is further narrowed down to 30 teachers as the sample. In order to gather the data, the researcher employs questionnaire regarding teacher professional competence and document study toward students’ achievement on national examination in academic year 2016/2017. Further, ex post facto is chosen as the design of the study. Meanwhile, the data are analysed through correlation analysis with assistance of SPSS 16 software. Based on the analysis, it was obtained that the correlation between teacher professional competence and the learning achievement on natural science subject is in the interval of 0.40-0.59 with correlation coefficient at rho=0.506. This means there is a significant correlation between teacher professional competence and students’ learning achievement on natural science in national examination in academic year 2016/2017 (tcount = 3.103 > ttable =2.048 with significance level at α = 0,05 and coefficient of determination at 0.2560 (25.60%
Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti
This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…
Ricardo Pereira Sepini
Full Text Available This investigation involved quality teaching of issues the Nature of Science and Technology (NS&T related to the validation of knowledge and how it works in today's world. The goal was to show the possibility to teach and assess issues and innovative ways of understanding the NS&T from a didactic intervention performed in the classroom with the help of a Teaching Learning Sequence (TLS. The study design was a experimental intervention, which gathers pretest - didactic intervention - posttest steps, with an experimental group and a control group. Research subjects were students of High-School in a city located in the southern state of Minas Gerais. Among the results there is a significant improvement from pretest to posttest in the experimental group, and a modest improvement in the control group. The contributions of this research also includes the TLS itself and the assessment instruments, and its functionality that makes them transferable to teaching science. We conclude that through the activity designed, conducted and evaluated in the classroom students achieved an improvement in attitudinal conceptions of NS&T
Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…
Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Tzung-Jin
Research on students' views on nature of science (VNOS) in Asian countries such as China is notably lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure South China high school students' VNOS. Based on the previously acquired qualitative data, the instrument included seven VNOS dimensions which reflect the crucial aspects of NOS indicated by the literature and/or the dominating ideology in China (i.e., Marxism). A sample (N = 604) was randomly divided into two groups used for exploratory analyses and confirmatory analyses. The results indicated that the instrument expressed satisfactory reliability and validity and the seven NOS dimensions could be explained by a higher-order dimension. That is, the data of this study supported the multi-dimensional framework that treats VNOS as comprising several more-or-less correlated dimensions. Two distinct dimensions, namely "Accumulative-Empirical Source" and "Pragmatic Justification" which have not been explicitly specified in the past literature, were found. In addition, the Chinese high school students generally held a constructivist/relativist-oriented view of all seven dimensions. Differences in gender and grade level were hardly observed in any dimension of the instrument. The findings are further discussed through a socio-cultural lens to enrich the current understanding of VNOS.
Gvirtz, Silvina; Aisenstein, Angela; Cornejo, Jorge N.; Valerani, Alejandra
Analyzes the politicization of the natural sciences curriculum in Argentinean schools in relation to evolutionist theories and the teaching of astronomy and cosmography. Concludes that the ways in which content is selected and arranged arise as a solution to ideological conflicts. (MM)
Li, Xiying; Tan, Zuyu; Shen, Jiliang; Hu, Weiping; Chen, Yinghe; Wang, Jingying
Based on the analytical framework of nature of science (NOS) in junior school science textbooks, a content analysis method was adopted to analyze the NOS in junior middle school physical textbooks (grade 8) of five editions authorized by the Ministry of Education of China, and the features of NOS were analyzed and compared. It was found that all five textbooks presented poor representations of NOS. None of these five editions were scientifically objective, nor did they include discussions of scientific laws and theories. Furthermore, they rarely presented empirical evidence to support their arguments. The explicit representations of NOS were particularly inadequate.
Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J; Delacalle, Maia
We describe an environmental and natural science program called Nurture thru Nature (NtN) that seeks to improve mathematics and science performance of students in disadvantaged communities, and to increase student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The program draws conceptual guidance from the Head-Heart-Hands model that informs the current educational movement to foster environmental understanding and sustainability. Employing an experimental design and data from seven cohorts of students, we find some promising, albeit preliminary, indications that the program can increase students' science knowledge and grades in mathematics, science and language arts. We discuss the special adaptations that environmental and sustainability education programs need to incorporate if they are to be successful in today's resource depleted urban schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As part of a program to increase learning and engagement in science classes 124 Victorian schools are trialing a best practice teaching model. The Science in Schools Research Project is a DEET funded project under the Science in Schools Strategy, developed in response to recent research and policy decisions at national and state levels through which literacy, numeracy and science have been identified as key priorities for learning. This major science research project aims to identify, develop and trial best practice in Science teaching and learning. The Department will then be able to provide clear advice to Victoria's schools that can be adopted and sustained to: * enhance teaching and learning of Science * enhance student learning outcomes in Science at all year levels * increase student access to, and participation in Science learning from Prep through to Year 10, and hence in the VCE as well. The nature of the SiS program will be detailed with specific reference to the innovative programs in solar model cars, robotics and environmental science developed at Forest Hill College in response to this project.
Simon, Uwe K.; Steindl, Hanna; Larcher, Nicole; Kulac, Helga; Hotter, Annelies
Far too few high-school students choose subjects from the natural sciences (NaSc) for their majors in many countries. Even fewer study biology, chemistry or physics at university. Those, that do, often lack training to present and discuss scientific results and ideas in texts. To meet these challenges the center for didactics of biology of Graz…
Patho, Khanittha; Yuenyong, Chokchai; Chamrat, Suthida
The nature of science has been part of Thailand's science education curriculum since 2008. However, teachers lack of understanding about the nature of science (NOS) and its teaching, particularly element school science teachers. In 2012, the Science Institute of Thailand MOE, started a project of Elementary Science Teacher Professional Development to enhance their thinking about the Nature of Science. The project aimed to enhance teachers' understanding of NOS, science teaching for explicit and reflective NOS, with the aim of extending their understanding of NOS to other teachers. This project selected 366 educational persons. The group was made up of a teacher and a teacher supervisor from 183 educational areas in 74 provinces all Thailand. The project provided a one week workshop and a year's follow up. The week-long workshop consisted of 11 activities of science teaching for explicit reflection on 8 aspects of NOS. Workshop of NOS explicit and reflective on force and motion learning activity is one of eight activities. This activity provided participants to learn force and motion and NOS from the traditional toy "Bang-Poh". The activity tried to enhance participants to explicit NOS for 5 aspects including empirical basis, subjectivity, creativity, observation and inference, and sociocultural embeddedness. The explicit NOS worksheet provided questions to ask participants to reflect their existing ideas about NOS. The paper examines elementary school science teachers' understanding of NOS from the force and motion learning activity which provided explicit reflection on 5 NOS aspects. An interpretive paradigm was used to analyse the teachers' reflections in a NOS worksheet. The findings indicated that majority of them could reflect about the empirical basis of science and creativity but few reflected on observation and inference, or sociocultural embeddedness. The paper will explain the teachers' NOS thinking and discuss the further enhancing of their understanding
Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl
This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the…
Philpot, Cindy J.
Recent reform efforts in science education focus on scientific literacy for all citizens. In order to be scientifically literate, an individual must have informed understandings of nature of science (NOS), scientific inquiry, and science content matter. This study specifically focused on Science Olympiad students' understanding of NOS as one piece of scientific literacy. Research consistently shows that science students do not have informed understandings of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick, 2002; Bell, Blair, Crawford, and Lederman, 2002; Kilcrease and Lucy, 2002; Schwartz, Lederman, and Thompson, 2001). However, McGhee-Brown, Martin, Monsaas and Stombler (2003) found that Science Olympiad students had in-depth understandings of science concepts, principles, processes, and techniques. Science Olympiad teams compete nationally and are found in rural, urban, and suburban schools. In an effort to learn from students who are generally considered high achieving students and who enjoy science, as opposed to the typical science student, the purpose of this study was to investigate Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS and the experiences that formed their understandings. An interpretive, qualitative, case study method was used to address the research questions. The participants were purposefully and conveniently selected from the Science Olympiad team at a suburban high school. Data collection consisted of the Views of Nature of Science -- High School Questionnaire (VNOS-HS) (Schwartz, Lederman, & Thompson, 2001), semi-structured individual interviews, and a focus group. The main findings of this study were similar to much of the previous research in that the participants had informed understandings of the tentative nature of science and the role of inferences in science, but they did not have informed understandings of the role of human imagination and creativity, the empirical nature of science, or theories and laws. High level science classes and participation in
Segundo Quintriqueo M.
Full Text Available Within the context of Mapuche families and communities, this paper focuses on the relationship between knowledge and educational methods in teaching the natural sciences. It aims to identify educational methods that have been forged and re-forged in connection with the social, cultural, political, economical and spiritual development experienced by Mapuche communities. Our educational research methodology is based on a qualitative approach in order to unveil the subjective and inter-subjective dimensions that characterize the subjects' educational knowledge in their life context. Our fieldwork has been carried out from a sample of interviews conducted with Mapuche wise men (sabios living in the Araucanía. The results of the study are divided in four categories: 1 Relationship towards the natural environment; 2 Knowledge regarding living beings; 3 Küyen cycle (phases of the Moon; and finally, 4 Healthy lifestyle. The collected data have allowed us to link different contents (conceptual, practical and attitudinal underlying the proper Mapuche educational methods to underline their rationalities with reference to core knowledge. Thus, we want to make a case for an epistemological basis substantiating the teaching of natural sciences in relation to Mapuche knowledge. This will allow us to contextualize natural science teaching within the framework of an intercultural educational approach. By doing so, we aim to establish an intellectual dialogue in a context of interethnic and intercultural relationships.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA on primary school students in Tarakan. The output of this study is presented into a national scientific journal with ISSN. This study absolutely contributes to the schools and the education providers (universities. This study can identify the misconceptions of what happens to the students, so that teachers know how to handle and remediate these misconceptions. This study employs quantitative descriptive research. The population is the sixth grade students of primary schools in Tarakan. It is because the students of this grade have got the learning material on force, light, and simple machine. The technique.;s used in taking the sample is cluster sampling by considering on the three criteria, namely: superior, medium, and low school category which is based on the mean scores of final test (UAS on natural science subject. So, the sixth grade students of SDN A, SDN B Tarakan, and SDN C Tarakan are chosen as the sample of this study. The instrument of this research is a written test in a form of multiple choice test equiped with the CRI (certainty of response index answer sheet. The data are collected by distributing multiple-choice test which is consisted of 40 questions that are equipped with the CRI answer sheet.
Powell, P. E.
Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.
Lederman, Judith; Bartels, Selina; Lederman, Norman; Gnanakkan, Dionysius
With the emergence of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"; NGSS Lead States 2013), it is apparent that teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS) continues to be an important goal of science education for all K-12 students. With this emphasis on NOS, early childhood teachers are asking how to design…
Romero Ariza, Marta
Full Text Available This paper presents a teaching sequence explicitly designed to improve the understanding of Nature of Science and support Secondary School students to acquire adequate understanding about scientific hypothesis, theories and laws. The instructional intervention engages students in an inquiry process where they have to formulate hypothesis, analyse data and draw conclusions based on evidence. It is a student-centred methodology where teachers act as facilitators and guides, promoting the development of scientific competences and the meaningful understanding of the terms hypothesis, law and theory.
Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl
This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.
Waight, Noemi; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad
This position paper provides a theory-based explanation informed by philosophy of technology (PoT) of the recurrent documented patterns often associated with attempts to enact technology-supported, inquiry-based approaches in precollege science classrooms. Understandings derived from the history of technological development in other domains (e.g. medicine, transportation, and warfare) reveal numerous parallels that help to explain these recurrent patterns. Historical analyses of major technologies reveal a conglomerate of factors that interact to produce benefits, as well as intended and unintended consequences. On a macro-scale, PoT facilitates understandings of how technologies interact and are impacted by individuals, society, institutions, economy, politics, and culture. At the micro-level, and most relevant to science education, PoT engages the inherent nature of technology along a number of key dimensions: role of culture and values, notions of technological progression, technology as part of systems, technological diffusion, technology as a fix, and the notions of expertise. Overall, the present analysis has implications for the design, development, implementation, and adoption of technological tools for use in precollege science education, and highlights the role of technology as both artifact and process.
Jackson, Luke M.
This mixed method study was aimed at examining the influence of dual processing (Type 1 and Type 2 thinking) on the development of high school students' nature of science (NOS) views. Type 1 thinking is intuitive, experiential, and heuristic. Type 2 thinking is rational, analytical, and explicit. Three research questions were asked: (1) Do the experiential process (Type 1) and the logical process (Type 2) influence the development of students' NOS views? (2) If there is an influence on students' NOS views, then what is the nature of relationship between the experiential process (Type 1) and the development of NOS views? (3) What is the nature of relationship between the logical process (Type 2) and the development of NOS views? The Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire C (VNOS-C; Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, & Schwartz, 2002) was administered to 29 high school students at the beginning and at the end of an explicit-reflective NOS intervention offered in an Advanced Placement environmental science course. Changes in students' NOS views were calculated through a chi-square test and examining the percentage of students holding NOS views at various levels of sophistication. With the chi-square goodness of fit test performed, the relationship between pre and post NOS scores was not significant, X2(3, 29) = 4.78, p <.05. The informed and preinformed NOS views increased (14%, 17%) in frequency while the mixed and uninformed NOS views decreased (i.e. improved 26%, 24%) in frequency from pre to posttest. The reading discussions were coded based on the EBR framework (Furtak et al., 2010) to analyze the use of dual processing. Type1 and Type 2 thinking were both used during the intervention and reading reflections. Type 2 thinking was more prominent when analyzing a problem, formulating a hypothesis, or stating logical claims. The association of NOS education and Type 1 and Type 2 thinking in scientific literacy was examined, and implications and future research are
V. P. Kotchnev
Full Text Available The paper looks at the teaching process at schools of the natural sciences profile. The subject of the research is devoted to the correlations between the students’ progress and the degree of their involvement in creative activities of problem solving in the natural sciences context. The research is aimed to demonstrate the reinforce- ment of students’ creative learning by teaching mathematical schemes and structures. The comparative characteristics of the task, problem and model approaches to mathematical problem solving are given; the experimental data on the efficiency of mathematical training based on the above approaches being discussed, as well as the specifics of modeling the tasks for problem solving. The author examines the ways for stimulating the students’ creative activity and motivating the knowledge acquisition, and search for the new mathematical conformities related to the natural science content. The significance of the Olympiad and other non-standard tasks, broadening the students’ horizons and stimulating creative thinking and abilities, is emphasized.The proposed method confirms the appropriateness of introducing the Olympiad and non-standard problem solving into the preparatory training curricula for the Unified State Examinations.
In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…
Kozak, Maciej; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Piszora, Paweł
This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research was prepared to present recent achievements in synchrotron radiation science and mark the 25th anniversary of the Polish Synchrotron Radiation Society (PSRS) which fell in 2016. It presents selected papers submitted after the 13th International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science (ISSRNS 2016) which was organized by PSRS in cooperation with the Adam Mickiewicz University. It is worth noting that PSRS is probably one of the earliest founded scientific societies focused on promoting the use of synchrotron radiation research (for details visit the PSRS home page: http://www.synchrotron.org.pl.
Sciences & nature publish original works in French or in English that have not been ... This page should provide a summary (200 words maximum) in French and English .... one copy of the journal where his article is published, and 10 offprints.
Robertson, G.; Cruz, E.; Selvans, M. M.
The Smithsonian's Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) program at the National Museum of Natural History gives young people from the Washington, D.C. area the opportunity to engage in science out of school through 16-week internships. We will present the program's successful strategies and lessons learned around recruiting and engaging young people from underserved communities, and maintaining relationships that help to support their pursuit of STEM and other career paths. The YES! program connects Smithsonian collections, experts, and training with local DC youth from communities traditionally underrepresented in science careers. YES! is now in its fifth year and has directly served 122 students; demographics of alumni are 67% female, and 51% Latino, 31% African-American, 7% Asian, 5% Caucasian and 6% other. The program immerses students in science research by giving them the opportunity to work side-by-side with scientists and staff from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Gardens, and National Zoo. In addition to working on a research project, students have college preparatory courses, are trained in science communication, and apply their skills by interacting with the public on the exhibit floor.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze and investigate the interest of primary school pupils in natural science topics within primary school subject fields. Examining the existing curricula, it becomes evident that natural science topics are intertwined in different subject fields. Based on the methodology, developed within the rose project, a quantitative research was performed in order to investigate pupils’ wishes and interests regarding learning about natural science topics within different subject fields. The data was acquired by means of a questionnaire. The findings suggest that the level of Slovene pupils’ interest in natural science is low; nevertheless the girls are more interested in it than boys. The pupils would like to learn more about animals, non-scientific phenomena and information technology. However, they are not interested in physics.
Koerber, Susanne; Osterhaus, Christopher; Sodian, Beate
Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is a critical aspect of scientific reasoning, yet few studies have investigated its developmental beginnings and initial structure. One contributing reason is the lack of an adequate instrument. Two studies assessed NOS understanding among third graders using a multiple-select (MS) paper-and-pencil test. Study 1 investigated the validity of the MS test by presenting the items to 68 third graders (9-year-olds) and subsequently interviewing them on their underlying NOS conception of the items. All items were significantly related between formats, indicating that the test was valid. Study 2 applied the same instrument to a larger sample of 243 third graders, and their performance was compared to a multiple-choice (MC) version of the test. Although the MC format inflated the guessing probability, there was a significant relation between the two formats. In summary, the MS format was a valid method revealing third graders' NOS understanding, thereby representing an economical test instrument. A latent class analysis identified three groups of children with expertise in qualitatively different aspects of NOS, suggesting that there is not a single common starting point for the development of NOS understanding; instead, multiple developmental pathways may exist. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Hissbach, Johanna C; Klusmann, Dietrich; Hampe, Wolfgang
Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat) for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and relations to academic success are compared. 334 first year medical students of the 2006 cohort responded to 52 multiple choice items from biology, physics, and chemistry. For the construction of scales we generated two random subsamples, one for development and one for validation. In the development sample, unidimensional item sets were extracted from the item pool by means of weighted least squares (WLS) factor analysis, and subsequently fitted to the Rasch model. In the validation sample, the scales were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and, again, Rasch modelling. The outcome measure was academic success after two years. Although the correlational structure within the item set is weak, a unidimensional scale could be fitted to the Rasch model. However, psychometric properties of this scale deteriorated in the validation sample. A model with three highly correlated subject specific factors performed better. All summary scales predicted academic success with an odds ratio of about 2.0. Prediction was independent of high school grades and there was a slight tendency for prediction to be better in females than in males. A model separating biology, physics, and chemistry into different Rasch scales seems to be more suitable for item bank development than a unidimensional model, even when these scales are highly correlated and enter into a global score. When such a combination scale is used to select the upper quartile of applicants, the proportion of successful completion of the curriculum
Hissbach Johanna C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and relations to academic success are compared. Methods 334 first year medical students of the 2006 cohort responded to 52 multiple choice items from biology, physics, and chemistry. For the construction of scales we generated two random subsamples, one for development and one for validation. In the development sample, unidimensional item sets were extracted from the item pool by means of weighted least squares (WLS factor analysis, and subsequently fitted to the Rasch model. In the validation sample, the scales were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and, again, Rasch modelling. The outcome measure was academic success after two years. Results Although the correlational structure within the item set is weak, a unidimensional scale could be fitted to the Rasch model. However, psychometric properties of this scale deteriorated in the validation sample. A model with three highly correlated subject specific factors performed better. All summary scales predicted academic success with an odds ratio of about 2.0. Prediction was independent of high school grades and there was a slight tendency for prediction to be better in females than in males. Conclusions A model separating biology, physics, and chemistry into different Rasch scales seems to be more suitable for item bank development than a unidimensional model, even when these scales are highly correlated and enter into a global score. When such a combination scale is used to select the upper quartile of
Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.
The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory
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Simon, Uwe K.; Steindl, Hanna; Larcher, Nicole; Kulac, Helga; Hotter, Annelies
Far too few high-school students choose subjects from the natural sciences (NaSc) for their majors in many countries. Even fewer study biology, chemistry or physics at university. Those, that do, often lack training to present and discuss scientific results and ideas in texts. To meet these challenges the center for didactics of biology of Graz University has set up the program Young Science Journalism. This new workshop-based interdisciplinary concept was tested in an exploratory study with grade 10 students of one Austrian high school, engaging both the biology and the German teacher of the class. It was our aim to raise students' interest in the NaSc by encouraging them to write popular scientific articles about self-chosen topics, and to help them improve their writing competence. In this paper we focus on interest development through writing. Results from this pilot study were promising. Using a mixed-method approach (comparing pre- and post-test questionnaires and semi-structured interviews from different time points analyzed qualitatively), we found that almost all students valued the project-related work highly. Most of them showed higher interest in the NaSc at project end with girls, in average, seeming to profit more from project participation. We thus recommend integrating such writing tasks into school curricula to increase students' interest in NaSc or to even create new interest. Additionally, we introduce a network presentation of questionnaire data as a powerful tool to visualize the effect of an intervention on individual students and student profile groups. This paper is part of a series accompanying the Austrian Young Science Journalism program. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher's web-site.
The Design Argument is the proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God. The Argument dates at least to the presocratic Greek philosophers, and is largely based on analogical reasoning. Following the appearance of Aquinas' Summa Theologica in the 13th century, the Christian Church in Europe embraced a Natural Theology based on observation and reason that allowed it to dominate the entire world of knowledge. Science in turn advanced itself by demonstrating that it could be of service to theology, the recognized queen of the sciences. During the heyday of British Natural Theology in the 17th and 18th centuries, the watchmaker, shipbuilder, and architect analogies were invoked reflexively by philosophers, theologians, and scientists. The Design Argument was not systematically and analytically criticized until David Hume wrote Dialogues on Natural Religion in the 1750s. After Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, Design withered on the vine. But in recent years, the Argument has been resurrected under the appellation "intelligent design," and been the subject of political and legal controversy in the United States. Design advocates have argued that intelligent design can be formulated as a scientific hypothesis, that new scientific discoveries validate a design inference, and that naturalism must be removed as a methodological requirement in science. If science is defined by a model of concentric epistemological zonation, design cannot be construed as a scientific hypothesis because it is inconsistent with the core aspects of scientific methodology: naturalism, uniformity, induction, and efficient causation. An analytical examination of claims by design advocates finds no evidence of any type to support either scientific or philosophical claims that design can be unambiguously inferred from nature. The apparent irreducible complexity of biological mechanisms may be explained by exaptation or scaffolding. The argument
Jackson, Luke M.
This mixed method study was aimed at examining the influence of dual processing (Type 1 and Type 2 thinking) on the development of high school students' nature of science (NOS) views. Type 1 thinking is intuitive, experiential, and heuristic. Type 2 thinking is rational, analytical, and explicit. Three research questions were asked: (1) Do the…
Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Myers, John Y.; Summers, Ryan; Brunner, Jeanne; Waight, Noemi; Wahbeh, Nader; Zeineddin, Ava A.; Belarmino, Jeremy
This study assessed the (i) ways in which, and extent to which, several aspects of nature of science (NOS) are represented in high school biology and physics textbooks in the United States (U.S.); (ii) extent to which these representations have changed over the course of several decades; and (iii) relative impact of discipline, and textbook…
Bell, Randy; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Lederman, Norman G.; Mccomas, William F.; Matthews, Michael R.
Research on the nature of science and science education enjoys a long history, with its origins in Ernst Mach's work in the late nineteenth century and John Dewey's at the beginning of the twentieth century. As early as 1909 the Central Association for Science and Mathematics Teachers published an article - A Consideration of the Principles that Should Determine the Courses in Biology in Secondary Schools - in School Science and Mathematics that reflected foundational concerns about science and how school curricula should be informed by them. Since then a large body of literature has developed related to the teaching and learning about nature of science - see, for example, the Lederman (1992)and Meichtry (1993) reviews cited below. As well there has been intense philosophical, historical and philosophical debate about the nature of science itself, culminating in the much-publicised Science Wars of recent time. Thereferences listed here primarily focus on the empirical research related to the nature of science as an educational goal; along with a few influential philosophical works by such authors as Kuhn, Popper, Laudan, Lakatos, and others. While not exhaustive, the list should prove useful to educators, and scholars in other fields, interested in the nature of science and how its understanding can be realised as a goal of science instruction. The authors welcome correspondence regarding omissions from the list, and on-going additions that can be made to it.
Vhurumuku, Elaosi; Holtman, Lorna; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Kolsto, Stein D.
This study investigates the proximal and distal images of the nature of science (NOS) that A-level students develop from their participation in chemistry laboratory work. We also explored the nature of the interactions among the students' proximal and distal images of the NOS and students' participation in laboratory work. Students' views of the…
A. D. Voskresensky
Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.
Oktarina, K.; Lufri, L.; Chatri, M.
Referring to primary data collected through observation and interview to natural science teachers and some students, it is found that there is no natural science teaching materials in the form of learning modules that can make learners learn independently, build their own knowledge, and construct good character in themselves. In order to address this problem, then it is developed natural science learning module oriented to constructivism with the contain of character education. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct valid module of natural science learning materials. This type of research is a development research using the Plomp model. The development phase of the Plomp model consists of 3 stages, namely 1) preliminary research phase, 2) development or prototyping phase, and 3) assessment phase. The result of the study shows that natural science learning module oriented to constructivism with the contain of character education for students class VIII of Yunior High School 11 Sungai Penuh is valid. In future work, practicality and effectiveness will be investigated.
Dawes, Gregory W; Smith, Tiddy
The sciences are characterized by what is sometimes called a "methodological naturalism," which disregards talk of divine agency. In response to those who argue that this reflects a dogmatic materialism, a number of philosophers have offered a pragmatic defense. The naturalism of the sciences, they argue, is provisional and defeasible: it is justified by the fact that unsuccessful theistic explanations have been superseded by successful natural ones. But this defense is inconsistent with the history of the sciences. The sciences have always exhibited what we call a domain naturalism. They have never invoked divine agency, but have always focused on the causal structure of the natural world. It is not the case, therefore, that the sciences once employed theistic explanations and then abandoned them. The naturalism of the sciences is as old as science itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weiland, Ingrid; Blieden, Katherine; Akerson, Valarie
The nature of science (NOS) describes what science is and how knowledge in science is developed (NSTA 2013). To develop elementary students' understandings of how scientists explore the world, the authors--an education professor and a third-grade teacher--endeavored to integrate NOS into a third-grade life science unit. Throughout the lesson,…
The study defines social science and its specific in contrast with history, psychology and physical sciences. Also it emphasizes the importance of the idea of a 'value-free' science for the social sciences is clear. Social scientists want to be seen to establish 'facts' about society in the same way that they think that a physicist or a chemist uncovers 'facts'. Using the theories of Hempel, Quine, Feyerabend and Kuhn, it addresses a series of questions concening scientific theories, their ro...
Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.
The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically…
Millette, Patricia M.
Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.
Schizas, Dimitrios; Psillos, Dimitris; Stamou, George
The present essay examines the emerging issue of domain-general versus domain-specific nature of science (NOS) understandings from a perspective that illuminates the value of domain-specific philosophies of science for the growth and development of the NOS educational field. Under the assumption that individual sciences do have their own…
Reviews the philosophical controversy concerning naturalism, and investigates the role it might play in the science classroom. Argues that science students can benefit from explicit study of this controversy and from explicit consideration of the extent to which philosophy of science can be studied naturalistically. (PR)
Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Erduran, Sibel
Two fundamental questions about science are relevant for science educators: (a) What is the nature of science? and (b) what aspects of nature of science should be taught and learned? They are fundamental because they pertain to how science gets to be framed as a school subject and determines what aspects of it are worthy of inclusion in school…
Full Text Available The study defines social science and its specific in contrast with history, psychology and physical sciences. Also it emphasizes the importance of the idea of a 'value-free' science for the social sciences is clear. Social scientists want to be seen to establish 'facts' about society in the same way that they think that a physicist or a chemist uncovers 'facts'. Using the theories of Hempel, Quine, Feyerabend and Kuhn, it addresses a series of questions concening scientific theories, their roles for the scientific explanation and the scientific progress.
Schneider, S.; Ellger, C.
As a contribution to Germany's "Science Year 2016*17 - Seas and Oceans", a large science outreach program organized and financed by the National Ministry for Education and Research, GeoUnion, the umbrella organization of Earth science associations and institutions in Germany, has conducted a series of advance level workshops for out-of-school educators and interpreters in Germany. The workshops were organized in co-operation with geoparks, biosphere reserve areas and other environmental management institutions all over Germany. The goal was to convey various perspectives of modern marine sciences to inland venues, linking important present-day marine themes with the presentation of marine phases in the geological history of the host region. The workshops were designed for park rangers, museum educationalists and other science communicators, initiating a broader impact on target groups such as school classes, (geo-)tourists and stakeholder groups. Our approach has been to combine lectures by top-level scientists (on both ocean literacy aspects and regional geology) with discussions and an on-the-spot learning-and-presenting module based on prepared text and visual material. Beyond earth science issues we have integrated economy, ecology, social sciences as well as arts and humanities aspects. One central topic was the role of the world ocean in climate change; other themes highlighted sea level rise, the thermohaline circulation, sea-floor spreading, coral reefs, over-fishing, various marine species and the problem of plastic waste in the ocean. We had anticipated that marine issues are actually very rarely discussed in inland Germany. A structured presentation of ocean literacy elements has proved to be a new range of topical issues from earth and environmental sciences highly appreciated by the participants.
The view that science and religion are conflicting ways of understanding the world is widely and frequently presented in the media and may be the view held by most children. It is not the only view, however, and there are many scientists who have a religious faith. Usefully perhaps, for those who are interested in science education, examining…
Jennings, B. K.
A 21st century view of the nature of science is presented. It attempts to show how a consistent description of science and scientific progress can be given. Science advances through a sequence of models with progressively greater predictive power. The philosophical and metaphysical implications of the models change in unpredictable ways as the predictive power increases. The view of science arrived at is one based on instrumentalism. Philosophical realism can only be recovered by a subtle use...
Charlton, Bruce G
Educational expansion in western countries has been achieved mainly by adding years to full-time education; however, this process has probably reduced efficiency. Sooner or later, efficiency must improve, with a greater educational attainment per year. Future societies will probably wish more people to study science throughout high school (aged c. 11-19 years) and the first college degree. 'Science' may be defined as any abstract, systematic and research-based discipline: including mathematics, statistics and the natural sciences, economics, music theory, linguistics, and the conceptual or quantitative social sciences. Since formal teaching is usually necessary to learn science, science education should be regarded as the core function of high schools. One standard way to improve efficiency is the 'division of labour', with increased specialization of function. Modern schools are already specialized: teachers are specialized according to age-group taught, subject matter expertise, and administrative responsibilities. School students are stratified by age and academic aptitude. I propose a further institutional division of school function between science education, and cultural education (including education in arts, sports, ethics, social interaction and good citizenship). Existing schools might split into 'science school' and 'culture school', reflected in distinct buildings and zones, separate administrative structures, and the recruitment of differently-specialized teaching personnel. Science school would be distinguished by its focus on education in disciplines which promote abstract systematic cognition. All students would spend some part of each day (how much would depend on their aptitude and motivation) in the 'science school'; experiencing a traditional-style, didactic, disciplined and rigorous academic education. The remainder of the students' time at school would be spent in the cultural division, which would focus on broader aspects, and aim to generate
Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti
Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…
Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena
The inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in science education has for a long time been regarded as crucial. There is, however, a lack of research on appropriate NOS aspects for different educational levels. An even more neglected area of research is that focusing on teachers' perspectives on NOS teaching at different levels. The aim of this article is to examine NOS progression in the light of teachers' suggestions and rationales. In order to obtain teachers' informed perspectives, we chose to involve six teachers (teaching grades 1-9) in a 3-year research project. They took part in focus group discussions about NOS and NOS teaching as well as implemented jointly planned NOS teaching sessions. Data that this article builds on was collected at the end of the project. The teachers' suggestions for NOS progression often relied on adding more NOS issues at every stage, thereby creating the foundations of a broader but not necessarily deeper understanding of NOS. Five rationales, for if/when specific NOS issues are appropriate to introduce, emerged from the analysis of the teacher discussions. Some of these rationales, including practice makes perfect and increasing levels of depth can potentially accommodate room for many NOS issues in the science classroom, while maturity and experience instead has a restricting effect on NOS teaching. Also, choice of context and teaching approaches play an important role in teachers' rationales for whether specific NOS issues should be included or not at different stages. The article discusses the implications for teacher education and professional development.
Student views on the nature of science are shaped by a variety of out-of-school forces and television-mediated science is a significant force. To attempt to achieve a science for all, we need to recognize and understand the diverse messages about science that students access and think about on a regular basis. In this work I examine how high school students think about science that is mediated by four different program genres on television: documentary, magazine-format programming, network news, and dramatic or fictional programming. The following categories of findings are discussed: the ethics and validity of science, final form science, science as portrayed by its practitioners, and school science and television science. Student perceptions of the nature of science depicted on the program sample used in this study ranged from seeing science as comprising tentative knowledge claims to seeing science as a fixed body of facts.
Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha
In this article we describe the development, implementation, and some of the early impacts of Nurture thru Nature (NtN), an American after-school and summer program designed to introduce elementary school students in disadvantaged, urban public schools to natural science and environmental education. The program, which began operations in 2010 as a…
Johnson, Gordon; Laughran, Laura; Tamppari, Ray; Thomas, Perry
Science teachers naturally rely on their university science experiences as a foundation for teaching middle school science. This foundation consists of knowledge far too complex for the middle level students to comprehend. In order for middle school science teachers to utilize their university science training they must search for ways to adapt their college experiences into appropriate middle school learning experience. The criteria set forth above provide broad-based guidelines for translating university science laboratory experiences into middle school activities. These guidelines are used by preservice teachers in our project as they identify, test, and organize a resource file of hands-on inquiry activities for use in their first year classrooms. It is anticipated that this file will provide a basis for future curriculum development as the teacher becomes more comfortable and more experienced in teaching hands-on science. The presentation of these guidelines is not meant to preclude any other criteria or considerations which a teacher or science department deems important. This is merely one example of how teachers may proceed to utilize their advanced science training as a basis for teaching middle school science.
I present some fundamental theorems in computer science and illustrate their relevance in Biology and Physics. I do not assume prerequisites in mathematics or computer science beyond the set N of natural numbers, functions from N to N, the use of some notational conveniences to describe functions, and at some point, a minimal amount of linear algebra and logic. I start with Cantor's transcendental proof by diagonalization of the non enumerability of the collection of functions from natural numbers to the natural numbers. I explain why this proof is not entirely convincing and show how, by restricting the notion of function in terms of discrete well defined processes, we are led to the non algorithmic enumerability of the computable functions, but also-through Church's thesis-to the algorithmic enumerability of partial computable functions. Such a notion of function constitutes, with respect to our purpose, a crucial generalization of that concept. This will make easy to justify deep and astonishing (counter-intuitive) incompleteness results about computers and similar machines. The modified Cantor diagonalization will provide a theory of concrete self-reference and I illustrate it by pointing toward an elementary theory of self-reproduction-in the Amoeba's way-and cellular self-regeneration-in the flatworm Planaria's way. To make it easier, I introduce a very simple and powerful formal system known as the Schoenfinkel-Curry combinators. I will use the combinators to illustrate in a more concrete way the notion introduced above. The combinators, thanks to their low-level fine grained design, will also make it possible to make a rough but hopefully illuminating description of the main lessons gained by the careful observation of nature, and to describe some new relations, which should exist between computer science, the science of life and the science of inert matter, once some philosophical, if not theological, hypotheses are made in the cognitive sciences. In the
This article provides a metacommentary on the special issue on nature of science (NOS). The issue is composed of senior scholars discussing Hodson and Wong's (2017, this issue) critique of the consensus view of nature of science, which on a basic level states that there are agreed-upon aspects of science that can be taught in K-12 schools. Each…
Spector, Barbara S.; Burkett, Ruth; Leard, Cyndy
This paper introduces a model for using informal science education venues as contexts within which to teach the nature of science. The model was initially developed to enable university education students to teach science in elementary schools so as to be consistent with "National Science Education Standards" (NSES) (1996) and "A Framework for…
... classes: the case of primary schools linked to Kemise College of Teacher Education. ... the quality of natural science education classroom instruction in lower grade ... on pedagogical and subject matter issue, closer support and supervision.
Bull, Ally; Joyce, Chris; Spiller, Lorraine; Hipkins, Rosemary
Nature of Science is the core strand of science in "The New Zealand Curriculum". This resource aims to support teachers to understand the different aspects of the Nature of Science and what this might mean in practice. All aspects of this strand are covered: Understanding about science; Investigating in science; Communicating in science;…
Cochrane, Donald Brian
The goal of scientific literacy requires that students develop an understanding of the nature of science to assist them in the reasoned acquisition of science concepts and in their future role as citizens in a participatory democracy. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the range of positions that grade six students hold with respect to the nature of science and to investigate whether gender or prior science education was related to students' views of the nature of science. Two grade six classes participated in this study. One class was from a school involved in a long-term elementary science curriculum project. The science curriculum at this school involved constructivist epistemology and pedagogy and a realist ontology. The curriculum stressed hands-on, open-ended activities and the development of science process skills. Students were frequently involved in creating and testing explanations for physical phenomena. The second class was from a matched school that had a traditional science program. Results of the study indicated that students hold a wider range of views of the nature of science than previously documented. Student positions ranged from having almost no understanding of the nature of science to those expressing positions regarding the nature of science that were more developed than previous studies had documented. Despite the range of views documented, all subjects held realist views of scientific knowledge. Contrary to the literature, some students were able to evaluate a scientific theory in light of empirical evidence that they had generated. Results also indicated that students from the project school displayed more advanced views of the nature of science than their matched peers. However, not all students benefited equally from their experiences. No gender differences were found with respect to students' understanding of the nature of science.
This paper contrasts naive beliefs about the nature of science, with science as it appears from sociological and philosophical study, feminist critique and insights from multicultural education. I draw implications from these informed views to suggest how school science might be modified to project a pragmatic view of science to its students that allows students to know science and its relationships to themselves and society in multi-faceted ways. From these perspectives, pragmatic school science is situated within a values framework that questions how we know. Pragmatic school science also requires that the naive inductivist views that permeate school science inquiry methods at present be modified to recognise that observations and inquiry are guided by prior knowledge and values; that new knowledge is tentative; that some knowledge has high status, as it has been constructed consensually over a long period; but that even high status knowledge can be challenged. For implementation of these reforms, yet still to embrace the need for some students to appropriate understanding of discipline knowledge required for advanced science education, a broad set of aims is required.
THE HUMAN-NATURE RELATIONSHIP FROM THE INDIGENOUS BIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: A PARTICULARIZED AND DIVERSE MODEL OF CONTRIBUTION TO TEACHING NATURAL SCIENCES AND BIOLOGY IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY SCHOOLS IN THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON.
Ferney Noè Iyokina Gittoma
Full Text Available This article come from to reflection about the practice, the action and the profesional dialogue, that from formative`s process and the academic activities like Graduates in Biology of the National Pedagogical University of the central place and CERES (Regional Centre for Higher Education the Chorrera- Amazonas, like a experience with indigenous Amazonian in a cultural context, particulary Etnia Okaina, in the community Divina Pastora school from shelter Predio Putumayo district Chorrera- Amazonas. Colombiam (2013 and Etnia Piapoco from Guadalupe Morichal school from big shelter unified of the jungle from Matavén from colombian Guaviare. Where de reflection aim try to give evidences and re- meaning the Amazon biocultural context in their symbolics expresions: Natural- Human- Spiritual, as potencials links in the motivation process from cultural reassert and care the life, with the aim to share referents and methodological strategies and didactics that contribute in formative process in the area of natural sciences and biology in indigenous schools of this country since inter- relational and socio- educative look.
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen
This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.
Hypolite, Karen L.
Much of the nature of science research has been focused on high school students. High school students are primarily the target of such research to aid and to guide them in making informed decisions about possible career choices in the sciences (Bell, Blair, Crawford, & Lederman, 2002). Moreover, during review of the literature, little to no…
Capece, Jó António
This article is the result of an ongoing research under the project entitled "The local curriculum in Mozambican schools: epistemological and didactic-methodological strategies for its implementation". Based on ethnographic research, the collection is being made. Systematization of knowledge and cultural experiences of local communities…
Rahmiwati, S.; Ratnawulan; Yohandri
The process of science learning can take place if there is an attempt to create an active learning atmosphere and can improve the knowledge competence of learners. One of the efforts made is to use learning resources. Textbooks are a learning resource used by learners. This study aims to describe the increase of knowledge’s competence of learners with integrated Natural Science (IPA) textbook of Junior High School (SMP) be charged on character-based shared model. The method used pre-test, post-test design with one group using the class as a research subject. Pre-test was given before treatment to measure student’s initial understanding of the problem, while the post-test was given to measure student’s final understanding.The subject of this research is students of class VII SMP N 13 Padang. Result of gain score is 0,73. The result showed competence student’s knowledge increased significantly and high categorized.
Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.
In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an "alteration" or "disturbance" to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the "middle nature" proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of "actively transforming nature into culture." It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native species, maximizing
Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.
This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…
Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo
This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…
Wong, Sissy S.; Firestone, Jonah B.; Ronduen, Lionnel G.; Bang, EunJin
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has become one of the main priorities in the United States. Science education communities and researchers advocate for integration of STEM disciplines throughout the teaching curriculum. This requires teacher knowledge in STEM disciplines, as well as competence in scientific…
Teacher student is an important role improving their own perception what science should be anticipated in classroom. Also, science learning in the current studies try to have relied understanding in the nature of science. This research aimed to study teacher students' perception in the nature of science. One hundred and one of junior teacher…
Akcay, Behiye; Akcay, Hakan
The study reports on an investigation about the impact of science-technology-society (STS) instruction on middle school student understanding of the nature of science (NOS) and attitudes toward science compared to students taught by the same teacher using traditional textbook-oriented instruction. Eight lead teachers used STS instruction an…
School Science Review, 1984
Presents (1) suggestions on teaching volume and density in the elementary school; (2) ideas for teaching about floating and sinking; (3) a simple computer program on color addition; and (4) an illustration of Newton's second law of motion. (JN)
Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.
Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found
Turner, Steven; Sullenger, Karen
Examines how science educators and educational researchers have drawn on the fragmented teachings of science studies about the nature of science, and how they have used those teachings as a resource in their own projects. Analyzes some of the deep assumptions about the relationship between science, school science, and children's learning.…
Zarnowski, Myra; Turkel, Susan
In this article, the authors consider whether children's trade books promote an authentic understanding of the nature of science. They begin by discussing the characteristics of the nature of science and then examine existing research in children's science books for evidence of the visibility of these features. They describe the problems…
Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise
Clough, Michael P.
Understanding the nature of science (NOS)--what science is and how it works, the assumptions that underlie scientific knowledge, how scientists function as a social group, and how society impacts and reacts to science--is prominent in science education reform documents (Rutherford and Ahlgren 1990; AAAS 1993; McComas and Olson 1998; NRC 1996; AAAS…
School Science Review, 1981
Presents a variety of laboratory procedures, discussions, and demonstrations including centripedal force apparatus, model ear drum, hot air balloons, air as a real substance, centering a ball, simple test tube rack, demonstration fire extinguisher, pin-hole camera, and guidelines for early primary science education (5-10 years) concepts and lesson…
International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... The journal is designed for academics, scholars, advanced students and reflective practitioners.
The first EIROForum school was held at CERN last week. In about four days, 35 teachers from 15 countries were able to get a flavour of the science done in four of the seven organizations participating in EIROForum. This was a chance for them to feel part of top-level European scientific research. The 35 teachers participating in thefirst EIROForum school organized at CERN. Inspiring teachers to motivate students: the formula is well-known at CERN. Here, more than 20 schools for science teachers are organized every year. Some of them are attended by teachers from all over Europe, others are organized for national groups. The successful experience of CERN has served as a model to the other six international organizations that are members of EIROForum (sea box). “The title of this first common school is ‘The evolution of the Universe’”, explains Rolf Landua, head of the CERN Education group and organizer of the school. “The programme of lectures ...
Glick, Marilyn Petty
This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.
Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat
Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…
Nielsen, Kristian H.
Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…
Dekker, N.; Mooij, H.; Kouwenhoven, L.; Vermeersen, B.; Riva, R.; Dekker, C.; Godfroy, F.
For the nano-scientists at the Faculty of Applied Sciences, having their articles published in prestigious journals like Nature and Science is no longer all that special these days. The TU Delft physicists have been publishing virtually non-stop in what are regarded as the best science journals in
Full Text Available At least four factors affect pupils’ understanding of the nature of science: teachers’ specialization in different science areas (physics, chemistry, and biology, gender issues, teaching experience in elementary school environments, and the perspectives of acquiring necessary knowledge. This study is the introduction part of a research project which will be initiated soon. Four elementary science teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that participants’ views of the aspects of nature of science are not solely diverged, based on their major disciplines, but there exist significant distinctions according to gender differences.
The importance of deductive theories in the modern natural sciences built essentially on experiments is briefly discussed. The logical structure of the deductive theories, their axioms, undefined quantities, and realizations is treated in some detail. In all the natural sciences, there is a striving to explain all the various phenomena in nature in terms of a few basic principles, and this open-quotes reductionismclose quotes leads to a certain amount of unification of these sciences. The chain that goes from biology, over molecular biology, biochemistry, chemistry, and physics to the description of nature in terms of the elementary particles obeying the laws of modern quantum chemistry is reviewed. Since all the measurements of microcosmos involve an observer, who according to the Copenhagen school experiences the outside universe as a projection on his or her mind through his or her senses, some theoreticians may be inclined to reduce the natural sciences to the human mind as the fundamental (undefined) quantity. However, since the observer is a biological structure, one is also back where one started, and it is evident that one can start the reduction or unification of the natural sciences in any point on this circle (or spiral). Hence, there are many descriptions of the natural sciences and their connections that are possible-as illustrated at this symposium. 2 refs., 2 figs
Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge
Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in…
Jones, William I.
This study examined the understanding of nature of science among participants in their final year of a 4-year undergraduate teacher education program at a Midwest liberal arts university. The Logic Model Process was used as an integrative framework to focus the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of the data for the purpose of (1) describing participant understanding of NOS and (2) to identify participant characteristics and teacher education program features related to those understandings. The Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire form C (VNOS-C) was used to survey participant understanding of 7 target aspects of Nature of Science (NOS). A rubric was developed from a review of the literature to categorize and score participant understanding of the target aspects of NOS. Participants' high school and college transcripts, planning guides for their respective teacher education program majors, and science content and science teaching methods course syllabi were examined to identify and categorize participant characteristics and teacher education program features. The R software (R Project for Statistical Computing, 2010) was used to conduct an exploratory analysis to determine correlations of the antecedent and transaction predictor variables with participants' scores on the 7 target aspects of NOS. Fourteen participant characteristics and teacher education program features were moderately and significantly ( p Middle Childhood with a science concentration program major or in the Adolescent/Young Adult Science Education program major were more likely to have an informed understanding on each of the 7 target aspects of NOS. Analyses of the planning guides and the course syllabi in each teacher education program major revealed differences between the program majors that may account for the results.
In Germany, all-day care and all-day schooling are currently increasing on a large-scale. The extended time children spend in educational institutions could potentially result in limited access to nature experience for children. On the other hand, it could equally create opportunities for informal nature experience if school playgrounds have a…
Metcalfe, Angela C.
Teaching evolution provides teachers with the opportunity to educate students on how science aims to understand the natural world. Rooted in research, the purpose of this project was to create NGSS-aligned curriculum focused on teaching the nature of science (NOS) within the context of biological evolution. Field testing and review of the unit resulted in revisions aimed at creating more comprehensive teacher resource materials and explicit inclusion of NOS. Emphasizing NOS in curriculum development and teaching scientific qualities through an evolutionary context has taken the focus off belief or disbelief, keeping the attention on the scientific concept at hand. Designing curriculum around compelling subject matter and embracing student-led learning increased and maintained student interest in the classroom. Implementation of this curriculum not only requires the teacher to be knowledgeable in conventional educational pedagogy, but also the subjects of NGSS and NOS. Additional training and support centered around NGSS is recommended for science educators interested in integrating NOS into their curriculum and instruction.
Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.
A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…
In response to Goff, Boesdorfer, and Hunter's article on the use of a multicultural approach to teaching chemistry and the nature of science, I forward this critical reflective essay to discuss more general curriculum aspects of the relationship between the nature of science and science education in school contexts. Taking a social realist…
Piotr Bylica; Dariusz Sagan
The aim of this paper is to analyze the implications flowing from adopting methodological naturalism in science, with special emphasis on the relation between science and religion. Methodological naturalism, denying supernatural and teleological explanations, influences the content of scientific theories, and in practice leads to vision of science as compatible with ontological naturalism and in opposition to theism. Ontological naturalism in turn justifies the acceptance of methodological na...
reality and the key criterion is agreement of theory with data to assess the emerging scientific ... Natural Theology, Science and Theology, Scientific Proofs, God's ..... The Second Law of Thermodynamics: This law states basically that certain.
Fergusson, Jennifer; Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R
There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research-related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science.
In response to Goff, Boesdorfer, and Hunter's article on the use of a multicultural approach to teaching chemistry and the nature of science, I forward this critical reflective essay to discuss more general curriculum aspects of the relationship between the nature of science and science education in school contexts. Taking a social realist perspective, I argue for a more nuanced understanding of the role of epistemology and ontology in science classrooms, and for a reconsideration of the role of knowledge in science classrooms.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain: A Proposal for BSc (Hons) in Integrated Biology. Kambadur Muralidhar. Classroom Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 272-276 ...
This paper defends the view that metaphysical naturalism is a constitutive ontological principle of science in that the general empirical methods of science, such as observation, measurement and experiment, and thus the very production of empirical evidence, presuppose a no-supernature principle. It examines the consequences of metaphysical…
Inquiry-based classroom is widely distributed in the school science based on its useful and effective instruction. Science teachers are key elements allowing students to have scientific inquiry. If teachers understand and imply inquiry-based learning into science classroom, students will learn science as scientific inquiry and understand nature of…
This paper comments on the importance of nuclear science experiments and demonstrations to science education in secondary schools. It claims that radiation protection is incompletly realised unless supported by some knowledge about ionizing radiations. The negative influence of the NHMRC Code of Practice on school experiments involving ionizing radiation is also outlined. The authors offer some suggestions for a new edition of the Code with a positive approach to nuclear science experiments in schools. 7 refs., 4 figs
Ana Maria Morais
Full Text Available The article is based on results of research carried out by the ESSA Group (Sociological Studies of the Classroom centred on the inclusion of the nature of science (metascience on science education. The results, based on analyses of various educational texts and contexts – curricula/syllabuses, textbooks and pedagogic practices – and of the relations between those texts/contexts, have in general shown a reduced presence and low conceptualization of metascience. The article starts by presenting the theoretical framework of the research of the ESSA Group which was focused on the introduction of the nature of science in science education. It is mostly based on Ziman’s conceptualization of metascience (1984, 2000 and on Bernstein’s theorization of production and reproduction of knowledge, particularly his model of pedagogic discourse (1990, 2000 and knowledge structures (1999. This is followed by the description of a pedagogical strategy, theoretically grounded, which explores the nature of science in the classroom context. The intention is to give an example of a strategy which privileges a high level learning for all students and which may contribute to a reflection about the inclusion of the nature of science on science education. Finally, considerations are made about the applicability of the strategy on the basis of previous theoretical and empirical arguments which sustain its use in the context of science education.
Klyatskin, Valery I
This book addresses the processes of stochastic structure formation in two-dimensional geophysical fluid dynamics based on statistical analysis of Gaussian random fields, as well as stochastic structure formation in dynamic systems with parametric excitation of positive random fields f(r,t) described by partial differential equations. Further, the book considers two examples of stochastic structure formation in dynamic systems with parametric excitation in the presence of Gaussian pumping. In dynamic systems with parametric excitation in space and time, this type of structure formation either happens – or doesn’t! However, if it occurs in space, then this almost always happens (exponentially quickly) in individual realizations with a unit probability. In the case considered, clustering of the field f(r,t) of any nature is a general feature of dynamic fields, and one may claim that structure formation is the Law of Nature for arbitrary random fields of such type. The study clarifies the conditions under wh...
A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.
Romero-Maltrana, Diego; Benitez, Federico; Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo
There is an increasing demand in the field of science education for the incorporation of philosophical and sociological aspects that are related to the scientific enterprise in school curricula, to the extent that the incorporation of these aspects is now considered a necessity. Several of these aspects can be categorised within the framework of the nature of science, or NOS. We warn that a possible misinterpretation of the common view of NOS tenets can lead to epistemic relativism. We pay special attention to the empirical and objective nature of science because these important features, properly understood, can help eliminate subjective flaws and protect against relativism. Some of the epistemological concepts that are relevant to this discussion are disambiguated in an attempt to prevent the temptation to take views to an extreme, as has occurred in some cases. We expect this analysis to contribute to the extant literature by improving how science is presented in the classroom without oversimplifying scientific practice.
Hodson and Wong (2017, this issue) argue that, though the nature of science (NOS) is now an established focus of school science education and a key element in defining scientific literacy, "the consensus view" of NOS misrepresents contemporary scientific practice. They then propose a number of alternative approaches to science curriculum…
Roberts, Wendy P.
According to the National Science Education Standards (1996), science educators are challenged with the goal of educating future citizens and policy makers to make informed decisions concerning socio-scientific issues. Previous science education research has not explored the influence of science teachers' personal worldviews and values in achieving this educational goal. The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary science teachers' worldviews and values as they relate to nature and environmental education in their science classrooms. The participants' descriptions of their environmental personae and their perception of its influence in their classrooms were also examined. The participants represented a purposeful sample of twelve certified secondary school science teachers who teach in a suburban Atlanta, Georgia school. The study employed an interpretive, qualitative methodology using a constant comparative, inductive analysis design to develop grounded theory. Each participant's worldview, values, and environmental personae regarding the natural world and the environment were explored using William Cobern's (2000) Nature Card Sort instrument, responses to five environmental scenarios and individual interviews that addressed each participant's interpretation of the effect that personal worldviews and values have in their science classrooms. The participants' worldviews and values were disproportionately reflective of both science and society with far more weight given to the contextual values of society rather than the constitutive values of science. Most of these teachers had strong spiritual worldviews of nature; however, these views were of a Puritanical nature rather than Aboriginal. The participants felt conflicted about the appropriate course of action in many environmental issues. Contrary to other studies conducted in this field, there were few philosophical differences between teachers in the different disciplines of science, with the exception
Unterberg, Adele Phyllis
Described is a school-museum program which linked art and science through the study of small mammals and birds in relation to color, form, and communication. Art, audiovisual aids, research, readings, language, and communication were combined in this interdisciplinary program. (KC)
Dreyfus, Hubert L
Medicine is unique in being a combination of natural science and human science in which both are essential. Therefore, in order to make sense of medical practice, we need to begin by drawing a clear distinction between the natural and the human sciences. In this paper, I try to bring the old distinction between the Geistes and Naturwissenschaften up to date by defending the essential difference between a realist explanatory theoretical study of nature including the body in which the scientist discovers the causal properties of natural kinds and the interpretive understanding of human beings as embodied agents which, as Charles Taylor has convincingly argued, requires a hermeneutic account of self-interpreting human practices.
National Science Resources Center Project for Improving Science Teaching in Elementary Schools. Appendix A. School Systems With Exemplary Elementary Science Programs. Appendix B. Elementary Science Network
Glass, Lawrence, Deer Park High School Glass, Millard, K-12 Science Supervisor Bloomfield Municipal School District Glassman, Neil, Gleason, Steve...Superientendent Vaughn Municipal Schools Knop, Ronald N., Teacher Grissom Junior High School Knox, Amie, Director of Master Teacher Program W. Wilson...Science Supervisor Pequannock Township Public Schools Mercado , Roberto, Science Coordinator Colegio Radians, Inc. Merchant, Edwin, K-12 Science
Teacher conceptions in the area of Nature Sciences about the construction of interdisciplinarity in Polytechnic Intermediate Education: the contribution of faculty expertise to reality in two schools in Northern Rio Grande do Sul
Full Text Available High School education in Rio Grande do Sul underwent reformulations with the proposal for Polytechnic Intermediate Education suggested by the State Education Office. Overall, this proposal arose from the demand for improvements in elementary education, where High School education is concerned, and was implemented along the years of 2012, 2013 and 2014. Among the desired improvements was the need to overcome content education through interdisciplinarity and an integrated curriculum. Taking such changes into consideration – which implied the creation of knowledge areas, curricular restructuring, changes to the means of evaluation and the planning and teaching methodology presumptions – this article aims to report the path and results from research that proposed to investigate the manner in which interdisciplinarity began being constructed by educators in the area of Nature Sciences from faculty expertise. The methodology employed was of ethnographic research, that allowed to gather a wealth of data and opinions from the individuals investigated, namely nine teachers from the Nature Sciences area that encompasses the subjects of chemistry, physics and biology, from two intermediate education public schools in Northern Rio Grande do Sul. Data interpretation was carried out under the perspective of Discursive Textual Analysis and allowed for the identification of both the hurdles that made interdisciplinary construction and action unfeasible, such as lack of time for planning, and possible alternatives to overcome such hurdles, among which faculty expertise. From the discussion of those results, it can be observed that the proposal for Polytechnic High School provided space for the construction of the interdisciplinary praxis as well as for reflecting on and awareness building of its need, making it feasible from theoretic-methodological (reoptions on the part of the faculty in the bias of their expertise as such.
Srisawat, Akkarawat; Aiemsum-ang, Napapan; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This study was conducted on the effect of understanding and instruction of the nature of science of Ms. Wanida, a pre-service student under science education program in biology, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University. Wanida was a teaching practicum student majoring in biology at Khon Kaen University Demonstration School (Modindaeng). She was teaching biology for 38 Grade 10 students. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The study aimed to examine 1) Wanida's understanding of the nature of science, 2) Wanida's instruction of the nature of science, 3 students' understanding of the nature of science from Wanida's instruction, and 4) the effects of Wanida's understanding and instruction of the nature of science on students' understanding of the nature of science from Wanida's instruction. Tools of interpretation included teaching observation, a semi-structured interview, open-ended questionnaire, and an observation record form for the instruction of the nature of science. The data obtained was interpreted, encoded, and classified, using the descriptive statistics. The findings indicated that Wanida held good understanding of the nature of science. She could apply the deficient nature of science approach mostly, followed by the implicit nature of science approach. Unfortunately, she could not show her teaching as explicit nature of science. However, her students' the understanding of the nature of science was good.
Tosun, Cemal; Genç, Murat
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect the secondary school students' attitudes in science. This study was conducted using survey method. The sample of the study was 503 students from four different secondary schools in Bartin and Düzce. Data were obtained using the Survey of Factors Affecting Students' Science Attitudes…
people to that future. The double gestures continue in contemporary school reform and its sciences. ... understand their different cultural theses about cosmopolitan modes of life and the child cast out as different and ... Keywords: educational sciences; history of present; politics of schooling; reform; social inclusion/exclusion
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the implications flowing from adopting methodological naturalism in science, with special emphasis on the relation between science and religion. Methodological naturalism, denying supernatural and teleological explanations, influences the content of scientific theories, and in practice leads to vision of science as compatible with ontological naturalism and in opposition to theism. Ontological naturalism in turn justifies the acceptance of methodological naturalism as the best method to know the reality. If we accept realistic interpretation of scientific theories, then methodological naturalism conflicts science with religion. Theistic evolution does not seem to be a proper way to reconcile Darwinism and methodological naturalism with theism. Many of such propositions are boiled down to deism. Although evolution can be interpreted theistically, it is not the way in which majority of modern scientists and respectable scientific institutions understand it.
Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan
Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976
Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.
Planetary sciences can be used to introduce students to the natural world which is a part of their lives. Even children in an urban environment are aware of such phenomena as day and night, shadows, and the seasons. It is a science that transcends cultures, has been prominent in the news in recent years, and can generate excitement in young minds as no other science can. Planetary sciences also provides a useful tool for understanding other sciences and mathematics, and for developing problem solving skills which are important in our technological world. However, only 15 percent of elementary school teachers feel very well qualified to teach earth/space science, while better than 80 percent feel well qualified to teach reading; many teachers avoid teaching science; very little time is actually spent teaching science in the elementary school: 19 minutes per day in K-3 and 38 minutes per day in 4-6. While very little science is taught in elementary and middle school, earth/space science is taught at the elementary level in less than half of the states. It was pointed out that science is not generally given high priority by either teachers or school districts, and is certainly not considered on a par with language arts and mathematics. Therefore, in order to teach science to our youth, we must empower our teachers, making them familiar and comfortable with existing materials. In our earlier workshops, several of our teachers taught in classrooms where the majority of the students were Hispanic (over 90 percent). However, few space sciences materials existed in Spanish. Therefore, most of our materials could not be used effectively in the classroom. To address this issue, NASA materials were translated into Spanish and a series of workshops for bilingual classroom teachers from Tucson and surrounding cities was conducted. Our space sciences workshops and our bilingual classroom workshops and how they address the needs of elementary school teachers in Arizona are
Hackenberg, Mary; And Others
This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…
Waaijer C.J.F., van, Bochove C.A. van, Eck, N.J.P.
Bibliometric mapping of scientific articles based on keywords and technical terms in abstracts is now frequently used to chart scientific fields. In contrast, no significant mapping has been applied to the full texts of non-specialist documents. Editorials in Nature and Science are such non-specialist documents, reflecting the views of the two most read scientific journals on science, technology and policy issues. We use the VOSviewer mapping software to chart the topics of these editorials. ...
Scholars in science education advocate curriculum and instruction practices that reflect an understanding of the nature of science. This aspect of school science is an important component of scientific literacy, a primary goal of science education. Considering teaching as a thoughtful profession, there has been a growing research interest on the issue of the consistency between teacher beliefs and actions. Yet, the self-evident assumption that teachers' beliefs about the nature of science will impact on their classroom teaching actions has not been justified. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between science teaching actions and beliefs about the nature of science. Defining teacher beliefs as a broad construct, the researcher tried to examine not only teacher's cognitive understanding about the nature of science but also teachers' affect as well as actions with regard to the nature of science. Guiding research questions were as follows: (a) what are the teachers' beliefs about the nature of science; (b) how do the teachers, pedagogical actions reflect their beliefs about the nature of science; and (c) what are the other referent beliefs that mediate the teachers, pedagogical actions within a local school culture. The methodology of this study was an interpretive, qualitative approach that included multiple sources of data, interviews, classroom observations, and instructional materials. Six science teachers from a secondary school located in a rural area of the southeastern US were chosen by convenience. The cross-case study and the grounded theory study designs were adopted as the data analysis process. The constant comparative analysis method was used to generate the emerging themes for this study. This study revealed a gap between these teachers' personal beliefs of the nature of science and the concepts of the nature of science suggested by many researchers. These teachers' personal beliefs about the nature of science have been
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…
Chiovitti, Anthony; Duncan, Jacinta C; Jabbar, Abdul
Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oct 15, 2010 ... Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in ...
Guy M. Robinson
Full Text Available This is the introduction to the Ecology and Society special feature on "Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management". Primarily drawing upon examples from Australia, the nine papers in the feature illustrate how landscape science seeks to integrate information from diverse sources to generate management solutions for implementation by individual land managers, communities, and governments at different levels. This introduction refers to the genesis of the feature, briefly outlines the nature and content of landscape science, and then summarizes key features of the nine papers. These are organized into two sections: one deals with inputs from human agents in the landscape, and one with the development of models enabling different management scenarios and environmental changes to be envisaged, understood, and applied to policy development.
Out-of-school science educational activities, such as school visits to a science center, aim at stimulating pupils’ science talent. Science talent is a developmental potential that takes the form of talented behaviors such as curiosity and conceptual understanding. This dissertation investigates
Out-of-school science educational activities, such as school visits to a science center, aim at stimulating pupils’ science talent. Science talent is a developmental potential that takes the form of talented behaviors such as curiosity and conceptual understanding. This dissertation investigates
The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...
Narasimhan, T N
Historically, science has pursued a premise that Nature can be understood fully, its future predicted precisely, and its behavior controlled at will. However, emerging knowledge indicates that the nature of Earth and biological systems transcends the limits of science, questioning the premise of knowing, prediction, and control. This knowledge has led to the recognition that, for civilized human survival, technological society has to adapt to the constraints of these systems. Simultaneously, spurred by explosive developments in the understanding of materials (non-biological and biological), applied scientific research pursues a contrary goal of controlling the material world, with the promise of spectacular economic growth and human well-being. If adaptation to Nature is so important, why does applied research pursue a contrary course? Adapting to Nature requires a recognition of the limitations of science, and espousal of human values. Although the concept of adapting to Nature is accepted by some, especially conservation ecologists, such an acceptance may not exist in other fields. Also, in a world dominated by democratic ideals of freedom and liberty, the discipline required for adapting to Nature may often be overridden by competition among various segments of society to exercise their respective rights. In extreme cases of catastrophic failure of Earth or biological systems, the imperative for adaptation may fall victim to instinct for survival. In essence, although adequate scientific know-how and technological competence exists to facilitate adaptation to Nature, choosing between that and the pursuit of controlling Nature entails human judgment. What that choice may be when humans have to survive under severe environmental stress cannot be predicted
Narasimhan, T N [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 210 Hearst Memorial Mining Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1760 (United States)
Historically, science has pursued a premise that Nature can be understood fully, its future predicted precisely, and its behavior controlled at will. However, emerging knowledge indicates that the nature of Earth and biological systems transcends the limits of science, questioning the premise of knowing, prediction, and control. This knowledge has led to the recognition that, for civilized human survival, technological society has to adapt to the constraints of these systems. Simultaneously, spurred by explosive developments in the understanding of materials (non-biological and biological), applied scientific research pursues a contrary goal of controlling the material world, with the promise of spectacular economic growth and human well-being. If adaptation to Nature is so important, why does applied research pursue a contrary course? Adapting to Nature requires a recognition of the limitations of science, and espousal of human values. Although the concept of adapting to Nature is accepted by some, especially conservation ecologists, such an acceptance may not exist in other fields. Also, in a world dominated by democratic ideals of freedom and liberty, the discipline required for adapting to Nature may often be overridden by competition among various segments of society to exercise their respective rights. In extreme cases of catastrophic failure of Earth or biological systems, the imperative for adaptation may fall victim to instinct for survival. In essence, although adequate scientific know-how and technological competence exists to facilitate adaptation to Nature, choosing between that and the pursuit of controlling Nature entails human judgment. What that choice may be when humans have to survive under severe environmental stress cannot be predicted.
This article is a response to Carolina Castano's article "Extending the purposes of science education." Drawing on personal memories of life in Bogotá, I raise questions about the nature of violence in Colombia broadly, and ask how the intervention Castano proposes changes the ecology of violence in that country. It also ponders the relationship between schools, science, and violence. In conclusion it urges that science educators follow Castano's recommendation to make science education responsive to local community needs rather than standardized visions of education.
Museos escolares, colecciones y la enseñanza elemental de las ciencias naturales en la Argentina de fines del siglo XIX School museums, collections, and elementary teaching of the natural sciences in late XIX century Argentina
Susana V. García
Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la organización de la enseñanza de las ciencias naturales en el contexto escolar argentino a partir de las prácticas de enseñanza y los soportes materiales que se promovieron a fines del siglo XIX. En esa época, funcionarios escolares y profesores fomentaron la modernización y nacionalización de la enseñanza a partir del uso de colecciones con ejemplares del territorio nacional y la formación de museos en las escuelas. En particular, se examinan los debates oficiales sobre las colecciones mineralógicas ofrecidas en venta por el naturalista Enrique de Carlés y los "museos escolares" de los profesores Pedro Scalabrini y Guillermo Navarro que dan cuenta de las tensiones entre procurar materiales didácticos modernos, asociados a los modelos extranjeros, y la importancia de contar con elementos representativos de la naturaleza e industria nacional.In this study we analyze the organization of natural science teaching within the Argentinian school context starting with teaching practices and material support in the late XIX century. By that time, school staff and teachers fostered modernization and nationalization of teaching by using collections with national issues and the foundation of museums within the schools. In particular, we examine the official debates over the mineralogical collections offered for sale by the naturalist Enrique de Carlés, and the "school museums" by professors Pedro Scalabrini and Guillermo Navarro. These account for the tension between searching for modern didactic materials associated with foreign models, and the importance of counting on elements that represented the country nature and industry.
Terrill, Laura Anne
This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and curricular guides. These data were analyzed to understand how the camp represented the human-environment relationship and the "proper" human-environment relationship to its participants. Analysis indicated that the camp's official and enacted curriculum was shaped in response to two perceived problems, (1) students were perceived as having a disconnected relationship with the outdoors and lacking in outdoor experiences; and (2) staff members of the camp believed that time for science during the school day had diminished and that students were not receiving adequate science instruction at school. In response, the goal of the camp was to connect students to the outdoors through hands-on, sensory, experience based science and outdoor education experiences. However, key aspects of the camp experience and the formal and enacted curriculum unintentionally positioned students as separate from nature. The camp experience presented a vacation like understanding of the human-environment relationship as students became tourists of the outdoors. Despite the site's goal of connecting students to the outdoors, the science camp experience worked to distance students from the outdoors by unintentionally representing the outdoors as a place that existed away from home and students' everyday lives. Notably, nature became a place that existed in the past, separate from modernity. Students were tourists in an exotic location - nature. They received tours of the foreign outdoors, had fun, and returned home to their ordinary lives that were separate and distinct from the natural world.
Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)
The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).
The current research is a descriptive study in which a survey model was used. The research involved chemistry (n = 26), physics (n = 27), and biology (n = 29) teachers working in Science High Schools and Anatolian High Schools in Turkey. An inventory that consisted of seven questions was designed to ascertain what teachers' think about the…
Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha
This paper presents results from the evaluation of the Nurture thru Nature (NtN) programme, a natural science and environmental education intervention designed to help elementary school children from disadvantaged backgrounds increase their knowledge of science and strengthen overall academic performance. Using an experimental design the pilot NtN…
Pye, J David
We humans cannot see when light is polarized and this leads to unfortunate misapprehensions about this aspect of nature. Even scientists who should know better often assume that it is an obscure topic of specialized interest in only a few rather isolated areas. In fact, it is a universal feature of our world and most natural light is at least partially polarized. In the animal kingdom, insects and other animals exploit such natural polarization in some fascinating ways since they do not share this human deficiency and can both detect and analyze polarization. It may be our unfamiliarity with this aspect of light that also makes people think it is a difficult subject, yet the basis is extremely simple. When these misconceptions are overcome, the phenomena associated with polarization are found to be important throughout science and technology, from physics, astronomy, natural history, geology, chemistry, and several branches of engineering to crafts such as glass-blowing and jewelry. Polarized light also invol...
Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R.
Abstract There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research–related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. Key Words: Science education—School science—Creativity—Nature and processes of science—Attitudes—Astrobiology. Astrobiology 12, 1143–1153. PMID:23134090
This is the first issue of natural sciences series of Bulletin of Kazak State National University published in English. The objective of the publication is to make scientific ideas and pratical experience of scientists of the University available for the world wide scientific community. This set of articles reflects the curriculum of the University and includes papers on Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geography. More specifically the papers deal with various aspects of relativity theory, gravitation and quantum mechanics; heat-mass transfer phenomena; physics of plasma; solid state physics and material sciences; theoretical and nuclear physics and physics of cosmic rays; chemistry of polymers; medical materials; oil chemistry and processing; physiology and biochemistry, genetics and biotechnology; assessment of anthroprogenic impact on environment and landscapes; environment friendly industry and agriculture, wise use of natural resources
Mansurov, Z A [ed.
This is the first issue of natural sciences series of Bulletin of Kazak State National University published in English. The objective of the publication is to make scientific ideas and pratical experience of scientists of the University available for the world wide scientific community. This set of articles reflects the curriculum of the University and includes papers on Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geography. More specifically the papers deal with various aspects of relativity theory, gravitation and quantum mechanics; heat-mass transfer phenomena; physics of plasma; solid state physics and material sciences; theoretical and nuclear physics and physics of cosmic rays; chemistry of polymers; medical materials; oil chemistry and processing; physiology and biochemistry, genetics and biotechnology; assessment of anthroprogenic impact on environment and landscapes; environment friendly industry and agriculture, wise use of natural resources
Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; van Bochove, Cornelis A; van Eck, Nees Jan
Bibliometric mapping of scientific articles based on keywords and technical terms in abstracts is now frequently used to chart scientific fields. In contrast, no significant mapping has been applied to the full texts of non-specialist documents. Editorials in Nature and Science are such non-specialist documents, reflecting the views of the two most read scientific journals on science, technology and policy issues. We use the VOSviewer mapping software to chart the topics of these editorials. A term map and a document map are constructed and clusters are distinguished in both of them. The validity of the document clustering is verified by a manual analysis of a sample of the editorials. This analysis confirms the homogeneity of the clusters obtained by mapping and augments the latter with further detail. As a result, the analysis provides reliable information on the distribution of the editorials over topics, and on differences between the journals. The most striking difference is that Nature devotes more attention to internal science policy issues and Science more to the political influence of scientists. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11192-010-0205-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.; Hinners, S.
In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an 'alteration' or 'disturbance' to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the 'middle nature' proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of 'actively transforming nature into culture.' It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles and Salt Lake City from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native
The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2017v14n2p19 Faced with contemporary issues that call into question the boundaries between nature and culture, man and machine, society and environment, cinema is taken here as a guide for reflection on modern science by Bergson and Deleuze’s texts, among other authors. Operating the passage from science to art and from art to science, cinema is here considered as a technical object and technical object as instrument to magnify perception. To highlight the artificiality of these borders, Newton's gravitational law is presented in its physical and metaphysical implications by the writings of Betty Dobbs and Newton himself. Through the lens of cinema, especially on movies such as 2001 A Space Odyssey, by Stanley Kubrick and Out of the present, by Andrei Ujica, the article shows that the power of cinema contributes to the perception that dimensions of science, which go beyond their alliances with the State and the market, are relevant to the challenges on the horizon of the 21’s century.
McComas, William F.
The nature of science (NOS) is a phrase used to represent the rules of the game of science. Arguably, NOS is the most important content issue in science instruction because it helps students understand the way in which knowledge is generated and validated within the scientific enterprise. This article offers a proposal for the elements of NOS that…
Roč. 33, č. 1 (2011), s. 145-157 ISSN 0950-0693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Scientific literacy * International comparative studies * Interest in science Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2011
Burgess, Christiana J.
Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.
of school science. Classrooms together with the new technological tools that are being used are places that fabricate and (re)align how young people see themselves in science and form their subjectivity in relation to society’s core values and rationalities and are embodied in primary science education...... in science classrooms. The findings suggest that digital tools used in classrooms expand not only the means of teaching and learning science but represent spaces for the emergence, negotiation and struggle of different forms of subjectivities.......It has been repeatedly argued that young people need to acquire science knowledge, skills and competencies, so that future economies can maintain social welfare, economic growth and international competitiveness. However, the attainment of understanding in science is not the only importance...
Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.
To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers
Adams, Jennifer D.; Gupta, Preeti; DeFelice, Amy
In this metalogue we build on the arguments presented by Puvirajah, Verma and Webb to discuss the nature of authentic science learning experiences in context of collaborations between schools and out-of-school time settings. We discuss the role of stakeholders in creating collaborative science learning practices and affordances of out of school…
Dorph, Rena; Schunn, Christian D.; Crowley, Kevin
The Coalition for Science After School highlights the dual nature of outcomes for science learning during out-of- school time (OST): Learning experiences should not only be positive in the moment, but also position youth for future success. Several frameworks speak to the first set of immediate outcomes--what youth learn, think, and feel as the…
Recent science education standards emphasize the importance of the instruction of nature of science (NOS) concepts at all levels of schooling from pre-K to K-12. Delivering a proper NOS education to students is excessively dependent on their teachers with an adequate understanding of NOS concepts. The present study investigated the science…
Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling
Although the goal of developing school students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) has long been advocated, there is still a lack of research that focuses on probing how science teachers, a kind of major stakeholder in NOS instruction, perceive the values of teaching NOS. Through semi-structured interviews, this study investigated the views…
Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…
Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar
The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…
Azizah, Nur; Mudzakir, Ahmad
The study was carried out to reconstruct the science teaching materials charged view of the nature of science (VNOS). This reconstruction process using the Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER), which is the framework for research and development of science education as well as a guide for planning the teaching of science in the schools is limited in two stages, namely: content structure analysis, and empirical studies of learners. The purpose of this study is to obtain a pre-conception of learners and prospective scientists to the topic of the nature of the material and utilization. The method used to descriptive with the instruments is guidelines for interviews for 15 students of class VIII, text analysis sheet, sheet analysis of the concept, and the validation sheet indicators and learning objectives NOS charged on cognitive and affective aspects. The results obtained in the form of pre-conceptions of learners who demonstrate almost 100% of students know the types of materials and some of its nature, the results of the scientist's perspective on the topic of the nature of the material and its use, as well as the results of the validation indicators and learning objectives charged NOS and competencies PISA 2015 cognitive and affective aspects with CVI value of 0.99 and 1.0 after being validated by five experts. This suggests that the indicators and the resulting learning objectives feasible and can proceed to the reconstruction of teaching materials on the topic of material properties and utilization.
Full Text Available The early sixties saw the rise of more an d more schools of thought which came to question the accepted paradigm in the philosophy of science from the 1920’s, i.e. logical positivism. What started as a “ normal” clash of opinions, eventually developed into, as R.F. Baum called it, the “ crisis of the m odern intellect”. No less th an the objectivity o r rationality of scientific knowledge became the issue under discussion. On the one hand Kuhn, Feyerabend, et. al. rejected the positivists’ conception of rationality as being a reduction of the original meaning of human rationality. According to the “ new philosophy of science” rationality has been reduced to logical or methodological computability, thereby neglecting the essential factor of human deliberation and judgement as the essence of human rational behaviour. Logical positivists replied by labelling Kuhn’s new emphasis on subjective factors in the scientific endeavour as “ irrationalistic” and ’’relativistic”.
Full Text Available This study shares the findings of a school-based Action Research project to explore how inquiry-based science practical lessons designed using the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS classroom pedagogical model influence the way students learn scientific knowledge and also students' development of 21st century competencies, in particular, in the area of Knowledge Construction. Taking on a broader definition of the flipped classroom pedagogical model, the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework adopts a structure that inverted the traditional science learning experience. Scientific knowledge is constructed through discussions with their peers, making use of their prior knowledge and their experiences while engaging in hands-on activities. Through the study, it is found that with the use of the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework, learning experiences that are better aligned to the epistemology of science while developing 21st century competencies in students are created.
Eric J. Chaisson
Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.
Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.
Mathematics and its relation to the physical universe have been the topic of speculation since the days of Pythagoras. Several different views of the nature of mathematics have been considered: Realism—mathematics exists and is discovered; Logicism—all mathematics may be deduced through pure logic; Formalism—mathematics is just the manipulation of formulas and rules invented for the purpose; Intuitionism—mathematics comprises mental constructs governed by self evident rules. The debate among the several schools has major importance in understanding what Eugene Wigner called, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences. In return, this `Unreasonable Effectiveness' suggests a possible resolution of the debate in favor of Realism. The crucial element is the extraordinary predictive capacity of mathematical structures descriptive of physical theories.
Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The present study aimed to address this gap, using a mixed methods design. Qualitative interview data were collected from 60 Hong Kong junior secondary school students, who were asked to describe the nature of their interest in science lessons and the factors to which they attribute this. Teacher interviews, parent interviews, and classroom observations were conducted to triangulate student interview data. Five factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons were identified: situational influences in science lessons, individual interest in science, science self-concept, grade level, and gender. Quantitative data were then collected from 591 students using a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was applied to test a hypothesised model, which provided an acceptable fit to the student data. The strongest factor affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons was science self-concept, followed by individual interest in science and situational influences in science lessons. Grade level and gender were found to be nonsignificant factors. These findings suggest that teachers should pay special attention to the association between academic self-concept and interest if they want to motivate students to learn science at school.
The purpose of the Natural Science Institute for Teachers of Minority Students is to enhance the science knowledge and skills of grades four through twelve science teachers in the District of Columbia Public Schools. The Institute brings school teachers together with practicing scientists and experienced science educators who are currently doing or involved in research and publication, especially in the area of global change. Special emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary nature of science and the part played by the understanding and teaching about the dynamics of the environment and global change. In addition to these goals, teachers will learn a number of successful alternate strategies for teaching science to minority, disabled and non-English speaking students.
Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett
Scientific literacy is a central goal of science education. One purpose of this investigation was to reevaluate the definition of 'scientific literacy.' Another purpose was to develop and implement new curriculum involving natural history experiments with insects, with the goal of allowing students opportunities to construct an understanding of the nature of science, a crucial aspect of scientific literacy. This investigation was a qualitative case study. Methods of data collection included direct observations, analysis of sketches and written products created by students and class-room teachers, and analysis of audio tapes. Major findings include: (1) Scientific literacy is generally defined by lists of factual information which students are expected to master. When asked to evaluate their knowledge of selected items on a list published in a science education reform curriculum guide, 15 practicing scientists reported lack of familiarity or comprehension with many items, with the exception of items within their areas of specialization. (2) Genuine natural history experiments using insects can be incorporated into the existing school schedule and need not require any increase in the budget for science materials. (3) Students as young as first through third grade can learn the manual techniques and conceptual skills necessary for designing and conducting original natural history experiments, including manipulating the insects, making accurate sketches, developing test able hypotheses, recording data, and drawing conclusions from their data. Students were generally enthusiastic both about working with live insects and also conducting genuine science experiments. (4) Girls appear both positive and engaged with natural history activities and may be more likely than boys to follow through on designing, conducting, and reporting on independent experiments. The results imply that a valid definition of scientific literacy should be based on the ability to acquire scientific
Wilujeng, Insih; Zuhdan Kun, P.; Suryadarma, IGP.
The research concerned here examined the effectiveness of science learning conducted with local potential as basis from the point of a review of the NoS (nature of science) achieved. It used the non equivalent control group design and took place in the regions of Magelang and Pati, Province of Central Java, and the regions of Bantul and Sleman, Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research population consisted of students of the first and second grades at each junior high school chosen with research subjects sampled by means of cluster sampling. The instruments used included: a) an observation sheet, b) a written test, and c) a questionnaire. The learning and research instruments had been declared valid and reliable according to previous developmental research. In conclusion, the science learning based on local potential was effective in terms of all the NoS aspects.
Brooks, Kristine M.
nature of science and what is the balance of ethnic diversity in the participants in science (students and scientists) in physical science textbooks? To establish an answer to these questions, this investigation used content analysis. For the balance of the four aspects of the nature of science, the analysis was conducted on random page samples of five physical science textbooks. A random sampling of the pages within the physical science textbooks should be sufficient to represent the content of the textbooks (Garcia, 1985). For the balance of ethnic diversity of the participants in science, the analysis was conducted on all pictures or drawings of students and scientists within the content of the five textbooks. One of these IPC books is under current use in a large, local school district and the other four were published during the same, or similar, year. Coding procedures for the sample used two sets of coders. One set of coders have previously analyzed for the nature of science in a study on middle school science textbooks (Phillips, 2006) and the coders for ethnic diversity are public school teachers who have worked with ethnically diverse students for over ten years. Both sets of coders were trained and the reliability of their coding checked before coding the five textbooks. To check for inter-coder reliability, percent agreement, Cohen's kappa and Krippendorff's alpha were calculated. The results from this study indicate that science as a body of knowledge and science as a way of investigating are the prevalent themes of the nature of science in the five physical science textbooks. This investigation also found that there is an imbalance in the ethnic diversity of students and scientists portrayed within the chapters of the physical science textbooks studied. This imbalance reflects ratios that are neither equally balanced nor in align with the U.S. Census. Given that textbooks are the main sources of information in most classrooms, the imbalance of the nature of
Improving the quality of science teaching is one of the greatest concerns in recent science education reform efforts. Many science educators suggest that case studies of exemplary science teachers may provide guidance for these reform efforts. For this reason, the characteristics of exemplary science teaching practices have been identified in recent years. However, the literature lacks research exploring exemplary teacher beliefs about the nature of science and science pedagogy, the relationships between their beliefs and practices, or how outstanding teachers overcome difficulties in order to facilitate their students' science learning. In this study, Sam-Yu, an identified exemplary science teacher who teaches in an elementary school in Pintung, Taiwan, was the subject. An interpretative research design (Erickson, 1986) based on principles of naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) was used. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed in this case study. The qualitative method involved conducting interviews with the teacher and students, observing classroom activities and analyzing the structure of the learning materials. The quantitative methods involved using the Learning Climate Inventory (LCI) (Lin, 1997) instrument to assess the learning environment of the exemplary science classroom. This study found that Sam-Yu had a blend of views on the nature of science and a varied knowledge about science pedagogy. Personal preferences, past experiences, and the national science curriculum all played important roles in the development and refinement of Sam-Yu's beliefs about science and pedagogy. Regarding his teaching practices, Sam-Yu provided the best learning experiences, as evidenced in both classroom observations and the survey results, for his students by using a variety of strategies. In addition, his classroom behaviors were highly associated with his beliefs about science and pedagogy. However, due to school-based and socio-cultural constraints
With the unifying theme of abstract evolutionary equations, both linear and nonlinear, in a complex environment, the book presents a multidisciplinary blend of topics, spanning the fields of theoretical and applied functional analysis, partial differential equations, probability theory and numerical analysis applied to various models coming from theoretical physics, biology, engineering and complexity theory. The unique features of the book are: the first simultaneous presentation of two complementary approaches to fragmentation and coagulation problems, by weak compactness methods and by using semigroup techniques, comprehensive exposition of probabilistic methods of analysis of long term dynamics of dynamical systems, semigroup analysis of biological problems and cutting edge pattern formation theory. The book will appeal to postgraduate students and researchers specializing in applications of mathematics to problems arising in natural sciences and engineering.
Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling; Zhan, Ying
Nature of science (NOS) is beginning to find its place in the science education in China. In a study which investigated Chinese science teacher educators' conceptions of teaching NOS to prospective science teachers through semi-structured interviews, five key dimensions emerged from the data. This paper focuses on the dimension, "NOS content…
This article explores recent developments in the field of science and technology, and the work of Bruno Latour in particular, to problematize the nature of Nature in science education. Although science and technology studies, and the scholarship on science education alike, have become increasingly attentive to the antidemocratic habits of science…
Rosen, Steven M
Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Thao-Do, Thi Phuong; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Scholars proved nature of science (NOS) has made certain contributions to science teaching and learning. Nonetheless, what, how and how much NOS should be integrated in the science curriculum of each country cannot be a benchmark, due to the influence of culture and society. Before employing NOS in a new context, it should be carefully studied. In assessing views of NOS in Vietnam, a developing country with Eastern culture where the NOS is not consider a compulsory learning outcome, there are several issues that researchers and educators should notice to develop an appropriate instrument that can clearly exhibit a NOS view of Vietnamese. They may include: time for the survey; length, content, type, and terms of the questionnaire; Vietnamese epistemology and philosophy; and some other Vietnamese social and cultural aspects. The most important reason for these considerations is that a Vietnamese view of NOS and NOS assessment possibly differs from the Western ideas due to the social and cultural impact. As a result, a Western assessment tool may become less effective in an Eastern context. The suggestions and implications in this study were derived from a prolonged investigation on Vietnamese science teacher educators and student teachers of School of Education, at Can Tho University, a State University in Mekong Delta region, Vietnam.
Miller, Marie C Desaulniers; Montplaisir, Lisa M; Offerdahl, Erika G; Cheng, Fu-Chih; Ketterling, Gerald L
Science educators have the common goal of helping students develop scientific literacy, including understanding of the nature of science (NOS). University faculties are challenged with the need to develop informed NOS views in several major student subpopulations, including science majors and nonscience majors. Research into NOS views of undergraduates, particularly science majors, has been limited. In this study, NOS views of undergraduates in introductory environmental science and upper-level animal behavior courses were measured using Likert items and open-ended prompts. Analysis revealed similarities in students' views between the two courses; both populations held a mix of naïve, transitional, and moderately informed views. Comparison of pre- and postcourse mean scores revealed significant changes in NOS views only in select aspects of NOS. Student scores on sections addressing six aspects of NOS were significantly different in most cases, showing notably uninformed views of the distinctions between scientific theories and laws. Evidence-based insight into student NOS views can aid in reforming undergraduate science courses and will add to faculty and researcher understanding of the impressions of science held by undergraduates, helping educators improve scientific literacy in future scientists and diverse college graduates.
Determinants of educational achievement extend beyond the school environment to include the home environment. Both environments provide tangible and intangible resources to students that can influence science achievement. South Africa provides a context where inequalities in socio-economic status are vast, thus the ...
Ángel Vázquez Alonso
Full Text Available Artificial and natural environments constitute an extensive educational resource in whose framework the basic experiences that contribute to the development process of human beings occur. These experiences are the source of previous knowledge that students bring to school and that are key for building scientific school learning. This article reports the results of a study that addresses out-of-school experiences related to science and technology, through the application of an inventory list to a sample of students who were in their last year of compulsory education. The results show a relatively low overall frequency of experiences, characterized by some qualitative and quantitative differences according to a few grouping variables such as gender, the choice of an elective science subject, and different scientific topics and disciplines. In spite of its importance for learning, the school curriculum often ignores students’ previous experiences. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for developing a more equitable science and technology curriculum, from a perspective of a universal, humanistic science education.
Tobin, Kenneth; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Zimmermann, Andrea
Teaching in urban schools, with their problems of violence, lack of resources, and inadequate funding, is difficult. It is even more difficult to learn to teach in urban schools. Yet learning in those locations where one will subsequently be working has been shown to be the best preparation for teaching. In this article we propose coteaching as a viable model for teacher preparation and the professional development of urban science teachers. Coteaching - working at the elbow of someone else - allows new teachers to experience appropriate and timely action by providing them with shared experiences that become the topic of their professional conversations with other coteachers (including peers, the cooperating teacher, university supervisors, and high school students). This article also includes an ethnography describing the experiences of a new teacher who had been assigned to an urban high school as field experience, during which she enacted a curriculum that was culturally relevant to her African American students, acknowledged their minority status with respect to science, and enabled them to pursue the school district standards. Even though coteaching enables learning to teach and curricula reform, we raise doubts about whether our approaches to teacher education and enacting science curricula are hegemonic and oppressive to the students we seek to emancipate through education.
Full Text Available This ethnographic study is about the case of a Mexican primary school whose main reference for developing their classes is the Official Textbook, distributed by the government to all the students in the country. It analyzed the process of meaning construction by which teacher and students transform the curricular content of the textbook, in order to show how they produce local school science. For the analysis we incorporated several theoretical and methodological contributions of a multimodal perspective (Kress et al; 2001; Kress et al; 2005. From this perspective, on one hand, the textbook is considered as a multimodal complex of signs that has potential meanings related with the natural science and, on the other hand, teacher and students are viewed as active meaning producers. It is showed that although the classes are developed as the textbook suggests, teacher and students involve diverse resources of communication and representation (semiotic modes for making particular meanings and constructing a local version of school science. This article is written in Spanish.
Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Colson, M.; Courtier, A. M. B.; Jacobs, B. E.
As states begin to review their standards, some adopt or adapt the NGSS and others write their own, many basing these on the Framework for K-12 Science Education. Both the NGSS and the Frameworks have an increased emphasis on Earth Science but many high school teachers are being asked to teach these standards in traditional Biology, Chemistry and Physics courses. At the Earth Educators Rendezvous, teachers, scientists, and science education researchers worked together to find the interconnections between the sciences using the NGSS and identified ways to reference the role of Earth Sciences in the other sciences during lectures, activities and laboratory assignments. Weaving Earth and Space sciences into the other curricular areas, the teams developed relevant problems for students to solve by focusing on using current issues, media stories, and community issues. These and other lessons and units of study will be presented along with other resources used by teachers to ensure students are gaining exposure and a deeper understanding of Earth and Space Science concepts.
Wayne, James J.
Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...
Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat
The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…
George, Anna Ray Bayless
A study was conducted to determine the relationship between the credentials held by science teachers who taught at a school that administered the Science Texas Assessment on Knowledge and Skills (Science TAKS), the state standardized exam in science, at grade 11 and student performance on a state standardized exam in science administered in grade 11. Years of teaching experience, teacher certification type(s), highest degree level held, teacher and school demographic information, and the percentage of students who met the passing standard on the Science TAKS were obtained through a public records request to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and the State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC). Analysis was performed through the use of canonical correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis indicate that a larger percentage of students met the passing standard on the Science TAKS state attended schools in which a large portion of the high school science teachers held post baccalaureate degrees, elementary and physical science certifications, and had 11-20 years of teaching experience.
Ferrero, Elena; Magagna, Alessandra
In the last decades, the awareness of the role of geoscientists in the society increased, while a deeper awareness of the importance of an ethical behavior developed in the geoscientists professional work, in the communication with the public, in the students and teachers training. Recently, the scientific contributions on geoethics have increased, as well as the organization of special scientific sessions in important international congresses, consolidated by the publication of significant synthesis, proceedings of conferences, special issues of prestigious journals of Geosciences. Starting from these assumptions, considering that geoethic involves widespread interests of different cultural fields, it is proposed a review of training activities related to Natural Hazards developed at the University of Turin, in collaboration with other institutions and authorities of Piemonte region (Italy). Different activities will be exposed, based on the same goals and methods, shared within an interdisciplinary research group. A few examples of these activities will be mentioned belonging to institutional training (courses and university laboratories, thesis and doctoral dissertations, graduate schools for teachers training, masters and seminars), but also collaboration with Natural History Museums and Natural Parks of the Piemonte region, as well as occasional workshops proposed in conferences, seminars developed with Teachers Associations, single didactic proposals offered in schools. These activities include, as an example, events of tsunami in the Pacific Ocean, floods and slopes instability events, abandoned waste and interference with soil and groundwater, risk of degradation of fossil localities etc. These proposals were structured in order to carry out didactic research on students' misconceptions, on the conceptual difficulties of certain topics, on the skills of abstraction required: some relevant concepts are extremely difficult to conceive, as it happens
Full Text Available Currently many children in early childhood education cannot be accommodated in provincial department schools. Consequently, different non-governmental institutions offer Grade R programmes in an attempt to support the DBE. Pre-primary schools that traditionally took responsibility for early childhood education also offer Grade R education. The recent policy decision to include Grade R in the primary school is an innovation, which is still in its infancy. It is against this background that the national South African Curriculum (NCS has to be implemented. This paper focuses on the teaching of natural science in Grade R and attempts to determine if the teaching and learning of natural science has different outcomes in the different contexts described above. An oral questionnaire was administered to capture children’s understanding of natural science phenomena, while interviews provided data with regard to teachers’ understanding of natural science in the foundation phase. The results show that there are differences in children’s understanding of natural phenomena in the different contexts and these differences are related to teachers’ understanding of the curriculum, as well as their views of the nature of science.
I Wayan Winaja
Full Text Available Learning should be focused on the social and cultural development of intellectual ability, and encourage the learner’s comprehension and knowledge in order to produce intelligent and educated society. From the data collected from Public Senior High School 1 Denpasar and Dwijendra Senior High School Denpasar, it was found that the departments of social sciences and languages were seriously marginalized, indicated by the time allocated for social sciences and languages. The time allocated for Natural Sciences such as chemistry, physics, and biology averaged three hours a week. The additional ‘extra’ time allocated for Natural Sciences made the overall time allocated for them double the overall time allocated for Social Sciences such as economics, history sociology, and geography. Furthermore, the time allocated for one of them was one hour a week. The knowledge presented by the books of Natural Sciences was highly “instrumentalist-positivistic”; unlike the books of social sciences which only provided academic normative information. The modernity contained in “instrumentative positivism” was the philosophy which gave more priority to practical things and hard work with financial success as the main criterion. It was concluded that the marginalization of the departments of social sciences and languages in Public Senior High School 1 Denpasar and Dwijendra Senior High School Denpasar resulted from modernism, the culture of image, and the image that natural sciences were more advantageous than social sciences and languages.
A student from the Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys in Kent (UK) has developed an app that displays data recorded by Medipix chips. Created for Android-based devices, the app is a new way for students to visualize the natural radiation in their local area. James Hurst shows off the Medipix chips at his school's stand at the UK's Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition. James Hurst, 17, developed the app in the framework of the CERN@school project that Becky Parker, a former participant in CERN’s High School Teachers (HST) programme, set up in 2008. “The app is able to display pre-recorded data in both graphic and numeric formats,” explains James. “I am already envisaging further developments, which might include producing the iOS version and eventually a live data-taking system.” CLEAR (Comprehensive Langton Evaluation and Analysis of Radiation), as it is named, will soon be available free from the Android Market toget...
Saif, Abdulsalam Dale Amer
This study aims to investigate the views of Saudi Science Teachers in Najran district about the nature of science (NOS). A questionnaire of fourteen items was developed and administered to a sample of 83 science teachers. The questionnaire covers five aspects of the nature of science which are: scientific theories and models; role of scientists;…
Full Text Available In this short inquiry I would like to defend the statement that exact science deals with the explanation of models, but not with the understanding (comprehending of nature. By the word ‘nature’ I mean nature as physis (as a self-moving and self-developing living organism to which humans also belong, not nature as natura naturata (as a nonevolving creature created by someone or something. The Estonian philosopher of science Rein Vihalemm (2008 has shown with his conception of phi-science (φ-science that exact science is itself an idealized model or theoretical object derived from Galilean mathematical physics.
Aiemsum-ang, Napapan; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This paper aimed to investigate the existing ideas of nature of science (NOS) teaching in Thailand biology classroom. The study reported the existing ideas of nature of science (NOS) teaching of one biology teacher Mrs. Mali who had been teaching for 6 years at in a school in Khon Kaen city. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Tools of interpretation included 2 months of classroom observation, interviewing, and questionnaire of NOS. The findings revealed Mali held good understanding of the nature of science in the aspect of the use of evidence, the aspect of knowledge inquiry through different observation and deduction, the aspect of creativity and imagination influencing science knowledge inquiry, and the aspect of changeable scientific knowledge. Her biology teaching indicated that she used both the deficient nature of science approach and the implicit nature of science approach. The implicit nature of science approach was applied mostly in 7 periods and only 2 periods were arranged using the deficient nature of science approach. The paper has implication for professional development and pre-service program on NOS teaching in Thailand.
The hallmarks of the proposed school in the University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad,India, would be synergy, inclusivity and globalism. The School will use the synergy between the earth (including oceanic and atmospheric realms), space and information sciences to bridge the digital divide, and promote knowledge-driven and job-led economic development of the country. It will endeavour to (i) provide the basic science underpinnings for Space and Information Technologies, (ii) develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources (water, soils, sediments, minerals, biota, etc.)in ecologically-sustainable, employment-generating and economically-viable ways, (iii) mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards through preparedness systems,etc. The School will undertake research in the inter-disciplinary areas of earth and space sciences (e.g. climate predictability, satellite remote sensing of soil moisture) and linking integrative science with the needs of the decision makers. It will offer a two-year M.Tech. (four semesters, devoted to Theory, Tools, Applications and Dissertation, respectively ) course in Earth and Space Sciences. The Applications will initially cover eight course clusters devoted to Water Resources Management, Agriculture, Ocean studies, Energy Resources, Urban studies, Environment, Natural Hazards and Mineral Resources Management. The School will also offer a number of highly focused short-term refresher courses / supplementary courses to enable cadres to update their knowledge and skills. The graduates of the School would be able to find employment in macro-projects, such as inter-basin water transfers, and Operational crop condition assessment over large areas, etc. as well as in micro-projects, such as rainwater harvesting, and marketing of remote sensing products to stake-holders (e.g. precision agricultural advice to the farmers, using the large bandwidth of thousands of kilometres of unlit optical fibres). As the School is highly
Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan
The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.
Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus
In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines…
Mehmet C. Ayar
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-cultural practices and interactions of learning science in a science classroom within the concept of communities of practice. Our qualitative data were collected through observing, taking field notes, and conducting interviews in a public science classroom during an entire school year. The study occurred in a seventh-grade classroom with a veteran physical science teacher, with more than 10 years teaching experience, and 22 students. For this article, we presented two classroom vignettes that reflect a sample of the participation, practice, and community that was observed in the science classroom on a daily basis. The first vignette illustrated a typical formula of Initiation–Response–Feedback (I-R-F that transfers knowledge to students through a teacher-led discussion with the entire class. The second vignette described a laboratory activity designed to allow students to apply or discover knowledge through practical experience, while taking responsibility for their learning through small-group work. The normative practices and routine behaviors of the science classroom are highlighted through the description of material resources, and different modes of participation accompanied by assigned roles and responsibilities. What we observed was that laboratory activities reproduced the epistemic authority of the I-R-F rather than creating collective cognitive responsibility where students have the independence to explore and create authentic science experiences.
Leblebicioglu, G.; Abik, N. M.; Capkinoglu, E.; Metin, D.; Dogan, E. Eroglu; Cetin, P. S.; Schwartz, R.
Scientific inquiry is widely accepted as a method of science teaching. Understanding its characteristics, called Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI), is also necessary for a whole conception of scientific inquiry. In this study NOSI aspects were taught explicitly through student inquiries in nature in two summer science camps. Students conducted four inquiries through their questions about surrounding soil, water, plants, and animals under the guidance of university science educators. At the end of each investigation, students presented their inquiry. NOSI aspects were made explicit by one of the science educators in the context of the investigations. Effectiveness of the science camp program and its retention were determined by applying Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI-S) (Schwartz et al. 2008) questionnaire as pre-, post-, and retention test after two months. The patterns in the data were similar. The science camp program was effective in developing three of six NOSI aspects which were questions guide scientific research, multiple methods of research, and difference between data and evidence. Students' learning of these aspects was retained. Discussion about these and the other three aspects is included in the paper. Implications of differences between school and out-of-school science experiences are also discussed.
Mcguire, Saundra Y.
The Alabama A and M University Elementary and Middle School Science Improvement Project (Project SIP) was instituted to improve the science knowledge of elementary and middle school teachers using the experimental or hands-on approach. Summer workshops were conducted during the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1988 in the areas of biology, chemistry, physics, and electricity, and magnetism. Additionally, a manual containing 43 lessons which included background information, experiments and activities for classroom and home use was provided to each teacher. During the course of the project activities, the teachers interacted with various university faculty members, scientists, and NASA staff. The administrative aspects of the program, the delivery of the services to participating teachers, and the project outcome are addressed.
In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the
T.J. Mills; T.M. Quigley; F.J. Everest
While many people interested in natural resources management propose science-based decisions, it is not clear what âscience-basedâ means. Science-based decisions are those that result from the full and complete consideration of the relevant science information. We offer five guidelines to focus the scientistâs contributions to science-based decisionmaking and use the...
Castle, Margaret Ann
A number of reports have raised a concern that the U.S. is not meeting the demands of 21st century skill preparation of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In 2005 and 2006 five reports were released indicating a need for improvement in science and mathematics education in the U.S. The reports were: Keeping America Competitive: Five Strategies To Improve Mathematics and Science Education (Coble & Allen, 2005); National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century (The Association of American Universities, 2006); Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (National Academies Press, 2007); Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative (Business Roundtable Taskforce , 2005); and Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition (Lewis, 2005). Consensus of data in these reports indicates that the U.S., as compared to other industrialized nations, does not fare very well in science achievement and STEM degree attainment. For example, on the 2003 Program for International Assessment (PISA), 15-year-old students in the U.S. ranked 28th in math and 24th in science literacy (Kuenzi, Matthews, & Mangon, 2006). Furthermore, the U.S. ranked 20th among all nations in the proportion of 24-year-olds who earned degrees in natural sciences or engineering (Kuenzi, 2008). As a result, if the U.S. is to remain scientifically and technologically competitive in the world, it is necessary to increase our efforts to incorporate scientific practices associated with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into the science classroom. Middle school is a critical point in students' science education and it is in middle school that they begin to dislike science. Research indicates that when students learn science through inquiry their interest in and
Hoeg, Darren Glen
This thesis presents an ethnographic study, based broadly on principles and methods of institutional ethnography, on the constitution of nature by nine Ontario Grade 9 and 10 Academic Science teachers. The intent of this methodological approach is to examine how the daily practice of participants works toward constituting nature in specific ways that are coordinated by the institution (Ontario public school and/or school science). Critical Discourse Analysis and general inductive analysis were performed on interview transcripts, texts related to teaching science selected by participants, and policy documents (i.e. curriculum; assessment policy) that coordinate science teacher practice. Findings indicate specific, dominant, and relatively uniform ontological and epistemological constitutions of nature. Nature was frequently constituted as a remote object, distant from and different than students studying it. More complex representations included constituting nature as a model, machine, or mathematical algorithm. Epistemological constitutions of nature were enacted through practices that engaged students in manipulating nature; controlling nature, and dominating nature. Relatively few practices that allow students to construct different constitutions of nature than those prioritized by the institution were observed. Dominant constitutions generally assume nature is simply the material to study, from which scientific knowledge can be obtained, with little ethical or moral consideration about nature itself, or how these constitutions produce discourse and relationships that may be detrimental to nature. Dominant constitutions of nature represent a type of objective knowledge that is prioritized, and made accessible to students, through science activities that attain a position of privilege in local science teacher cultures. The activities that allow students to attain the requisite knowledge of nature are collected, collated, and shared among existing science teachers
Bodei, Chiara; Grossi, Roberto; Lagan?, Maria Rita; Righi, Marco
As a young discipline, Computer Science does not rely on longly tested didactic procedures. This allows the experimentation of innovative teaching methods at schools, especially in early childhood education. Our approach is based on the idea that abstracts notions should be gained as the ﬁnal result of a learning path made of concrete and touchable steps. To illustrate our methodology, we present some of the teaching projects we proposed.
Phillips, Marianne C.
Science teachers rely heavily on their textbooks; for many, it is the only curriculum they use (Weiss, 1993). Therefore, it is important these materials convey an accurate conception of the nature of science. Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) call for teaching students about the nature of science. Including the nature of science throughout science textbooks will produce scientifically literate citizens (Driver and others, 1993) with an improved ability to make informed decisions (McComas, 1998). Teaching the nature of science supports the successful learning of science content and process (Driver and others, 1996), and bridges the gap between the two cultures of practicing scientists and school science (Sorsby, 2000). Do middle school science textbooks provide a balanced presentation of the nature of science throughout their text? To determine the answer, this investigation used a content analysis technique to analyze a random sample from the introduction chapter and the rest of the textbook chapters from twelve middle school science textbooks for the four aspects of the nature of science (Chiappetta, Fillman, & Sethna, 2004). Scoring procedures were used to determine interrater agreement using both Cohen's kappa (kappa) and Krippendorff's alpha (alpha). Kappa values were determined to be fair to excellent beyond chance among the three coders. The resulting values for Krippendorff's alpha ranged from acceptable (alpha > .80) to unacceptable (alpha imbalance is providing students with a rudimentary and fragmented view of how science works, despite the fact that science impacts every aspect of life (McComas, 1998). Given the impact of textbooks on learning, it is recommended that teachers be informed of these shortcomings to enable them to supplement content where it is lacking.
Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.
Thematic learning is one type of integrated science (Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Earth Science) in Science Education. This study is concerning about simple webs of natural environment theme in science learning, as one of training material in science teacher training program. Making simple web is a goal of first step in teacher training program. Every group explain their web illustration to other group. Twenty Junior High School science teacher above one education foundation participate in science teacher training program. In order to gather simple webs, sharing method was used in this first step of science teacher training. The result of this study is five different simple web of natural environment themes. These webs represent science learning in class VII/Semester I, class VII/Semester II, Class VIII, Class IX/Semester I, Class IX/Semester II based on basic competency in National Curriculum 2013. Each group discussed web of natural environment theme based on their learning experience in real class which basic competency and subject matters are linked with natural environment theme. As a conclusion, simple webs are potential to develop in the next step of science teacher training program and to be implemented in real class.
Herbert, Sandra; Xu, Lihua; Kelly, Leissa
Science education starts at primary school. Yet, recent research shows primary school teachers lack confidence and competence in teaching science (Prinsley & Johnston, 2015). A Victorian state government science specialist initiative responded to this concern by providing professional learning programs to schools across Victoria. Drawing on…
Fishman, Yonatan I.; Boudry, Maarten
Several scientists, scientific institutions, and philosophers have argued that science is committed to Methodological Naturalism (MN), the view that science, by virtue of its methods, is limited to studying "natural" phenomena and cannot consider or evaluate hypotheses that refer to supernatural entities. While they may in fact exist, gods,…
In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, "On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources," written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing…
Efforts to enact balanced treatment laws represent an attempt to wedge the supernatural into scientific explanations. Current attempts to displace methodological naturalism from science indicate a need to make the nature of science a central theme in our instruction. This article utilizes constructivist listening to introduce students to five…
Bilican, K.; Cakiroglu, J.; Oztekin, C.
Exploring different contexts to facilitate in-depth nature of science (NOS) views were seen as critical for better professional development of pre-service science teachers, which ultimately would assure better students' NOS understanding and achieve an ultimate goal of current science education reforms. This study aimed to reduce the lack of…
Mulvey, Bridget K.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Bell, Randy L.
Special education teachers provide critical science instruction to students. However, little research investigates special education teacher beliefs and practices around science in general or the nature of science and inquiry in particular. This investigation is a cross-case analysis of four elementary special education teachers' initial…
Understanding of NOS (nature of science) appears as a prerequisite of a scientifically literate person. Promoting adequate understanding of NOS in pre-service physics teachers is, therefore, an important task of science educators. Before doing that, science educators must have information concerning their pre-service teachers' conceptions of NOS.…
Boran, Gül Hanim; Bag, Hüseyin
The aim in conducting this study is to explore the effects of argumentation on pre-service science teachers' views of the nature of science. This study used a qualitative case study and conducted with 20 pre-service science teachers. Data sources include an open-ended questionnaire and audio-taped interviews. According to pretest and posttest…
Torras-Melenchon, Nuria; Grau, M. Dolors; Font-Soldevila, Josep; Freixas, Josep
This paper presents the experience of an initiative, the EXPLORE courses, designed to bring science and technology closer to secondary school. The EXPLORE courses, organised by "EXPLORATORI: Natural Resources" project, are particularly addressed to secondary school teachers and are conducted at Catalonia (North East of Spain). The main…
Seckin Kapucu, Munise; Cakmakci, Gultekin; Aydogdu, Cemil
This quasi-experimental study aims to investigate the documentary films' influence on 8th grade students' nature of science views. The study's participants were 113 8th grade students from two different schools taught by two different teachers. The study was completed over a 6-week period, during which topics related to "Cell Division and…
Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James
Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…
The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern, offers a specialised M.Sc. and a Ph.D. study programme in climate sciences. The graduate school has a highly interdisciplinary profile involving not only natural sciences, but also humanities/history, economics and law. The ten participating institutes with a total of 45 academics provide expertise in long-term climate variability, climate modelling, climate reconstruction, predictability of the future climate and extreme events, the impact of climate change on ecosystems and climate risks for society and economy. The graduate school is fully compliant with the Bologna Accords and collaborates closely with the sister institution C2SM at ETH Zurich by, e.g., jointly organised lectures. There are currently 23 master and 37 doctoral students in the programme. These originate from the University of Bern (28 %), from other Swiss universities (30 %) and from foreign universities (42 %). Comprehensive information about the Graduate School of Climate Sciences is available at http://www.climatestudies.unibe.ch . The M.Sc. in Climate Sciences programme (120 ECTS credits) is designed to attract students from all disciplines in natural sciences and offers them a tailor-made curriculum to reach their career aspirations. The students make their own course selection according to their profile envisaged (specialised versus broad education) and ideally already guided by a job perspective. Selecting the courses and the topic of the master thesis they specialise in one of five fields: climate and earth system science; atmospheric science; economics; economic, social and environmental history; statistics. Several courses are organised jointly with public authorities and the private industry, e.g. from experts working in the insurance business, in weather forecasting or in environmental pollution control. This provides the students hands-on experience and contacts to future employers. The master thesis (60 ECTS) involves the
This article summarises ideas and developments in teaching and learning in science of relevance to "Primary Science Review" ("PSR") readers from three recent issues (309, 310, and 311) of "School Science Review" ("SSR"), the ASE journal for science education 11-19. The themes running through these are: ICT, the implications for science education…
seeks to problematise the insufficient integration of the cultural-social and the canonical-academic dimensions of ..... apparatus (ISA) which includes schools, the media and profes- ..... education: a minds-on approach for the elementary years.
Calado, Sílvia; Neves, Isabel P.; Morais, Ana M.
This article addresses the issue of the level of conceptual demand of science curricula by analysing the case of the current Portuguese Natural Sciences curriculum for middle school. Conceptual demand is seen in terms of the complexity of cognitive skills, the complexity of scientific knowledge and the intra-disciplinary relations between distinct…
Cortez, Leonardo A.; Latorre, Nubia P.; Hernández, Rubinsten
Currently, in science teaching and in particular, natural science teaching there are concepts in the school that have a high level of abstraction. Concepts, such as atom, gene, mole and energy, among others are difficult to explain in an understanding manner to students. This situation requires the teacher to design alternative strategies to…
Hellgren, Jenny M.; Lindberg, Stina
Background: Students' motivation for science declines over the early teenage years, and students often find school science difficult and irrelevant to their everyday lives. This paper asks whether creating opportunities to connect school science to authentic science can have positive effects on student motivation. Purpose: To understand how…
Forbes, Anne; Skamp, Keith
MyScience is a primary science education initiative in which being in a community of practice is integral to the learning process. In this initiative, stakeholder groups—primary teachers, primary students and mentors—interact around the `domain' of `investigating scientifically'. This paper builds on three earlier publications and interprets the findings of the views of four secondary science teachers and five year 9 secondary science students who were first-timer participants—as mentors—in MyScience. Perceptions of these mentors' interactions with primary students were analysed using attributes associated with both `communities of practice' and the `nature of science'. Findings reveal that participation in MyScience changed secondary science teachers' views and practices about how to approach the teaching of science in secondary school and fostered primary-secondary links. Year 9 students positively changed their views about secondary school science and confidence in science through participation as mentors. Implications for secondary science teaching and learning through participation in primary school community of science practice settings are discussed.
This qualitative study addresses the link between urban high school science teachers' beliefs about essential teaching dispositions and student learning outcomes. The findings suggest that in order to help students to do well in science in urban school settings, science teachers should possess essential teaching dispositions which include…
Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.
McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.
Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.
Grimes, Mary Katheryn
Multicultural Science has been a topic of research and discourse over the past several years. However, most of the literature concerning this topic (or paradigm) has centered on programs in tribal or Indigenous schools. Under the framework of instructional congruence, this case study explored how elementary and middle school students in a culturally diverse charter school responded to a Multicultural Science program. Furthermore, this research sought to better understand the dynamics of teaching and learning strategies used within the paradigm of Multicultural Science. The school's Robotics class, a class typically stereotyped as fitting within the misconceptions associated with the Western Modern Science paradigm, was the center of this case study. A triangulation of data consisted of class observations throughout two semesters; pre and post student science attitude surveys; and interviews with individual students, Robotic student teams, the Robotics class instructor, and school administration. Three themes emerged from the data that conceptualized the influence of a Multicultural Science curriculum with ethnically diverse students in a charter school's Robotics class. Results included the students' perceptions of a connection between science (i.e., Robotics) and their personal lives, a positive growth in the students' attitude toward science (and engineering), and a sense of personal empowerment toward being successful in science. However, also evident in the findings were the students' stereotypical attitudes toward science (and scientists) and their lack of understanding of the Nature of Science. Implications from this study include suggestions toward the development of Multicultural Science curricula in public schools. Modifications in university science methods courses to include the Multicultural Science paradigm are also suggested.
In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources, written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing historical case studies as vehicles for knowledge. Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central issue present across all chapters is the largely masculine, monocultural nature of science presented, which is common to a multitude of scientific publications. In this review, I illustrate how culture and gender in science is not addressed throughout the book. I also discuss where we can build on the work of the author to integrate more aspects of gender and culture in teaching the nature of science.
Hampton, Kathryn Walker
This project was an effort to study the effect of integrating children's trade books into the fourth grade science curriculum on the students' views of the nature of science and their scientific attitude. The effect on the students' reading and language achievement, and science content knowledge was also analyzed. This was done by comparing the nature of science views and scientific attitudes, reading and language achievement scores, and the science grades of the treatment group, prior to and immediately following the intervention period, with the control group which did not participate in the integration of children's books. The science teacher's views on the nature of science and her attitude towards teaching science were also evaluated prior to and after the intervention. The selected trade books were evaluated for their coverage of nature of science aspects. Three intact classes of fourth grade students from a local elementary school were involved in the study along with their science and reading teacher. Two of the classes made up the experimental group and the remaining class served as the control group. All students were assessed prior to the intervention phase on their views of the nature of science and scientific attitudes. The experimental group was engaged in reading selected science trade books during their science class and study hall over a semester period. The results of the study showed a significant difference in the groups' initial reading and language achievement, which may have affected the lack of an effect from the intervention. The instrument selected to assess the student's views on the nature of science and scientific attitude (SAI II) was not reliable with this group. There was no significant difference on the students' science content knowledge as measured by their semester grade averages. The results from the teacher's response on the STAS II did indicate slight changes on her views on the nature of science. Sixty-nine of the eighty
The connection between the natural and social sciences has become stronger, and has increasingly been recognized as a vital component in the area of natural hazards research. Moving applied natural hazards research into the public policy or administration realm is not often easy, or effective. An improved understanding of the connection between the natural and social sciences can assist in this process and result in better public policy, acceptance from the public for these policies, and a safer and better educated public. This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. Specifically we will review the current contribution of the formal academic disciplines of political science and public administration within recent natural hazards-related scholarship. The general characteristics of the contributions (e.g. coauthored, interdisciplinary, etc.), specific theories and methods being applied, and the types of natural hazards being scrutinized by these related fields will be assessed. In conclusion we will discuss future contributions and areas for potential collaboration between the natural and social sciences in the area of natural hazards research.
Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)-a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of NOS; squared these with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing. As a result, the team developed and incorporated, in the textbook, representations of NOS they believed were the most pedagogically suitable. Analysis of the data in this study indicates that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of NOS, including representational accuracy (the degree to which representations of NOS conformed to informed views of the NOS), representational consistency (the degree to which representations of NOS in different parts of the book conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level appropriateness of the NOS representations), representational alignment (the degree to which NOS representations aligned with mandated curriculum), representational marketability (the degree to which NOS representations would affect sales of the textbook), and 'Workplace Resources' factors including availability of time, relevant expertise, and opportunities for professional development.
Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks in ... second cycle primary level social science textbooks vis-à-vis the principles of multiculturalism. ... Biases were disclosed in gender, economic and occupational roles.
Foster, D.E.; Stone, C.A.
We have developed a two-week summer lecture and laboratory course that introduces hihg school students to concepts in nuclear science. The program has operated at the San Jose State University Nuclear Science Facility for two years. Experienced high school science teachers run the summer scholl, assisted by other science teachers. Students consider the program to be effective. Its popularity is shown by numerous requests for reservations and the necessity to offer multiple sections in 1997. (author)
Male science teachers were in greater numbers than female science teachers in the schools. The number of science teachers supplied from higher institutions outside the State was greater than the number supplied from higher institutions within the State The supply of science teachers did not match the demand for them in ...
An important objective in science education is the acquisition of science process skills (SPS) by the students. Therefore, science coursebooks, among the main resources of elementary science curricula, are to convey accurate SPS. This study is a qualitative study based on the content analysis of the science coursebooks used at middle schools. In…
foreign natural science and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive .... and technology term) is associated with an indigenous word, especially a word referring to a more or ..... Page 10 ...
Kessler, Jason L.
Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.
Kahraman, Feray; Karatas, Faik Özgür
This study is a four-week section of ongoing attempts that aim to improve 6th grade students' understandings of the nature of science. The study was carried out in a sixth grade science and technology class at a rural middle school with 15 students on the basis of action research methodology. During the study, four different stories based on the…
Gould, A. D.; Sneider, C.; Farmer, E.; Erickson, J.
Global Systems Science (GSS), a high school integrated interdisciplinary science project based at Lawrence Hall of Science at UC Berkeley, began in the early 1990s as a single book "Planet at Risk" which was only about climate change. Federal grants enabled the project to enlist about 150 teachers to field test materials in their classes and then meeting in summer institutes to share results and effect changes. The result was a series of smaller modules dealing not only with climate change, but other related topics including energy flow, energy use, ozone, loss of biodiversity, and ecosystem change. Other relevant societal issues have also been incorporated including economics, psychology and sociology. The course has many investigations/activities for student to pursue, interviews with scientists working in specific areas of research, and historical contexts. The interconnectedness of a myriad of small and large systems became an overarching theme of the resulting course materials which are now available to teachers for free online at http://www.globalsystemsscience.org/
Edelmann, Hans G.; Martius, Thilo; Hahn, Achim; Schlüter, Kirsten; Nessler, Stefan H.
Enquiry learning and teaching about the nature of science (NoS) is a key element of science education. We have designed an experimental setting for students aged 12-14 years to exercise enquiry-learning skills and to introduce students to the NoS aspects of creativity and imagination. It also illustrates the impact of carbon dioxide on the growth…
Library and information science (LIS) is highly interdisciplinary by nature and is affected by the incessant evolution of technologies. A recent study surveying research trends in the years 2002-6 at various information science departments worldwide has found that a clear trend was identified in Masters theses and doctoral dissertations of social…
Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara
Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…
Bloom, Mark; Binns, Ian C.; Koehler, Catherine
This research focuses on inservice science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) before and after a two-week intensive summer professional development (PD). The PD combined traditional explicit NOS instruction, numerous interactive interventions that highlighted NOS aspects, along with documentary films that portrayed NOS in context of…
Fishman, Yonatan I.; Boudry, Maarten
Several scientists, scientific institutions, and philosophers have argued that science is committed to Methodological Naturalism (MN), the view that science, by virtue of its methods, is limited to studying `natural' phenomena and cannot consider or evaluate hypotheses that refer to supernatural entities. While they may in fact exist, gods, ghosts, spirits, and extrasensory or psi phenomena are inherently outside the domain of scientific investigation. Recently, Mahner (Sci Educ 3:357-371, 2012) has taken this position one step further, proposing the more radical view that science presupposes an a priori commitment not just to MN, but also to ontological naturalism (ON), the metaphysical thesis that supernatural entities and phenomena do not exist. Here, we argue that science presupposes neither MN nor ON and that science can indeed investigate supernatural hypotheses via standard methodological approaches used to evaluate any `non-supernatural' claim. Science, at least ideally, is committed to the pursuit of truth about the nature of reality, whatever it may be, and hence cannot exclude the existence of the supernatural a priori, be it on methodological or metaphysical grounds, without artificially limiting its scope and power. Hypotheses referring to the supernatural or paranormal should be rejected not because they violate alleged a priori methodological or metaphysical presuppositions of the scientific enterprise, but rather because they fail to satisfy basic explanatory criteria, such as explanatory power and parsimony, which are routinely considered when evaluating claims in science and everyday life. Implications of our view for science education are discussed.
Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek
Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly.
Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud
This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…
Marco-Bujosa, Lisa M.; Levy, Abigail Jurist
Elementary schools are under increasing pressure to teach science and teach it well; yet, research documents that classroom teachers must overcome numerous personal and school-based challenges to teach science effectively at this level, such as access to materials and inadequate instructional time. The elementary science specialist model…
Fitzgerald, Angela; Smith, Kathy
To help support primary school students to better understand why science matters, teachers must first be supported to teach science in ways that matter. In moving to this point, this paper identifies the dilemmas and tensions primary school teachers face in the teaching of science. The balance is then readdressed through a research-based…
This phenomenographic study attempts to explicit science and technology teachers' views of primary school science and technology curriculum. Participants of the study were selected through opportunistic sampling and consisted of 30 science and technology teachers teaching in primary schools in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Data were collected through an…
Sheppard, Keith; Robbins, Dennis M.
Chemistry became the ''central science'' not by design but by accident in the US high schools. The three important factors, which had their influence on the high school science, are sequenced and their impact on the development of US science education, are mentioned.
Edelson, Daniel C.
With the dramatic growth of environmental science as an elective in high schools over the last decade, educators have the opportunity to realistically consider the possibility of incorporating environmental science into the core high school curriculum. Environmental science has several characteristics that make it a candidate for the core…
Spillane, James P.; Diamond, John B.; Walker, Lisa J.; Halverson, Rich; Jita, Loyiso
This article explores school leadership for elementary school science teaching in an urban setting. We examine how school leaders bring resources together to enhance science instruction when there appear to be relatively few resources available for it. From our study of 13 Chicago elementary (K-8) schools' efforts to lead instructional change in mathematics, language arts, and science education, we show how resources for leading instruction are unequally distributed across subject areas. We also explore how over time leaders in one school successfully identified and activated resources for leading change in science education. The result has been a steady, although not always certain, development of science as an instructional area in the school. We argue that leading change in science education involves the identification and activation of material resources, the development of teachers' and school leaders' human capital, and the development and use of social capital.
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Students as early as elementary school age are capable of learning the aspects of the nature of science (NOS), and the National Benchmarks incorporate the NOS as part of the learning objectives for K--2 students. Learning more about elementary science instruction can aid in understanding how the NOS can be taught or potentially integrated into current teaching methods. Although many teaching methods exist, this study will focus on read-alouds because they are recommended for and are very common in elementary schools. The read-aloud practice is particularly helpful to young students because most of these students have a higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension. One of the main components of the read-aloud practice is the discourse that takes place about the trade book. Both explicit and implicit messages are communicated to students by teachers' language and discussion that takes place in the classroom. Therefore, six multisite naturalistic case studies were conducted to understand elementary teachers' understanding of the NOS, students' understandings of the NOS, trade book representations of the NOS, and read-aloud practices and understandings in upstate New York. The findings of the study revealed that teachers and students held mostly naive and mixed understandings of the NOS. The trade books that had explicit connections to the NOS helped teachers discuss NOS related issues, even when the teachers did not hold strong NOS views. Teachers who held more informed NOS views were able to ask students NOS related questions. All teachers showed they need guidance on how to translate their NOS views into discussion and see the significance of the NOS in their classroom. Explicit NOS instruction can improve student understanding of the NOS, however the focus should be not only on teachers and their NOS understanding but also on the books used. These results show that quality trade books with explicit connections to the NOS are a useful instructional tool
Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Bloch, Guy; Schwartz, William J.
Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian ‘clock’), with the alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizing (entraining) these rhythms to the natural day–night cycle. Our knowledge of the circadian system of animals at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organismal levels is remarkable, and we are beginning to understand how each of these levels contributes to the emergent properties and increased complexity of th...
Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Bloch, Guy; Schwartz, William J
Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'), with the alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizing (entraining) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle. Our knowledge of the circadian system of animals at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organismal levels is remarkable, and we are beginning to understand how each of these levels contributes to the emergent properties and increased complexity of the system as a whole. For the most part, these analyses have been carried out using model organisms in standard laboratory housing, but to begin to understand the adaptive significance of the clock, we must expand our scope to study diverse animal species from different taxonomic groups, showing diverse activity patterns, in their natural environments. The seven papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B take on this challenge, reviewing the influences of moonlight, latitudinal clines, evolutionary history, social interactions, specialized temporal niches, annual variation and recently appreciated post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms. The papers emphasize that the complexity and diversity of the natural world represent a powerful experimental resource.
Baird, J. Hugh; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Allman, Verl
This research sought to answer two questions: (1) What are Utah junior and senior high school students' preferences and choices regarding science subjects? (2) Could preferences and choices be related to the type of school, age or gender? Two thousand students from grades six through twelve participated in this study. Findings show that zoology and human anatomy and physiology were most preferred. Ecology was least prefered. Topics in the physical sciences were also low. There was a trend among girls to prefer natural sciences such as botany while boys tended to prefer the physical sciences. Generally, students' choices were limited to those subjects presently taught in the formal school curriculum. They appeared unaware of the many science related subjects outside the texts or the approved course of study.
Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.
Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…
Newell, Alana D.; Zientek, Linda R.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Moreno, Nancy P.
High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students' science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Because of the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students' content…
Tauc, Martin Jan; Boger, James K.; Hohne, Andrew; Dahl, Laura M.; Nugent, Paul W.; Riesland, David W.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Boese, Orrin; Shaw, Joseph A.; Nakagawa, Wataru
Getting students interested in science, specifically in optics and photonics, is a worthwhile challenge. We developed and implemented an outreach campaign that sought to engage high school students in the science of polarized light. We traveled to Montana high schools and presented on the physics of light, the ways that it becomes polarized, how polarization is useful, and how to take pictures with linear polarizers to see polarization. Students took pictures that showed polarization in either a natural setting or a contrived scene. We visited 13 high schools, and presented live to approximately 450 students.
Chambers, Joan M.
It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…
Roth, Wolff-Michael; McRobbie, Campbell J.; Lucas, Keith B.
Analyzes and explores questions about the dialogic nature of beliefs and students' belief talk about the nature of science and scientific knowledge. Argues that students' discourse is better understood as a textual bricolage sensitive to conversational context. Contains 26 references. (DDR)
Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Gallard, Alejandro
In addition to recommending inquiry as the primary approach to teaching science, developers of recent reform efforts in science education have also strongly suggested that teachers develop a sound understanding of the nature of science. Most studies on teachers' NOS conceptions and inquiry beliefs investigated these concepts of teachers' NOS…
This is a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative, collective case study that explores the pedagogical practices of science teachers who do not hold natural science degrees. The intent of this study is to support the creation of alternative pathways for recruiting and retaining high-quality secondary science teachers in K-12 education. The…
Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.
Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…
Roberts, Kelly D.; Takahashi, Kiriko; Park, Hye-Jin; Stodden, Robert A.
Many secondary school students struggle to read complex expository text such as science textbooks. This article provides step-by-step guidance on how to foster expository reading for struggling readers in secondary school science classes. Two strategies are introduced: Text-to-Speech (TTS) Software as a reading compensatory strategy and the…
Hansson, Lena; Leden, Lotta
In the science education research field there is a large body of literature on the "nature of science" (NOS). NOS captures issues about what characterizes the research process as well as the scientific knowledge. Here we, in line with a broad body of literature, use a wide definition of NOS including also e.g. socio-cultural aspects. It…
McDonald, Christine V.
There exists a general consensus in the science education literature around the goal of enhancing learners' views of nature of science (NOS). An extensive body of research in the field has highlighted the effectiveness of explicit NOS instructional approaches in improving learners' NOS views. Emerging research has suggested that engaging learners…
The book describes first the principle photon generation processes from nuclear reactions, electron motion and from discrete quantum transitions. It then focuses on the use of photons in various selected fields of modern natural and life sciences. It bridges disciplines such as physics, chemistry, earth- and materials science, proteomics, information technology, photoelectrochemistry, photosynthesis and spintronics. Advanced light sources and their use in natural and life sciences are emphasized and the effects related to the quantum nature of photons (quantum computing, teleportation) are described. The content encompasses among many other examples the role of photons on the origin of life and on homochirality in biology, femtosecond laser slicing, photothermal cancer therapy, the use of gamma rays in materials science, photoelectrochemical surface conditioning, quantum information aspects and photo-spintronics. The book is written for scientists and graduate students from all related disciplines who are int...
Nils Petter Hauan
Full Text Available One aim for many natural history museums, science museums and science centres is to contribute to school-related learning in science. In this article we review published empirical studies of this challenging area. The review indicates that the effectiveness of educational activities at different types of science-communication venues (SCV in supporting students’ science learning varies. There is also evidence of interesting differences between activities, depending on how these activities are designed. Firstly, these activities can stimulate interest and conceptual focus through a well-designed combination of structure and openness. Secondly, they can stimulate talks and explorations related to the presented topics. We have identified two possible areas which might prove fruitful in guiding further research: an exploration of the effects of different designs for guided exploratory learning, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of educational activities by studying the presence and quality of the learning processes visitors are engaged in.
Parker, Elisabeth Allyn
Bandura (1986) posited that self-efficacy beliefs help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have and are critical determinants of how well skill and knowledge are acquired. Research has correlated self-efficacy beliefs with academic success and subject interest (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000). Similar studies report a decreasing interest by students in school science beginning in middle school claiming that they don't enjoy science because the classes are boring and irrelevant to their lives (Basu & Barton, 2007). The hypothesis put forth by researchers is that students need to observe models of how science is done, the nature of science (NOS), so that they connect with the human enterprise of science and thereby raise their self-efficacy (Britner, 2008). This study examined NOS understandings and science self-efficacy of students enrolled in a sixth grade earth science class taught with explicit NOS instruction. The research questions that guided this study were (a) how do students' self-efficacy beliefs change as compared with changes in their nature of science understandings?; and (b) how do changes in students' science self-efficacy beliefs vary with gender and ethnicity segregation? A mixed method design was employed following an embedded experimental model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). As the treatment, five NOS aspects were first taught by the teachers using nonintegrated activities followed by integrated instructional approach (Khishfe, 2008). Students' views of NOS using the Views on Nature of Science (VNOS) (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, & Schwartz, 2002) along with their self-efficacy beliefs using three Likert-type science self-efficacy scales (Britner, 2002) were gathered. Changes in NOS understandings were determined by categorizing student responses and then comparing pre- and post-instructional understandings. To determine changes in participants' self-efficacy beliefs as measured by the three subscales, a multivariate
Keske, Kristina Palmer
The purpose of this interpretive case study was to elucidate the conceptions of the nature of science held by seven elementary science teachers. The constructivist paradigm provided the philosophical and methodological foundation for the study. Interviews were employed to collect data from the participants about their formal and informal experiences with science. In addition, the participants contributed their perspectives on four aspects of the nature of science: what is science; who is a scientist; what are the methods of science; and how is scientific knowledge constructed. Data analysis not only revealed these teachers' views of science, but also provided insights into how they viewed science teaching. Four themes emerged from the data. The first theme developed around the participants' portrayals of the content of science, with participant views falling on a continuum of limited to universal application of science as procedure. The second theme dealt with the participants' views of the absolute nature of scientific knowledge. Participants' perceptions of the tentative nature of science teaching provided the basis for the third theme concerning the need for absolutes in practice. The fourth theme drew parallels between participants' views of science and science teaching, with two participants demonstrating a consistency in beliefs about knowledge construction across contexts. This study revealed both personal and contextual factors which impacted how the participants saw science and science teaching. Many of the participants' memories of formal science revolved around the memorization of content and were viewed negatively. All the participants had limited formal training in science. Of the seven participants, only two had chosen to be science teachers at the beginning of their careers. The participants' limited formal experiences with science provided little time for exploration into historical, philosophical, and sociological studies of science, a necessary
The importance of a counselor's philosophical point of departure is emphasized. Viewing the self as "a conscious, free, and responsible decision-making actor in a world of substantial and self-transcendent meanings and purposes" is suggested as the core of a definition that uses an existentialist point of departure. In the light of this definition, four specific inadequacies of counseling that uses a natural-scientific point of departure are identified and discussed: 1) it is overreductionistic; 2) it reinforces the view of self as "helpless victim"; 3) it disregards the importance of transpersonal concerns; 4) it ignores the importance of conflicting world views between therapist and client.
The spectacular success of the scientific enterprise over the last four hundred years has led to the promise of an all encompassing vision of the natural world. In this elegant picture, everything we observe is based upon just a few fundamental processes and entities. The almost infinite variety and complexity of the world is thus the product of emergence. But the concept of emergence is fraught with controversy and confusion. This book ponders the question of how emergence should be understood within the scientific picture, and whether a complete vision of the world can be attained that includes consciousness.
The language used to construct knowledge, beliefs, and worldviews in school science is distinct from the social language that students use in their everyday ordinary life. This difference is a major source of reading difficulty for many students, especially struggling readers and English-language learners. This article identifies some of the linguistic challenges involved in reading middle-school science texts and suggests several teaching strategies to help students cope with these challenges. It is argued that explicit attention to the unique language of school science should be an integral part of science literacy pedagogy.
Natural ionizing radiations play an important role in a wide spectrum of earth sciences, including meteorology, geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. The nature and distribution of ionizing radiation sources and natural radionuclides in the atmospheric environment are summarized. The present status of the use of natural radioactive tracers for atmospheric studies is discussed. The effect of ionization produced by natural radiation sources on atmospheric electricity, the relationship of electrical and meteorological variables, and the possible effects of man-made releases of 85 Kr are considered. Experimental evidence is presented for the production of condensation nuclei by the combined effects of radon and sulfur dioxide
This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…
Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J
Advances in science are the combined result of the efforts of a great many scientists, and in many cases, their willingness to share the products of their research. These products include data sets, both small and large, and unique research resources not commercially available, such as cell lines and software programs. The sharing of these resources enhances both the scope and the depth of research, while making more efficient use of time and money. However, sharing is not without costs, many of which are borne by the individual who develops the research resource. Sharing, for example, reduces the uniqueness of the resources available to a scientist, potentially influencing the originator's perceived productivity and ultimately his or her competitiveness for jobs, promotions, and grants. Nevertheless, for most researchers-particularly those using public funds-sharing is no longer optional but must be considered an obligation to science, the funding agency, and ultimately society at large. Most funding agencies, journals, and professional societies now require a researcher who has published work involving a unique resource to make that resource available to other investigators. Changes could be implemented to mitigate some of the costs. The creator of the resource could explore the possibility of collaborating with those who request it. In addition, institutions that employ and fund researchers could change their policies and practices to make sharing a more attractive and viable option. For example, when evaluating an individual's productivity, institutions could provide credit for the impact a researcher has had on their field through the provision of their unique resources to other investigators, regardless of whether that impact is reflected in the researcher's list of publications. In addition, increased funding for the development and maintenance of user-friendly public repositories for data and research resources would also help to reduce barriers to sharing
Burns, Matthew K.
The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…
This article features the Science Leadership Academy, a new public partnership school in Philadelphia that incorporates core values of inquiry, research, collaboration, presentation, and reflection. Founded by the School District of Philadelphia and The Franklin Institute, SLA is one of four partnership high schools that opened in September 2006…
Mills, Thomas J.
Determined were the educational and professional backgrounds, and some aspects of the operational environment of teachers of secondary school science and mathematics (Grades 7-12) in the public and private schools of the United States during the school year 1960-61. A stratified random sampling method was used to ensure proportional representation…
In his article Scientists at Play in a Field of the Lord, David Long (2010) rightly challenges our presumptions of what science is and brings forth some of the disjunctures between science and deeply held American religious beliefs. Reading his narrative of the conflicts that he experienced on the opening day of the Creation Museum, I cannot help but reconsider what the epistemology of science is and science learning ought to be. Rather than science being taught as a prescribed, deterministic system of beliefs and procedures as it is often done, I suggest instead that it would be more appropriate to teach science as a way of thinking and making sense of dialectical processes in nature. Not as set of ultimate "truths", but as understandings of processes themselves in the process of simultaneously becoming and being transformed.
Kapici, Hasan Özgür; Akçay, Hakan
It is an indispensable fact that having a positive attitude towards science is one of the important factors that promotes students for studying in science. The study is a kind of national study that aims to investigate middle school students', from different regions of Turkey, attitudes toward science, scientists and science classes. The study was…
Olga M. Naumenko
Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.
Chapman, Angela; Feldman, Allan
This study examined how a contextually based authentic science experience affected the science identities of urban high school students who have been marginalized during their K-12 science education. We examined students' perceptions of the intervention as an authentic science experience, how the experience influenced their science identity, as well as their perceptions about who can do science. We found that the students believed the experience to be one of authentic science, that their science identity was positively influenced by participation in the experience, and that they demonstrated a shift in perceptions from stereotypical to more diverse views of scientists. Implications for science education are discussed.
Atar, Hakan Yavuz
teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of
Ncontsa, Vusumzi Nelson; Shumba, Almon
We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design…
Peters-Burton, Erin E.
To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…
Park, Wonyong; Song, Jinwoong
There has been growing criticism over the aims, methods, and contents of practical work in school science, particularly concerning their tendency to oversimplify the scientific practice with focus on the hypothesis-testing function of experiments. In this article, we offer a reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's scientific writings—particularly his works on color as an exquisite articulation of his ideas about experimentation—through the lens of practical school science. While avoiding the hasty conclusions made from isolated experiments and observations, Goethe sought in his experiments the interconnection among diverse natural phenomena and rejected the dualistic epistemology about the relation of humans and nature. Based on a close examination of his color theory and its underlying epistemology, we suggest three potential contributions that Goethe's conception of scientific experimentation can make to practical work in school science.
Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy
Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…
Discussion of learning with technology as well as about technology focuses on a case study of a middle school nature area that uses technology to extend accessibility of environmental data. Highlights include the design of Web pages to describe the nature area; file sharing software; and the use of videoconferencing. (LRW)
Greier, K; Riechelmann, H
A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p school sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences. (orig.)
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences.
van Rooy, Wilhelmina
A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.
Willis, Tamra Lee
The purpose of this study was to gain understanding of the experiences of elementary teachers who used school grounds to do nature studies. Following an inductive, naturalistic approach, the goal was to explore the phenomenon using words of teachers as guides to understanding. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sampling of ten quality public school teachers in grades K--5 who were well-known for their schoolyard nature programs. Interview questions were focused by a theoretical framework of environmental cognition. Data were gathered about how teachers came to use the outdoors to teach and how they experienced teaching nature studies on the school grounds. A conceptual model of Quality Teachers of Schoolyard Nature Studies was delineated. The model consisted of three components: teacher past and present experiences with nature, teacher beliefs relevant to using the school grounds for nature studies, and teacher action efficacy pertaining to schoolyard nature programs. The model suggested a relationship between teachers' personal experiences' with nature and their beliefs about sharing nature with children. In addition, the model connected teachers' beliefs about schoolyard nature to their action efficacy, i.e. action behavior reflected through motivation and commitment. The participants shared many common experiences and beliefs. Most had extensive childhood experiences in nature and memories of adults who shared nature with them. They did not consider themselves nature experts, but felt they knew the basics of natural science from their own experiences outdoors and from working with children. The teachers' beliefs about schoolyard nature studies developed from several dimensions of their lives: experiences with nature, experiences teaching, and experiences with students. They were motivated to share nature with students on the school grounds by their beliefs that students would come to appreciate and understand nature, just as they had during their own
Solomon, Gregg E A; Carley, Stephen; Porter, Alan L
Interest in cross-disciplinary research knowledge interchange runs high. Review processes at funding agencies, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation, consider plans to disseminate research across disciplinary bounds. Publication in the leading multidisciplinary journals, Nature and Science, may signify the epitome of successful interdisciplinary integration of research knowledge and cross-disciplinary dissemination of findings. But how interdisciplinary are they? The journals are multidisciplinary, but do the individual articles themselves draw upon multiple fields of knowledge and does their influence span disciplines? This research compares articles in three fields (Cell Biology, Physical Chemistry, and Cognitive Science) published in a leading disciplinary journal in each field to those published in Nature and Science. We find comparable degrees of interdisciplinary integration and only modest differences in cross-disciplinary diffusion. That said, though the rate of out-of-field diffusion might be comparable, the sheer reach of Nature and Science, indicated by their potent Journal Impact Factors, means that the diffusion of knowledge therein can far exceed that of leading disciplinary journals in some fields (such as Physical Chemistry and Cognitive Science in our samples).
Solomon, Gregg E. A.; Carley, Stephen; Porter, Alan L.
Interest in cross-disciplinary research knowledge interchange runs high. Review processes at funding agencies, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation, consider plans to disseminate research across disciplinary bounds. Publication in the leading multidisciplinary journals, Nature and Science, may signify the epitome of successful interdisciplinary integration of research knowledge and cross-disciplinary dissemination of findings. But how interdisciplinary are they? The journals are multidisciplinary, but do the individual articles themselves draw upon multiple fields of knowledge and does their influence span disciplines? This research compares articles in three fields (Cell Biology, Physical Chemistry, and Cognitive Science) published in a leading disciplinary journal in each field to those published in Nature and Science. We find comparable degrees of interdisciplinary integration and only modest differences in cross-disciplinary diffusion. That said, though the rate of out-of-field diffusion might be comparable, the sheer reach of Nature and Science, indicated by their potent Journal Impact Factors, means that the diffusion of knowledge therein can far exceed that of leading disciplinary journals in some fields (such as Physical Chemistry and Cognitive Science in our samples). PMID:27043924
Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Kyu Seong
We investigated the cognitive frame of high school students and inservice high school science teachers about effective teaching method, and we also explored how they understood about the teaching methods suggested by the 2009 revised Science Curriculum. Data were collected from 275 high school science teachers and 275 high school students. We analyzed data in terms of the words and the cognitive frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The results were as follows. First, the teachers perceived that an activity oriented class was the effective science class that helped improve students'' problem-solving abilities and their inquiry skills. The students had the cognitive frame that their teacher had to present relevant and enough teaching materials to students, and that they should also receive assistance from teachers in science class to better prepare for college entrance exam. Second, both students and teachers retained the cognitive frame about the efficient science class that was not reflected 2009 revised Science Curriculum exactly. Especially, neither groups connected the elements of ''convergence'' as well as ''integration'' embedded across science subject areas to their cognitive frame nor cognized the fact that many science learning contents were closed related to one another. Therefore, various professional development opportunities should be offered so that teachers succinctly comprehend the essential features and the intents of the 2009 revised Science Curriculum and thereby implement it in their science lessons effectively. Keywords : semantic network analysis, cognitive frame, teaching method, science lesson
Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann
This study explores the use of historical short stories as nature of science (NOS) instruction in thirteen secondary science classes. The stories focus on the development of science ideas and include statements and questions to draw students' and teachers' attention to key NOS ideas and misconceptions. This study used mixed methods to examine how teachers implement the stories, factors influencing teachers' implementation, the impact on students' NOS understanding, students' interest in the stories and factors correlated with their interest. Teachers' implementation decisions were influenced by their NOS understanding, curricula, time constraints, perceptions of student ability and resistance, and student goals. Teachers implementing stories at a high-level of effectiveness were more likely to make instructional decisions to mitigate constraints from the school environment and students. High-level implementers frequently referred to their learning goals for students as a rationale for implementing the stories even when facing constraints. Teachers implementing at a low-level of effectiveness were more likely to express that constraints inhibited effective implementation. Teachers at all levels of implementation expressed concern regarding the length of the stories and time required to fully implement the stories. Additionally, teachers at all levels of implementation expressed a desire for additional resources regarding effective story implementation and reading strategies. Evidence exists that the stories can be used to improve students' NOS understanding. However, under what conditions the stories are effective is still unclear. Students reported finding the stories more interesting than textbook readings and many students enjoyed learning about scientists and the development of science idea. Students' interest in the stories is correlated with their attitudes towards reading, views of effective science learning, attributions of academic success, and interest in
This paper discusses an atomic theory unit of a high school chemistry course taught in Nevada. The unit is based on the application of natural analogues to nuclear waste issues. The paper focuses on the students' reactions to the subject material
Terrill, Laura Anne
This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and…
Lawson, Michael A.
A comparison of United States secondary school science teachers who mentor high quality student research and teachers who do not mentor research was conducted using a demographic survey and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire-Form 5X. The major demographic difference between the two groups was a significantly greater number of years of teaching experience in the research group, a factor that correlated significantly with Extra Effort in students. Research group teachers self-reported higher mean scores than non-research group teachers on the five transformational leadership scales plus the transactional scale of Contingent Reward; however, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance found no significant difference between the groups. Independent t-tests found no significant difference between the groups based upon the remaining transactional scales. The research group was found to be significantly higher on the outcome variable of Extra Effort generated by students while the non-research group rated themselves significantly higher on Satisfaction of students. Transformational leadership in teachers should be addressed by future studies as a possible method of identifying motivational teachers.
Full Text Available Many universities in the Czech Republic lack students´ interest in the studies of natural science. That is why all the universities have to come up with an idea how to popularize these scientific fields to attract potential university applicants. One of the ways of achieving that is to create educational centres, which are able, thanks to these programmes, to approach students of primary and secondary schools and show them the natural sciences. The presented example of one particular educational centre (Bioskop Masaryk University, Brno, the Czech Republic evaluates the success rate of their activities while using written questionnaire survey among the visitors of the programmes (students of primary and secondary schools as well as their pedagogues. The results have shown that thanks to these activities the centre created quality conditions for popularization of natural sciences. The results have also proven the centre´s ability to present natural sciences in an attractive and entertaining way to students of elementary and secondary schools. These students expressed their interest in the study of natural sciences and they would like to visit the centre again
Smiley, Bettie Ann Pickens
For more than thirty years the gender gap in science and related careers has been a key concern of researchers, teachers, professional organizations, and policy makers. Despite indicators of progress for women and girls on some measures of achievement, course enrollment patterns, and employment, fewer women than men pursue college degrees and careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. According to the results of national assessments, the gender gap in science achievement begins to be evident in the middle school years. Gender and school science achievement involve a complex set of factors associated with schools and child/family systems that may include school leadership, institutional practices, curriculum content, teacher training programs, teacher expectations, student interests, parental involvement, and cultural values. This ethnographic case study was designed to explore the context for science education reform and the participation of middle school girls. The study analyzed and compared teaching strategies and female student engagement in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade science classrooms. The setting was a middle school situated in a district that was well-known for its achievement in reading, math, and technology. Findings from the study indicated that while classroom instruction was predominantly organized around traditional school science, the girls were more disciplined and outperformed the boys. The size of the classrooms, time to prepare for hands-on activities, and obtaining resources were identified as barriers to teaching science in ways that aligned with recent national science reform initiatives. Parents who participated in the study were very supportive of their daughters' academic progress and career goals. A few of the parents suggested that the school's science program include more hands-on activities; instruction designed for the advanced learner; and information related to future careers. Overall the teachers and
This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…
Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Ing, Marsha
Background/Context: Much science education reform has been directed at middle and high school students; however, earlier experiences in elementary school may well have an important impact on young people's future science literacy and preparation for possible STEM careers. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This study explores the…
McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin
This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are…
The aims of this research are 1) to explore the inter-relationships within the individual elements or tenets of Nature of Science (NOS), based on the dimensions of scientific knowledge in science learning, and 2) to consider Kuhn's concept of how scientific revolution takes place. This study suggests that instruction according to our NOS Flowchart…
This study has been carried out to identify the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of student teachers and their metacognitive perceptions about the nature of science. The participants of the study totaled 336 student teachers enrolled in the elementary science education division of the department of elementary education at the…
Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia
This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…
Mohamed, A. [Jackson State Univ., MS (United States). School of Science and Technology; Shepard, R.L. [Science and Engineering Alliance, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)
As part of an effort to improve the teaching of science in a four-State region (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas), the Science and Engineering Alliance (SEA) initiated a series of teacher enhancement workshops in science. The workshops focus on teaching problem solving through experience gained in laboratory, field work, classroom discussions and interactions/debates, critical analysis of the literature, obtaining a greater appreciation of the application of mathematics in science, and interactions with experts in various fields of science.
Hessels, L.K.; Lente, H. van; Smits, R.E.H.M.; Grin, J.
This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the
The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing "ancient" and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates,…
Jill M. Belsky
The paper identifies and discusses two major themes in wilderness social science. First, that wilderness studies (and its advocates) have been limited by an ontological tension between those who mainly approach the relationship between humans and nature on the basis of material factors and constraints and those who approach it through an examination of shifting...
The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation definition' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries. Keywords: transliteration, coinage, coined lexical item, loan ...
Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon
This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS…
Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework
In this paper I examine the formation of post-16 choices over 3 years among higher achieving students with respect to enrolment in post-compulsory science courses. Transcripts from four interviews carried out over 3 years with 72 secondary school students were qualitatively analysed. Students were found to shape their choices for science in a variety of ways across time. The situation regarding science choices hinges on far more dynamic considerations than the stereotypical image of the potential advanced science student, committed to becoming a scientist from an early age. There is an interplay of self-perception with respect to science, occupational images of working scientists, relationship with significant adults and perceptions of school science The findings are informative for science educators and for career guidance professionals who may need to take into account the complexity of young people's choices.
teaching programs. This is partly due to the lack of a framework for integrating productive ideas across the disciplines. This paper focus on how to grasp the challenges of an interdisciplinary approach to teaching in mathematics and the subjects of natural science. Based on contemporary mathematics...... and science education we design a didactical framework for interdisciplinary teaching centered on modeling activities across mathematics and the disciplines of natural science. To exemplify the potential of the framework we present a case study of an intensive in-service teacher-training program...... for mathematics and biology teachers. The teachers were presented to the didactical framework and in pairs of two, one mathematics teacher and one biology teacher; they designed and implemented interdisciplinary mathematicsbiology teaching sequences. The teachers’ reports on their development and implementation...
Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.
We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)
Frazier, Kenneth L.
Lists educational objectives, course syllabus, audiovisual materials, and bibliography for a secondary school course on the history and philosophy of science. The class consists of discussions, lectures, use of film and filmstrips, and student research papers. (KC)
deals with the perceived roles and functions of science subject ad- visors. .... social control, rather than effective management and professional development at school ..... authority, restrictions on travelling, lack of mobile units and sci- ence kits ...
Sowell, Scott P.
This research joins the gender equity conversation within science education by providing a feminist poststructural analysis of teachers' doing gender and teaching science. Feminist poststructuralism is used in recognition of the oppressive nature of dualistic modes of thought, which often reduce reality into a limiting either/or fallacy and can be theoretically constraining as research within any particular field becomes more sophisticated. By uprooting the concept of gendered identity from the unproductive grip of essentialism, and conceptualizing it instead as a shifting 'work in progress,' feminist poststructuralism provides an invigorating theoretical framework from which to conduct inquiries. From a this perspective, the identity of a teacher, as any identity, is not a fixed entity, but rather an unfinished project, swarmed upon by a variety of competing discourses. Situated in a rural middle school in the Florida panhandle, this research explores how numerous discourses compete to define what it means to be a female science teacher. More specifically, the aims of this research are to explore: (a) how the participants negotiated successful gendered identities within science and (b) how this taking up of subject positions crystallized into classroom practices which worked to reproduce and/or challenge commonsense notions of the heteropatriarchal gender dualism as well as the enmeshment of masculinity and science. Findings illustrate a wide array of classroom pedagogical practices, ranging from antioppressive emancipatory constructions of both gender and science to more traditional objectivist constructions that validated the patriarchal status quo. Explicating teacher identity as effects of these pedagogical approaches proved insightful in unveiling notions of resistance, frustration, enthusiasm, and agency as the teachers reflected on their practice.
Santos, Nuno; Monteiro, Mário
This book presents the proceedings of the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences entitled "Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds". The school addressed the topics at the forefront of scientific research being conducted in the fields of asteroseismology and exoplanetary science, two fields of modern astrophysics that share many synergies and resources. These proceedings comprise the contributions from 18 invited lecturers, including both monographic presentations and a number of hands-on tutorials.
Gaubatz, Julie A.
Secondary school department chairs are content area specialists in their schools and are responsible for providing students with the most appropriate curricula. However, most secondary school department chairs have limited authority to institute change unilaterally (Gmelch, 1993; Hannay & Erb, 1999). To explore how these educational leaders…
Cartwright, Tina; Smith, Suzanne; Hallar, Brittan
This qualitative study examines the transition of eight elementary preservice teachers into student teaching after participating in a science methods course that included a significant amount of teaching after-school science to elementary grade students. These eight participants had a chance to practice teaching inquiry-based science and to reform…
Perry, Suzanne C.; Jones, Lucile M.; Holmes, Robert R.
The mission of the USGS in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. The USGS conducts hazard research and works closely with stakeholders and cooperators to inform a broad range of planning and response activities at individual, local, State, national, and international levels. It has critical statutory and nonstatutory roles regarding floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, coastal erosion, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and magnetic storms. USGS science can help to understand and reduce risks from natural hazards by providing the information that decisionmakers need to determine which risk management activities are worthwhile.
Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo
This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…
Freeman, R.; Bathon, J.; Fryar, A. E.; Lyon, E.; McGlue, M. M.
As national awareness of the importance of STEM education has grown, so too has the number of high schools that specifically emphasize STEM education. Students at these schools outperform their peers and these institutions send students into the college STEM pipeline at twice the rate of the average high school or more. Another trend in secondary education is the "early college high school" (ECHS) model, which encourages students to prepare for and attend college while in high school. These high schools, particularly ECHS's that focus on STEM, represent a natural pool for recruitment into the geosciences, yet most efforts at linking high school STEM education to future careers focus on health sciences or engineering. Through the NSF GEOPATHS-IMPACT program, the University of Kentucky (UK) Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the STEAM Academy, a STEM-focused ECHS located in Lexington, KY, have partnered to expose students to geoscience content. This public ECHS admits students using a lottery system to ensure that the demographics of the high school match those of the surrounding community. The perennial problem for recruiting students into geosciences is the lack of awareness of it as a potential career, due to lack of exposure to the subject in high school. Although the STEAM Academy does not offer an explicitly-named geoscience course, students begin their first semester in 9th grade Integrated Science. This course aligns to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which include a variety of geoscience content. We are working with the teachers to build a project-based learning curriculum to include explicit mention and awareness of careers in geosciences. The second phase of our project involves taking advantage of the school's existing internship program, in which students develop professional skills and career awareness by spending either one day/week or one hour/day off campus. We hosted our second round of interns this year. Eventually we
Yacoubian, Hagop Azad
This study, primarily theoretical in nature, explores a philosophically and pedagogically reasonable way of addressing nature of science (NOS) in school science. NOS encompasses what science is and how scientific knowledge develops. I critically evaluate consensus frameworks of NOS in school science, which converge contentious philosophical viewpoints into general NOS-related ideas. I argue that they (1) lack clarity in terms of how NOS-related ideas could be applied for various ends, (2) portray a distorted image of the substantive content of NOS and the process of its development, and (3) lack a developmental trajectory for how to address NOS at different grade levels. As a remedy to these problems, I envision a NOS curriculum that (1) explicates and targets both NOS as an educational end and NOS as a means for socioscientific decision making, (2) has critical thinking as its foundational pillar, and (3) provides a developmental pathway for NOS learning using critical thinking as a progression unit. Next, I illustrate a framework for addressing NOS in school science referred to as the critical thinking—nature of science (CT-NOS) framework. This framework brings together the first two of the three elements envisioned in the NOS curriculum. I address the third element by situating the CT-NOS framework in a developmental context, borrowing from the literature on learning progressions in science and using critical thinking as a progression unit. Finally, I present an empirical study of experienced secondary science teachers’ views of a NOS lesson prepared using the CT-NOS framework. The teachers attended a professional development workshop at which the lesson, and the characteristics of the CT-NOS framework, were presented. The analysis of the qualitative data revealed that most teachers found the lesson to be somewhat feasible for a secondary science classroom, useful or somewhat useful to their students, and interesting. The teachers focused on 14 features of
Curran, F. Chris
This study documents gaps in kindergarten and first-grade science achievement by family income and explores the degree to which such gaps can be accounted for by student race/ethnicity, out-of-school activities, parental education, and school fixed effects. In doing so, it expands on prior research that documents disparate rates of science…
Fitzgerald, Angela; Schneider, Katrin
Impending change can provide us with the opportunity to rethink and renew the things that we do. The first phase of the Australian Curriculum implementation offers primary school teachers the chance to examine their approaches to science learning and teaching. This paper focuses on the perceptions of three primary school teachers regarding what…
Adu-Gyamfi, Kenneth; Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey
Science education at the Basic School (Primary and Junior High School) serves as the foundation upon which higher levels of science education are pivoted. This ethnographic study sought to investigate the teaching of Integrated Science at the Junior High School (JHS) level in the classrooms of two science teachers in two schools of differing…
Sheridan, Phillip M.; Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Mekelburg, Christopher R.; Schwabel, Kara M.
The Canisius College Summer Science Camp is a successful and effective annual outreach program that specifically targets middle school students in an effort to increase their interest in science. Five broadly defined science topics are explored in a camp-like atmosphere filled with hands-on activities. A 2010 module focused on chemistry topics of…
Appanna, Subhashni Devi
Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…
An integrated science curriculum assists pupils to retain learnings better than to separate academic disciplines. Too frequently, science teachers teach each academic discipline as separate entities. However, there is much correlating of science with language, for example which might well be implemented in teaching and learning situations. Thus,…
In the description of my work I presented my own experience in the organizing and carrying out of extracurricular activities with the students, the used modes and methods of work, the obtained results and some good practices in the field of natural sciences. Organizing and carrying out of scientific festivals, participation in joint projects together with scientific organizations. Key words: European dimension, interactive methods, key competences, natural sciences, extracurricular activities. We are witnesses of a fundamental change in the pedagogical culture and practice in our schools to establish the parameters of the quality of training. The good scientific culture is an important part of the students' education. Unfortunately, at the present time the scientific and technological culture is on a low level. One of the contemporary problems and realities of the education in natural science school subjects, as a whole and in particular in the secondary education, is the decreased interest for the training in them and in particular in physics, as well as synchronization of the interrelations: school environment - society. In many countries there is a drop in the orientation of the students towards the science and technology - the problem of Science and Technology (S&T). The training of the young people often creates some problems. The teachers meet with the problem of insufficient motivation of the learners for study and difficulties that they encounter in the process of training. The students find it difficult to apply the mastered knowledge to an applied context. The knowledge is rather academic and rather remote from the context, in which the children live and communicate, which makes it nonfunctional. At present there are not enough extracurricular activities that should meet these necessities of the Bulgarian school. The reasons are various, but they mainly consist in the lack of a material base, an exchange of experience and good practices and motivation
Çetinkaya-Aydın, Gamze; Çakıroğlu, Jale
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible associations between preservice science teachers' understanding of nature of science and their learner characteristics; understanding of nature of scientific inquiry, science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, metacognitive awareness level, and faith/worldview schemas. The sample of the current study was 60 3rd-year preservice science teachers enrolled in the Nature of Science and History of Science course. Using a descriptive and associational case study design, data were collected by means of different qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. Analysis of the data revealed that preservice science teachers' understanding of nature of science and nature of scientific inquiry were highly associated. Similarly, science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, metacognitive awareness levels, and faith/worldviews of the preservice science teachers were found to be significantly associated with their understanding of nature of science. Thus, it can be concluded that there might be other factors interfering with the learning processes of nature of science.
Teachers' lack of competence in cognitive skills and strategies would be an important limiting factor in the successful implementation of the Physical Sciences curriculum. An urgent need ... Keywords: Cognitive skills, thinking skills, questions testing skills, problem solving, teacher training, high school physical science ...
Yager, Robert E.
Offers a defense of societal issues as organizers for school science programs in response to criticisms of this thesis discussed in SE 534 649. Indicates that there appears to be no evidence that using nontraditional topics as organizers will make science more subject to manipulation and perversion. (JN)
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Mackay, Gail; Rigano, Donna L.
Given that the subject department is recognised by subject specialist teachers as the central and immediate unit of organization in secondary schools it is surprising that so little attention has been paid by researchers to the leadership dynamics within science departments. The leadership dynamics within the science departments of two…
Fluck, Andrew; Webb, Mary; Cox, Margaret; Angeli, Charoula; Malyn-Smith, Joyce; Voogt, Joke; Zagami, Jason
Computer science has been a discipline for some years, and its position in the school curriculum has been contested differently in several countries. This paper looks at its role in three countries to illustrate these differences. A reconsideration of computer science as a separate subject both in primary and secondary education is suggested. At…
Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh
The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…
By the end of primary school, we might expect children to be able to give a reasonable description of what science is. In their response to the question "What is science?", Eshach and Fried (2005) distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge and understanding. They explain that children's conceptual knowledge is developed…
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…
Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science.
Herbert, D.E.; Croft, P.; Silver, D.S.; Williams, S.G.; Woodall, M.
These proceedings represent the lectures given at the workshop on chaos and the changing nature of science and medicine. The workshop was sponsored by the University of South Alabama and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The topics discussed covered nonlinear dynamical systems, complexity theory, fractals, chaos in biology and medicine and in fluid dynamics. Applications of chaotic dynamics in climatology were also discussed. There were 8 lectures at the workshop and all 8 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database
This is an interpretive case study to examine the teaching of an experienced science faculty who had a strong interest in teaching undergraduate and graduate science courses and nature of science specifically. It was interested in how he transformed knowledge from his experience as a scientist and his ideas about nature of science into forms…
Ndidi C. Ngwuluka
Full Text Available Naturapolyceutics defines the emerging science and technology platform that blends natural polymers and pharmaceutics for the design and development of drug delivery systems. Natural polymers due to their biological properties, sustainability, chemical flexibility, human and eco-friendliness are promising in this field. As drug delivery advances, there will be need for more polymers. Given that polymers utilized in pharmaceuticals require regulatory approval, robust processes are undertaken to facilitate the production of pharmaceutical grade natural polymers. This review provides insight into the processes—extraction, purification, modifications and characterizations—involved in the eventual utilization of natural polymers for drug delivery. The versatility of natural polymers and particularly modified natural polymers in targeted drug delivery, micro-/nano-drug delivery, theranostics, BioMEMs and generally in research and development of highly efficient, safe and quality products is demonstrated. Natural polymers are polymers of today and tomorrow. Therefore, the shift to undertake training, extensive research and subsequent commercialization of more natural polymers—novel and underutilized—for drug delivery is now!
Presenting science is an authentic activity of practicing scientists. Thus, effective communication of science is an important skill to nurture in high school students who are learning science. This study examines strategies employed by high school students as they make science presentations; it assesses students' conceptual understandings of particular science topics through their presentations and investigates gender differences. Data are derived from science presentation given by eight high school students, three females and five males who attended a summer science program. Data sources included videotaped presentations, ethnographic fieldnotes, interviews with presenters and members of the audience, and presenter notes and overheads. Presentations were transcribed and submitted to discourse analysis from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective. This article focuses on the methodology employed and how it helps inform the above research questions. The author argues that use of this methodology leads to findings that inform important social-communicative issues in the learning of science. Practical advice for teaching students to present science, implications for use of presentations to assess conceptual learning, and indications of some possible gender differences are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 February 1994;
Herman, Benjamin C.; Olson, Joanne K.; Clough, Michael P.
This study reports the participation of 13 secondary science teachers in informal support networks and how that participation was associated with their nature of science (NOS) teaching practices 2 to 5 years after having graduated from the same science teacher education program. The nine teachers who participated in informal support networks taught the NOS at high/medium levels, while the four non-participating teachers taught the NOS at low levels. The nine high/medium NOS implementation teachers credited the informal support networks for maintaining/heightening their sense of responsibility for teaching NOS and for helping them navigate institutional constraints that impede effective NOS instruction. Several high/medium NOS instruction implementers initially struggled to autonomously frame and resolve the complexities experienced in schools and thus drew from the support networks to engage in more sophisticated forms of teacher decision-making. In contrast, the NOS pedagogical decisions of the four teachers not participating in support networks were governed primarily by the expectations and constraints experienced in their schools. Implications of this study include the need for reconsidering the structure of teacher mentorship programs to ensure they do not promote archaic science teaching practices that are at odds with reform efforts in science education.
Arapaki, Xenia; Koliopoulos, Dimitris
The need for a convergence of the visual arts and the natural sciences within the framework of both formal (schools, universities) and non-formal education (museum) at the level of dissemination and popularization of this knowledge is something that has preoccupied the communities of artists, scientists and educators. In the present work we aim to…
Campanile, Megan F.; Lederman, Norman G.; Kampourakis, Kostas
The purpose of this study was to analyze seven widely used high school biology textbooks in order to assess the nature of science knowledge (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) aspects they, explicitly or implicitly, conveyed in the Mendelian genetics sections. Textbook excerpts that directly and/or fully matched our statements about NOS and SI were…
During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."
Fabiana Setti Zulian
Full Text Available The Museum of Natural Sciences, University of Caxias do Sul, the space of non-formal education, has great potential for the development of activities related to environmental education. In the permanent exhibition room are provided information on the concept of ecosystems, flora and fauna of regional ecosystems, the interaction between them and the environmental impacts that suffer be performed. In tutoring questions occur and students are to report give opportunity knowledge they have acquired in school and in everyday experiences, adding new insights to these, thus making meaningful learning. Aiming to conserve natural resources and enhance ecosystems of Rio Grande do Sul, with the familiar design to preserve: the ecosystems of the Rio Grande do Sul - The Natural Science Museum goes to School, in partnership with the Municipal Primary School Jardelino Ramos, we elaborated a different methodology in addition to visitation. After explanations of ecosystems, various activities, including game of questions and answers on ecosystems, bingo and interactive storytelling history were under taken in accordance with the age range of students. Participated in these activities about 450 students of the partner school. The result was significant, it was noted that in later activities in school the occurrence of transferring the knowledge acquired in visits to the Natural Science Museum, through the reports and actions of students.
Paniagua, Francisco Blázquez
In Spain, during Franco's dictatorship (1939-1975) the teaching and divulgation of science were subordinated to the Catholic religion and many books defended a theistic and creationistic point of view of biology that accepted a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis and denied the theory of evolution, especially as it relates to human origin. This article is devoted to the main books and characteristics of this way of thinking which reproduced arguments and metaphors of the pre-Darwinian natural theology, arguing that nature was ruled by God and living organisms were the results of his design.
Frisby, Craig L.; Jimerson, Shane R.
Immigration into the United States is a particularly salient topic of current contemporary educational, social, and political discussions. The school-related needs of immigrant children and youth can be well served by rigorous research and effective school psychology preservice training and preparation. This overview highlights key definitions,…
Lebofsky, Larry A.; Cañizo, Thea L.; Buxner, Sanlyn
Hands-on learning allows students to understand science concepts by directly observing and experiencing the topics they are studying. The Planetary Science Institute (PSI) has created instructional rock kits that have been introduced to elementary and middle school teachers in Tucson, in our professional development workshops. PSI provides teachers with supporting material and training so that they can use the kits as tools for students’ hands-on learning. Use of these kits provides an important experience with natural materials that is essential to instruction in Earth and Space Science. With a stronger knowledge of science content and of how science is actually conducted, the workshops and kits have instilled greater confidence in teachers’ ability to teach science content. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Performance Expectations includes: “What makes up our solar system?” NGSS emphasizes the Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding of the nature of scientific models.Addressing a need expressed by teachers for borrowing kits less expensive than our $2000 option, we created a Meteorite Mini-Kit. Each Mini-Kit contains eight rocks: an iron-bearing chondrite, a sliced chondrite (showing iron and chondrules), a tektite, a common Tucson rock, a river-polished rock, pumice, a small iron, and a rounded obsidian rock (false tektite). Also included in the Mini-Kits are magnets and a magnifier. The kits cost $40 to $50, depending on the sizes of the chondrites. A teacher can check out a classroom set of these which contains either 10 or 20 Mini-Kits. Each
Garcia, Yeni Violeta
The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception
McAlinden, Mary; Noyes, Andrew
Following sustained discussion regarding the relationship between advanced mathematics and science learning in England, the government has pursued a reform agenda in which mathematics is embedded in national, high stakes A-level science qualifications and their assessments for 18-year-olds. For example, A-level Chemistry must incorporate the assessment of relevant mathematics for at least 20% of the qualification. Other sciences have different mandated percentages. This embedding policy is ru...
Mulvey, Bridget K.
This dissertation, a three-paper set, explored whether the process skills-based approach to nature of science instruction improves teachers' understandings, intentions to teach, and instructional practice related to the nature of science. The first paper examined the nature of science views of 53 preservice science teachers before and after a…
Oct 27, 2012 ... Science teachers‟ computer illiteracy, inadequate infrastructures, ... development is human capital- the values, attitudes, knowledge, skills, ... raises questions concerning junior secondary education's focus on the.
Leung, Jessica Shuk Ching; Wong, Alice Siu Ling; Yung, Benny Hin Wai
Understandings of nature of science (NOS) are a core component of scientific literacy, and a scientifically literate populace is expected to be able to critically evaluate science in the media. While evidence has remained inconclusive on whether better NOS understandings will lead to critical evaluation of science in the media, this study aimed at examining the correlation therein. Thirty-eight non-science majors, enrolled in a science course for non-specialists held in a local community college, evaluated three health news articles by rating the extent to which they agreed with the reported claims and providing as many justifications as possible. The majority of the participants were able to evaluate and justify their viewpoint from multiple perspectives. Students' evaluation was compared with their NOS conceptions, including the social and cultural embedded NOS, the tentative NOS, the peer review process and the community of practice. Results indicated that participants' understanding of the tentative NOS was significantly correlated with multiple perspective evaluation of science news reports of socioscientific nature (r = 0.434, p media of socioscientific nature. However, the null result for other target NOS aspects in this study suggested a lack of evidence to assume that understanding the social dimensions of science would have significant influence on the evaluation of science in the media. Future research on identifying the reasons for why and why not NOS understandings are applied in the evaluation will move this field forward.
pre-service secondary science teachers' self-efficacy beliefs with regard to gender and educational .... outcome. As a consequence, instruments for the determination of self-efficacy ...... Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 42, 119–31. Bursal, M.
Brandi E. JOHNSON
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Brandi E. Johnson
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Sep 30, 2008 ... Country needs flexible and multi-choice higher education system in Sciences .... methodologies, (6) limited options for movement between science and ..... and capabilities of their academic and other support staff on the one ...... Universities should have uninterrupted water and electric supply, .... decisions.
Full Text Available Science popularization is demanding from the financial as well as the time point of view. It is necessary to find the premises that would be easily available to general public. Another important step is to promote the event so that it would attract the audience. The preparation of scientific experiments itself also requires some financial resources. If we want to take advantage of these resources in the most useful and effective way, we have to find answers to the question: “What, where and how do we want to popularise?” In the paper, we describe one-day project aimed to popularization of scientific fields carried out by eight departments of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra. The project was named Scientific Fair – Science you can see, hear and experience. Its main goal was to present seven scientific fields - Physics, Informatics, Mathematics, Geography, Ecology, Chemistry and Biology. Popularization was carried out as experimental interactive activities unveiling the undisclosed corners of science. Their aim was to inspire the audience, arouse their interest in science and motivate the participants to cognitive activities. We introduce the idea of the project in detail concentrating mainly on informatics realized by the Department of Informatics.
McDonald, Christine V.
A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has resulted in an overreliance on more transmissive pedagogical tools, such as textbooks. This study sought to evaluate the usage of junior secondary science textbooks in Australian schools. Data were collected via surveys from 486 schools teaching junior secondary (years 7-10), representing all Australian states and territories. Results indicated that most Australian schools use a science textbook in the junior secondary years, and textbooks are used in the majority of science lessons. The most highly cited reason influencing choice of textbook was layout/colour/illustrations, and electronic technologies were found to be the dominant curricula material utilised, in addition to textbooks, in junior secondary science classes. Interestingly, the majority of respondents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their textbooks, although many were keen to stress the subsidiary role of textbooks in the classroom, emphasising the textbook was `one' component of their teaching repertoire. Importantly, respondents were also keen to stress the benefits of textbooks in supporting substitute teachers, beginning teachers, and non-specialist science teachers; in addition to facilitating continuity of programming and staff support in schools with high staff turnover. Implications from this study highlight the need for high quality textbooks to support teaching and learning in Australian junior secondary science classes.
Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.
Bergmann, Nina; Basse, Wiebke; Prigge, Enno; Schelten, Christiane; Antia, Avan
Marine research is a dynamic thematic focus in Kiel, Germany, uniting natural scientists, economists, lawyers, philosophers, artists and computing and medical scientists in frontier research on the scientific, economic and legal aspects of the seas. The contributing institutions are Kiel University, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel Institute for the World Economy and Muthesius University in Kiel. Marine science education in Kiel trains young scientists to investigate the role of the oceans in global change, risks arising from ocean usage and sustainable management of living and non-living marine resources. Basic fundamental research is supplemented with applied science in an international framework including partners from industry and public life. The Integrated School of Ocean Sciences (ISOS) established through the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", funded within the German Excellence Initiative, provides PhD candidates in marine sciences with interdisciplinary education outside of curricular courses. It supports the doctoral candidates through supplementary training, a framework of supervision, mentoring and mobility, the advisors through transparency and support of doctoral training in their research proposals and the contributing institutions by ensuring quality, innovation and excellence in marine doctoral education. All PhD candidates financed by the Helmholtz Research School for Ocean System Science and Technology (HOSST) and the Collaborative Research Centre 754 "Climate-biogeochemical interactions in the tropical ocean" (SFB 754) are enrolled at the ISOS and are integrated into the larger peer community. Over 150 PhD candidate members from 6 faculties form a large interdisciplinary network. At the ISOS, they sharpen their scientific profile, are challenged to think beyond their discipline and equip themselves for life after a PhD through early exposure to topics beyond research (e.g. social responsibility, public communication
Analia Maria de Fátima Costa
Full Text Available This article is part of a research developed in the master's PPGECT UTFPR - Campus Ponta Grossa. This cut includes the themes: inclusion; teaching natural sciences and the role of the teacher; students with intellectual disabilities and the mentoring process in mainstream education. For realization of this research, references from different authors on these issues were analyzed. The application and data collection were developed in a class of 5th grade of elementary school to a private school teaching Ponta Grossa / PR, there is among the students, one with intellectual disabilities. Also participating in the study students of the Teacher Training Course (CFD of the school, the researcher teacher and four teachers. The pedagogical action developed with the gang was systematized in a notebook of educational activities with a focused instructional sequence for teaching Natural Sciences, organized in an interdisciplinary manner, with an emphasis on mediation of the tutor as an adjunct in the child's teaching and learning process disability, since the tutelage of relationship is seen as beneficial for both the one who helps, the tutor, the one who is helped, the tutored. Through the mentoring process can adjust the educational response to the particular needs of students, before curriculum and methodological adaptations. The survey results confirmed the need for the presence of a tutor for specialized educational services, mediating the process of teaching and student learning with special educational needs so that the inclusion really becomes effective.
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.
The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported - an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers. Comparison pupils came from both intervention and comparison schools (n = 385). Intervention teachers attended three continuing professional development days, in which they received information, engaged with resource packs and involved themselves in cooperative learning. Measures included both general and specific tests of science, attitudes to science, sociometry, self-esteem, attitudes to cooperative learning and transferable skills (all for pupils) and observation of implementation fidelity. There were increases during cooperative learning in pupil formulation of propositions, explanations and disagreements. Intervened pupils gained in attainment, but comparison pupils gained even more. Pupils who had experienced cooperative learning in primary school had higher pre-test scores in secondary education irrespective of being in the intervention or comparison group. On sociometry, comparison pupils showed greater affiliation to science work groups for work, but intervention pupils greater affiliation to these groups at break and out of school. Other measures were not significant. The results are discussed in relation to practice and policy implications.
Newsome, Demetria Lynn
Teachers' efficacy beliefs have been shown to correlate positively with to the successful implementation of science reform measures (National Research Council, 1996) and are context specific (Koul & Rubba, 1999). Studies on teacher efficacy in specific contexts have been conducted including the availability of resources and parent support (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2002), classroom management (Emmer & Hickman, 1990; Raudenbush, Rowen, & Cheong, 1992); and institutional climate and behavior of the principal (Hoy & Woolfolk, 1993). The purpose of this study was to compare the science teaching efficacy beliefs of teacher interns prepared in professional development schools with those of student teachers prepared in traditional school settings. Other variables examined included academic level, academic major, and area of science concentration. Preservice science teacher efficacy beliefs were measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument for Preservice Science Teachers, STEBI Form B (Enoch & Riggs, 1990) with demographic information being collected by an accompanying questionnaire. Analyses included scoring the surveys on two scales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Scale and the Outcome Expectancy Scale, calculating descriptive statistics, as well as performing MANOVAS and correlations. Results indicate that preservice science teachers working in professional development schools exhibit higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs. This finding corroborates previous studies on the efficacy beliefs of preservice teachers working in PDS schools (Long, 1996; Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000). Results also show a strong correlation between the personal science teaching efficacy beliefs and the setting where student teaching takes place. In addition, significant differences were found in the personal science teaching efficacy beliefs between elementary education majors and science majors, science education majors, and secondary education majors
This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.
Burt, Andy; And Others
This curriculum guide for the natural sciences is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The guide presents the following topics: (1) a list of general objectives; (2) a list of simple skills for children aged 5-8 and for children aged 8-12; (3) activities dealing with matter and its properties, space-time, and human…
Everett, Glyn; Geoghegan, Hilary
Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.
Maria Margaret Lopes
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta subsídios para o ensino de História das Ciências, considerando particularmente o campo da História da História Natural e das Ciências Naturais. Sem ser uma revisão completa da historiografia desses campos de conhecimento sobre o mundo natural, retoma alguns traços gerais desses longos processos de definição de campos disciplinares que se configuram desde a Renascença até o final do século XVIII. Considera diversas tradições culturais e historiográficas que contribuíram para os nossos entendimentos atuais, de como a História Natural do Renascimento foi abandonando seus antigos quadros conceituais, assumindo novas práticas e se constituindo nas tradições da História Natural do século XVIII. Comenta esses processos, em que tanto a Botânica, a Zoologia, a Mineralogia se individualizam como áreas de conhecimentos apoiadas em práticas locais e coleções globais, indo além de sua subordinação à utilidade médica; bem como suas organizações em áreas de conhecimento, por começarem a se colocar questões relativas à origem e à historicidade dos seres e processos naturais, dados os avanços das temáticas classificatórias e das discussões envolvendo temporalidades.This paper provides insights into the teaching of the History of Science, especially the field of the History of Natural History and Natural Sciences. Although not claiming to be a complete historiographic review of these areas of knowledge about the natural world, it outlines the general traits of the long process of definition of disciplines that were shaped from the Renaissance to the end of the XVIII century. It encompasses various cultural and historiographic traditions that contributed to our present understanding of how Renaissance Natural History abandoned its ancient conceptual frameworks and assumed new practices and shaped itself in the tradition of XVIII century Natural History. The paper comments on these processes by which
Jimakorn, Narakorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This paper aimed to study of primary school students' understanding of nature of science in learning about force and motion for Explicit Nature of Science through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 11 Grade 5 students who study in Baan Khongtaphet, Bothong, Chonburi, Thailand. This research regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention of STS physics provided 4 weeks of teaching about force and motion through Yuenyong (2006) science technology and society (STS) approach. The issues of making skate board was brought into the class in order to enhance students learning about force and motion and applying knowledge for designing skate board. The intervention was also designed to allow students explicitly mentioning their ideas about nature of science related to learning activities of STS force and motion. Students' understanding of nature of science was interpreted through students' worksheets, participant observation, students' journal writing and informal interview. The findings revealed that majority of students could reflect their ideas related to many aspects of nature of science. This included Science demands and relies on empirical evidence; knowledge production in science shares many common factors and shared habits of mind, norms, logical thinking and methods; tentative of scientific knowledge; historical, cultural and social influences on science; historical, cultural and social influences on science; science and its methods cannot answer all questions. The study has implications for NOS teaching in Thailand primary school.
Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal
Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vazquez-Alonso, Angel; Garcia-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, Maria Antonia; Bennassar-Roig, Antoni
This study analyzes the beliefs about science-technology-society, and other Nature of Science (NOS) themes, of a large sample (613) of Spanish pre- and in-service secondary education teachers through their responses to 30 items of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society. The data were processed by means of a multiple…
A study of elementary teachers' conceptions of nature of science and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of nature of science throughout a professional development program
This qualitative study aimed to explore the changes in elementary science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of NOS after participating in an academic, year-long professional development program (PDP) as well as the factors facilitating these changes. The PDP consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the participants received NOS training designed with an explicit-reflective instructional approach. In the second phase, the participants implemented several NOS training activities in their classrooms. Four elementary science teachers who volunteered and completed all components of the PDP (i.e., the NOS training and the NOS teaching) comprised the participants of the present study. A multiple-embedded case study design was employed to explore the changes in the elementary science teachers' conceptions of NOS and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of NOS. The study data were collected from multiple sources. The primary data sources included (a) Views of Nature of Science Elementary School Version 2 (VNOS-D2) questionnaire (Lederman & Khishfe, 2002), (b) Ideas about Science for Early Elementary (K-4) Students questionnaire (Sweeney, 2010), and (c) follow-up semi-structured interviews. The secondary data sources included videotaping of meetings with teachers, reflective field notes, and artifacts produced by teachers and their students. Data were analyzed using Yin's (1994, 2003) analytic tactics of pattern matching, explanation building, and cross-case synthesis. The findings of the study revealed that the elementary science teachers showed gradual, but substantial changes in their conceptions, and beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of the NOS aspects over the course of participation in the PDP. Moreover, the participants identified nine components in the PDP that facilitated these changes in their conceptions, and
Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.
John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.
Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze
This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science
Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus
In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines is characterized by controversy rather than unified textbook knowledge. There is common agreement among educators of the arts and humanities that controversies in the reference disciplines should be represented in education. To teach NOS means to adopt a reflexive perspective on science. Therefore, we suggest that controversies within and between the reference disciplines are relevant for NOS teaching and not only the NOS but about NOS should be taught, too. We address the objections that teaching about NOS is irrelevant for real life and too demanding for students. First, we argue that science-reflexive meta-discourses are relevant for students as future citizens because the discourses occur publicly in the context of sociopolitical disputes. Second, we argue that it is in fact necessary to reduce the complexity of the above-mentioned discourses and that this is indeed possible, as it has been done with other reflexive elements in science education. In analogy to the German construct Bewertungskompetenz (which means the competency to make informed ethical decisions in scientific contexts), we suggest epistemic competency as a goal for NOS teaching. In order to do so, science-reflexive controversies must be simplified and attitudes toward science must be considered. Discourse on the scientific status of potential pseudoscience may serve as an authentic and relevant context for teaching the controversial nature of reflexion on science.
Giglio, Kathleen Rose Fitzgerald
This is an in depth study of two elementary school teachers, who are generalists because they teach multiple subjects to their classes, in addition to science, respectively in grade 3 and grade 6. The teachers taught and their students learned using a contemporary understanding of the nature of science (NOS), which they learned by actually doing science investigations, rather than being explicitly told about NOS (contrary to what some scholars claim). Neither teacher completed any formal/informal science training/experiences, especially connected to the construct NOS. Even though the teachers did not explicitly reference NOS in the classroom, their teaching about NOS was made possible through their implementation of the FOSS ( Full Option Science System) curriculum. Although their students enthusiastically demonstrated competence in both science process and content, as prescribed by the FOSS curriculum, the teachers' felt undermined by the state mandated assessments and the inclusion of student performance as a criterion for the state teacher evaluation system. This research was designed to answer the following questions: (1) What are elementary teachers' conceptions about NOS? (2) How are the teachers' NOS views manifested in their implementation of the FOSS program and their choices of instructional methods/materials? (3) What factors may have enhanced or hindered how the teachers sustained their NOS conceptions as they implemented the FOSS program? To explicate the relationship between teachers' views of NOS and the extent to which constructivist practices were employed in their science instruction, a multiple research methodology using grounded theory as the foundation and employing both quantitative and qualitative measures, was needed. Sources of quantitative data were written survey results using the Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry Questionnaire (SUSSI; Liang et al., 2008) Likert scale responses and constructed responses. Face
González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Fernández-Repollet, Emma
Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts.
Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin
In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…
Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon
Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…
As science gets squeezed in the elementary curriculum, at least two Florida districts are trying a new approach to keeping hands-on lessons a part of pupils' experiences. This article reports how Broward and Palm Beach county districts have increased the number of science specialists working in their elementary schools--teachers who, like physical…
Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin
In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, “Criminal Camp”. We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics...... of the subjects taught and scientific literacy in general....
For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.
Coutts, Trudi E.
This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students’ interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the change in interest seems to modulate student motivation, which ultimately leads to fewer children choosing not only science classes in the future but science careers. Research studies have identified numerous factors that affect student interest in science; however, this study incorporated the lived experience of the child and looked at this interest in science through the lens of the child. The study design was a collective cross-case study that was multi-site based. This study utilized a sample of children in fifth grade classes of three different elementary schools, two distinct seventh grade classes of different middle schools, and ninth grade children from one high school in the State of Illinois. The phenomenon was investigated through student interviews. The use of one-on-one semi-structured interviews limited to 45 minutes in length provided the researcher with data of each child’s description of science interest. All interviews were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was collected and analyzed in order to identify themes, and finally checked for validity. The most significant findings of this study, and possible factors contributing to science interest in children as they progress from elementary to high school, were those findings relating to hands-on activities, the degree to which a student was challenged, the offering of new versus previously studied topics in the curriculum, the perceived relevance of the curricular materials to personal life, and the empowerment children felt when they were allowed to make choices related to their learning experiences. This study’s possible implications for
Strong, Donna Dorough
coping with the stress of these changes. The discussion includes meta-assertions and recommendations concerning the leadership and planning process for movement to a middle school philosophy, the most appropriate building structure for meeting needs of science teachers, teachers as curriculum makers, and the nature of middle level professional development for experienced science teachers.
Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon
This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students' epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS) assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc.), degree (BA or BS), status (freshman, sophomore, etc.), and gender (male or female). We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.
Full Text Available This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students’ epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc., degree (BA or BS, status (freshman, sophomore, etc., and gender (male or female. We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.
Rian de Villiers
Full Text Available The Science Made Sensible (SMS program began as a partnership between the University of Miami (UM, Florida, USA, and some public schools in Miami. In this program, postgraduate students from UM work with primary school science teachers to engage learners in science through the use of inquiry-based, hands-on activities. Due to the success of the SMS program in Miami, it was extended internationally. The SMS team (two Miami Grade 6/7 science teachers and two UM postgraduate students, 195 learners, and five South African teachers at two primary schools in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in this study. A quantitative research design was employed, and learners, teachers and UM postgraduate students used questionnaires to evaluate the SMS program. The results show that the SMS team was successful in reaching the SMS goals in these South African schools. More than 90% of the learners are of opinion that the SMS team from the USA made them more interested in the natural sciences and fostered an appreciation for the natural sciences. All the South African teachers plan to adopt and adapt some of the pedagogical strategies they learned from the SMS team. This article includes a discussion about the benefits of inquiry-based learning and the similarities and dissimilarities of USA and South Africa’s teaching methods in the science classrooms.
Höttecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino
Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order to better understand this problem, an analysis of the obstacles of implementing HPS into classrooms was undertaken. The obstacles taken into account were structured in four groups: 1. culture of teaching physics, 2. teachers' skills, epistemological and didactical attitudes and beliefs, 3. institutional framework of science teaching, and 4. textbooks as fundamental didactical support. Implications for more effective implementation of HPS are presented, taking the social nature of educational systems into account.
Liu, Zengqian; Zhang, Zhefeng; Ritchie, Robert O
Biological material systems have evolved unique combinations of mechanical properties to fulfill their specific function through a series of ingenious designs. Seeking lessons from Nature by replicating the underlying principles of such biological materials offers new promise for creating unique combinations of properties in man-made systems. One case in point is Nature's means of attack and defense. During the long-term evolutionary "arms race," naturally evolved weapons have achieved exceptional mechanical efficiency with a synergy of effective offense and persistence-two characteristics that often tend to be mutually exclusive in many synthetic systems-which may present a notable source of new materials science knowledge and inspiration. This review categorizes Nature's weapons into ten distinct groups, and discusses the unique structural and mechanical designs of each group by taking representative systems as examples. The approach described is to extract the common principles underlying such designs that could be translated into man-made materials. Further, recent advances in replicating the design principles of natural weapons at differing lengthscales in artificial materials, devices and tools to tackle practical problems are revisited, and the challenges associated with biological and bioinspired materials research in terms of both processing and properties are discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben
GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in
Drayton, Brian; Falk, Joni K.; Stroud, Rena; Hobbs, Kathryn; Hammerman, James
There are few studies of the impact of ubiquitous computing on high school science, and the majority of studies of ubiquitous computing report only on the early stages of implementation. The present study presents data on 3 high schools with carefully elaborated ubiquitous computing systems that have gone through at least one "obsolescence cycle"…
Nóbrega de Albuquerque, Vanessa; Leite, Cristina
Pluto had its classification changed in 2006, from planet to “dwarf planet”. This change had great impact in the media. Pluto returned to the news due to the arrival of New Horizons probe to Pluto in July 2015. Whereas the understanding of the complexity involved in the definition of celestial bodies could help us to show science as a historic, social, collective, non-linear and non-neutral process, it is presented a historical survey of the episodes involving the various definitions for planet, since the first observations of the sky made by our ancestors until the resolutions that defined which are the attributes of a "planet " made at the 26th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, meeting at which it was decided to reclassify Pluto. In order contribute to help perform discussions about the nature of science involving Astronomy themes, it is explained which features of scientific knowledge become evident during the study of the mentioned episodes.
Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W
Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism.
Lederman, Norm G.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bell, Randy L.; Schwartz, Renée S.
Helping students develop informed views of nature of science (NOS) has been and continues to be a central goal for kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12) science education. Since the early 1960s, major efforts have been undertaken to enhance K-12 students and science teachers' NOS views. However, the crucial component of assessing learners' NOS views remains an issue in research on NOS. This article aims to (a) trace the development of a new open-ended instrument, the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS), which in conjunction with individual interviews aims to provide meaningful assessments of learners' NOS views; (b) outline the NOS framework that underlies the development of the VNOS; (c) present evidence regarding the validity of the VNOS; (d) elucidate the use of the VNOS and associated interviews, and the range of NOS aspects that it aims to assess; and (e) discuss the usefulness of rich descriptive NOS profiles that the VNOS provides in research related to teaching and learning about NOS. The VNOS comes in response to some calls within the science education community to go back to developing standardized forced-choice paper and pencil NOS assessment instruments designed for mass administrations to large samples. We believe that these calls ignore much of what was learned from research on teaching and learning about NOS over the past 30 years. The present state of this line of research necessitates a focus on individual classroom interventions aimed at enhancing learners' NOS views, rather than on mass assessments aimed at describing or evaluating students' beliefs.
Ramnarain, Umesh; Padayachee, Keshni
This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology textbooks that were written…
Lawson, Anton E.
Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to
Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo
Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…
Andrea L. Juan
Determinants of educational achievement extend beyond the school environment to include the home ... generation of relevant knowledge and the productive use of that knowledge to advance growth (World Bank, .... language of teaching and learning when it differs ..... students are likely to be at a disadvantage, because.
Callahan, Brendan E.
There is a distinct divide between theory and practice in American science education. Research indicates that a constructivist philosophy, in which students construct their own knowledge, is conductive to learning, while in many cases teachers continue to present science in a more traditional manner. This study sought to explore possible relationships between a socioscientific issues based curriculum and three outcome variables: nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation skill. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine both whole class differences as well as individual differences between the beginning and end of a semester of high school Biology I. Results indicated that the socioscientific issues based curriculum did not produce statistically significant changes over the course of one semester. However, the treatment group scored better on all three instruments than the comparison group. The small sample size may have contributed to the inability to find statistical significance in this study. The qualitative interviews did indicate that some students provided more sophisticated views on nature of science and reflective judgment, and were able to provide slightly more complex argumentation structures. Theoretical implications regarding the use of explicit use of socioscientific issues in the classroom are presented.
Demirdöğen, Betül; Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Köseoğlu, Fitnat
The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of the early development of preservice chemistry teachers' science teaching orientations, knowledge of learners, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of assessment during a two-semester intervention designed to enhance their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching nature of science (NOS). Thirty preservice chemistry teachers enrolled in a Research in Science Education course participated in the study. Qualitative data sources included responses to an open-ended instrument, interviews, observations, and artifacts such as lesson plans and reflection papers. Through the in-depth analysis of explicit PCK and constant comparative method of analysis, we identified the influence of the intervention on participants' PCK for NOS. Analysis of data revealed four major themes related to the nature of preservice chemistry teachers' NOS teaching practices and their PCK for NOS: (1) prerequisite knowledge and beliefs are necessary to teach NOS, (2) there is a developmental progression of PCK for NOS from knowledge to application level, (3) teachers need some comfort in their NOS understanding to teach NOS, and (4) the higher integration of PCK components leads to successful NOS teaching practices. Implications for science teacher education and research are discussed.
The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing `ancient' and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates, where I have lived and worked for 20 years. In this forum piece, I described several areas of similarity and one striking area of difference between the two societies.
Fowler, James H; Schreiber, Darren
In the past 50 years, biologists have learned a tremendous amount about human brain function and its genetic basis. At the same time, political scientists have been intensively studying the effect of the social and institutional environment on mass political attitudes and behaviors. However, these separate fields of inquiry are subject to inherent limitations that may only be resolved through collaboration across disciplines. We describe recent advances and argue that biologists and political scientists must work together to advance a new science of human nature.
Starting from a brief historical perspective on scientific discovery, this talk will review some of the theory and open problems of deep learning and describe how to design efficient feedforward and recursive deep learning architectures for applications in the natural sciences. In particular, the focus will be on multiple particle problems at different scales: in biology (e.g. prediction of protein structures), chemistry (e.g. prediction of molecular properties and reactions), and high-energy physics (e.g. detection of exotic particles, jet substructure and tagging, "dark matter and dark knowledge")
Ellis, Jonathan Richard
As a large international research laboratory, CERN feels it has a special responsibility for outreach, and has many activities directed towards schools, including organized visits, an on-site museum, hands-on experiments, a Summer intern programme for high-school teachers, lecture series and webcasts. Ongoing activities and future plans are reviewed, and some ideas stimulated by this workshop are offered concerning the relevance of CERN's experience to Asia, and the particular contribution that CERN can make as a non-school resource for science education.
Anne E. Thessen
A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters, but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science.
Van Dijk, Esther M.
This paper is concerned with the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching about the nature of science. In contrast to the view that science teachers need to develop a specific "PCK for nature of science," an alternative, more comprehensive notion of PCK for science teaching is suggested. The point of…
system available to those passing out of the +2 level in Science stream. II) The first .... University Grants Commission, whole-heartedly supported the ... interdisciplinary curricula and stimulating teaching methods that evoke ... water or electricity supply. .... share with you for inclusiveness, there are several decisions taken by.
Kennedy, Katheryn B.
Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards requires developing elementary teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge of science and engineering concepts. Teacher preparation for this undertaking appears inadequate with little known about how in-service Mid-Atlantic urban elementary science teachers approach this task. The purpose of this basic qualitative interview study was to explore the research questions related to perceived learning needs of 8 elementary science teachers and 5 of their administrators serving as instructional leaders. Strategies needed for professional growth to support learning and barriers that hamper it at both building and district levels were included. These questions were considered through the lens of Schon's reflective learning and Weick's sensemaking theories. Analysis with provisional and open coding strategies identified informal and formal supports and barriers to teachers' learning. Results indicated that informal supports, primarily internet usage, emerged as most valuable to the teachers' learning. Formal structures, including professional learning communities and grade level meetings, arose as both supportive and restrictive at the building and district levels. Existing formal supports emerged as the least useful because of the dominance of other priorities competing for time and resources. Addressing weaknesses within formal supports through more effective planning in professional development can promote positive change. Improvement to professional development approaches using the internet and increased hands on activities can be integrated into formal supports. Explicit attention to these strategies can strengthen teacher effectiveness bringing positive social change.
Boice, Daniel C.; Asbell, E.; Reiff, P. H.
Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.
Lewis, Amy D.
The development of scientifically literate citizens begins in the elementary school. Yet elementary school teachers are ill prepared to teach science (Trygstad, Smith, Banilower, Nelson, & Horizon Research, Inc., 2013). The research base on teacher preparation finds that programs designed to prepare elementary teachers are inadequate in providing both the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge necessary to teach science effectively (Baumgartner, 2010; Bodzin & Beerer, 2003; Bulunuz & Jarrett 2009). This mixed methods study examined what happened when a science methods course was interactively co-taught by an expert in elementary teaching methods and a physics expert. This study also aimed to discover what aspects of the curriculum pre-service teachers (PSTs) said helped them in developing their understanding of science content and scientific reasoning, and how to implement inquiry practices to teach science. A nested case study of three PSTs provided descriptive portraits of student experiences in the class. A whole class case analysis was used to examine what PSTs learned in terms of science, scientific reasoning skills, and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) from their experiences in the course. It was found that students often conflated science content with the experiences they had in learning the content. Although PSTs felt the interactive co-teaching model effectively created a balance between theory and practice, it was their experiences doing science--conducting physical experiments, developing and discussing scientific models, and the use of inquiry-based instruction--that they credited for their learning. Even with careful curriculum planning, and a course purposely designed to bridge the theory to practice gap, this study found one semester-long methods course to be insufficient in providing the vast content knowledge and PCK elementary school science teachers need.
... engagement of key partners at the regional Climate Science Center level. Advise on the nature and... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... seeking nominations for the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (Committee...
Manno, Jacqueline L.
Reform-oriented science teaching with a specific focus on evidence and explanation provides a student-centered learning environment which encourages children to question, seek answers to those questions, experience phenomena, share ideas, and develop explanations of science concepts based on evidence. One of the ways schools have risen to meet the challenge of ever-increasing demands for success in science and all other curricular areas has been in the development of professional development schools (PDSs). Dedicated to the simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education programs, the structure of a PDS plays a significant role in the change process. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the nature of change in mentor teachers' beliefs and pedagogical practices toward science teaching in the elementary school as conveyed through their own "stories of practice". The major research questions that guided the study were: (1) How do mentor teachers describe their science teaching practices and how have they changed as a result of participation in PDS? (a) In what ways do PDS mentor teachers' descriptions of practice reflect contemporary reform ideas and practices in science education? (b) To what extent do their stories emphasize technical aspects of teaching versus epistemological changes in their thinking and knowledge? (c) How is student learning in science reflected in teachers' stories of practice? (2) What is the relationship between the levels and types of involvement in PDS to change in thinking about and practices of teaching science? (3) What is the depth of commitment that mentors convey about changes in science teaching practices? Using case study design, the research explored the ways experienced teachers, working within the context of a PDS community, described changes in the ways they think about and teach science. The connection to the issue of change in teaching practices grew out of interest in understanding the relationship
Student achievement in the Twenty First Century demands a new rigor in student science knowledge, since advances in science and technology require students to think and act like scientists. As a result, students must acquire proficient levels of knowledge and skills to support a knowledge base that is expanding exponentially with new scientific advances. This study examined the effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of hands-on science instruction versus traditional science instruction on the science test scores of middle school students. The subjects in this study were one hundred and twenty sixth-grade students in six classes. Instruction involved lecture/discussion and hands-on activities carried out for a three week period. Specifically, the study ascertained the influence of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the science test scores of middle school students. Additionally, this study assessed the effect of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the attitudes of sixth grade students toward science. The two instruments used to collect data for this study were the Prentice Hall unit ecosystem test and the Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers Study (SWEPT) student's attitude survey. Moreover, the data for the study was treated using the One-Way Analysis of Covariance and the One-Way Analysis of Variance. The following findings were made based on the results: (1) A statistically significant difference existed in the science performance of middle school students exposed to hands-on science instruction. These students had significantly higher scores than the science performance of middle school students exposed to traditional instruction. (2) A statistically significant difference did not exist between the science scores of male and female middle school students. (3) A statistically
Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C
Fields are the fundamental sociological units of science. Despite their importance, relatively little has been written about their emergence, composition, structure, and function in the scientific enterprise. This essay considers the nature of fields and their important role in maintaining information and providing normative standards for scientific work. We suggest that fields arise naturally as a consequence of increasing information and scientific specialization. New fields tend to emerge as research communities grow, which may reflect biologically determined optima for the size of human groups. The benefits of fields include the organization of scientists with similar interests into communities that collectively define the next important problems to pursue. In the discipline of microbiology, fields are often organized on the basis of phylogenetic differences between microorganisms being studied. Although fields are essential to the proper functioning of science, their emergence can restrict access by outsiders and sustain dogmas that hinder progress. We suggest mechanisms to improve the functioning of scientific fields and to promote interdisciplinary interaction between fields. Copyright © 2015 Casadevall and Fang.
The fast growing number of science data repositories is opening enormous possibilities to scientists all over the world. The emergence of citizen science projects is engaging in science discovery a large number of citizens globally. Astronomical research is now a possibility to anyone having a computer and some form of data access. This opens a very interesting and strategic possibility to engage large audiences in the making and understanding of science. On another perspective it would be only natural to imagine that soon enough data mining will be an active part of the academic path of university or even secondary schools students. The possibility is very exciting but the road not very promising. Even in the most developed nations, where all schools are equipped with modern ICT facilities the use of such possibilities is still a very rare episode. The Galileo Teacher Training Program GTTP, a legacy of IYA2009, is participating in some of the most emblematic projects funded by the European Commission and targeting modern tools, resources and methodologies for science teaching. One of this projects is Discover the Cosmos which is aiming to target this issue by empowering educators with the necessary skills to embark on this innovative path: teaching science while doing science.
The science subject advisor can play an important role in upgrading ... literature study highlighted practices in the UK and the US that are ... South Africa has recently adopted a strate- ... (North West Province) felt that a solution to their teaching problems ..... teachers, clustering of schools, practical work, cross teaching,.
Patall, Erika A.; Vasquez, Ariana C.; Steingut, Rebecca R.; Trimble, Scott S.; Pituch, Keenan A.
This investigation examined relations between adolescent students' daily and cumulative perceptions of teachers' practice and their experience of autonomy. Two-hundred and eighteen high school science students in 43 classes participated in a 6-week diary study. Multilevel modeling results suggested that perceptions of 8 out of 9 practices…
Wexler, Jade; Mitchell, Marisa A.; Clancy, Erin E.; Silverman, Rebecca D.
This study reports findings from an exploration of the literacy practices of 10 high school science teachers. Based on observations of teachers' instruction, we report teachers' use of text, evidence-based vocabulary and comprehension practices, and grouping practices. Based on interviews with teachers, we also report teachers' perceptions…
Describes the purposes of the Center for Science Education at the University of Oslo as follows: to give help and advice to acting teachers; to make the staff at the university more aware of the needs and problems of the schools. Outlines the activities involved in fulfilling these purposes. (GS)
The study investigated the effect of students' project work on secondary school science process skills acquisition in Biology. The study was carried out in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State. Three research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of ...
Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon
Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…
Full Text Available In article, authors clarified the concept of "ICT competence of future teachers of computer science in the elementary school"; improved criteria for formation of the ICT competences future teachers of computer science in the elementary school to identify the system ready for use Delphi during process of visual programming in professional activity. We present the model of the formation of the ICT competence future teachers of computer science in the elementary school via visual programming tools, where importance given to the construction of individual learning paths, taking into account individual learning rhythm, because students have different levels of training, they are different in nature perception of information. It is proved that the proposed model will make it possible to carry out training, starting from the result of the educational process at the university, which takes into account the impact of external and internal variables, as well as a feedback mechanism that allows adjustment of the process at different stages. Authors presented developed method of forming ICT competences future teachers of computer science in the elementary school via Delphi tools during learning of visual programming, feature of which is that to present course materials were chosen LMS Moodle platform.
Kim, Sun Young; Yi, Sang Wook; Cho, Eun Hee
In this study, we produced a documentary which portrays scientists at work and critically evaluated the use of this film as a teaching tool to help students develop an understanding of the nature of science. The documentary, "Life as a Scientist: People in Love with 'Caenorhabditis elegans,' a Soil Nematode" encompasses the…
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Full Text Available Schooling in North America and northern Europe embodies salvation themes. The themes are (revisions of Enlightenments' projects about the cosmopolitan citizen and scientific progress. The emancipatory principles, however, were never merely about freedom and inclusion. A comparative system of reason was inscribed as gestures of hope and fear. The hope was of the child who would be the future cosmopolitan citizen; the fears were of the dangers and dangerous people to that future. The double gestures continue in contemporary school reform and its sciences. American progressive education sciences at the turn of the 20th century and contemporary school reform research are examined to understand their different cultural theses about cosmopolitan modes of life and the child cast out as different and abjected. Today's cosmopolitanism, different from that in the past, generates principles about the lifelong learner and its cosmopolitan hope of inclusion. The inclusionary impulse is expressed in the phrase "all children can learn". The child who stands outside of the unity of "all children" is disadvantaged and urban. School subject research in music at the turn of the 20th century and today's mathematics education are exemplars of the inscriptions of hope and fears in the sciences of education. The method of study is a history of the present. It is a strategy of resistance and counter praxis by making visible what is assumed as natural and inevitable in schooling.
Lotter, Christine; Singer, Jonathan; Godley, Jenice
This study describes the influence of a secondary science methods program on secondary science preservice teachers’ views and enactment of nature of science and inquiry-based instructional practices. Built into the structure of this program were three cycles of practice teaching and reflection in which the preservice teachers focused on key pedagogical ideas in classroom settings with middle and high school students. The nine secondary preservice teachers improved both their understanding and enactment of inquiry and nature of science throughout the program period. This study provides evidence of the importance of incorporating multiple low-stakes practicum experiences that are closely tied to methods course goals that are highly scaffolded through both methods instructor and cooperating teacher support and tied to analytic self-reflection.
This is an ethnographic study about an elementary school teacher's emotions in her science teaching and pedagogy. This study is an interdisciplinary account of emotions in teaching and draws both methodologically and theoretically from a variety of disciplines: philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, cultural studies and feminist studies. The account developed here is based on my understanding of the role of one teacher's (Catherine) emotions in her classroom life for three years. I describe my approach in terms of what I call emotional genealogies of teaching; referring to an account of the events, objects, persons and their relationships that are present or absent in the realization of emotions, and the ways that these emotions are experienced in relation to the self (individual reality), the others (social interactions) and the world in general (sociopolitical context). Applied to my study, an emotional genealogy of Catherine's science teaching seeks not to trace the gradual evolution of her emotions but to record the singularity of various events that make some emotions present and others absent. My study shows how certain emotions are constructed in the science classroom and how they are transformed over the years (as mediated by values, philosophies, beliefs and so on). Catherine's emotions in science teaching is a "history of the present," a history of her emotions' "presences and absences" in her daffy interactions with her students, parents and administrators in the context of the science classroom. This work raises important questions that go beyond the meaning and interpretation of teachers' emotions: How can teachers' emotions become a legitimate topic in (science) education as well as in efforts for science curricular reform? Further, how can educational institutions (universities and schools) and elementary school science teachers themselves support their personal and professional emotional growth?
Mullinnix, Debra Lynn
An assessment of the science education programs of the last thirty years reveals traditional science courses are producing student who have negative attitudes toward science, do not compete successfully in international science and mathematics competitions, are not scientifically literate, and are not interested in pursuing higher-level science courses. When the number of intellectually-capable females that fall into this group is considered, the picture is very disturbing. Berryman (1983) and Kahle (1985) have suggested the importance of attitude both, in terms of achievement in science and intention to pursue high-level science courses. Studies of attitudes toward science reveal that the decline in attitudes during grades four through eight was much more dramatic for females than for males. There exists a need, therefore, to explore alternative methods of teaching science, particularly in the middle school, that would increase scientific literacy, improve attitudes toward science, and encourage participation in higher-level science courses of female students. Yager (1996) has suggested that science-technology-society (STS) issue instruction does make significant changes in students' attitudes toward science, stimulates growth in science process skills, and increases concept mastery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect STS issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science in comparison to female middle school students who experience traditional science instruction. Another purpose was to examine the effect science-technology-society issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students in comparison to male middle school students. The pretests and the posttests were analyzed to examine differences in ten domains: enjoyment of science class; usefulness of information learned in science class; usefulness of science skills; feelings about science class in general; attitudes about what took place
Polesel, John; Klatt, Malgorzata; Blake, Damian; Starr, Karen
This article seeks to provide a school perspective on the nature and quality of the partnerships which schools form with businesses in order to deliver work placements and workplace learning in Australia. It found that the ability of schools to engage with external partners depended on the ability of school leaders to define and communicate the…
Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald
The research project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" (ELWIRA) is in the framework of the Sparkling Science programme performed by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences together with the Billroth Gymnasium in Vienna. The targets of a Sparkling Science project are twofold (a) research and scientific activities should already be transferred in the education methods of schools in order to fascinate high school students for scientific methods and to spark young people's interest in research, and (b) exciting research questions not solved and innovative findings should be addressed. The high school students work together with the scientists on their existing research questions improve the school's profile and the high school student knowledge in the investigated Sparkling Science topic and can lead to a more diverse viewing by the involvement of the high school students. In the project ELWIRA scientists collaborate with the school to quantify and evaluate the properties of classical building materials like concrete and natural materials like plants and woodlogs in terms of their life cycle through the use of different laboratory and field methods. The collaboration with the high school students is structured in workshops, laboratory work and fieldworks. For an efficient coordination/communication, learning and research progress new advanced electronic media like "Moodle classes/courses" have been used and utilized by the high school students with great interest. The Moodle classes are of high importance in the knowledge transfer in the dialogue with the high school students. The research project is structured into four main areas associated with the efficiencies of building materials: (a) the aesthetic feeling of people in terms of the appearance of materials and associated structures will be evaluated by means of jointly developed and collected questionnaires. The analysis, interpretation and evaluation are carried
Seiler, Gale A.
Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.
Yang, Guang; Badri, Masood; Al-Mazroui, Karima; Al-Rashedi, Asma; Nai, Peng
Understanding high school students' engagement in science is important for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Drawing on data from the ROSE Survey conducted in Abu Dhabi schools in 2013, this paper used a multi-dimensional framework to explore associations between high school students' engagement in science and a range of student psychosocial and…
Çibik, Ayse Sert
The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…
This article presents findings from the School Reform and Student Diversity Study, a 4-year project to locate and analyze schools offering exemplary science and mathematics programs to middle school students with limited proficiency in English. In contrast to the vast majority of schools, the four schools described in this article give these students access to stimulating science and mathematics curricula by instructing them either in the students' primary language or in English using shelter...
Murphy, Phil; O'Neill, Ashley; Brown, Abby
Meteorology is an important branch of science that offers exciting career opportunities and yet is not usually included in school curricula. The availability of multi-rotor model aircraft (drones) offers an exciting opportunity to bring meteorology into school science.
McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin
This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are linked to the standards by their association with either the "practices of science" or "crosscutting concepts," but curiously not with the recommendations for science content. The study investigated all aspects of NOS in NGSS including the accuracy and inclusion of the supporting exemplar statements and the relationship of NOS in NGSS to other aspects of NOS to support teaching and learning science. We found that while 92 % of these exemplars are acceptable, only 78 % of those written actually appear with the standards. "Science as a way of knowing" is a recommended NOS category in NGSS but is not included with the standards. Also, several other NOS elements fail to be included at all grade levels thus limiting their impact. Finally, NGSS fails to include or insufficiently emphasize several frequently recommended NOS elements such as creativity and subjectivity. The paper concludes with a list of concerns and solutions to the challenges of NOS in NGSS.
Patrick, Jennifer Drake
The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University
Kruse, Jerrid W.; Wilcox, Jesse L.
Just as science education is too often limited to the acquisition of facts, technology education is too often limited to proficient use of technology. Neither of these goals fully realize a robust definition of science and technology literacy. To achieve greater science and technology literacy, students must understand the natures of both science…
In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA), put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13). A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.
Full Text Available In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA, put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13. A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.
Reduzierbarkeit der Abbrecherquote im Humanmedizinstudium durch das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Possible reduction of the medical school dropout number by the Hamburg Assessment test for Medicine - part Natural sciences (HAM-Nat
Full Text Available [english] Aims: Since 2005 German medical faculties are allowed to select 60% of their freshmen. Nevertheless, many faculties stick to a selection based merely on the grade point average assigned by the secondary school (Abiturnote which is the best known predictor of success in German medical schools. Methods: In order to improve selection with respect to medical school dropout numbers we developed the HAM-Nat (Hamburg Admission test for Medicine - part Natural sciences, a test consisting of 52 multiple-choice questions from the topics of chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics, and assessed its difficulty with pupils of 6 different schools. Then the HAM-Nat was administered to 333 first-year students just before the start of their courses in October 2006. After the first academic year the power of the HAM-Nat to predict individual study success was compared to that of the grade point average. Study success was measured by the number of passed exams. Outcomes: The HAM-Nat was found to correlate better with study success than the grade point average. A projection based on data from older student cohorts shows that student selection with the HAM-Nat can reduce the number of students dropping out compared with a selection based on the grade point average alone. Other parameters like chosen natural science subjects at school or an industrial training in medicine or other areas do not predict academic success. Conclusions: The HAM-Nat is a valuable tool to predict student success at medical school. Based on this study Hamburg’s medical faculty has decided to introduce the HAM-Nat to select its entrants in 2008. [german] Zielsetzung: Seit das Hochschulrahmengesetz 2005 den Hochschulen ermöglicht, 60% der Medizinstudienanfänger selbst auszuwählen, sind die Medizinischen Fakultäten auf der Suche nach dem optimalen Auswahlverfahren. Viele tun sich schwer, ein Auswahlkriterium zu definieren. Noch schwieriger ist es, einen Test für die Auswahl
Vusumzi Nelson Ncontsa
Full Text Available We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design is divided into two phases, beginning with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. The overall purpose of this design is that the qualitative data help explain or build upon initial quantitative results from the first phase of the study. The advantage of the design is that its two-phased nature makes it uncomplicated to implement and to report on. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a better understanding of the research problem than either approach alone. A pilot study of the questionnaire was conducted in a school outside the province in which the study was done. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.72. This was a high positive coefficient and implied that the questionnaire used was reliable. The study found that bullying, vandalism, gangsterism, indiscipline, intolerance, and corporal punishment were prevalent in schools. Furthermore, the study found that school violence had the following effects on learners: loss of concentration; poor academic performance; bunking of classes; and depression. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail.
Dierks, Pay O.; Höffler, Tim N.; Parchmann, Ilka
Background:Interest is assumed to be relevant for students' learning processes. Many studies have investigated students' interest in science; most of them however have not offered differentiated insights into the structure and elements of this interest. Purpose:The aim of this study is to obtain a precise image of secondary school students' interest for school and out-of-school learning opportunities, both formal and informal. The study is part of a larger project on measuring the students' Individual Concept about the Natural Sciences (ICoN), including self-efficacy, beliefs and achievements next to interest variables. Sample:Next to regular school students, a specific cohort will be analyzed as well: participants of science competitions who are regarded as having high interest, and perhaps different interest profiles than regular students. In the study described here, participants of the International Junior Science Olympiad (N = 133) and regular students from secondary schools (N = 305), age cohorts 10 to 17 years, participated. Design and methods:We adapted Holland's well-established RIASEC-framework to analyze if and how it can also be used to assess students' interest within science and in-school and out-of-school (leisure-time and enrichment) activities. The resulting questionnaire was piloted according to quality criteria and applied to analyze profiles of different groups (boys - girls, contest participants - non-participants). Results:The RIASEC-adaption to investigate profiles within science works apparently well for school and leisure-time activities. Concerning the interest in fostering measures, different emphases seem to appear. More research in this field needs to be done to adjust measures better to students' interests and other pre-conditions in the future. Contrasting different groups like gender and participation in a junior science contest uncovered specific interest profiles. Conclusions:The instrument seems to offer a promising approach to
Blázquez Paniagua, Francisco
Full Text Available In Spain, during Franco’s dictatorship (1939-1975 the teaching and divulgation of science were subordinated to the Catholic religion and many books defended a theistic and creationistic point of view of Biology that accepted a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis and denied the theory of evolution, especially as it relates to human origin. This article is devoted to the main books and characteristics of this way of thinking which reproduced arguments and metaphors of the Pre-Darwinian Natural Theology, arguing that Nature was ruled by God and living organisms were the results of his design.
En España, durante la dictadura franquista (1939-1975, la enseñanza y la divulgación de la ciencia estuvieron supeditadas a la religión católica y numerosas obras defendieron una visión teísta y creacionista de la biología que aceptaba el relato literal del Génesis y rechazaba la teoría de la evolución, especialmente en el problema del origen del ser humano. Este artículo aborda las principales obras y características de esta forma de pensamiento que reprodujo argumentos y metáforas propios de la teología natural predarwiniana, según la cual la Naturaleza estaba gobernada por Dios y los seres vivos eran producto de su diseño.
Karvánková, Petra; Popjaková, Dagmar
Pupil research in school lessons in the sense of Inquiry-Based Education (IBE) is one of the constructivist approaches to education. Inquiry strengthens the positive approach of pupils to natural science subjects, encouraging them to study phenomena and processes taking place in the natural environment around them and use the acquired knowledge in their practical life. Geography as a school subject, due to the multidisciplinary nature of geography as a science, is close to natural sciences as well. This is because of the broadness of the subject of geographical studies, the complex (natural and cultural) landscape. The close links of geography to all cross-sectional themes make it a good support for teaching classical science subjects at schools such as mathematics, physics, chemistry or biology, environmental education. Moreover, the field teaching is one of the strong assets of the implementation of IBE in the school geography. Presented case study on the 'effect of noise on the surroundings' explores the facts mentioned above, in geography teaching. It verifies the pupils' knowledge and skills to adopt the basic principles of IBE in the practice. At the same time, it presents the concrete experiences how the children master the individual stages of IBE during the process of education.
The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.
Elisiane da Costa Moro
Full Text Available This paper presents the process of restructuring the science lab of a state school in Caxias do Sul, whose main objective was to create a space where teachers could develop practical and experimental activities with their students. The restructuring of the science lab this school, was only possible through the project "More and Better Students and Teachers in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technologies" Initiation Program in Science and Mathematics, Engineering, Creative Technologies and Letters - PICMEL sponsored jointly by the University of Caxias do Sul, the SEDUC-RS, FAPERGS and CAPES. The project was developed at school by a teacher of physics and three high school students. Through the restructuring of the science lab, practical activities were developed and workshops where students had the opportunity to be more active in the process of teaching and learning. With the development of such activities was observed that the students were more willing to learn Science and Mathematics and could relate scientific knowledge to their daily lives, giving greater meaning to their learning.
Kieffer, S. W.
Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U
Olatoye, R. Ademola; Aanu, E. Mosunmola
This study compared locus of control, interest in school and science achievement of typical and deaf secondary school students. The study also investigated influence of students' locus of control and interest in school on general science achievement. Seventy two (72) deaf and 235 typical children were purposively selected from eight secondary…
Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Goh, Amos Yoong Shin; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Background and purpose . Research in nature of science (NOS) among Asia-Pacific countries such as Singapore is arguably scarce. This study aimed to survey Singaporean secondary school students' views of NOS with a newly developed instrument named Students' Views of Nature of Science (SVNOS), which included various key aspects of NOS that are generally agreed upon by the science education community. Moreover, the relations between some demographic factors, including gender and grade, and students' views of NOS were explored. Sample, design and method In total, 359 Singaporean seventh and eighth graders were invited to participate in this survey. The reliability, validity and structure of the SVNOS instrument were ensured by confirmatory factor analysis. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was then conducted to determine the interaction effects between the gender variable and the grade-level variable. Results and conclusion The results indicated that the SVNOS instrument is reliable and valid to assess students' views of NOS regarding seven distinct NOS dimensions. The male students were more prone to have constructivist-oriented views of NOS in the most of the SVNOS dimensions, while the female students conveyed more non-objective views of NOS. In addition, the eighth graders revealed more empiricist-oriented views of NOS than the seventh graders in several SVNOS dimensions. This result seems to contradict the results of previous studies that students' views of NOS may reflect a developmental trend with their increasing educational experiences.
Patonah, S.; Nuvitalia, D.; Saptaningrum, E.
The purpose of this research is to obtain the characteristic map of science material content in Junior School which can be optimized using inquiry learning model to tone the science process skill. The research method used in the form of qualitative research on SMP science curriculum document in Indonesia. Documents are reviewed on the basis of the basic competencies of each level as well as their potential to trace the skills of the science process using inquiry learning models. The review was conducted by the research team. The results obtained, science process skills in grade 7 have the potential to be trained using the model of inquiry learning by 74%, 8th grade by 83%, and grade 9 by 75%. For the dominant process skills in each chapter and each level is the observing skill. Follow-up research is used to develop instructional inquiry tools to trace the skills of the science process.
A teacher-researcher in a primary school setting surveyed the middle years' teachers of her school and those in the local science hub group, to determine their confidence and satisfaction levels in relation to teaching science. Her results confirm feelings of inadequacy and reluctance to teach Science, but also indicate ways that schools can…
Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The…
Ford, Danielle J.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Kittleson, Julie
Although reading is a critical part of science and science learning, it is no longer a part of many children's elementary science instruction. This is of concern because girls often develop strong identities as readers, but do not develop scientific identities with ease. In this study, we investigate girls' science reading to know (1) if science books were available to girls in homes and classrooms, (2) if girls were choosing to read them, and (3) what influences their choices. Forty-five third-grade girls, 29 of their families, and three of their teachers were interviewed to ascertain girls' preferences among various book genres, as well as to learn the ways in which families and teachers influence the choices girls make. We found that girls had access to science books at school, and teachers had strategies to encourage reading them. At home, parents encouraged reading, but were generally less directive than teachers as to what the girls read, and underestimated their daughters' science-related interests. The families studied rely largely on major bookstores as their primary source of books. Our findings suggest we need to understand better the way gender influences girls' engagement with science in a variety of contexts, particularly those in which girls exercise choice.
Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).
Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.
This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…
Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...
The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and
Numedahl, Paul Joseph
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self
Shao, Jing-Jing; Mo, Xiao-Fen; Pan, Zhi-Qiang; Gan, De-Kang; Xu, Yan-Ying
To understand the status of basic research work in the field of ophthalmology by analyzing the projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from the year of 1986 to 2007, and offer as a reference to the ophthalmologists and researchers. NSFC supported ophthalmology projects in the 22 year's period were collected from the database of NSFC. The field of funded projects, the research team and their achievements were analyzed. There were 228 applicants from 47 home institutions were funded in the field of ophthalmology during the past 22 years, 323 projects funded with 66.74 million Yuan in total, in which 165 projects were fulfilled before the end of 2006. The applied and funded projects mainly focus on six different kinds of research area related to retinal diseases, corneal diseases, glaucoma, optic nerve diseases, myopia and cataract, and 70% of them were basic research in nature. As a brief achievement of 165 fulfilled projects, more than 610 papers were published in domestic journals, over 140 papers were published in Science Citation Index journals, more than 600 people were trained, and over 20 scientific awards were obtained. The number of funded projects and achievement of fulfilled projects in the discipline of ophthalmology gradually increased over the past two decades, the research fields were concentrated in certain diseases. NSFC has played an important role in promoting the development of ophthalmology research and bringing up specialists in China. However, clinical research, continuously research, transforming from basic research to clinic applications and multidisciplinary cross studies should be strengthened.
Han, Alyson Kim
According to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2001), one in three students speaks a language other than English. Additionally, the Commission stated that a student is considered to be an English learner if the second language acquisition is English. In California more than 1.4 million English learners enter school speaking a variety of languages, and this number continues to rise. There is an imminent need to promote instructional strategies that support this group of diverse learners. Although this was not a California study, the results derived from the nationwide participants' responses provided a congruent assessment of the basic need to provide effective science teaching strategies to all English learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of elementary science teaching practices used with English learners in kindergarten through fifth grade in public mathematics, science, and technology-centered elementary magnet schools throughout the country. This descriptive research was designed to provide current information and to identify trends in the areas of curriculum and instruction for English learners in science themed magnet schools. This report described the status of elementary (grades K-5) school science instruction for English learners based on the responses of 116 elementary school teachers: 59 grade K-2, and 57 grade 3-5 teachers. Current research-based approaches support incorporating self-directed learning strategy, expository teaching strategy, active listening strategies, questioning strategies, wait time strategy, small group strategy, peer tutoring strategy, large group learning strategy, demonstrations strategy, formal debates strategy, review sessions strategy, mediated conversation strategy, cooperative learning strategy, and theme-based instruction into the curriculum to assist English learners in science education. Science Technology Society (STS) strategy, problem-based learning strategy, discovery learning
Koehler, Catherine M.
This year long, qualitative, case study examines two, experienced, high school, biology teachers as they facilitated nature of science (NOS) understandings in their classrooms. This study explored three research questions: (1) In what ways do experienced teachers' conceptions of NOS evolve over one full year as a result of participating in a course that explicitly address NOS teaching and learning? (2) In what ways do experienced teachers' pedagogical practices evolve over one full year as a result of participating in a course that explicitly address NOS teaching and learning?, and (3) What are the challenges facing experienced teachers in their attempts to implement NOS understandings in their science, high school classrooms? This study was conducted in two parts. In Part I (fall 2004 semester), the participants were enrolled in a graduate course titled, Teaching the Nature of Science , where they were introduced to: (1) NOS, (2) a strategy, the Model for Teaching NOS (MTNOS), which helped them facilitate teaching NOS understandings through inquiry-based activities, and (3) participated in "real" science activities that reinforced their conceptions of NOS. In Part II (spring 2005 semester), classroom observations were made to uncover how these teachers implemented inquiry-based activities emphasizing NOS understanding in their classrooms. Their conceptions of NOS were measured using the Views of the Nature of Science questionnaire. Results demonstrated that each teacher's conceptions of NOS shifted slightly during course the study, but, for one, this was not a permanent shift. Over the year, one teacher's pedagogical practices changed to include inquiry-based lessons using MTNOS; the other, although very amenable to using prepared inquiry-based lessons, did not change her pedagogical practices. Both reported similar challenges while facilitating NOS understanding. The most significant challenges included: (1) time management; (2) the perception that NOS was a
Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.
Publications such as "Surrounded by science: Learning science in informal environments" [Fenichel, M., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2010). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press] and "Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits" [National Research Council. (2009). Washington, DC: National…
Jones, Beth; Quinnell, Simon
This article describes how seven schools in England improved their science provision by focusing on the professional development of their science technicians. In September 2013, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation funded the National Science Learning Centre to lead a project connecting secondary schools with experienced senior science technicians…
Sikes, Suzanne S; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D
Launch into education about pharmacology (LEAP) is an inquiry-based science enrichment program designed to enhance competence in biology and chemistry and foster interest in science careers especially among under-represented minorities. The study of how drugs work, how they enter cells, alter body chemistry, and exit the body engages students to conceptualize fundamental precepts in biology, chemistry, and math. Students complete an intensive three-week course in the fundamentals of pharmacology during the summer followed by a mentored research component during the school year. Following a 5E learning paradigm, the summer course captures student interest by introducing controversial topics in pharmacology and provides a framework that guides them to explore topics in greater detail. The 5E learning cycle is recapitulated as students extend their knowledge to design and to test an original research question in pharmacology. LEAP students demonstrated significant gains in biology and chemistry knowledge and interests in pursuing science. Several students earned honors for the presentation of their research in regional and state science fairs. Success of the LEAP model in its initial 2 years argues that coupling college-level coursework of interest to teens with an authentic research experience enhances high school student success in and enthusiasm for science. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Mutter, J. C.; Fishman, R.; Anttila-Hughes, J. K.; Hsiang, S. M.
The challenges of sustainable development -- equitably improving global human welfare while ensuring that the environment is preserved for future generations - demand research at the nexus of the social and natural sciences. Massive and inevitable changes in climate, ecosystem functions, and human interaction with the environment will perturb societies throughout the world in different ways over the coming century. The changes faced by poor societies and their ability to cope differs markedly from those that face the richest. Yet in all regions the dynamic interaction of social and natural drivers will govern the prospects for human welfare and its improvement. Developing an understanding of these phenomena will require field research together with analytical and modeling capabilities that couple physical and social phenomena, allowing feedback between the two to manifest and permit forecasting over long time scales. Heterogeneous income and population growth further complicate this need through their consequences for food security, migration, resource allocation, and conflict. In this contribution, we identify some key concepts of sustainable development, open research questions and outline how scientific research might engage this emerging discipline. Using recent examples of interaction, we discuss the opportunities and challenges facing the further development of this dialogue.
Kutluca, A. Y.; Aydin, A.
The study explored the changes in pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science and their opinions about the nature of science, science teaching and argumentation after their participation in explicit nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific argumentation processes. The participants were 56 third-grade pre-service science…
Cansiz, Mustafa; Cansiz, Nurcan; Tas, Yasemin; Yerdelen, Sundus
Mass assessment of large samples' nature of science views has been one of the core concerns in science education research. Due to impracticality of using open-ended questionnaires or conducting interviews with large groups, another line of research has been required for mass assessment of pupils' nature of science conception meaningfully.…
... Climate Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting.... 2, we announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold... Partnership Coordinator, National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201...
... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice... announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold a meeting..., National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive...
Çetinkaya-Aydin, Gamze; Çakiroglu, Jale
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible associations between preservice science teachers' understanding of nature of science and their learner characteristics; understanding of nature of scientific inquiry, science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, metacognitive awareness level, and faith/worldview schemas. The sample of the…
Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao
Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel…
Inan, Hatice Zeynep; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Kantor, Rebecca
This ethnographic study explored aspects of how the natural sciences were represented in a Reggio Emilia-inspired laboratory preschool. The natural sciences as a discipline--a latecomer to preschool curricula--and the internationally known approach, Reggio Emilia, interested educators and researchers, but there was little research about science in…
Temel, Senar; Sen, Senol; Özcan, Özgür
Background: Determining individuals' views of the nature of science is quite important for researchers since it is both a component of scientific literacy and a fundamental aim of science education. Purpose: This study aims to develop a NOSvs for assessing prospective teachers' views of the nature of science and to analyse their psychometric…
Michael E. Patterson; Daniel R. Williams
Increasingly, natural resource management is seeing calls for new paradigms. These calls pose challenges that have implications not only for planning and management, but also for the practice of science. As a consequence, the profession needs to deepen its understanding of the nature of science by exploring recent advances in the philosophy of science....
Carroll, Carolyn M.
State departments of education have created a system of accountability for the academic achievement of students under the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Georgia Department of Education established the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) as their method of evaluating the academic achievement of high school students. The GHSGT consist of five sections and students must pass all five sections before students they are eligible to receive a diploma. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of teacher-lead and computer based remediation for a group of high school seniors who have been unsuccessful in passing the science portion of the GHSGT. The objectives of this study include (a) Identify the most effective method of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of the GHSGT, and (b) evaluate the methods of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of GHSGT available to high school students. The participants of this study were at-risk seniors enrolled in one high school during the 2007-2008 school year. The findings of this research study indicated that at-risk students who participated in both types of remediation, teacher-led and computer-based, scored significantly higher than the computer-based remediation group alone. There was no significant relationship between the test scores and the number of times the students were tested.