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Sample records for school lunch nutrient

  1. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  2. School lunch waste among middle school students: nutrients consumed and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S Bryn; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2013-02-01

    The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policymakers, students, and their families. Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a 2-year pilot study (2007-2009) in which a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percentage of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in these Boston middle schools. For most meal components, substantially less than 85% was consumed. There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards, and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students might benefit if additional focus were given to the quality and palatability of school meals. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. School Lunch Waste among Middle School Students: Implications for Nutrients Consumed and Food Waste Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S. Bryn; Economos, Christina D.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policy makers, students, and their families. Purpose Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Methods Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a two-year pilot study (2007-2009) where a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percent of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Results Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in Boston middle schools. For most meal components, significantly less than 85% was consumed. Conclusions There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students would benefit if additional focus was given to the quality and palatability of school meals. PMID:23332326

  4. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. PMID:26773034

  6. National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non-profit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to more than 30.5 million children each school day in 2008. In 1998, Congress expanded the National School Lunch…

  7. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  9. Food choice, plate waste and nutrient intake of elementary- and middle-school students participating in the US National School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.

  10. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  11. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  12. Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    Access to foods and beverages on school campuses, at home, and other locations affects children's diet quality, energy intake, and risk of obesity. To describe patterns of consumption of "empty calories"--low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages--by eating location among National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants and nonparticipants. Cross-sectional study using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2004-2005 third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study. A nationally representative sample of 2,314 children in grades one through 12, including 1,386 NSLP participants. Comparisons, using t tests, of the proportion of children consuming low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, mean daily energy and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, and energy density by NSLP participation status. On a typical school day, children consumed 527 "empty calories" during a 24-hour period. Eating at home provided the highest mean amount of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods (276 kcal vs 174 kcal at school and 78 kcal at other locations). NSLP participants consumed less energy from sugar-sweetened beverages at school than nonparticipants (11 kcal vs 39 kcal in elementary schools and 45 kcal vs 61 kcal in secondary schools, Pkcal vs 127 kcal, Plunch participants' consumption at school was less energy-dense than nonparticipants' consumption at school (Pdaily and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods are consumed (especially from sugar-sweetened beverages, chips, and baked goods) is warranted. At schools, consumption of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods may be reduced by limiting access to competitive foods and beverages, enforcing strong school wellness policies, and minimizing the frequency of offering french fries and similar potato products and higher-fat baked goods in school meals or à la carte.

  13. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  14. Back to basics - the school lunch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2016-01-01

    . The concept of foodscape captures the school lunch as a specific configuration of food products, social practices and values. The concept of human well-being defined by Amartya Sen and elaborated by Martha C. Nussbaum helps to characterize the needs involved in the school lunch. The assessment is performed...

  15. Study on school lunch of four groups

    OpenAIRE

    大迫, 康子; 小住, フミ子; Yasuko, OSAKO; Fumiko, OZUMI

    1984-01-01

    There are many small islands, villages and fishing ports in Kagoshima. This study was designed to investigate whether a local color in school lnuch exist or not. It was found that the school lunch served in small island had the best nutritional quantity and quality and menu contents. Contradictionus results, vitamin deficiency in village and protein deficiency in fishing ports, were also obtained. There is a correlation between lunch cost and menu contents. The shotage of potatos and beans ob...

  16. The Food Costs of Healthier School Lunches

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Constance

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture proposed and adopted a new set of meal pattern requirements for the National School Lunch Program that will allow schools to claim 6 cents more in lunch reimbursement rates. This study analyzes the food costs of school menus in 2005 that met many of the proposed requirements. Overall, schools that served more, and more diverse, non-starchy vegetables had higher average food costs, and schools that served menus with lower calories had lower food costs. The fo...

  17. SMART lunch box intervention to improve the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches: UK wide cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C E L; Greenwood, D C; Thomas, J D; Cleghorn, C L; Kitchen, M S; Cade, J E

    2010-11-01

    Government standards are now in place for children's school meals but not for lunches prepared at home. The aim of this trial is to improve the content of children's packed lunches. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 89 primary schools across the UK involving 1291 children, age 8-9 years at baseline. Follow-up was 12 months after baseline. A "SMART" lunch box intervention programme consisted of food boxes, bag and supporting materials. The main outcome measures were weights of foods and proportion of children provided with sandwiches, fruit, vegetables, dairy food, savoury snacks and confectionery in each packed lunch. Levels of nutrients provided including energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, non-milk extrinsic sugar, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C. Moderately higher weights of fruit, vegetables, dairy and starchy food and lower weights of savoury snacks were provided to children in the intervention group. Children in the intervention group were provided with slightly higher levels of vitamin A and folate. 11% more children were provided with vegetables/salad in their packed lunch, and 13% fewer children were provided with savoury snacks (crisps). Children in the intervention group were more likely to be provided with packed lunches meeting the government school meal standards. The SMART lunch box intervention, targeting parents and children, led to small improvements in the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches. Further interventions are required to bring packed lunches in line with the new government standards for school meals. Current controlled trials ISRCTN77710993.

  18. How to Make School Lunch Programs Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Len

    Food waste, student rejection of Type A meals, and the difficulty of keeping school food service departments in the black have been the three major problems in the school lunch program. The Las Vegas Fast Food Combo Program provides an answer. By providing the foods students want to eat--foods of the type advertised everywhere--and making that…

  19. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  20. Satisfaction of Middle School Lunch Program Participants and Non-Participants with the School Lunch Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' satisfaction with the school lunch experience, using two validated surveys; the Middle/Junior High School Student Participation Survey and the Middle/Junior High School Student Non-Participation Survey, both developed by the National Food Service Management…

  1. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  2. How Nutritious Are Children's Packed School Lunches? A Comparison of Lunches Brought from Home and School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Sarah; Rainville, Alice Jo

    2016-01-01

    Through reinforcement of policies and nutrition standards linked to the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), school environments play an important role in preventing childhood obesity. The NSLP includes mandated nutrition standards that specify recommended servings of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, dairy and protein, as well as limits on…

  3. A comparison of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts in the packed lunches of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Alisha R; Misyak, Sarah; Duffey, Kiyah J; Mann, Georgianna R; Davis, George C; Hosig, Kathy; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; McFerren, Mary M; Serrano, Elena L

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 40% of children bring a packed lunch to school. These lunches are not required to meet nutrition standards. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the nutritional quality of elementary packed lunches by the presence or absence of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), desserts, and fruits and vegetables (FVs). Observational data for prekindergarten and kindergarten packed lunches were collected from three schools in rural Virginia for 5 consecutive school days and analyzed for macro- and micronutrients and by the presence or absence of food and beverage items. Of the 561 packed lunch observations collected, 41.7% contained no FV, 41.2% contained an SSB, and 61.1% contained a dessert. The nutrient profile of packed lunches with at least one fruit or vegetable had significantly higher levels of carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Packed lunches containing an SSB had significantly higher levels of sugar and vitamin C and significantly lower levels of protein, fiber, vitamin A, calcium, and iron. Packed lunches containing a dessert had significantly higher levels of energy, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, vitamin C, and iron and significantly lower levels of vitamin A. Additional research is needed to fully understand parent and child motivations for packing lunches and the decision processes that influence the inclusion of food items. The development of packed lunch interventions, encouragement of National School Lunch Program participation, or enactment of school policies to increase the nutritional value of packed lunches is warranted.

  4. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Mary

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  5. Influence of School Environment on Student Lunch Participation and Competitive Food Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ruth E.; Wenz, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The school nutrition environment includes food policy and practices, advertising, and presence of competitive foods (CF). CF provide schools with revenue; however, CF decrease National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation and reimbursement as well as the nutrient density of children's diets. Local wellness policies (LWPs)…

  6. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice

    2011-03-01

    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using School Lunch Programs To Promote Positive Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    The variety of school lunch foods available has dramatically expanded as school food managers strive to increase sales and generate revenue. Though lunchtime offerings are often based on student preferences versus nutritional value, with a small investment of effort and commitment to student well-being, schools can create lunch programs that…

  8. Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

  9. Plate Waste and Attitudes among High School Lunch Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) What foods high school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are discarding the most? (2) How much of these foods they are discarding? and (3) What are their perceptions towards school lunch? Methods: Researchers measured plate waste at two high…

  10. School Lunch Programs in Israel, Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endevelt, Ronit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The first lunch programs in Palestine were the “soup kitchens,” which were established in Jerusalem before the First World War to feed the poor. Then, in 1923, Henrietta Szold launched a lunch initiative in schools in order to supply basic nutrition to students. As the children at most of the schools prepared the meals themselves with local products, they also learned good, low-cost eating habits and the appropriate use of domestic goods and had educational goals as well. These educational goals were in line with Zionist ideology. School lunch programs lasted through the early years of the nation of Israel, albeit without official governmental support, but they came to an end amid the rising prosperity of the early 1970s. In 2004, in response to the alarming results of a food security survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, the Knesset passed a law establishing a new school lunch program on a trial basis. This article reviews the history of lunch programs in Israel, highlighting both their achievements and their limitations, in order to establish a framework for judging the success of the current school lunch policy.

  11. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 63689 - National School Lunch Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    .... To foster school environments that encourage physical activity and nourishing diets, ``Let's Move... for nutritional quality in school food, participation in meal programs, physical activity, and... National School Lunch Week, we recognize the vital importance of this historic program, and we recommit to...

  13. School lunch: a comparison of the fat and cholesterol content with dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, R C; Wright, J A; Finch, A J; Deyo, R A; Psaty, B M

    1993-12-01

    To compare the fat and cholesterol content of the foods offered and selected in an elementary school lunch program with current dietary guidelines. For 105 school days we recorded the food items selected by elementary school students in an entire school district (262,851 meals) who were given a choice between two entrees. The nutrient content of foods was assessed with a computerized nutrient data base supplemented by the food manufacturers' data. Sixteen elementary schools in the Bellevue (Washington) School District. The number of students eating school lunch averaged 2500 per day, of whom 25% were from households with incomes less than 185% of poverty. None. We determined the nutritional content of the average meal selected; the proportion of days when one of the two offered entrees met fat and cholesterol guidelines; and the proportion of children selecting the entrees that met the guidelines. The average lunch selected had 35.9% of calories from total fat and 12.6% from saturated fat, exceeding the guidelines of 30% and 10%, respectively. Lunch contained an average of 57 mg cholesterol (106 mg/1000 kcal) and met guidelines. One of the two daily entree choices met guidelines for both total fat and saturated fat on 20% of days, and met both fat and cholesterol guidelines on 14% of days. When available, entrees meeting the fat guidelines were chosen by 37% of students, and entrees meeting both fat and cholesterol guidelines were chosen by 34% of students. In this school district the average lunch selected did not meet the current guidelines for dietary fat; when given the choice, more than one third of students selected the entrees that met these guidelines.

  14. School Lunch Is Not a Meal: Posthuman Eating as Folk Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Bradley; Rocha, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    School lunch is one of the least critiqued aspects of compulsory schooling. As a result, there may be a tendency to think of school lunch as part of the hidden curriculum, but what and how students eat are evident and ubiquitous parts of the schooling experience. In demarcating the school lunch as an overt educational event, this article attempts…

  15. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P ... schools were assigned to the food waste sub-study. Edible plate waste was measured by weighing individually the meal for 5 consecutive days before and after lunch at the end of each dietary period. Self-reported smiley ratings from a web-based dietary assessment software for children were compared...

  16. Accuracy of 11-year-olds selfreported school lunch consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nina

    accuracy differ by the lunch format consumed (Paper III) Material and methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional dietary reporting study. The population consisted of 11-year-old children from three public schools in Copenhagen. The study was conducted on two consecutive days and assessed...... in general. Objectives The aim of the present thesis was to assess food level reporting accuracy in Danish 11-year-old children’s self-reported school lunch consumption, and the aim was operationalized in following objectives. 1- To identify food items clustering by lunch format (Preliminary analyses) 2......- To assess reporting accuracy in relation to gender and self-reported methods (Paper I) 3- To address aspects of reporting inaccuracy from intrusions by food group, against different objective measures, and classification of intrusions in stretches and confabulations (Paper II) 4- To assess how reporting...

  17. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P

  18. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...

  19. The National School Lunch Program: Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - present

    OpenAIRE

    Gosliner, Wendi Anne

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe National School Lunch Program:Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - presentBy Wendi Anne GoslinerDoctor of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Ann Keller, ChairOn an average school day in 2012, The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) supported the provision of lunch meals to almost 2/3 of school-age youth in the United States. Recent spikes in childhood obesity rates and the emerg...

  20. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids... interim rule entitled National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for..., 2013 / Rules and Regulations [[Page 79567

  1. Plant-Based Lunch at Work: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Environmental Impact and Tastiness—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the environmental impact, nutrient intake, appreciation and tastiness of three buffet-style lunches served at the workplace, consisting of (1 animal-based foods; (2 plant-based foods; and (3 both animal-based and plant-based foods. Employees of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands participated in the study. Participants scored the lunch for appreciation and tastiness (scores from 1 to 10. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and land use associated with foods consumed were calculated using life cycle assessments. Nutrient intake was calculated using food composition data. The results show that both the plant-based and the combination lunch received higher scores for tastiness than the animal-based lunch. GHG emissions and land use were lowest for the plant-based lunch and highest for the animal-based lunch. The combination lunch was associated with increased fiber and decreased saturated fat intake compared to the animal-based lunch, but also lead to increased energy intake. The plant-based lunch did not increase energy intake, while increasing fiber intake and decreasing sodium (salt and saturated fat intakes. These initial results show that plant-based lunches have the potential to improve nutrient intake and tastiness while reducing environmental impact. Additional research in this field is worthwhile.

  2. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  3. Lunch frequency among adolescents:associations with sociodemographic factors and school characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were es...

  4. Soy Goes to School: Acceptance of Healthful, Vegetarian Options in Maryland Middle School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Kathleen; Chapman, Nancy; Levine, Elyse

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soyfoods provide healthful options for school breakfasts and lunches that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, fat, and calories and can help meet demands for vegetarian choices. Researchers tested acceptance of soy-based options substituted for popular lunch items with a diverse student population. Methods: Researchers conducted a…

  5. School lunch program in India: background, objectives and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutani, Alka Mohan

    2012-01-01

    The School Lunch Program in India (SLP) is the largest food and nutrition assistance program feeding millions of children every day. This paper provides a review of the background information on the SLP in India earlier known as national program for nutrition support to primary education (NP-NSPE) and later as mid day meal scheme, including historical trends and objectives and components/characteristics of the scheme. It also addresses steps being taken to meet challenges being faced by the administrators of the program in monitoring and evaluation of the program. This program was initially started in 1960 in few states to overcome the complex problems malnutrition and illiteracy. Mid Day Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal program. In 2001, as per the supreme court orders, it became mandatory to give a mid day meal to all primary and later extended to upper primary school children studying in the government and government aided schools. This scheme benefitted 140 million children in government assisted schools across India in 2008, strengthening child nutrition and literacy. In a country with a large percent of illiterate population with a high percent of children unable to read or write; governmental and non-governmental organizations have reported that mid day meal scheme has consistently increased enrollment in schools in India. One of the main goals of school lunch program is to promote the health and well-being of the Nation's children.

  6. Middle school student perceptions of school lunch following revised federal school meal guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed student perceptions of school meals under the new federal meal patterns for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Student feedback is instrumental in developing strategies to increase and maintain NSLP participation, satisfaction, and ultimately provide students with a health...

  7. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  8. Lunch frequency among adolescents: associations with sociodemographic factors and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette

    2016-04-01

    To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups. Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were estimated by multilevel multivariate logistic regression. The Danish arm of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study 2010. Students (n 4922) aged 11, 13 and 15 years attending a random sample of seventy-three schools. The school-level and class-level variations in low lunch frequency were small (intraclass correlation coefficient lunch frequency was most common among students who were boys, 13- and 15-year-olds, from medium and low family social class, descendants of immigrants, living in a single-parent family and in a reconstructed family. School-level analyses suggested that having access to a canteen at school was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·47; 95% CI 1·14, 1·89). Likewise not having an adult present during lunch breaks was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·44; 95% CI 1·18, 1·75). Cross-level interactions suggested that these associations differed by age group. Lunch frequency among Danish students appears to be largely influenced by sociodemographic factors. Additionally, the presence of an adult during lunch breaks promotes frequent lunch consumption while availability of a canteen may discourage frequent lunch consumption. These findings vary between older and younger students.

  9. Effect of Food Service Nutrition Improvements on Elementary School Cafeteria Lunch Purchase Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia A.; Fee, LuAnn; Culyba, Rebecca J.; Bhat, Kiran B.; Owen, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools can play a major role in prevention and intervention for childhood obesity. We describe changes in elementary school cafeteria lunch sales patterns resulting from nutritional improvements in menu offerings that were part of a community-wide focus on health. Methods: Elementary school lunch sales data were collected for 1 week…

  10. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy... Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June... sold in a school and purchased with funds from the nonprofit school food service account, other than...

  11. Food Service Perspectives on National School Lunch Program Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of the new National School Lunch Program (NSLP) policy guidelines. Interviews with eight food service directors using an interview guide informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Food service personnel; parents, teachers, school staff; and students were important stakeholders. Characteristics of the new NSLP policy guidelines were reported to create increased demands; resources alleviated some barriers. Directors reported increased food and labor costs, food sourcing challenges, decreased student participation, and organizational constraints as barriers to implementation. Creativity in menu planning facilitated success. Factors within the food service department, characteristics of implementing individuals and the new NSLP policy guidelines, and stakeholder involvement in the implementation process relate to successful implementation.

  12. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrial...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches...

  13. Participation in the National School Lunch Program: Importance of School-Level and Neighborhood Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtcheva, Donka M.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effect of stigma (proxied by school-level peer participation), neighborhood food environment, and demographic characteristics on participation in the U.S. Department of Agriculture National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: The 1997 and 2003 waves of the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of…

  14. 78 FR 45178 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... snack--80 cents, reduced price snack--40 cents, paid snack--07 cents; Alaska--free snack--130 cents, reduced price snack--65 cents, paid snack--11 cents; Hawaii--free snack--94 cents, reduced price snack--47..., afterschool snacks and breakfasts served to children participating in the National School Lunch and School...

  15. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... collection burden inventory for the National School Lunch Program is 12,181,012. These changes are contingent... American children and adolescents: What changes in prevalence rates could not reveal. International Journal... purchase and consume at school. Researchers concluded that these kinds of changes in food exposure and...

  16. Eating School Lunch Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality among Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Hecht, Kenneth; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have assessed the dietary quality of children who eat meals from home compared with school meals according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The objective of this study was to examine diet quality for elementary school students in relation to source of breakfast and lunch (whether school meal or from an outside source). An observational study was conducted of students in 43 schools in San Diego, CA, during the 2011-2012 school year. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (N=3,944) completed a diary-assisted 24-hour food recall. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores of children who ate breakfast and lunch at school were compared with the HEI-2010 scores of children who obtained their meals from home and a combination of both school and home. Analysis of variance, χ 2 test, and generalized estimating equation models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, grade, language, and school level clustering were performed. School lunch eaters had a higher mean±standard deviation overall diet quality score (HEI-2010=49.0±11.3) compared with students who ate a lunch obtained from home (46.1±12.2; P=0.02). There was no difference in overall diet quality score by breakfast groups. Students who ate school breakfast had higher total fruit (P=0.01) and whole fruit (P=0.0008) scores compared with students who only ate breakfast obtained from home. Students who ate school foods had higher scores for dairy (P=0.007 for breakfast and Pempty calories from solid fats and added sugars (P=0.01 for breakfast and P=0.007 for lunch). Eating school lunch was associated with higher overall diet quality compared with obtaining lunch from home. Future studies are needed that assess the influence of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on children's diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  18. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  19. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The practices and needs of dietitian in school lunch program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yueching; Chang, Yu-Jhen

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition-related problems among school-age children nowadays become potentially serious. In order to prevent obesity and other nutritionally related diseases in the young generation, a school lunch program has been proposed and conducted in Taiwan. It is to ensure that students' nutritional intake meets the daily requirement and to help students develop correct eating habits and maintain a healthy lifestyle. A professional dietitian who has a clear concept regarding food material utilization, cooking methods and nutritional values thus becomes important. However, the majority of schools in Taiwan are unable to offer the post of dietitian due to budgetary constraints and lack of organization. The responsibility of a dietitian is usually held by teachers, school nurses and other administrative staff. This problem has hindered the nutritional education in schools and made school lunches less beneficial to the children's nutritional needs. For the current status of dietitians in schools, a large gap is found between the currently supplied school lunches and the nutritionally standardized school lunches. It also exists in relation to education and hygiene. One of the solutions requires an infrastructure to support plans and policy, reasonable adequate budget, well human affairs establishment and coordination of all aspects. While the needed infrastructure is being proposed, an access to the professionalism of the currently employed dietitians can be strategically explored by constructing an education system. Through the system, schools without on-campus dietitians will be able to utilize their expertise with which the improvement of school lunches can be expectedly accomplished.

  1. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program participation in elementary schools in the United States and availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunch meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    Dietary intake among children in the United States falls short of national recommendations. Schools can play an important role in improving children's preferences and food consumption patterns. The US Department of Agriculture's Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) aims to improve children's nutrient intake patterns by offering fresh fruits and vegetables as snacks outside the reimbursable meals programs in elementary schools that serve large numbers of low-income children. Using a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools, this cross-sectional study investigated FFVP participation patterns among schools by demographic and school characteristics. Further, the study investigated the association between FFVP participation and availability of fresh fruits, salads, and vegetables at lunch as reported by school administrators and foodservice staff. Data collected via a mail-back survey from 620 public elementary schools participating in the National School Lunch Program during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Almost 70% of the FFVP-participating schools had a majority of students (>50%) eligible for free and reduced-cost meals. Participating in US Department of Agriculture Team Nutrition Program and having a registered dietitian or a nutritionist on staff were significantly associated with FFVP participation. Based on the results from logistic regression analyses schools participating in the FFVP were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.07; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.53) to serve fresh fruit during lunch meals. Slightly >25% of public elementary schools across the United States participated in the FFVP, and participation was associated with healthier food availability in school lunches. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... local educational agencies (LEAs) that participate in the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to... performance benchmarks for directly certifying for free school meals those children who are members of... requirements, School breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps...

  3. Eat lunch first or play first? Inconsistent associations with fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Keenan; Rosen, Nila J; Wakimoto, Patricia; Patterson, Tracey; Goldstein, Lauren H; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2015-04-01

    Scheduling play before eating lunch has been suggested as a relatively simple environmental strategy to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) intake among elementary school students. However, the few small studies to date have had mixed findings. The primary aim of this observational study was to evaluate the possible relationship between the relative order of play and eating and students' lunch intake of FV. A secondary aim was to examine whether any differences existed in this relationship by student sex, ethnicity, language spoken at home, and school lunch source. A diary-assisted 24-hour recall was collected during the 2011-2012 school year from 2,167 fourth- and fifth-graders attending 31 elementary schools in California. The association of play before eating with FV intake was estimated using Generalized Estimation Equations. Overall, lunch FV intake was not significantly higher for students who had a play-before-eating vs a play-after-eating lunch schedule at school. However, variables included in the model showed significant interaction with play before eating, resulting in the need for separate effect estimates for distinct strata based on sex, ethnicity, language spoken at home, and school lunch source. For 10 of the 16 strata, no significant effect of play before eating was observed on lunch FV intake, while increases in intake were observed in four strata and decreases in two strata. Before rescheduling play before eating for the purpose of improving student FV intake, additional research is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The quality of school lunch consumed reflects overall eating patterns in 11-16-year-old schoolchildren in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles-Tirkkonen, Tanja; Pentikäinen, Saara; Lappi, Jenni; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2011-12-01

    To explore how the quality of school lunch consumed reflected overall eating patterns in school-aged children. Children filled in an Internet-based questionnaire about their eating patterns. The children were then divided into balanced and imbalanced school lunch eaters on the basis of their responses in the questionnaire. A balanced school lunch consisted of, by the definition used in the present study, a main dish, salad and bread. Eleven primary schools and one middle school in eastern Finland. A total of 531 schoolchildren (247 boys and 284 girls) aged 11-16 years. The school lunch was balanced in 46·5% of children. Eating a balanced school lunch was associated with overall healthier eating patterns outside school. Children who ate a balanced school lunch had more regular meal times and consumed healthier snacks. They ate fruit or berries and vegetables, dairy products and wholegrain foods more often, consumed fewer salty snacks, pizzas, meat pies and drank fewer soft drinks and energy drinks. Their eating patterns at home were also healthier, with vegetables being offered at every family dinner and fruit being offered daily, whereas soft drinks were offered seldom. The choices made by children in their school lunch reflect the overall eating patterns among school-aged children. Eating a balanced school lunch is associated with more regular meal patterns, the availability of healthier foods at home and an overall healthier diet, suggesting that healthy eating patterns are learnt at home.

  5. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y; Ferguson, Elaine L; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2018-02-01

    Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool). Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model parameters (list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, food and food (sub)group frequency distributions, food cost). Three scenarios were modelled, namely daily diet including: (i) no school lunch; (ii) standard 5d school lunch with maize/beans; and (iii) 5d school lunch with yellow cassava. Each scenario and scenario 3 with additional FBR were assessed on overall nutrient adequacy using recommended nutrient intakes (RNI). Eastern Kenya. Primary-school children (n 150) aged 7-9 years. Best food pattern of yellow cassava-based lunch scenario achieved 100 % RNI for six nutrients compared with no lunch (three nutrients) or standard lunch (five nutrients) scenario. FBR with yellow cassava and including small dried fish improved nutrient adequacy, but could not ensure adequate intake of fat (52 % of average requirement), riboflavin (50 % RNI), folate (59 % RNI) and vitamin A (49 % RNI). Introduction of yellow cassava-based school lunch complemented with FBR potentially improved vitamin A adequacy, but alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy. Optifood is useful to assess potential contribution of a biofortified crop to nutrient adequacy and to develop additional FBR to address remaining nutrient gaps.

  6. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Elise F.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V.; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Ferguson, Elaine L.; Kok, Frans J.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional

  7. Healthier Standards for School Meals and Snacks: Impact on School Food Revenues and Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards went into effect in Massachusetts. This study evaluated the impact of these updated school meal standards and Massachusetts' comprehensive competitive food standards on school food revenues and school lunch participation. Revenue and participation data from 11 Massachusetts school districts were collected from 2011 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015 using multilevel modeling. The association between the change in compliance with the competitive food standards and revenues/participation was assessed using linear regression. Schools experienced declines in school food revenues of $15.40/student in Year 1 from baseline (p=0.05), due to competitive food revenue losses. In schools with 3 years of data, overall revenues rebounded by the second year post-implementation. Additionally, by Year 2, school lunch participation increased by 15% (p=0.0006) among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Better competitive food compliance was inversely associated with school food revenues in the first year only; an absolute change in compliance by 10% was associated with a $9.78/student decrease in food revenues over the entire school year (p=0.04). No association was seen between the change in compliance and school meal participation. Schools experienced initial revenue losses after implementation of the standards, yet longer-term school food revenues were not impacted and school meal participation increased among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Weakening the school meal or competitive food guidelines based on revenue concerns appears unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring changes in middle-school student lunch consumption after local school food service policy modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine

    2006-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.

  9. School Lunch Consumption Among 3 Food Service Providers in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterberry, Melanie; Francois, Samantha; van Hattum, Taslim; Rudov, Lindsey; Carton, Thomas W

    2018-02-01

    Louisiana has one of the highest rates of overweight and obese children in the United States. The Healthy School Food Collaborative (HSFC) was created to allow New Orleans's schools to select their own healthy school Food Service Provider (FSP) with requirements for higher nutritional standards than traditional options. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether HSFC membership was associated with lunch consumption rates in elementary school children. An 8-week plate waste study examining 18,070 trays of food among fourth and fifth graders was conducted. Participants included 7 schools and the 3 FSPs (2 HSFC and 1 non-HSFC member) that serviced them. Mixed models analysis examined whether consumption rates of food items differed among FSPs. On average, students consumed 307 cal during lunch. Analyses showed significant differences in consumption rates of entrée, vegetables, fruit, and milk between the 3 FSPs (p < .01). The highest consumption rate was among entrées at 65%. One HSFC provider had consumption levels consistent with the non-HSFC FSP. Overall, students consumed less than 60% of the US Department of Agriculture recommended calories for school lunch. While overall caloric consumption was higher among the non-HSFC schools, interventions to increase lunch consumption across all schools are needed. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  10. Cost-free and sustainable incentive increases healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, D W; Parker, J S; Getz, B R; Jackson, C M; Le, T-A P; Riggs, S B; Shay, J M

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to develop a cost-free and sustainable program to influence healthier eating decisions during elementary school lunch. Baseline food and beverage choices were assessed for 9 days during lunch service at two racially and economically diverse elementary schools in Spartanburg County, SC, USA. After being informed that the labeled items on the daily lunch menu represented the healthiest choice, students were allowed to ring a call bell in the cafeteria for public recognition when they chose all of the identified healthiest food and beverage items during lunch service. Using menus matched to the baseline phase, food and beverage choices were measured during a 9-day intervention phase. After 30 days, food and beverage choices were reassessed during a 3-day follow-up phase. Healthiest food & beverage choices increased 49% with >60% of students choosing non-flavored milk over flavored milk during the intervention phase. There was no difference in the success of the program between the two schools. The program continued and healthy eating decisions were significantly sustained at a 30-day follow-up assessment. Public recognition through bell ringing appears to be an effective practice to sustain increases in healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch and warrants expansion to larger scale, longitudinal trials.

  11. From Policy to Practice: Parent Perceptions of the 2010 Federal School Lunch Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Elchert, Daniel M.; Leicht, Erika A.; Scheidel, Carrie A.; Delger, Patti J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate parent awareness and perceptions of changes to the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) implemented as a result of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHKA) of 2010. Methods: An online survey of parents of school age (K-12) children in a Midwestern state was conducted (n = 2,189). The…

  12. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  13. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  14. Eating Behavior and Attitude toward School Lunches in Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    嶋田, さおり; 若林, 良和; 西村, 栄恵; 逸見, 幾代

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of the eating habits of children in elementary schools that work actively in food education and take advantage of local products, and analyzed the trends in eating behavior and the attitude toward school lunches in each grade. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. 88.1% of children eat breakfast every day: second graders represent the highest percentage at 97.1% and sixth graders the lowest at 83.7%. The most common reason for not eating breakfast was "...

  15. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandian Modjtaba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls. The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD just 7 (0.8 minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2 minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3 minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38 g in girls and 289 (73 g in boys. Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups

  16. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergström, Jakob; Brodin, Ulf; Bergh, Cecilia; Leon, Michael; Shield, Julian; Södersten, Per

    2012-05-14

    Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53)% in the girls and to 166 (47

  17. The costs and calorie content of à la carte food items purchased by students during school lunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsey Ramirez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available School environments influence student food choices. À la carte foods and beverages are often low nutrient and energy dense. This study assessed how much money students spent for these foods, and the total kilocalories purchased per student during the 2012–2013 school year. Six elementary and four intermediate schools in the Houston area provided daily food purchase transaction data, and the cost and the calories for each item. Chi-square analysis assessed differences in the number of students purchasing à la carte items by grade level and school free/reduced-price meal (FRP eligibility. Analysis of covariance assessed grade level differences in cost and calories of weekly purchases, controlling for FRP eligibility. Intermediate grade students spent significantly more on à la carte food purchases and purchased more calories (both p < 0.001 than elementary school students. Lower socioeconomic status (SES elementary and intermediate school students purchased fewer à la carte foods compared to those in higher SES schools (p < 0.001. Intermediate school students purchased more à la carte foods and calories from à la carte foods than elementary students. Whether the new competitive food rules in schools improve student food selection and purchase, and dietary intake habits across all grade levels remains unknown. Keywords: National School Lunch Program, Elementary schools, Intermediate schools, À la carte foods, Competitive foods, Costs, Calories

  18. 76 FR 78095 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 0584-AD54 [FNS-2007-0023] Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program and for Benefits in the Special Milk Program, and Technical... school meals to implement nondiscretionary provisions of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act...

  19. Impact of the school lunch program on overweight and obesity among junior high school students: a nationwide study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, A; Lee, J S; Kobayashi, Y

    2018-06-05

    Japan has experienced a low prevalence of childhood obesity. The Japanese nationwide school lunch program is suggested to have helped this phenomenon, but it has not been proven. From official statistics, we combined annual data for 2006-15 about the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate for public junior high school students and the prefecture-level nutritional indicators calculated by randomly selected age-sex groups of 13-15-year olds: the percentage of overweight, obese or underweight children, who are 20% heavier, 30% heavier or 20% lighter than the standard weight by sex, age and height; and mean body weight (kg) or height (cm). We estimated the impact of the school lunch coverage rate on the nutritional indicators in subsequent years, adjusting for the lagged dependent variable and dummies for prefecture, age and year. A 10 percentage point increase in the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate significantly decreased the percentage of overweight (0.37%, 95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and obesity (0.23%, 0.10-0.37) in subsequent years among boys, but not among girls. No significant effect on the percentage of underweight or mean body weight/height was observed for either sex. Appropriate nutritional intake through school lunch may be effective to reduce childhood obesity.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of HHFKA Nutrition Standards for School Lunch Servings and Patterns of Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echon, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to provide baseline data and characteristics of food served and consumed prior to the recently mandated nutrition standards as authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA). Methods: Over 600,000 school lunch menus with associated food production records from 61 elementary schools…

  1. Changing the Image of School Lunch: Arizona Meets the Marketing Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shelley B.

    1988-01-01

    Arizona's Future for Child Nutrition organization hired a professional public relations and advertising agency to increase student participation in school lunches. After, the opinions and needs of students were researched, and the agency launched a campaign that featured radio advertising, television and radio talk shows, and press coverage, with…

  2. 78 FR 39163 - Certification of Compliance With Meal Requirements for the National School Lunch Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... 27, 2012. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) cleared the associated information collection... 2010 regarding performance-based cash assistance for school food authorities (SFA) certified compliant... receive performance-based cash assistance for each reimbursable lunch served (an additional six cents per...

  3. From Charity to Security: The Emergence of the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Jennifer Geist

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the historical formation of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in the United States and argues that programme emergence depended on the ability of policy entrepreneurs to link the economic concerns of agricultural production with the ideational concern of national security. Using a historical institutionalist framework…

  4. 78 FR 40625 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy... Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on February 22, 2013... performance benchmarks and to develop and implement continuous improvement plans if they fail to do so. The...

  5. Chronology of a Successful Conversion--Contractor Revives School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James B.

    1994-01-01

    A New York State school district employed a management company to privatize the food-service program with the goal of enticing all students to eat lunch. Expertise in marketing, menu planning, and food-service operation turned the program around. Suggests questions to ask when selecting a management company. (MLF)

  6. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming

    OpenAIRE

    Talsma, Elise F.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V.; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Ferguson, Elaine L.; Kok, Frans J.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool). Design: Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model par...

  7. Assessment of the national school lunch program in a subset of schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico: participants vs. non-participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alan M; Venegas, Heidi; Rodríguez, Cindy A; Vélez-Rodríguez, Rose M

    2013-03-01

    Extensive evaluations of the national school lunch program (NSLP) have been carried out on the U.S. mainland. Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the U.S. is a participant in this program, but has never been included in assessment studies. Herein, we present assessment information and compare results with comparable mainland studies. Multiple 24-hr recall questionnaires were administered to groups of participating (P) and non-participating (NP) children in the lunch program at 3 educational levels. Comparisons were made for children within the study as well as between comparable children in mainland studies for total intake of several macro- and micro-nutrients, contribution of the lunch to the total daily intake and adherence to U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA's) or to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's) including acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR's). Target intakes were met by P for % of the RDA of energy from protein, for all water soluble vitamins, iron, zinc and cholesterol. P did not achieve target intakes for total energy, energy from carbohydrates and fat nor for fat soluble vitamins, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and fiber. Recommended levels were exceeded for sodium, total fat and saturated fat. Comparing P vs NP, the vast majority of both groups fell within AMDR recommendations for macronutrients but not all micronutrients. For the most part, our results parallel those obtained in the National sample however, results suggest that P in the lunch program in Puerto Rico have a healthier intake of several nutrients than NP students. The unique feature of this study is that it is the first assessment of the NSLP in a completely Hispanic population.

  8. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  9. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  10. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  11. 76 FR 63805 - National School Lunch Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... professionals, chefs, students, parents, and communities have also used their talents to develop nutritious foods for schools through the Recipes for Healthy Kids competition and the Chefs Move to Schools...

  12. Parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and its association with students' school lunch participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and whether students eat lunch served at school. We use data from five low-income cities in New Jersey that have high minority populations. Students whose parents perceive the quality of school meals to be healthy have greater odds of eating meals served at school. Recent changes in guidelines for the United States Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program met with resistance from several fronts. Advocates for and implementers of improved school meals may benefit from partnering with parents to increase the acceptance and utilization of improved school offerings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Use of Whole Grain Pasta in School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Hauge, Denise A.; Arndt, Elizabeth A.; Veal, Mike; Marquart, Len

    2011-01-01

    Pasta is a popular grain food served as an entree or side dish in both home and away-from-home settings. In schools, pasta is served less frequently than other entrees. Pasta, especially whole-grain pasta, offers an opportunity to incorporate less expensive, nutritious, and versatile dishes into school meals. A need exists to develop whole-grain…

  14. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  15. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  16. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status have powerful influences on a child's ... well-being and cognitive development of school children. Students who ... Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria. Abstract.

  17. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. School setting and irregular lunch consumption among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette

    in a multilevel model controlled for factors at the individual level. Further, we investigated whether grade modified the association. Methods: We used data from the Danish 2010 contribution to the international collaborative cross-sectional study ‘Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Data collection...... were conducted in 2010 among schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (in Denmark, equivalent to 5th, 7th and 9th grade, respectively) from a random sample of schools, i.e. cluster sampling. The schoolchildren completed the self-administered and internationally standardised anonymous HBSC questionnaire...

  19. SCHOOL LUNCH, SUGGESTED GUIDES FOR SELECTING LARGE EQUIPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    THE TYPE AND CAPACITY OF A WIDE RANGE OF SCHOOL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT IS RECOMMENDED WITH RESPECT TO THE NUMBER OF MEALS SERVED PER DAY. THESE RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR RANGES, SINKS, ELECTRIC HEATING, GAS HEATING, REFRIGERATION, TABLES, KITCHEN MACHINES, TRUCK DOLLIES, SCALES, STORAGE CABINETS, OFFICE SPACES, LOUNGES, GARBAGE AND CAN WASHING…

  20. 78 FR 62335 - National School Lunch Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... more of our children are at risk for preventable health problems including diabetes and heart disease... their children with decent meals for the long school day, President Harry Truman signed the National... child should go hungry. And today, with more than 32 million children participating in the National...

  1. 77 FR 4087 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... dietary fiber and when consumed in excess can contribute extra calories. Schools should offer fresh fruit... potassium and other minerals, vitamins and fiber, and are naturally low in fat and sodium. Many stakeholders...) are a source of nutrients such as iron, magnesium, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber. Evidence...

  2. 77 FR 43232 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...) establishes National Average Payments for free, reduced price and paid afterschool snacks as part of the...--free lunch-- 303 cents, reduced price lunch--263 cents. Afterschool Snacks in Afterschool Care Programs--The payments are: Contiguous States--free snack--78 cents, reduced price snack--39 cents, paid snack...

  3. 75 FR 41796 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... National Average Payments for free, reduced price and paid afterschool snacks as part of the National...; Hawaii--free lunch-- 288 cents, reduced price lunch--248 cents. Afterschool Snacks in Afterschool Care Programs--The payments are: Contiguous States--free snack--74 cents, reduced price snack--37 cents, paid...

  4. 76 FR 43256 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... National Average Payments for free, reduced price and paid afterschool snacks as part of the National...; Hawaii--free lunch-- 294 cents, reduced price lunch--254 cents. Afterschool Snacks in Afterschool Care Programs--The payments are: Contiguous States--free snack--76 cents, reduced price snack--38 cents, paid...

  5. Radioactivity in school lunch. Concrete proposal for protecting children from unnecessary internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Naoko; Hasui, Seiichiro; Haraguchi, Yayoi

    2012-01-01

    After the reactor accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan on March 11, 2011, many food adopted widely in school food service such as rice, wheat, milk are known to have risk for radioactivity contamination. To protect all children from exposure, the authors quantitatively examined risk assessment coming from food and conclude that radioactivity due to cesium 137 in rice, wheat, and milk for school lunch should be less than 10 Bq/kg and, furthermore from 2013, as lower as possible and less than 5 Bq/kg. (S. Ohno)

  6. Nutrition Report Cards: an opportunity to improve school lunch selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wansink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and implementation efficiency of Nutritional Report Cards (NRCs in helping children make healthier food choices at school. METHODS: Pilot testing was conducted in a rural New York school district (K-12. Over a five-week period, 27 parents received a weekly e-mail containing a NRC listing how many meal components (fruits, vegetables, starches, milk, snacks, and a-la-carte foods their child selected. We analyzed choices of students in the NRC group vs. the control group, both prior to and during the intervention period. Point-of-sale system data for a-la-carte items was analyzed using Generalized Least Squares regressions with clustered standard errors. RESULTS: NRCs encouraged more home conversations about nutrition and more awareness of food selections. Despite the small sample, the NRC was associated with reduced selection of some items, such as the percentage of those selecting cookies which decreased from 14.3 to 6.5 percent. Additionally, despite requiring new keys on the check-out registers to generate the NRC, checkout times increased by only 0.16 seconds per transaction, and compiling and sending the NRCs required a total weekly investment of 30 minutes of staff time. CONCLUSIONS: This test of concept suggests that NRCs are a feasible and inexpensive tool to guide children towards healthier choices.

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  8. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Commodity Foods from the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2009-01-01

    Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program receive a portion of their federal funding as commodity foods rather than cash payments. This research compared the product costs and estimated total procurement costs of commodity and commercial foods from the school district perspective using data from 579 Minnesota ordering sites in…

  9. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  10. School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low-fat cheese on whole wheat tortillas) cold pizza (shredded mozzarella cheese with pizza sauce on a flour tortilla, whole wheat pita, English muffin, or mini pizza shell) cracker sandwiches (whole-grain crackers filled with ...

  11. Food and drink consumption at school lunchtime: the impact of lunch type and contribution to overall intake in British 9-10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Jennings, Amy; Jones, Andy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school. Norfolk, UK. One thousand six hundred and twenty-six children (aged 9-10 years) attending ninety Norfolk primary schools. At school, lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met the School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0.8 % (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74.4 % (savoury snack intake in packed lunches). There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet.

  12. Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Lunch Purchase Behavior during a Year-Long Environmental Intervention in Middle School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacey A. Greece

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifying the school food environment is on the national agenda as one strategy to improve the nutritional quality of children’s diets. Because few environmental-level interventions have been rigorously evaluated, the evidence base to inform programs and policies is limited. Of concern is the impact that changes to cafeteria offerings will have on participation in school meal programs. This study evaluates school lunch participation in the setting of a year-long middle school cafeteria intervention by examining the association between body mass index (BMI, sociodemographics, and the purchases of school lunch meals. IMOVE meals were healthier choices that met stringent nutritional criteria and were offered alongside standard lunch meals. Students who were overweight had a significantly higher purchase rate for both types of meals compared to those with a healthy BMI. Non-white race, younger age, being male, and low-income status were also significantly associated with participation in school lunch. Results indicate that nutritionally vulnerable students participate in school lunch and are equally likely to buy healthy alternatives or standard meals. This behavioral observation has important implications for school foodservice programs and policies. These results are timely given recent federal legislation to improve the school food environment to influence students’ food choice behaviors.

  13. Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Lunch Purchase Behavior during a Year-Long Environmental Intervention in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greece, Jacey A; Kratze, Alyssa; DeJong, William; Cozier, Yvette C; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2015-06-10

    Modifying the school food environment is on the national agenda as one strategy to improve the nutritional quality of children's diets. Because few environmental-level interventions have been rigorously evaluated, the evidence base to inform programs and policies is limited. Of concern is the impact that changes to cafeteria offerings will have on participation in school meal programs. This study evaluates school lunch participation in the setting of a year-long middle school cafeteria intervention by examining the association between body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and the purchases of school lunch meals. IMOVE meals were healthier choices that met stringent nutritional criteria and were offered alongside standard lunch meals. Students who were overweight had a significantly higher purchase rate for both types of meals compared to those with a healthy BMI. Non-white race, younger age, being male, and low-income status were also significantly associated with participation in school lunch. Results indicate that nutritionally vulnerable students participate in school lunch and are equally likely to buy healthy alternatives or standard meals. This behavioral observation has important implications for school foodservice programs and policies. These results are timely given recent federal legislation to improve the school food environment to influence students' food choice behaviors.

  14. Associations between structural characteristics of the school setting and irregular lunch consumption – are there gender differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Krølner, Rikke

    .52 (1.26-1.82). At the individual level, irregular lunch consumption was associated with being a boy, attending 7th grade, medium and low family social class, migration status, and living in a single and reconstructed family structure. Analyses stratified by gender showed similar results but among girls...... schoolchildren, and 2) examine whether gender modified these associations. Methods: Danish data from the international cross-sectional study ‘Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children in 2010 were used. Data were collected among schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of 75 schools....... The schoolchildren (N=4922) completed a self-administered questionnaire at school (response rate=86.3%). School principals (N=69) completed the school setting questionnaire (response rate=92 %). Associations between school level variables and irregular lunch consumption were estimated by multilevel logistic...

  15. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...

  16. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  17. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P Hawkes

    Full Text Available A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings.School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as "Lower Fat and less added Sugar" (LFS and "Higher Fat and more added Sugar" (HFS based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings.In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001. The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant.This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program.

  18. State farm-to-school laws influence the availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunches at US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa; Turner, Lindsey; Schneider, Linda; Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-05-01

    State laws and farm-to-school programs (FTSPs) have the potential to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) availability in school meals. This study examined whether FV were more available in public elementary school lunches in states with a law requiring/encouraging FTSPs or with a locally grown-related law, and whether the relationship between state laws and FV availability could be explained by schools opting for FTSPs. A pooled, cross-sectional analysis linked a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools with state laws. A series of multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for school-level demographics were performed according to mediation analysis procedures for dichotomous outcomes. Roughly 50% of schools reported FV availability in school lunches on most days of the week. Schools with the highest FV availability (70.6%) were in states with laws and schools with FTSPs. State laws requiring/encouraging FTSPs were significantly associated with increased FV availability in schools and a significant percentage (13%) of this relationship was mediated by schools having FTSPs. Because state farm-to-school laws are associated with significantly higher FV availability in schools-through FTSPs, as well as independently-enacting more state legislation may facilitate increased FTSP participation by schools and increased FV availability in school meals. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  20. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-09-18

    Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake

  1. Middle School Cafeteria Food Choice and Waste Prior to Implementation of Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Changes in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla; Bednar, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The study objective was to document choices of entrées, vegetables, fruits, grains/breads, and beverages on lunch trays and to determine the amount of each that was discarded after mealtime. Methods: A convenience sample of two urban middle school cafeterias in Texas participated in the study which took place in the 2010-2011…

  2. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is a challenge to assess children’s dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM) may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary....... The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ). The dietary components...... and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged...

  3. Chefs move to schools. A pilot examination of how chef-created dishes can increase school lunch participation and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of introducing a main dish designed by a professional chef in the National School Lunch Program and to document the impact on child participation, a chef was recruited to design pizza to be served in an upstate New York school district. The pizza was designed to meet both the cost and ingredient requirements of the NSLP. High school students were significantly more likely to select the pizza prepared by the chef. While the chef had no significant impact on main dish consumption given selection, more students took a vegetable and vegetable consumption increased by 16.5%. This pilot study demonstrates the plausibility of using chefs to boost participation in the school lunch program, and potentially increase nutrition through side selection, among high school students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 35301 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...,557 $3,629 $17,108 Number of breakfasts 2,091 2,187 2,253 2,298 2,332 11,160 * Equals less than $500... 356 schools within those SFAs. Financial statements, meal production records, recipes, invoices, and... Foods, school recipe records, and school menus. With this information, the study estimated the share of...

  5. 76 FR 2493 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C. These are key nutrients that promote growth and... now major health concerns affecting children and adolescents. Studies indicate that excess food... concern for children: Calcium, fiber, potassium, magnesium and vitamin E. [[Page 2496

  6. Farmer Field School on Nutrient Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.; Muchena, F.N.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    In Kenya Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is being used to make the best use of local resources and to optimise the effects of external inputs. In Mbeere, a district that lies in the dryland area of Eastern Kenya the Farmer Field School (FFS) has been in operation during one season and work is

  7. The influence of physical and social contexts of eating on lunch-time food intake among southern Ontario, Canada, middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M; McGoldrick, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who prepared the food, and where the food was originally purchased). A total of 1236 participants (males = 659, females = 566) in grades 6 (n = 359), 7 (n = 409), and 8 (n = 463) from southern Ontario, Canada, completed the Food Behavior Questionnaire during the 2005-2006 academic year. A total of 8159 foods and 2200 beverages were consumed during the lunch meal, which contributed to 552 kcal (SD = 429) or 30% (SD = 16) of total daily energy intake (kcal/day). Higher amounts of energy, meats and alternatives, other foods, fried foods, and pizza were consumed when participants ate in between places or at a restaurant/fast food outlet (compared with at home or school, p lunch, despite a school board-level policy restricting the sales of "junk food," which appears to be brought from home. Our findings support schools in policy efforts that restrict fast food access (by leaving school grounds, preventing fast food companies from coming onto school grounds, or restricting sugar-sweetened beverage sales in vending machines) and that eating in between places should be discouraged.

  8. 78 FR 40625 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ...-free and low-fat fluid milk in school meals; reduce the levels of sodium, saturated fat and trans fat... mitigate the childhood obesity trend. The proposed rule took comments on the associated ICR until March 14...

  9. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin W; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+ 9.4%; P convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption.

  10. Successes and Challenges in Using Group-Level Incentives to Increase Children's Aggregate Fruit and Vegetable Consumption for Lunch in One Wisconsin Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchanachokchai, Sydney; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Existing research has investigated the effects of using individual incentives and positive reinforcements to influence children to eat more fruits and vegetables for lunch and snack during school. This study explored using group-level incentives to motivate children in a Wisconsin elementary school to eat more fruits and…

  11. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  12. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  13. Contaminated Frozen Strawberries in School Lunches. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (June 5, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This hearing includes testimony on contaminated strawberries in school lunches. Contaminated strawberries were determined to be the cause of an outbreak of hepatitis in the state of Michigan. In addition to statements by the committee members, testimony was given by: (1) Mary Ann Keeffe, Acting Under Secretary, Food Nutrition and Consumer…

  14. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Validation Study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 Version, at School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Caroline F; DuPaul, George J; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining valid and reliable estimates of usual dietary intake at a reasonable cost is a challenge in school-based nutrition research. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 version (ASA24 Kids-2014), a self-administered, computerized 24-hour dietary recall, offers improved feasibility over traditional interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. This mixed-methods study examined ASA24 Kids-2014's validity for measuring dietary intake from National School Lunch Program lunches. After 24% attrition, 96 middle-school students from three urban schools in eastern Pennsylvania participated in the study. A subsample of 27 participants completed qualitative interviews. Data were collected in the spring of 2014. Self-reported ASA24 Kids-2014 data were compared to direct observations of school lunch, which served as the criterion measure. Dependent variables included eight meal components selected from the National School Lunch Program guidelines (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, dairy, oils, solid fats, and added sugars). A supplemental interview collected qualitative data regarding students' perceptions of content and substantive validity. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman's ρ examined criterion-related validity; qualitative content analysis examined content and substantive validity. Participants inaccurately recalled food items eaten at lunch, as 58% of foods were reported in error. However, among foods recalled correctly, no statistically significant differences emerged for estimates of portions consumed for six meal components (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, oils, and added sugars). In addition, statistically significant positive correlations emerged between ASA24 Kids-2014 and direct observation for all estimates. Qualitative data identified students' interest and motivation, comprehension, memory, and English-language fluency as relevant sources of error. Middle school students have difficulty

  16. The Feud over Food: The Truth about the School Lunch Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Serving meals and snacks at school is fraught with politics and pitfalls. While the battle rages in school cafeterias over menu choices, beverage sales, vending foods, and outright bans on what students can buy or even bring to school, there is some good news. More school districts are reducing the number of fried foods, increasing the levels of…

  17. The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sappenfield, William M; Huang, Youjie; Sherry, Bettylou; Bensyl, Diana M

    2010-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with substantial morbidities. Access to less-healthy foods might facilitate dietary behaviors that contribute to obesity. However, less-healthy foods are usually available in school vending machines. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students buying snacks or beverages from school vending machines instead of buying school lunch and predictors of this behavior. Analyses were based on the 2003 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,322 students in grades six through eight in 73 Florida public middle schools. Analyses included χ2 tests and logistic regression. The outcome measure was buying a snack or beverage from vending machines 2 or more days during the previous 5 days instead of buying lunch. The survey response rate was 72%. Eighteen percent of respondents reported purchasing a snack or beverage from a vending machine 2 or more days during the previous 5 school days instead of buying school lunch. Although healthier options were available, the most commonly purchased vending machine items were chips, pretzels/crackers, candy bars, soda, and sport drinks. More students chose snacks or beverages instead of lunch in schools where beverage vending machines were also available than did students in schools where beverage vending machines were unavailable: 19% and 7%, respectively (P≤0.05). The strongest risk factor for buying snacks or beverages from vending machines instead of buying school lunch was availability of beverage vending machines in schools (adjusted odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.7). Other statistically significant risk factors were smoking, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, Hispanic ethnicity, and older age. Although healthier choices were available, the most common choices were the less-healthy foods. Schools should consider developing policies to reduce the availability of less-healthy choices

  18. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Dragoset; Anne Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This brief describes exploratory work to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes that may be coming in policies and practices related to school meals and school food environments.

  19. A Food Service Intervention Improves Whole Grain Access at Lunch in Rural Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F. W.; Rimm, Eric B.; Austin, S. Bryn; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Kraak, Vivica I.; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole grain (WG) options are often limited in schools, which may impact rural, low-income students who rely on school meals for a substantial portion of their food intake. This study examined the changes in the availability and quantity of WG and refined grain foods offered in schools participating in the Creating Healthy, Active and…

  20. School Lunch Consumption among 3 Food Service Providers in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterberry, Melanie; Francois, Samantha; van Hattum, Taslim; Rudov, Lindsey; Carton, Thomas W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Louisiana has one of the highest rates of overweight and obese children in the United States. The Healthy School Food Collaborative (HSFC) was created to allow New Orleans's schools to select their own healthy school Food Service Provider (FSP) with requirements for higher nutritional standards than traditional options. The goal of…

  1. Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; Peat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (Peat. During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Foods and beverages offered in US public secondary schools through the National School Lunch Program from 2011-2013: Early evidence of improved nutrition and reduced disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2015-09-01

    To present data on trends in foods and beverages offered through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in public middle and high schools in the years immediately preceding and following implementation of new NSLP standards. From 2011 to 2013, primary data collection through the annual Youth, Education, and Society study involved use of mailed questionnaires to obtain data on NSLP meals from schools attended by nationally representative samples of US 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) grade students (N=792 middle schools and 751 high schools). Each school was weighted to represent the percentage of target grade students enrolled, thus allowing analyses examining changes over time in the percentage of students enrolled in (attending) schools with specified NSLP measure outcomes, as well as disparities in NSLP measures based on school characteristics. Significantly more US secondary students attended schools with specified NSLP measures in 2013 than in 2011; increases were observed at both middle and high school levels. Increase rates for some NSLP measures were moderated by school characteristics; where this was the case, moderating associations decreased prior NSLP nutrition environment disparities that were especially evident in smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of minority students. Meaningful improvements have been made in the nutritional content of NSLP meals offered to US secondary students; these improvements have reduced prior NSLP meal disparities associated with school characteristics. Schools will need continued help with implementation and compliance monitoring in order to have the best opportunity to improve the nutrition environments for US students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast Food Combos Make Type A Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashower, Gloria

    1974-01-01

    Clark County school district in Las Vegas, Nevada, has combination lunches available for high school students that meet Type A nutrition requirements but which resemble the commercial fast food menus teenagers prefer. (MLF)

  4. The Amount of Time to Eat Lunch is Associated with Children’s Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetable, and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently no national standards for school lunch period lengths and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Objectives To examine plate waste measurements from students in the control arm from the MEALS study (2011-2012 school year) for the association of the amount of time to eat with school meal selection and consumption. Design Prospective study using up to six repeated measures among students over the school year. Participants/Setting 1001 students in grades 3-8 attending 6 participating elementary/middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20-30 minutes. Main Outcome Measures School food selection and consumption were collected using plate waste methodology. Statistical Analyses Performed Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA was used to examine food selection and consumption. Results Compared with meal component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs. 57%; p=0.0001) compared with when students had fewer than 20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selection. Among those who selected a meal component, students with fewer than 20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (peat. Conclusions Over the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time may reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. PMID:26372337

  5. Direct Certification in the National School Lunch Program: State Implementation Progress School Year 2010-2011. Report to Congress. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report Number CN-11-DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Quinn; Conway, Kevin; Kyler, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This report responds to the legislative requirement of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L.110-246) to assess the effectiveness of State and local efforts to directly certify children for free school meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Direct certification is a process conducted by the States and by local…

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmyo Yoshiomi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Methods Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Results Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82% replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03–1.68, current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24–1.98, and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79. As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56, breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13–1.56, kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03–1.15, and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08–1.19 were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03–1.45, stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42–1.99, financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03–1.47, health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08–1.59 and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52 were similarly associated. Conclusion Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2007-07-24

    The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82%) replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.68), current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24-1.98), and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79). As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56), breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.56), kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03-1.15), and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19) were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45), stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47), health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) were similarly associated. Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  8. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-07-14

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (Pjuice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.

  9. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B

    2013-05-01

    A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. Fourth-grade children (N = 465) from Columbia, SC, were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 4 days per child. Researchers measured children's weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  10. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  11. The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

  12. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  13. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared...

  14. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P vegetarian days (23 %) compared...

  15. Feasibility and reliability of digital imaging for estimating food selection and consumption from students' packed lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer C; Sutter, Carolyn; Ontai, Lenna L; Nishina, Adrienne; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2018-01-01

    Although increasing attention is placed on the quality of foods in children's packed lunches, few studies have examined the capacity of observational methods to reliably determine both what is selected and consumed from these lunches. The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility and inter-rater reliability of digital imaging for determining selection and consumption from students' packed lunches, by adapting approaches previously applied to school lunches. Study 1 assessed feasibility and reliability of data collection among a sample of packed lunches (n = 155), while Study 2 further examined reliability in a larger sample of packed (n = 386) as well as school (n = 583) lunches. Based on the results from Study 1, it was feasible to collect and code most items in packed lunch images; missing data were most commonly attributed to packaging that limited visibility of contents. Across both studies, there was satisfactory reliability for determining food types selected, quantities selected, and quantities consumed in the eight food categories examined (weighted kappa coefficients 0.68-0.97 for packed lunches, 0.74-0.97 for school lunches), with lowest reliability for estimating condiments and meats/meat alternatives in packed lunches. In extending methods predominately applied to school lunches, these findings demonstrate the capacity of digital imaging for the objective estimation of selection and consumption from both school and packed lunches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    In the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994, Congress directed the Government Accounting Office (GAO) to examine the use of private food establishments and caterers by schools participating in federal programs for school meals. In conducting its review, the GAO relied primarily on questionnaires returned by food authorities that had…

  17. Lunch, recess and nutrition: responding to time incentives in the cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph; Just, David R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we evaluate if moving recess before lunch has an effect on the amount of fruits and vegetables elementary school students eat as part of their school-provided lunch. Participants were 1st-6th grade students from three schools that switched recess from after to before lunch and four similar schools that continued to hold recess after lunch. We collected data for an average of 14 days at each school (4 days during spring 2011, May 3 through June 1, 2011 and 9 days during fall 2011, September 19 through November 11, 2011). All of the schools were in Orem, UT. Data was collected for all students receiving a school lunch and was based on observational plate waste data. We find that moving recess before lunch increased consumption of fruits and vegetables by 0.16 servings per child (a 54% increase) and increased the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables by 10 percentage points (a 45% increase). In contrast, the schools in our control group actually experienced a small reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption during the same time period. Our results show the benefits of holding recess before lunch and suggest that if more schools implement this policy, there would be significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among students who eat school lunch as part of the National School Lunch Program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective: To assess...... the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design: A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine...... food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated...

  19. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Kimoto, Kana; Oda, Mayuko; Okutsu, Yuta; Kato, Rei; Suzuki, Yasunori; Siki, Dai; Hirai, Akihiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Shinkai, Takayuki; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20 clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17 contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were caused by the same contaminated food.

  1. Occurrence of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids in lunch meals served at school canteens in Italy and their relevance for children’s intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellatte, E.; Brambilla, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Di Domenico, A.; Pulkrabova, J.; Eschauzier, C.; Klenow, S.; Heinemeyer, G.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat servings may be more contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) than the corresponding unprocessed foods due to the presence of PFAAs in and transfer from food contact materials (FCM) and cookware. Therefore, the presence of selected PFAAs in meals served weekly at lunch time

  2. ATLAS Christmas lunch

    CERN Document Server

    Francois Butin; Markus Nordberg

    The end of the year ATLAS pit lunch is now a well established tradition: the 4th edition took place in the most prestigious place at CERN; the "Globe de l'innovation", or simply "the Globe". This end-of-year event is the opportunity to thank all those working so hard at Point 1. The first event took place in December 2003. At that time, there was no Globe yet, and the party took place in SX1 building, at the top of the shafts leading to the ATLAS cavern, with some 100 guests. In December 2004, we had the privilege to be the first to organize a lunch in the Globe with some 200 guests. Since then, many have followed our example! Well, almost: we were requested to refrain from serving "Tartiflette" again in there (a Savoyard specialty, using vast amounts of Reblochon, a smelly cheese...). It was said to have left a poignant odour for following events throughout 2004... Long queues formed for this special event. In December 2005, we were authorized to party in the Globe again (once we promised we would b...

  3. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  4. No free lunch

    KAUST Repository

    Ture, Ferhan

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the problem of cross-lingual pairwise similarity, where the task is to extract similar pairs of documents across two different languages. Solutions to this problem are of general interest for text mining in the multilingual context and have specific applications in statistical machine translation. Our approach takes advantage of cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) techniques to project feature vectors from one language into another, and then uses locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) to extract similar pairs. We show that effective cross-lingual pairwise similarity requires working with similarity thresholds that are much lower than in typical monolingual applications, making the problem quite challenging. We present a parallel, scalable MapReduce implementation of the sort-based sliding window algorithm, which is compared to a brute-force approach on German and English Wikipedia collections. Our central finding can be summarized as "no free lunch": there is no single optimal solution. Instead, we characterize effectiveness-efficiency tradeoffs in the solution space, which can guide the developer to locate a desirable operating point based on application- and resource-specific constraints.

  5. Lunch is ready… but not healthy: An analysis of lunches served in childcare centres in two Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stephanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Leis, Anne; Carrier, Natalie

    2017-11-09

    Childcare centres (CCs) typically offer one meal and snacks daily. This study compared what is served in CCs with what the nutritional recommendations are; described and compared the nutritional composition of lunches served in CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan; and examined differences between French and English, and urban and rural centres. The study involved 61 randomly selected CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, Canada. Lunch content was measured on two consecutive days by weighing each food item served to children and by visually documenting the food items using digital photography. Food items were categorized into food groups according to Health Canada's Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, and nutrients were analyzed using a nutritional analysis software. One-sample t tests compared lunch content with nutritional recommendations. Independent t tests compared the nutrient and food group content of lunches in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, French and English, and urban and rural CCs. On average, CCs did not meet provincial recommendations. Lunches in both provinces were low in calories (<517 kcal) and fibre (<7 g). Overall, Saskatchewan centres served greater amounts of food than New Brunswick centres (p < 0.05). French-speaking centres provided less fat (p = 0.047), less saturated fat (p = 0.01), and fewer servings of meat and alternatives (p = 0.02), and more trans fat (p = 0.03) than English-speaking centres. There were no differences between rural and urban centres. Few CC lunches met nutritional recommendations. Interventions are required to improve the quality of foods offered in CCs. Reviewing or developing comprehensive nutrition guidelines is warranted.

  6. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2014-01-01

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during...

  7. Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Yeoh, Yoonjae; Abe, Satoko

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan. The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. For Japan, a total of 30 meals provided by 5 child care centers in Tokyo were analyzed. Nutrient content and pattern in lunch menus were evaluated. The lunch menus in Korea and Japan provided 359.5 kcal (25.7% of the estimated energy requirement) and 376.3 kcal (29.5% of the estimated energy requirement), respectively. 'Rice + Soup + Main dish + Side dish I + Side dish II' were provided in 66.7% of meals in Korea, while various patterns with rice and soup as their bases were provided in Japan. The lunch menus of child care centers in Korea and Japan provide similar amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, calcium, and other nutrients. However, there were significant differences in the lunch menu patterns in Korea and Japan. This study provides information about the nutritional content and pattern of lunch menus at child care centers in Asian countries with rice as a staple food.

  8. Lunch frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    frequency was most common among students who were boys, 13- and 15-year-olds, from medium and low family social class, descendants of immigrants, living in a single-parent family and in a reconstructed family. School-level analyses suggested that having access to a canteen at school was associated with low...

  9. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  10. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  11. Improvements in middle school student dietary intake after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.

  12. What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

  13. Preliminary study of micro nutrient intake comparison of elementary school children on holiday and schooldays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widya Dwi Ariyani; K Oginawati; Muhayatun; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawati

    2010-01-01

    The dietary pattern has influences on nutritional status. In this activity, we compared micro nutrient intake of elementary school children (7-12 years) as a consequence of dietary pattern difference on holiday and schooldays, due to most of their time was spend in school where the tendency of snack consuming is usually higher at school. Therefore, the comparison of dietary pattern and micro nutrient daily intake of elementary school children on holiday and schooldays was needed to carry out. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method for 3 days in a row with one day among them was a holiday. The determination of micro nutrient elements concentration was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). There was a significant difference of daily intake of Na, K, Ca, Fe, and Cr on holiday and schooldays, while for Br, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se and Co were no significant difference. The most significant difference contained on sodium intake with average daily intake was 2578 mg/day on schooldays and 1298 mg/day on holiday. It was caused by the number of high sodium content snacks consumed on schooldays were bigger than on holiday. However, the results of micro nutrient daily intake obtained either on schooldays or on holiday generally were below RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance), except for Na and Cr. It's expected that this result could be used as information about nutrition status of children as next generation on behalf of supporting the formation of high quality human resources. (author)

  14. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Amuse Restaurant Lunch Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  16. Amuse Restaurant Set Lunch 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  17. The Use of Point-of-Sale Machines in School Cafeterias as a Method of Parental Influence over Child Lunch Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrepont, Emmy; Cullen, Karen W.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child's school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (e.g., chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study examines the use of parental…

  18. The use of point-of-sale machines in school cafeterias as a method of parental influence over child lunch food choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child’s school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (eg, chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study...

  19. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  20. School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006-2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006-2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  2. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  3. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  4. Pre-ordering lunch at work. Results of the what to eat for lunch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D; Singletary, S Brook; Menasha, Adeena; Cooblall, Clarissa; Hantula, Donald; Axelrod, Saul; Figueredo, Vincent M; Phipps, Etienne J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an intervention that combined mindful eating and online pre-ordering to promote healthier lunch purchases at work. The study took place at an urban hospital with 26 employees who were overweight or obese. The design included a contemporaneous comparison with delayed-treatment control and a three-phase prospective study. A minimum 4-week baseline period preceded a 4-week full-intervention, in which participants received mindful eating training, pre-ordered their lunches, and received price discounts toward lunch purchases. In a 4-week reduced intervention phase, participants pre-ordered lunches without price discounts. Participant lunch purchases were tracked electronically at the point of purchase. The primary outcome measures were the amounts of kilocalories and fat grams in purchased lunches. In contemporaneous comparisons, the treatment group purchased lunches with an average of 144.6 fewer kilocalories (p = 0.01) and 8.9 fewer grams of fat (p = 0.005) compared to controls. In multivariable longitudinal analyses, participants decreased the average number of calories in their meals by 114.6 kcal per lunch and the average grams of fat by 5.4 per lunch during the partial-intervention compared to the baseline (p ordering system if offered in the future. Combined mindful eating training and online pre-ordering appears a feasible and useful worksite intervention to improve food choices by employees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrient Supplementation and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jack L.

    The nutritional status of Kindergarten children has been studied in relation to performance in behavioral tests and the effects of several types of nutritional intervention in nutrition and behavior have been evaluated. In a study in 1969-70, children who received breakfast and lunch at school showed significant improvement in hemoglobin…

  6. Formação para merendeiras: uma proposta metodológica aplicada em escolas estaduais atendidas pelo programa nacional de alimentação escolar, em Salvador, Bahia Professional training for school lunch cooks: a methodological experiment done in state schools supported by the National School Feeding Program in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Lima Leite

    2011-04-01

    directed at school lunch cooks in state schools supported by the National School Feeding Program. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out among school lunch cooks from 97 state schools, in Salvador (Bahia , Brazil. Definition and implementation of the professional training consisted of three stages: a preliminary survey among the cooks in search of contents and methodology, professional training activities and the subjects' assessment of such activities. RESULTS: The preliminary survey pointed to both those contents of major interest among the cooks and the methodology. Professional training activities were designed as a 20-hour event for groups of about 35 people, taking place in school units. The activity program carried a number of different contents, including the National School Feeding Program, the school lunch cooks in the school feeding system, feeding and nutrition principles, and Good Manufacturing Practices. Methodological resources comprised dramatization, dialogued presentations, workshops, group contests, practical activities, interactive games, form completion, guided group activities and a printed brochure with all presentations. At the end of the event, an assessment was requested from the subjects as to the following features: content presentation, resources employed, pace of activities, question answering, content learning, positive and negative aspects as well as suggestions. CONCLUSION: The experiment showed the feasibility of building a new professional training model by using and valuing the contributions from the target subjects, thus allowing the reframing of traditional professional training practices and increasing the chances of success, since the subjects' specific demands were taken into account.

  7. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  8. Merenda no dia alimentar de crianças matriculadas em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar School-lunch as part of the eating habits of children enrolled in Pre-school Education and Feeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Mazzilli

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o papel da merenda no comportamento alimentar de 346 pré-escolares (PE matriculados em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar (CEAPEs de seis municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em entrevista domiciliar com a mãe ou responsável pela alimentação do PE, obteve-se o número e a quantidade dos alimentos ingeridos pela criança antes e após sua participação no CEAPE. Verificou-se que essa refeição escolar interfere tanto na quantidade dos alimentos consumidos quanto no número das refeições diárias feitas no lar. Os resultados mostraram que 178 (51,4% PE reduziram a ingestão alimentar de casa, mediante exclusão de refeições e/ou diminuição da quantidade de alimentos habitualmente ingerida, após receberem a merenda no CEAPE. Destas, 115 (64,6% apresentaram dieta insuficiente em energia; 48 (13,9% aumentaram a quantidade dos alimentos habituais e/ou incluíram refeições. Ainda assim, 23 (47,9% apresentaram consumo energético deficiente. Entre os 120 (34,7% que não tiveram nenhuma modificação em seu dia alimentar, 61 (51,7% mostraram ingestão calórica inadequada. Concluiu-se ser necessário orientar a família sobre o papel da merenda como suplemento alimentar e não como substituto de refeições no lar.It was studied the role of the school lunch in the dietary behaviour of the three hundred and forty-six preschool children drawn from the Preschool Education and Feeding Centre (CEAPE, in six towns of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil. In home entreviews, the mothers or persons responsible for the preschool children's diet gave the number of meals and the quantity of their food intake before and after their participation in the Program. It was noted that the school lunch as interfered in the dietary intake of children insofar as quantity of food and number of meals usually eaten at home is concerned. The results showed that one hundred and seventy-eight (51.4% preschool children decrease their

  9. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  10. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fiorentino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal. The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children. Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2. Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9. Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3. To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  11. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  12. Menu Planning Guide for School Food Service. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEgmont-Pannell, Dorothy; And Others

    This menu planning guide for school lunches and breakfasts contains: (1) lunch requirements, recommendations, and policies; (2) the basics of menu planning; (3) how to vary portions for various age/grade groups; (4) planning breakfasts; (5) merchandising school lunches and breakfasts; and (6) nutrition education and menu planning; Appendixes…

  13. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring options for integrated nutrient management in semi-arid tropics using farmer field schools: a case study in Mbeere District, eastern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.D.; Preez, Du C.C.; Muchena, F.N.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Jager, de A.

    2008-01-01

    The farmer field school (FFS) approach was used in semi-arid eastern Kenya in the period 2002–2003 to explore technology options for addressing declining soil fertility and to institute learning processes on integrated nutrient management (INM).
    The farmer field school (FFS) approach was used in

  15. Can providing a morning healthy snack help to reduce hunger during school time? Experimental evidence from an elementary school in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, Elena; Berning, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    While children may be naturally inclined to regulate their hunger, they are also guided by adults and influenced by environmental constraints regarding when and how much to eat. As such, the timing and availability of meals could alter a child's natural eating habits. This could impact the nutritional quality of what they eat as well. We conducted a field experiment with three fourth grade classes at a public elementary school in Eastern Connecticut to analyze if providing a nutritious snack one hour prior to lunch effects a child's level of hunger and consequently their lunch-time consumption. We found students shift their caloric and nutrient intake from lunch to snack time. In addition, we found a significant reduction in student hunger. Our results highlight the importance in considering the timing and quality of meals provided during school time. In our sample, current snack and lunch schedule may not be optimal and changing it can have an impact on the wellbeing of students. Providing healthful options for snack could be an effective way to improve student diets while preserving their ability to make their own choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  17. Comparison of lunch consumed by corporate workers and artisans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily food intake and lunch choices were assessed using 24-hour recall and quantitative food frequency questionnaire, respectively. The 24-hour dietary recall was done for 2 consecutive days. Statistical Package for Social Sciences vs 20.0 was used to analyse the data. Choice of lunch consumed in a week was reported ...

  18. A review of the effects of lunch on adults' short-term cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Terschlüsen, Anna Maria; Kersting, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Because of widespread irregular lunch consumption by both children and adults, information on the effects of lunch on short-term cognitive functioning is relevant to public health. In September 2012, a MEDLINE search was conducted for studies in which the effects of lunch on cognitive performance were examined. Eleven experimental studies published from 1981 to 1996 were found and evaluated; all involved adults. In three studies, the effects of lunch and lunch skipping were compared; the remaining studies involved a determination of the effects of lunch size and lunch composition. Results of studies in which lunch was compared with no lunch indicate that lunch leads to potential impairment of some aspects of cognitive functioning in the early afternoon. Lunch size may influence cognitive functioning, with impairment more likely to occur after a large lunch than a small lunch. Furthermore, in comparison with low-fat lunches, high-fat lunches seem to result in slower but more accurate responses to some cognitive tasks. However, these suggestions must be viewed with caution, as they are based on only a few studies and are not thoroughly supported by high-quality evidence. In addition, results obtained with adults are not applicable to children. Thus, the potential effects of lunch need further examination in children and adults.

  19. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  20. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  1. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age physiological needs of children and teenagers for nutrient materials and energy. In this situation, the available experience of using vitaminbenriched products as well as vitamin and mineral complexes in children will permit to quickly resolve the existing problems of the improper, and sometimes, insufficient, nutrition.Key words: school nutrition, organization, international experience.

  2. Lunch quality and sociodemographic conditions between Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of lunch consumed by adults in Brazil and its sociodemographic determinants in each Brazilian region. A cross-sectional study was carried out and a representative sample of regional populations was used. The sample comprised of 16,096 adults from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, part of the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF. The lunch quality was evaluated by applying the main meal quality index (MMQI, comprised of 10 items of equal weights that resulted in a score that ranged from zero to 100 points. Linear regression models measured the association between lunch quality and sociodemographic factors. The average energy consumption at lunch was 704kcal (SD = 300, and the meal quality score mean was 57 points (SE = 0.30. The North Region had the worst MMQI score (56 points, SE = 0.07, while the Central had the best MMQI adjusted score (59 points, SE = 0.05. The MMQI final score was positively associated with male gender and ages between 20-39 years, and was inversely associated with having eight years or more of education, per capita income of at least three minimum wages, and with the consumption of meals prepared away from home. Despite differences among sociodemographic factors, all Brazilian regions had a lunch composed of foods rich in sugars and fats, with insufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, resulting in a low meal quality.

  3. School Food Environment of Charter Schools in St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenmeyer, Whitney; Kelly, Patrick; Jenkins, Steve; Mattfeldt-Berman, Mildred

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the school food environment of charter schools in Saint Louis, Missouri. The objectives were to: (1) describe the participation of charter schools in the National School Lunch Program and (2) describe the prevalence of competitive foods in charter schools. Methods: School administrators…

  4. Smart Snacks in School Legislation Does Not Change Self-Reported Snack Food and Beverage Intake of Middle School Students in Rural Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Hosig, Kathy; Zhang, Angang; Shen, Sumin; Serrano, Elena

    To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates. No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school. Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: relationships between absolute and relative intake of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight

    OpenAIRE

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, LA; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-01-01

    Children’s appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5y olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satie...

  6. What role does taste play in school meal studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  7. Lunch habits of German children and adolescents: composition and dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, U; Freese, J; Kersting, M; Clausen, K

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ongoing, open-cohort Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe warm family lunch meals and the association of the lunch composition with total diet quality. 2,095 three-day weighed dietary records, collected between 2004 and 2009, from a 4- to 18-year-old DONALD study subgroup were used. Warm lunch (eating occasions between 11.30 a.m. and 2.29 p.m. including at least one course that is typically consumed warm) was eaten on 68.8% of all record days. Meat lunch (>50%) was predominant, followed by vegetarian (25%), fish (13%) and sweet lunch meals (3%). The prevalence of desserts at lunch was high and beverages were drunk at 80% of lunch meals. A meat lunch was associated with a higher protein (+1.4% energy intake, %E) and fat intake (+1.7%E) than a sweet lunch; also densities of vitamin A, folate and iron were higher. A dessert at lunch decreased protein intake slightly (-0.2%E), but increased carbohydrate (+0.7%E) and added sugar intake (+1.4%E) as well as density of calcium (+18 mg/MJ). Our study proves the impact of lunch on daily dietary quality and yields valuable insights on the development of food and meal-based dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  9. Ingestão de energia e nutrientes por adolescentes de uma escola pública Nutrient and energy intake in adolescents from a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Doratioto Albano

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o consumo médio alimentar de energia, de proteína, de cálcio, de ferro, e de vitaminas A e C de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal em uma escola pública de ensino fundamental e médio, no município de São Paulo, com 92 alunos, de ambos os sexos, entre 11 e 17 anos, do ensino fundamental, em 1998. A amostra foi selecionada utilizando-se um procedimento sistemático, com intervalo 2, de acordo com a série e sexo. Os dados de consumo alimentar foram coletados através do recordatório de 24 horas e comparados com as recomendações preconizadas pelo National Research Council de 1989. RESULTADOS: os consumos médios de energia, de proteínas e de vitamina C, para ambos os sexos, ultrapassaram a recomendação. O consumo médio de ferro para o sexo masculino ultrapassou a recomendação e, para o feminino, atingiu mais que 80%. O consumo médio de cálcio para o sexo masculino atingiu menos que 70% da recomendação e para o feminino, menos que 50%. CONCLUSÕES: pode-se concluir que os principais problemas detectados foram o baixo consumo médio de cálcio e elevado consumo de energia.OBJECTIVE: to assess the average intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C in adolescents. METHODS: cross-sectional study in a high school in São Paulo, Brazil, with 92 students, both males and females, aged between 11 and 17. The sample was chosen by a systematic statistical selection. The food intake was determined by 24-h diet recall and compared with the National Research Council recommendation (1989. RESULTS: the average intake of energy, proteins and vitamin C by both males and females was higher than the recommendation. The average iron intake by males was higher than the recommendation and more than 80% in females. The average calcium intake by males was less than 70% and less than 50% in females. CONCLUSIONS: low average intake of calcium and high average intake of energy were observed.

  10. Is There a Fiscal Free Lunch in a Liquidity Trap?

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Linde; Christopher J. Erceg

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a DSGE model to examine the effects of an expansion in government spending in a liquidity trap. If the liquidity trap is very prolonged, the spending multiplier can be much larger than in normal circumstances, and the budgetary costs minimal. But given this "fiscal free lunch," it is unclear why policymakers would want to limit the size of fiscal expansion. Our paper addresses this question in a model environment in which the duration of the liquidity trap is determined endoge...

  11. David Cronenberg, author of naked lunch: Intersemiotic translation as transcreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Fachel de Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the intersemiotic translation process performed by filmmaker David Cronenberg of William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch, and the intertextual bifurcations involved in this process. Investigating the similarities and differences between the creative worlds of both artists and how they reframe each other. For this, are used as the theoretical the idea of transcreation proposed by Haroldo de Campos, and the notion of the translator as a reader proposed by Jorge Luis Borges.

  12. [The influence of the nutrient supplement for children on the nutrition and health status and intelligence of children of schooling age in the countryside of children of schooling age during 2 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Wentao; Jia, Fengmei; Liu, Aidong; Vi, Guoqin; Song, Yi; Gong, Chenrui; Hua, Liming; Zhang, Jiguo; Zhai, Fengying

    2009-11-01

    To analyze the effect of complex nutrients on growth and development, intelligence and nutrition state of 6-12 years old children in two continuous years. According to the rural school's similar condition, such as social economical statement, education condition and proportion of students entering schools, 6 rural schools were respectively selected in Xishui County of Hubei Province as the experimental group and control group. In the former, middle and later periods (2004, 2005, 2006 ), growth and development, nutrition state and intelligence were analyzed and compared. The increase of height and weight in experimental group were higher than those of the control group. In 2 years, height in experimental group increased 12.9 cm, while the control group increased 11.5 cm. Weights increased in experimental group were 6.6 kg, while the control group increased 5.2 kg. Girl's bone density in experimental group increased from 0.236 g/cm in 2004 to 0.280 g/cm in 2006. The hemoglobin contents of 4 age group's children in experimental group increased significantly (P intelligence in experiment group. The complex nutrients supplement could improve the rural school children's growth and development, bone and intelligence.

  13. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F.; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (location, racial/ethnic composition and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility [FRPL]) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) data were used for school characteristics (n = 505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included: 1) the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, 2) strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and 3) restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores [prevalence difference (PD)=13.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) -25.0,-2.3], and less likely to sell sports drinks (PD= -36.3, 95% CI: -51.8, -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD=17.7, 95% CI: 5.5, 29.9) and on school grounds (PD=15.6, 95% CI: 1.7, 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012 the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the impact of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. PMID:25441964

  14. School nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  15. Injectable neurotoxins and fillers: there is no free lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Injection of neurotoxins and filling agents for the treatment of facial aesthetics has increased dramatically during the past few decades due to an increased interest in noninvasive aesthetic improvements. An aging but still youth-oriented population expects effective treatments with minimal recovery time and limited risk of complications. Injectable neurotoxins and soft tissue stimulators and fillers have filled this niche of "lunch-time" procedures. As demand for these procedures has increased, supply has followed with more noncore cosmetic specialty physicians, as well as unsupervised ancillary staff, becoming providers and advertising them as easy fixes. Despite an excellent record of safety and efficacy demonstrated in scores of published studies, injectable agents do carry risks of complications. These procedures require a physician with in-depth knowledge of facial anatomy and injection techniques to ensure patient safety and satisfaction. In general, adverse events are preventable and technique-dependent. Although most adverse events are minor and temporary, more serious complications can occur. The recognition, management, and treatment of poor outcomes are as important as obtaining the best aesthetic results. This review addresses important considerations regarding the complications of injectable neurotoxins and fillers used for "lunch-time" injectable procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

  17. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense......School lunch plays an important role in the well-being of students. However, studies have given evidence that school lunch may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence shows that taste plays an influential role in students’ food decisions and eating experiences. This narrative review finds...... that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  18. Is scratch-cooking a cost-effective way to prepare healthy school meals with US Department of Agriculture foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kiesel, Kristin; Lewis Miller, Markell; Boyle, Maria; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Crawford, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the resurgence of interest in scratch-cooking as a way to increase the quality and appeal of school meals, many school districts are concerned about the cost implications of switching to scratch-cooking. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foods are the single largest source of ingredients for school meals, and about half of USDA Foods are diverted for processing before being sent to the school district. We aimed to determine whether school lunch entrées made in a district from basic or raw USDA Foods ingredients can be healthier and less expensive to prepare than those sent to external processors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the extent of scratch-cooking and the nutritional content and cost to prepare entrées. Information was gathered by interview with school foodservice personnel and from school foodservice records from a convenience sample of 10 school districts in California that employed varying degrees of scratch-cooking and is diverse in terms of geographic location and the sociodemographics of the student body. The sample included all elementary school lunch entrées that contain USDA Foods offered during October 2010 for a total sample of 146 entrées. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to test for statistically significant differences in cost and nutrient content of entrées according to the level of scratch-cooking. There was no significant relationship between total costs and level of scratch-cooking. Entrées with the highest scratch-cooking scores had significantly lower food costs, higher labor costs, and not significantly different total costs compared with entrées with no scratch-cooking. Nutrient content was not consistently associated with scratch-cooking, but scratch-cooked entrées did include a larger variety of non-fast-food-type entrées. The findings suggest that scratch-cooking can be a cost-effective way to expand the variety of healthy school lunches prepared with USDA Foods

  19. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity schools. 250.57 Section 250.57 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools. Commodity...

  20. Welcome to the School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nelle

    2012-01-01

    Too often, lost and lonely students seem to find their way to the school library. School librarians are blessed with the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of these young people. In this article, the author describes how she developed a program called the "Lunch Bunch" to help lost and lonely students who were seeking a place of refuge.…

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Trine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913 selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70. No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and

  2. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers’ Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Briley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers’ sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child’s lunch. Design This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. Participants A total of 607 parent–child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Main outcome measures Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children’s consumption. Statistical analysis Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m2). Results Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Conclusions Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. PMID

  3. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers' Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E

    2015-11-01

    Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child's lunch. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. A total of 607 parent-child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children's consumption. Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)). Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Established Independent School Collaborates with Social Service Agency to Launch New School: Community Partnership School, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Community Partnership School (CPS) serves 90 to 95 students annually in preK-5th grade. Of these, 100 percent are African American or multiracial, and all qualify for free or reduced-price lunch. Community Partnership School began as a collaboration between Germantown Academy, which had trouble recruiting low-income students to its suburban…

  5. ACTUAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL MEALS, AGE APPROPRIATE PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the current state of school meals, determination of ways of optimization for food, biological values and balanced school meals relevant age-related physiological needs. The greatest contribution to the optimization of school meals can make enriched products of mass consumption, first of necessity, the need and favorite products to children. In this regard, the fol-lowing tasks were defined: analysis of normative documents on creation of school meals , the relevant age-related physiological needs for nutrients and energy for protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and organic acids; definition of the balance of the products of the school menu categories for children aged 7-11 years, 11 - 17; study of the composition of food school menu; comparison of total deviation calorie Breakfast, lunch and development of measures on optimization of the system of school nutrition. In the structure of nutrition of children and adolescents major role bread, drinks, confectionery products as are the sources of energy and nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, macro - and microelements, organic acids, including polyunsaturated fatty CI slot, Therefore one of the ways of solving of optimization problems of preschool and school meals are of great TRANS-perspective bakery and confectionery products, drinks of high food and biological value and coordination and composition, as on the basic structural elements and micronutrients obtained innovative technology complex processing of raw sources with maximum preservation of their original nutritional value. TA-thus, the performed literature analysis found that rational nutrition of schoolchildren aimed at prevention of alimentary (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, allergic diseases that meet energy, plastic and other needs of the body, provides the necessary level of metabolism.

  6. Accuracy of food photographs for quantifying food servings in a lunch meal setting among Danish children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Nielsen, Trine Holmgaard; Ygil, Karin Hess

    2018-01-01

    Visual aids, such as food photographs, are widely used in estimating food quantities in dietary surveys. The present study aimed to assess how accurately Danish adults and children can estimate food portion sizes using 37 series of photographs illustrating four to six different portion sizes under...... real-life conditions; determine whether adults were more accurate than children; and estimate the error caused by using portion size photographs to estimate weights of foods consumed in macronutrient calculation. Six hundred and twenty-two adults and 109 children were recruited in three workplace...... canteens and in two schools, respectively, to estimate their lunchtime portions based on photographs. Participants were instructed to keep the foods separated on their plate when taking lunch. Participants thereafter estimated their own portions by looking at the relevant series of photographs. The actual...

  7. Environmental protection through energy conservation: A free lunch at last?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    A cautious analysis of demand-side management programs is presented. Utility demand-side management (DSM) programs deserve to be given full and careful consideration as a potential way to give consumers better end-use energy services for their money, utilities an edge in an increasingly competitive market, and society a way to reduce the environmental costs of energy production. But in each of these areas, DSM programs offer no free lunches and have no inherent advantages over supply-side programs. If energy conservation makes sense on economic and business grounds, it can meet the standard economic and business tests applied to most of the rest of the economy; it neither requires nor deserves to be exempt from market concepts and disciplines. If utility DSM programs make sense on environmental grounds, they should be able to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness relative to other, primarily supply-side measures society is willing to undertake in order to control environmental effects. Subsidizing DSM measures in the hope that something good will happen far upstream can waste much money and cause disappointment and frustration

  8. The Three C's of School Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thelma L.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines (1) the changes that have occurred in school food service since the National School Lunch Act of 1946, (2) the choices in foods served and in new markets, and (3) an action plan for the challenges facing school food service professionals. (MLF)

  9. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was associated with lower household levels of total energy, calcium, vitamin C, sodium, vitamin D, and saturated fat. Spatial access and utilization of supermarkets and dollar stores were not associated with nutrient availability. Conclusions Although household members frequently purchased food items from supermarkets or dollar stores, it was spatial access to and frequent utilization of convenience food stores that influenced the amount of nutrients present in Texas border colonia households. These findings also suggest that households which participate in NSLP have reduced AE-adjusted nutrients available in the home. The next step will target changes within convenience stores to improve in-store marketing of foods and beverages to children and adults. PMID:23327426

  10. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  11. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    fat. Participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP was associated with lower household levels of total energy, calcium, vitamin C, sodium, vitamin D, and saturated fat. Spatial access and utilization of supermarkets and dollar stores were not associated with nutrient availability. Conclusions Although household members frequently purchased food items from supermarkets or dollar stores, it was spatial access to and frequent utilization of convenience food stores that influenced the amount of nutrients present in Texas border colonia households. These findings also suggest that households which participate in NSLP have reduced AE-adjusted nutrients available in the home. The next step will target changes within convenience stores to improve in-store marketing of foods and beverages to children and adults.

  12. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 2. The nutrient contents of all meals chosen by a group of 8- to 11-year-old boys over 78 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test the abilities of the newly created smart card system to track the nutrient contents of foods chosen over several months by individual diners in a school cafeteria. From the food choice and composition of food data sets, an Access database was created encompassing 30 diners (aged 8-11 years), 78 days and eight nutrients. Data were available for a total of 1909 meals. Based upon population mean values the cohort were clearly choosing meals containing higher than the recommended maximum amounts for sugar and lower than the recommended minimum amounts of fibre, iron and vitamin A. Protein and vitamin C contents of meals chosen were well above minimum requirements. Over the 1909 meals, nutrient requirements were met 41% of the time. The system created was very effective at continually monitoring food choices of individual diners over limitless time. The data generated raised questions on the common practice of presenting nutrient intakes as population mean values calculated over a few days. The impact of heavily fortified foods on such studies in general is discussed.

  13. 78 FR 65890 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Eliminating Applications Through...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian Tribes, or on the distribution of power and... meals and helping children develop healthful eating habits early in life. USDA will respond in a timely...

  14. 78 FR 39067 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ..., potassium, vitamin D or dietary fiber). Effective July 1, 2016, this criterion is obsolete and may not be..., although it is not possible to quantify those benefits on overall diets or student health. Excess body... consequences for affected adults, and recent research has also demonstrated that excess body weight has...

  15. 78 FR 47274 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... following correction: On page 45181, the Table titled ``AFTERSCHOOL SNACKS SERVED IN AFTERSCHOOL CARE PROGRAMS'' is corrected to read as set forth below: Afterschool Snacks Served in Afterschool Care Programs CONTIGUOUS STATES: PAID 0.07 REDUCED PRICE 0.40 FREE 0.80 ALASKA: PAID 0.11 REDUCED PRICE 0.65 FREE 1.30...

  16. Who's buying lunch: are gifts to surgeons from industry bad for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, David C; Iserson, Kenneth V

    2005-11-01

    Why does gifting exist in the medical marketplace? It provides a sales advantage in a competitive marketplace by establishing crucial relationships with the patients' fiduciary: the physician and surgeon. Do gifts to physicians from industry harm patients? One can cite mountains of indirect evidence that they do, and maybe in the case of recalled devices and drugs there are actual corpses, but these examples are retrospective and it is impossible to prove that removing detailing eliminates the harm. Banning gifts to surgeons would not completely fix the ethical problem of pharmaceutical and device marketing. Gifts are important because they buy access and foster relationships, but inherent bias in research and the medical literature makes it very difficult to remain objective. It is a race, and education has not kept pace with advertising; only 10% of 575 internal medicine physicians thought they had had sufficient training during medical school and residency regarding professional interaction with sales representatives. Would banning gifts help at all? Would enforcing an unpopular ethical code protect patients? There might be a small improvement, but not as significant as eliminating representatives and product samples altogether. This is not likely to happen without an enormous fight against the wealthiest industry in America. The solution is education. To borrow industry's argument, physicians and surgeons are ethical creatures with capacity for judgment and integrity. They need to understand and believe the magnitude of the problem. Detailing exists because there is a market for it, empowering surgeons with ethical training reduces the demand for goodies, and at some point the popular choice will be to buy their own lunch. Business ethics are not medical ethics. Industry is behaving exactly as it must to maximize profits. Although it is painful for some surgeons, surgical residencies, and professional organizations to envision a future with diminished corporate

  17. Foods in schools: Children with diabetes can make wise meal choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students, parents, and school staff often believe there are no healthful foods available in schools for children with diabetes. This paper explains modern school food environments and how children with diabetes can eat school foods. National School Lunch Program meals usually consist of an entree, t...

  18. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...... high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...

  19. Effects of park walks and relaxation exercises during lunch breaks on recovery from job stress : Two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Sianoja, Marjaana; Korpela, Kalevi; Tuomisto, Martti; Lilja, Ansa; Geurts, Sabine; Kinnunen, Ulla

    Lunch breaks constitute the longest within-workday rest period, but it is unclear how they affect recovery from job stress. We conducted two randomized controlled trials with 153 Finnish knowledge workers who engaged for 15 min daily in prescribed lunch break activities for ten consecutive working

  20. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  1. Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Andrea C.P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Farias, Luciana; Maihara, Vera A.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; ime P.L.; Alencar, Fernando H.; Yuyama, Lucia K.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 μg Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  2. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; Pfasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (Pfasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (Pfasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.

  3. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  4. The Market for Food in the Nation's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesberg, Martin

    This report is based on a study made during the school year 1962-63. Comparison with a benchmark survey conducted five years earlier shows that during the intervening period the number of public school districts decreased by one-third, while pupil enrollment increased by about 10 percent. The number of lunches served in the National School Lunch…

  5. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  6. Teacher Performance Trajectories in High- and Lower-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeyu; Özek, Umut; Hansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether teacher performance trajectory over time differs by school-poverty settings. Focusing on elementary school mathematics teachers in North Carolina and Florida, we find no systematic relationship between school student poverty rates and teacher performance trajectories. In both high- (=60% free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL])…

  7. The dietary effect of serving school meals based on the new Nordic diet – A randomised controlled trial in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The OPUS study is a school-based intervention study testing selected health effects of New Nordic Diet (NND). Children are served lunch and snacks based on NND. The hypothesis is that Danish school children eat a healthier diet when receiving NND school meals as compared...... with packed lunch brought from home. To investigate the effects on intake of selected macronutrients in Danish school children when served school meals based on NND compared with packed lunch. Methods: In a cluster-randomized controlled unblinded cross-over study children received school meals based on NND...... for 3 months and their usual packed lunch for 3 months. The daily intake of food and beverages was recorded 3 times during 7 consecutive days using a validated self-administered web-based dietary assessment software tool for children. Statistical analysis was performed by hierarchical mixed models...

  8. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R. Riggs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  9. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Hattiesburg Public School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    The Hattiesburg Public School District (HPSD) is a small urban school system located in southern Mississippi. Of the almost 4,500 students enrolled in its nine schools, 92 percent are African American and 90 percent receive free or reduced lunch. Currently, HPSD employs 34 administrators, 375 teachers, and 11 technology specialists. When the 21st…

  10. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  11. The "take a nurse to lunch" program. A unique focus group improves and promotes food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Dan Booth is the director of hospitality services for MaineGeneral Health. For this 450-bed health care organization, he directs six departments, which include environmental services, food and nutrition, security, laundry services, telecommunications, and transportation. In this article he describes how his Take a Nurse to Lunch program operates, what its benefits are, and how it was implemented.

  12. Analysis of school catering

    OpenAIRE

    Martinásková, Marie

    2008-01-01

    School catering is one form of public catering. People who work in sphere of school catering have to observe very strict rules of sanitary code and to follow conventions of rational nutrition. Nutritious food is important for young people and their growth. The experience with the school dining should be very useful for the child. He should learn how to intercommon and how to follow healthy lifestyle. In the last five years, fewer children eat school lunches in Czech Republic. This fact is cau...

  13. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  14. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC, iron, vitamin A (VitA, folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12. Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA. The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA, VitA (66% RDA, and folate (44% RDA, but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA and iron (20% RDA. Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  15. Nutrient intake disparities in the US: modeling the effect of food substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Roemmich, James N; Juan, WenYen; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-05-17

    Diet quality among federal food assistance program participants remains low, and little research has assessed the diet quality of food insecure non-participants. Further research is needed to assess the extent to which food substitutions can improve the nutritional status of these vulnerable populations. Substituting egg dishes for other commonly consumed dishes at certain eating occasions may be an effective strategy for improving the daily nutrient intake among these groups. Eggs are rich in many important nutrients, and are low-cost and part of a wide range of cultural food menus, which are important considerations for low-income and ethnically diverse populations. To help guide the focus of targeted nutrition interventions and education campaigns for vulnerable populations, the present work begins by 1) estimating the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among these groups, and then models the effect of consuming egg dishes instead of commonly consumed dishes at each eating occasion on 2) the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy, and 3) the mean intake of nutrients. Dietary data from 34,741 adults ≥ 20 y were acquired from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2014. Diet pattern modeling was used to substitute commonly consumed egg dishes for commonly consumed main dishes at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. National Cancer Institute usual intake methods were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake of 31 nutrients pre- and post-substitution, and a novel index was used to estimate change in intake of all nutrients collectively. Substituting eggs for commonly consumed main dishes at lunch or dinner did not change total daily nutrient intake for each group (P > 0.05), but decreased the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 1-4 percentage points (P diet costs, which may be an important driver of food purchasing decisions among low income individuals with limited food budgets.

  16. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-03-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of our study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (eg, location, racial/ethnic composition, and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics data were used for school characteristics (n=505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores (prevalence difference [PD] -13.7, 95% CI -25.0 to -2.3), and less likely to sell sport drinks (PD -36.3, 95% CI -51.8 to -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD 17.7, 95% CI 5.5 to 29.9) and on school grounds (PD 15.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012, the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (eg, limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, and banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the influence of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. The Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…

  18. School nutrition survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child\\'s daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  19. The relative price of healthy and less healthy foods available in Australian school canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billich, Natassja; Adderley, Marijke; Ford, Laura; Keeton, Isabel; Palermo, Claire; Peeters, Anna; Woods, Julie; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-04-12

    School canteens have an important role in modelling a healthy food environment. Price is a strong predictor of food and beverage choice. This study compared the relative price of healthy and less healthy lunch and snack items sold within Australian school canteens. A convenience sample of online canteen menus from five Australian states were selected (100 primary and 100 secondary schools). State-specific canteen guidelines were used to classify menu items into 'green' (eat most), 'amber' (select carefully) and 'red' (not recommended in schools). The price of the cheapest 'healthy' lunch (vegetable-based 'green') and snack ('green' fruit) item was compared to the cheapest 'less healthy' ('amber/red') lunch and snack item, respectively, using an un-paired t-test. The relative price of the 'healthy' items and the 'less healthy' items was calculated to determine the proportion of schools that sold the 'less healthy' item cheaper. The mean cost of the 'healthy' lunch items was greater than the 'less healthy' lunch items for both primary (AUD $0.70 greater) and secondary schools ($0.50 greater; p snack was cheaper than the 'healthy' snack. These proportions were greatest for primary schools located in more, compared to less, disadvantaged areas. The relative price of foods sold within Australian school canteens appears to favour less healthy foods. School canteen healthy food policies should consider the price of foods sold.

  20. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  1. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  2. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: relationships between absolute and relative intake of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, LA; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-01-01

    Children’s appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5y olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from .78 to .91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child’s choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  3. Afternoon nap and bright light exposure improve cognitive flexibility post lunch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Slama

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15, or bright light versus placebo (n=10. Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions. The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo, accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar

  4. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  5. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-10-01

    The association between the time of nutrient intake and health has been described in a few studies. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the relation between high energy intakes at lunch compared with at dinner on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. We compared the effect of high energy intake at lunch with that at dinner on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 80; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-35; age: 18-45 y] were asked to eat either a main meal at lunch (LM) or a main meal at dinner (DM) for 12 wk while in a weight-loss program. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups. Sixty-nine subjects (86%) completed the trial (34 subjects in the DM group, and 35 subjects in the LM group). Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 12 wk in both groups. Compared with the DM group, the LM group had greater mean ± SD reductions in weight (LM: -5.85 ± 1.96 kg; DM: -4.35 ± 1.98 kg; P = 0.003), BMI (LM: 2.27± 0.76; DM: 1.68 ± 0.76; P = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (LM: -0.66 ± 0.33; DM: -0.46 ± 0.24; P = 0.001), and fasting insulin (LM: -2.01 ± 1.10 mIU/mL; DM: -1.16 ± 0.72 mIU/mL; P dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk. The consumption may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02399280. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Health Promotion at the Construction Work Site: The Lunch Truck Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Moore, Kevin J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Clark, John D; Lee, David J; Fleming, Lora E

    2018-04-01

    The transient nature of construction work makes it difficult to conduct longitudinal worksite-based health promotion activities. As part of a workplace health assessment pilot study, we worked with a commercial lunch truck company to disseminate four types of health education materials including cancer screening, workplace injury prevention, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking cessation to construction workers purchasing food items from the truck during their job breaks. Two weeks following the worksite assessment, we followed up with these workers to ascertain their use of the health promotion materials. Of the 54 workers surveyed, 83% reported reviewing and sharing the cancer screening materials with their families, whereas 44% discussed the cancer screening materials with coworkers. Similar proportions of workers reviewed, shared, and discussed the other health promotion materials with their family. Lunch trucks may be an effective strategy and delivery method for educating construction workers on healthy behaviors and injury prevention practices.

  7. It's not just lunch: extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Kniffin

    Full Text Available Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1--or their best friend (Study 2--would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find--across both men and women--that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not "just lunch."

  8. It's not just lunch: extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1)--or their best friend (Study 2)--would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find--across both men and women--that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not "just lunch."

  9. It’s Not Just Lunch: Extra-Pair Commensality Can Trigger Sexual Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M.; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1) – or their best friend (Study 2) – would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find – across both men and women – that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not “just lunch.” PMID:22792327

  10. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  11. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....

  12. Perhaps Not a Free Lunch But At Least a Free Appetizer

    OpenAIRE

    Droste, Stefan; Jansen, Thomas; Wegener, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    It is often claimed that Evolutionary Algorithms are superior to other optimization techniques, in particular, in situations where not much is known about the objective function to be optimized. In contrast to that Wolpert and Macready (1997) proved that all optimization techniques have the same behavior - on average over all f : X -> Y where X and Y are finite sets. This result is called No Free Lunch Theorem. Here different scenarios of optimization are presented. It is argued why the scena...

  13. Hostages, free lunches and institutional gaps : the case of the European Currency Union

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the strong member states of the European Currency Union are hostages of a financially distressed member state so that they are compelled to provide financial support. Moreover, due to the dynamics of the interaction game, a debt relief is a free lunch for the distressed country. This fosters moral hazard of distressed countries. In the absence of capital market control, European politics do not effectively monitor fiscal politics of member states. The lack of a long ter...

  14. The suitability of the food consumed by children in primary schools for satisfying their needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim İşgüzar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This study evaluates the suitability of the food consumed by children in primary schools including the role of the lunch menus in satisfying the children’s needs. Methods: 852 first-grade students were chosen from 14 randomly selected primary schools in Gaziantep to participate in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Demographic and personal data of the students and their parents, their anthropometric measurements, food consumption habits and the lunch menus served in schools were studied. The Body Mass Index (BMI of students was evaluated according to World Health Organization (WHO’s percentile tables. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software, using the chi-square test for analyses. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: 51.4% of students were male, 48.6% were female (mean age, 7.05±0.24 years. According to the BMI results, 26.6% of the students were thin and 25.9% were overweight/obese. 73.5% and 85.8% of the children were having breakfast or lunch regularly, respectively. Maternal education levels and employment status did not affect the child’s having breakfast on a daily basis (p>0.05. 27.7 % of children who ate lunch regularly, 15.7% of children who did not eat lunch regularly were overweight/obese (p<0.05. The most consumed food on a regular basis was bread (92.6 %, followed by milk and dairy products (76.5%. When lunch was served in schools (for 24.9% of the students, regular lunch consumption increased among children (p<0.05. The food group the most consumed by the students having lunch at school was fats-sugars-cereals. Only 43.3% of the lunch menus served at schools were found adequate. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there is a need to improve lunch menus served in primary schools in order to satisfy energy and nutritional needs of children.Keywords: Nutrition, school health, primary school 

  15. Living alone but eating together: Exploring lunch clubs as a dining out experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nadine; Emond, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    Dining out is most often associated with pleasure and gratification, principally since it presents opportunities for sociability. However, access to dining out experiences is influenced by multiple factors, including age. Little is known about the dining out habits of older people. In particular, the food practices of those living alone in the community is under-researched compared to those in hospital or residential care. This study explores the perceptions and preferences of ten older people towards domestic and communal meals in South East Scotland. Qualitative data were generated from 5-day food diaries and in-depth interviews with individuals who lived alone and attended a community-based senior citizen's lunch club. Data were coded and thematically analysed using a symbolic interactionist perspective. A number of key themes were identified, including the meaning of mealtimes. It was found that most participants ate the majority of their meals at home alone. Despite this, dining alone was not necessarily experienced as 'lonely'. Participants reported that dining out at the lunch club was a pleasurable experience given the social interaction and the separation of consumption from food work. Moreover, due to restricted mobility and limited access to transport, the lunch club was viewed by participants as one of the few places that they could go to dine out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Regulating strain states by using the recovery potential of lunch breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Jarek; Wieland, Rainer; Sauerland, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the worksite study is to elucidate the strain reducing impact of different forms of spending lunch breaks. With the help of the so-called silent room cabin concept, it was possible to induce a lunch-break relaxation opportunity that provided visual and territorial privacy. To evaluate the proposed effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either 20 min progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) or small-talk (ST) break groups. We analyzed the data in a controlled trial for a period of 6 months (every 2 months four measurements a day at 12:00, 13:00, 16:00, 20:00) using independent observer and self-report ratings of emotional, mental, motivational, and physical strain. Results indicated that only the PMR break reduced postlunchtime and afternoon strain. Although further intervention research is required, our results suggest that PMR lunch break may sustainable reduce strain states in real worksite settings. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The traditional lunch pattern is inversely correlated with body mass index in a population-based study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Oliveira Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of obesity and dietary patterns has been well documented in scientific literature; however, information on the impact of meal patterns on obesity is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of adherence to lunch patterns and body mass index (BMI in a representative sample of individuals aged 20 years or older in Sao Paulo. Methods Data for 933 participants were retrieved from the Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008, a cross-sectional population-based survey. The usual dietary intake of individuals with at least one 24-h recall was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. The definition of lunch was self-reported by the participant. Five lunch patterns were derived from twenty-two food groups by exploratory factor analysis: Traditional, Western, Sweetened juice, Salad, and Meats. To estimate the effect of lunch patterns on BMI, we used a generalized linear model with link identity and inverse Gaussian distribution. Analyses were adjusted by age, gender, household income per capita, physical activity levels, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, and misreporting status. Results The greater adherence to the traditional pattern at the lunch meal was associated with lower BMI, only in insufficiently active individuals (ß = −0.78; 95% CI -1.57; −0.02. Conclusions The traditional Brazilian lunch pattern might protect the insufficiently active individuals against obesity.

  18. The Role of School Counselors in the Childhood Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…

  19. [Smoking among adolescents: population study on parental and school influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P

    2006-01-01

    Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.

  20. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  1. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  2. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  3. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  4. Tackling World Hunger in an Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, Caroline S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program, developed in a small Vermont elementary school, that centered on world hunger and global awareness by involving students in helping stop food waste during lunch. Community members and businesses pledged money as an incentive for stopping waste, and the money raised went to UNICEF. (MD)

  5. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  6. Secrets to Success in School Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Students need more than just "any" lunch or breakfast to do well in school--the "quality" of these meals counts also. Studies have demonstrated the role healthy diets can play in students' academic achievement. That's why President Obama signed into law the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in December 2010. This historic legislation provides free…

  7. Methods Document for the CDC and Bridging the Gap Local School Wellness Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 and, more recently, the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 required all school districts participating in the federal Child Nutrition Programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, Special Milk Program, Afterschool Snack Program) to adopt and implement a local…

  8. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  9. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  10. Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…

  11. Here's Why Junk Food Still Is on Sale at Some Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester

    1984-01-01

    A 1983 federal appeals court decision says the Secretary of Agriculture cannot establish time and place restrictions on the sale of snack items in schools. If snack items are to be banned from schools, the School Lunch Act must be reworded. (MD)

  12. Nutrition of Children and the School Function: Report of a Community Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Claudio; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Clinically examined and interviewed 847 elementary students (ages six to 19 years) to determine their nutritional status and acceptance of school food. Findings indicated high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition and high rates of students coming to school with no food, nonacceptance of the school lunch, and strong preference for salty food.…

  13. Barriers and Possible Facilitators to Participation in Farm to School Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia S.; Lingsch, Kelsey J.; Weiss, Caitlin; Connell, Carol L.; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate child nutrition directors' (CNDs) Farm to School (F2S) Week participation. This cross-sectional, census survey was completed by CNDs working in Mississippi public school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data and the…

  14. Smarter lunchrooms can address new school lunchroom guidelines and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2013-04-01

    New US Department of Agriculture regulations have altered what foods schools offer for lunch, but schools cannot require students to eat specific foods. An intervention using the behavioral science principle known as "libertarian paternalism" led junior-senior high school students to eat more fruits and vegetables by making these foods more convenient, attractive, and normative. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The impact of nutrient prosperity of the body on the alimentary status of junior high school pupils within the framework of the implementation of health-saving technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setko, A G; Trishina, S P; Timoshenko, E P

    2014-01-01

    In the work there was performed the assessment of the actual nutrition of high school pupils, its impact on the nutritional status and efficiency of the implementation in the modern educational process certified vitamin-mineral complexes as a health-saving component of the optimization of rations. The introduction of additional vitamin-mineral complexes into the food of high school pupils was established to lead to the optimization of nutrition content by most of macro- and micronutrients, which in turn contributed to the increase in the number of children with an adequate supply of the body with vitamins and also contributed to the increase of students with a satisfactory adaptation by 44.3%, cases having sufficient performance reserves by 48.4% and the decrease of the number of children with sharply reduced functional reserves by 4 times.

  16. Learning about Our Community: From the Underground Railroad to School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Bonnie; Montequin, Leah; Hicks, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Forms part of a themed issue describing "Parent-Kid-Teacher Investigators," a program in which parents, children, and teachers gather regularly to use language and literacy for action research projects. Offers a portrait of the weekly meetings. Summarizes what three particular groups learned about their topics: the underground railroad;…

  17. 77 FR 25024 - Certification of Compliance With Meal Requirements for the National School Lunch Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... family income is above 185 percent of the Federal poverty guidelines. The lower cash assistance level... income at or below 130 percent of the Federal poverty level are eligible for free meals, while those from... considering that the provision reinforces the concept that the performance reimbursement is only applied to...

  18. 3 CFR 8436 - Proclamation 8436 of October 9, 2009. National School Lunch Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... week. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth.BARACK OBAMA ...

  19. 78 FR 12221 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... that the rule does a good job implementing statutory requirements and provides a sensible approach to... some States, under pressure to meet the benchmarks, may purposely relax their matching criteria in... a State uses district- or local-level matching, it might choose to use this same method for its non...

  20. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton-Aiken Amy E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant

  1. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  2. The relationship between breakfast, lunch and dinner eating pattern and hemodialysis sessions, quality of life, depression and appetite in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eating pattern (regular breakfast, lunch and dinner) and dialysis sessions, laboratory and sociodemographic characteristics in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study eating patterns, sociodemographic, laboratory and clinical parameters, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive function and appetite status were assessed. Eighty-two HD patients on morning session and 60 patients on midday HD session schedules were included. Ten patients had only breakfast, 17 patients had only lunch, 26 patients had only dinner, 5 patients had breakfast and lunch but not dinner, 28 patients had breakfast and dinner but not lunch, 29 patients had lunch and dinner but not breakfast, and 19 patients had neither breakfast, nor lunch, nor dinner. In the whole group, only 8 patients reported that they had regularly eaten breakfast, lunch or dinner in all days of the week. Midday HD session, better appetite, and higher income were independently associated with having breakfast. Morning HD session, better appetite score, and higher income were independently associated with having lunch. Morning session versus midday session, nPNA, presence of hypertension, and the Mental Component Summary Score of SF-36 were independently associated with having dinner. The majority of HD patients eat one or two meals per day. Having breakfast (or lunch) is associated with midday dialysis session (or morning dialysis session, respectively), better appetite, and satisfactory income. Eating dinner was associated with morning dialysis session, hypertension, higher protein intake and higher SF-36 mental component summary score.

  3. Observation and assessment of the nutritional quality of 'out of school' foods popular with secondary school pupils at lunchtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fiona; Mackison, Dionne; Mooney, John D; Ellaway, Anne

    2017-11-17

    The contemporary Scottish diet is unhealthy and a risk factor for poor health outcomes including obesity. Over a third of Scottish children are at risk of being overweight or obese, and there have been calls to strengthen the evidence base on the role of the food retail environment around schools in influencing the consumption of unhealthy foods. We examined the food retail environment around five secondary schools in Glasgow city, Scotland. Trained fieldworkers observed the food purchasing behaviour of school pupils in local shops. Samples of the most popular foods were subsequently purchased by the research team and assessed for nutritional content, including energy, total and saturated fat, and salt. This was compared with the nutrient standards for school lunches established by the Scottish Government. There was marked variation in the number of outlets identified within a 10 min walk from each school, ranging from five in the area with the lowest number of outlets to thirty in the area with the highest number of outlets. Outlets identified were heterogeneous and included fish and chip shops, kebab shops, convenience stores, newsagents, bakeries, mobile catering units, cafés, pizzerias, sandwich shops and supermarkets. Lunchtime offers and other marketing strategies targeting school pupils were observed at most outlets. Nutritional analysis of the 45 savoury food items purchased was conducted by laboratory staff. Of the foods analysed, 49% of the samples exceeded recommended calorie intake, 58% exceeded total fat recommendations and 64% exceeded saturated fat recommendations, 42% exceeded recommended salt levels. Over 80% of the 45 food items sampled did not comply with one of more of the nutrient standards for fat, saturated fat and salt. Meal deals and promotions of unhealthy foods aimed at pupils were widely available. The majority of pupils purchased unhealthy convenience food of poor nutritional value at lunchtime in local shops around their school

  4. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). χ² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accuracy of food photographs for quantifying food servings in a lunch meal setting among Danish children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, A; Holmgaard Nielsen, T; Hess Ygil, K; Christensen, T; Fagt, S

    2018-02-01

    Visual aids, such as food photographs, are widely used in estimating food quantities in dietary surveys. The present study aimed to assess how accurately Danish adults and children can estimate food portion sizes using 37 series of photographs illustrating four to six different portion sizes under real-life conditions; determine whether adults were more accurate than children; and estimate the error caused by using portion size photographs to estimate weights of foods consumed in macronutrient calculation. Six hundred and twenty-two adults and 109 children were recruited in three workplace canteens and in two schools, respectively, to estimate their lunchtime portions based on photographs. Participants were instructed to keep the foods separated on their plate when taking lunch. Participants thereafter estimated their own portions by looking at the relevant series of photographs. The actual food portions were then weighed. The proportion of correct estimations was 42% overall (range 19-77%). The mean difference (%) between estimated and actual weight was 17% (range 1-111%). Small portion size photographs were more often used correctly compared to larger portion photographs. Children had as many correct estimations as adults, although they overestimated portions more. Participants using fractions of (or more than) one photograph to estimate the portion of a food had significantly larger errors. When calculating the macronutrient content of a weekly menu using the estimated portion sizes, protein had the largest error (29%). When used in a real-life situation, the portion size photographs validated in the present study showed a certain inaccuracy compared to the actual weights. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010: An Opportunity for School Nurses to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…

  8. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  9. Fish-derived nutrient hotspots shape coral reef benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantz, Andrew A; Ladd, Mark C; Schrack, Elizabeth; Burkepile, Deron E

    2015-12-01

    Animal-derived nutrients play an important role in structuring nutrient regimes within and between ecosystems. When animals undergo repetitive, aggregating behavior through time, they can create nutrient hotspots where rates of biogeochemical activity are higher than those found in the surrounding environment. In turn, these hotspots can influence ecosystem processes and community structure. We examined the potential for reef fishes from the family Haemulidae (grunts) to create nutrient hotspots and the potential impact of these hotspots on reef communities. To do so, we tracked the schooling locations of diurnally migrating grunts, which shelter at reef sites during the day but forage off reef each night, and measured the impact of these fish schools on benthic communities. We found that grunt schools showed a high degree of site fidelity, repeatedly returning to the same coral heads. These aggregations created nutrient hotspots around coral heads where nitrogen and phosphorus delivery was roughly 10 and 7 times the respective rates of delivery to structurally similar sites that lacked schools of these fishes. In turn, grazing rates of herbivorous fishes at grunt-derived hotspots were approximately 3 times those of sites where grunts were rare. These differences in nutrient delivery and grazing led to distinct benthic communities with higher cover of crustose coralline algae and less total algal abundance at grunt aggregation sites. Importantly, coral growth was roughly 1.5 times greater at grunt hotspots, likely due to the important nutrient subsidy. Our results suggest that schooling reef fish and their nutrient subsidies play an important role in mediating community structure on coral reefs and that overfishing may have important negative consequences on ecosystem functions. As such, management strategies must consider mesopredatory fishes in addition to current protection often offered to herbivores and top-tier predators. Furthermore, our results suggest that

  10. Sustainable Reduction of Sleepiness through Salutogenic Self-Care Procedure in Lunch Breaks: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schnieder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elucidate the immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory sleepiness reducing effects of a salutogenic self-care procedure called progressive muscle relaxation (PMR, during lunch breaks. The second exploratory aim deals with determining the onset and long-term time course of sleepiness changes. In order to evaluate the intraday range and interday change of the proposed relaxation effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either a daily 20-minute self-administered PMR or a small talk (ST group during a period of seven months. Participants’ levels of sleepiness were analyzed in a controlled trial using anticipatory, postlunchtime, and afternoon changes of sleepiness as indicated by continuously determined objective reaction time measures (16,464 measurements and self-reports administered five times per day, once per month (490 measurements. Results indicate that, in comparison to ST, the PMR break (a induces immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory reductions in sleepiness; (b these significant effects remarkably show up after one month, and sleepiness continues to decrease for at least another five months. Although further research is required referring to the specific responsible mediating variables, our results suggest that relaxation based lunch breaks are both accepted by employees and provide a sustainable impact on sleepiness.

  11. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    V.R. Kuchma; Zh.Yu. Gorelova

    2008-01-01

    The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age ph...

  12. Charter Schools and Student Compositions of Traditional Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevbahar Ertas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most contentious urban education policy issues in the United States today is the expansion of charter schools and its repercussions. Does the expansion of charter schools affect the racial and socioeconomic composition of traditional public schools in the United States? This study provides empirical evidence on this question by relying on a panel design that uses school-level data from two states that have experimented with charter schools for more than 15 years: Ohio and Texas. Using county-level, spatial, and enrollment-based measures of charter exposure, the changes from pre- to post-charter-legislation stages in the student compositions of public schools that do and do not face competition from charters are examined. The results suggest that charter school presence contributes to aggregate-level changes in the share of non-Hispanic White and free-lunch-eligible students in traditional public schools in both states in different ways.

  13. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  14. As Food Prices Rise, Setting Menus Is Cause of Heartburn for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    With food and fuel prices increasing sharply, food and nutrition directors in school districts around the country are finding themselves facing some uncomfortable choices. In some districts, school lunch menus are being pared down to fewer selections, instead of the array of healthy options districts would like to offer. In other areas, canned and…

  15. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos prescolares y escolares: encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Barquera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.OBJETIVO: Estimar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos y su adecuación en niños prescolares y escolares mexicanos, usando datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de recordatorio de dieta de 24 horas de 1 309 niños prescolares y 2 611 escolares en una sub-muestra representativa de la ENN-1999. Se calcularon la ingesta y la adecuación de energía y nutrimentos, y se hicieron comparaciones por región, área urbana y rural, estado socioeconómico e indigenismo. RESULTADOS: La mediana de ingestión de energía fue de 949 kcal en prescolares y de 1 377 kcal en escolares, con adecuaciones 150%. Las regiones norte y Ciudad de México tuvieron la

  16. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  17. Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wilson; Wiessing, Katy R; Budgett, Stephanie; Poppitt, Sally D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether plate size affects ad libitum energy intake (EI) at a buffet-style lunch in overweight, yet unrestrained women. Twenty overweight/obese (BMI=25-40 kg/m(2)) women attended two study visits, and were randomly assigned to small (19.5 cm) or large (26.5 cm) diameter plate size at a free choice lunch meal. At 9 am participants were given a small (0.5 MJ) breakfast, followed at 12 noon by the lunch meal from which they ate ad lib until comfortably full. Mean (SEM) EI at lunch was 3975 (239)kJ and 3901 (249) kJ respectively for small and large plate size. There was no detectable difference in EI between the two plate sizes (P>0.05). When in a raised state of hunger and offered a palatable buffet meal, altering the diameter of the dining plate onto which food was self-served did not significantly alter ad lib EI. We conclude there was no evidence that a smaller plate suppressed EI in a group of unrestrained, overweight women encouraged to eat to appetite from a wide choice of items. Whether plate size is a useful cue for portion size, and hence control of EI, in individuals actively restricting intake however remains possible, and requires investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  19. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  20. Barriers and Advantages to Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program Based on the Social Ecological Model: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Neyman, Stephanie M.; Warren, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in school meals is a preventive measure against childhood hunger. Participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) continues to lag behind that of the National School Lunch Program. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the barriers and advantages to student participation in the SBP. Using the adaptable…

  1. The struggle for Sunday lunch: gastropolitics in the life of Nelson Mandela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapido, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the political, economic, and social life of Nelson Mandela through his food choices from 1918 to the present. A description of the minutiae of one particular 1950s Sunday lunch is used to examine the broader role of first colonial and later apartheid legislation in determining the dietary choices and options of South Africans past and present. How such policies shaped attitudes and access to Nelson Mandela’s ancestral Xhosa cuisine is assessed. The long-term cultural, economic, and political impact of a lack of access to core indigenous African ingredients is evaluated. Most of all this paper offers a snapshot portrayal of two families (one white, one black) trying to sustain a normal friendship within a grossly abnormal society.

  2. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  3. Lunch energy density and the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegotto, Giovana; Moraes Silva, Flávia; de Azevedo, Mirela Jobim; de Almeida, Jussara Carnevale

    2013-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between dietary energy density (ED) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present case-control study, the dietary ED of 125 patients with type 2 diabetes (seventy-eight with (cases) the MetS and forty-seven without (controls) the MetS; mean age 62·0 (SD 9·4) years, mean diabetes duration 12·5 (SD 8·4) years and mean glycated Hb 7·2 (SD 1·3) %) was assessed by weighed diet records. The MetS was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement and ED by the amount of energy (kJ) in a given weight of food. Data are expressed as means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile ranges). Patients with the MetS reported lower intakes of total energy and fibre, and a higher total food amount than the controls; the total ED did not differ, but the cases had a higher ED at lunch (mean 6·3 (SD 1·3) v. 5·9 (SD 0·8) kJ/g; P= 0·017). In this meal, patients with the MetS had lower intakes of beans (median 0·7 (interquartile range 0·4-1·1) v. 1·1 (interquartile range 0·6-1·6) g/kg; P= 0·020), vegetables (median 1·2 (interquartile range 0·6-1·7) v. 1·4 (interquartile range 1·0-2·0) g/kg; P= 0·046) and total meat (median 1·3 (interquartile range 1·0-1·6) v. 1·4 (interquartile range 1·2-1·8) g/kg; P= 0·034) than patients without the MetS. The associations between lunch ED (kJ/g) and food groups (g/kg) were confirmed for vegetables (r - 0·584; P< 0·001), fruits (r - 0·233; P= 0·070), beans (r - 0·189; P= 0·037) and oils (r 0·323; P< 0·001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, a high lunch ED was associated with the MetS (OR 6·89, 95 % CI 1·35, 35·15; P =0·020) after adjusting for confounders. In conclusion, a high ED at lunch increased the odds of the presence of the MetS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Beans and vegetables may be the major contributors to this association and their consumption might be

  4. 76 FR 66849 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... (72 FR 63785). All memoranda are located on the FNS Web site at http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/ , click... understandable communication with families by providing LEAs with prototype application materials on our Web site.... FNS also provides translations of the prototype application materials on our Web site in 33 languages...

  5. Recess Physical Activity and Perceived School Environment among Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ishii

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Differences in recess physical activity (PA according to perceived school environment among elementary school children were examined. Participants were 103 children from two schools in Japan. PA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days. Time spent in sedentary or PA (light, moderate, or vigorous during their morning recess (25 min and lunch recess (15 min was determined. The School Physical Activity Environment Scale (three factors: equipment, facility, and safety was used to investigate perceived school environment. Environmental factor scores were assigned to low or high groups for each factor by median. An analysis of covariance, with grade as the covariate, was conducted separately by gender to examine differences in PA between two groups. During lunch recess, boys in the high-equipment group spent significantly more time in moderate PA (high: 1.5; low: 0.8 min whereas girls in this group spent less time in light PA (9.3, 11.0. Boys in the high-facility group spent significantly less time in sedentary (2.3, 3.9 and more time in vigorous PA (2.4, 1.4 during lunch recess, and girls spent more time in moderate (2.1, 1.2 and vigorous PA (1.9, 1.3 during morning recess. Differences were observed in recess PA according to school environment perceptions. The present study may be useful for further intervention studies for the promotion of PA during recess.

  6. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  7. After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-11-06

    The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.

  8. Healthy eating at schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne

    eating. In Denmark most children eat a packed lunch brought from home. It is challenging to collect dietary data from a pediatric population where recall problems exist and estimation of portion sizes can be complicated. Thus, to measure and assess the dietary effect of an intervention, new valid methods...... consecutive days during a week at each of the three measurements. In total 984 school children were invited at baseline – 493 from the 2nd -3rd grades and 491 from the 5th-6th grades. A standardized DPM was used to collect data on food intake 3 consecutive days in a week at all of the 3 measurements...

  9. [Low caloric value and high salt content in the meals served in school canteens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Isabel; Pinto, Carlos; Queirós, Laurinda; Meister, Maria Cristina; Saraiva, Margarida; Bruno, Paula; Antunes, Delfina; Afonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    School lunch can contribute to aggravate food quality, by excess or deficiency, or it can contribute to compensate and alleviate them. This school meal should be an answer to combating the epidemic of obesity, and to feed some grace children. The objective was to study the nutritional composition of catering in canteens of public schools, from Northern municipalities in the District of Porto: Vila do Conde, Póvoa de Varzim, Santo Tirso and Trofa. Meals were subjected to laboratory analysis. Thirty two meals, four per each school were analysed, reference values for the analysis of the nutritional composition of meals were dietary reference intakes (USA) and eating well at school (UK). The average energy meal content was 447 kcal and the median 440 kcal (22% of daily calories). The average values of nutrients, per meal, were: lipids 9, 8 g, carbohydrate 65,7 g and proteins 24,0 g. In average the contribution for the meal energy was: 20% fat, 59% carbohydrate and 21% protein. In more than 75% of meals the contribution of lipid content was below the lower bound of the reference range. The average content of sodium chloride per meal was 3.4 g, and the confidence interval 95% to average 3.0 to 3.8 g, well above the recommended maximum value of 1.5 grams. The average content fiber per meal was 10.8 g higher than the minimum considered appropriate. In conclusion, the value low caloric meals was mainly due to the low fat content, and content salt of any of the components of the meal was very high.

  10. HB 2578--Relating to the School Meals Program. Testimony, 79th Texas State Legislature (April 26, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagert, Celia

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Public Policy Priorities supports HB 2574. Why encourage school districts to offer free meals to all students? The link between adequate nutrition and improved academic performance creates a clear incentive for Texas to increase participation in the school breakfast and lunch programs, particularly among low-income children.…

  11. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  12. A small dose of whey protein co-ingested with mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals improves postprandial glycemia and suppresses appetite in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David G; Walker, Mark; Campbell, Matthew D; Breen, Leigh; Stevenson, Emma J; West, Daniel J

    2018-04-01

    Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high-glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic and appetite responses after small doses of intact and hydrolyzed whey protein co-ingested with mixed-nutrient breakfast and lunch meals in men with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, single-blind crossover design, 11 men with type 2 diabetes [mean ± SD age: 54.9 ± 2.3 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.8% ± 0.3% (51.3 ± 3.4 mmol/mol)] attended the laboratory on 3 mornings and consumed 1) intact whey protein (15 g), 2) hydrolyzed whey protein (15 g), or 3) placebo (control) immediately before mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals, separated by 3 h. Blood samples were collected periodically and were processed for insulin, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), leptin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36), and amino acid concentrations. Interstitial glucose was measured during and for 24 h after each trial. Subjective appetite was assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Total postprandial glycemia area under the curve was reduced by 13% ± 3% after breakfast following the intact whey protein when compared with control (P  0.05). The consumption of a small 15-g dose of intact whey protein immediately before consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals improves postprandial glycemia, stimulates insulin release, and increases satiety in men with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicialtrials.gov as NCT02903199.

  13. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  14. A comparative study of mid-day meal beneficiaries and private school attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is undergoing a rapid demographic transition accompanied by an epidemiologic and nutritional transition. The nutritional status of school-going children who form a major section of the population, can give an indication of the changing trends in nutritional profile of the population. According to Planning Commission report, 2010, Mid Day Meal (MDM Program has been successful in addressing classroom hunger and the objective of social equity in government school attendees. Aims & Objectives: To study the pattern of school lunch intake and nutritional status in private and government school-going children of district Dehradun. Material & Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study in district Dehradun in government and private schools, with participants from class 1 to 12. A 24-hour dietary recall was done to measure caloric intake. Height and weight were measured using Microtoise (accuracy 0.1cm and digital weighing machine (Omron Model: HN286, accuracy 100 gm. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 22. Nutritional status was classified using WHO cut-offs and analyzed using AnthroPlus Software. Student t-test was used to compare caloric intake of subgroups. Association between nutritional status and other variables was assessed using Chi-squared test. Results: Using WHO cut-offs, the proportion of thin children was 5.4% in private school and 21.5% in MDM beneficiaries of government schools. The proportion of children who were overweight was 27.7% in private schools and 3.6% in government schools (p<.0.05. The caloric content of school lunch was 271 Kcal in private school attendees and 375 Kcal in MDM beneficiaries. Proportion of children who skipped school lunch increased as they progressed in higher classes, and this proportion was greater in students of government schools beyond class VIII. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for more large scale nutritional surveys with school lunch in focus.

  15. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets.

  16. Longitudinal behavioral effects of a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica A; Franko, Debra L; Thompson, Douglas R; Power, Thomas J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of a school-based program on kindergarten and first grade children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. The program included lunchroom, classroom, school-wide, and family components. The primary dependent variable, F&V consumed at lunch, was assessed using weighed plate waste. Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze the differences between intervention and control groups and to account for repeated measurements. Children in the experimental group consumed more F&V (F = 29 g; V = 6 g; 0.43 portions/lunch; 0.28 servings/lunch) at the end of Year 1 compared with children in the control group. At the end of Year 2, children in the experimental group consumed more fruit (21 g; 0.23 portions/lunch; 0.15 servings/lunch), but not more vegetables compared with children in the control group. The intervention resulted in increased F&V consumption, with more pronounced and enduring effects for fruits than vegetables.

  17. Bidirectional associations between emotions and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L; Berger, Rebecca H; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Diaz, Anjolii; Thompson, Marilyn S; Gal, Diana E; Southworth, Jody

    2017-11-24

    We examined the relations of children's (N = 301) observed expression of negative and positive emotion in classes or nonclassroom school contexts (i.e., lunch and recess) to school adjustment from kindergarten to first grade. Naturalistic observations of children's emotional expressivity were collected, as were teachers' reports of children's school engagement and relationship quality with teachers and peers. In longitudinal panel models, greater teacher-student conflict and lower student engagement in kindergarten predicted greater negative expressivity in both school contexts. School engagement and peer acceptance in kindergarten positively predicted first grade positive emotion in the classroom. Suggestive of possible bidirectional relations, there was also small unique prediction (near significant) from negative expressivity at lunch and recess to higher teacher-student conflict, from negative expressivity in the classroom to low peer acceptance, and from positive expressivity in the classroom to higher peer acceptance. The pattern of findings suggests that the quality of experience at school uniquely predicts children's emotional expressivity at school more consistently than vice versa-a finding that highlights the important role of school context in young children's emotionality at school. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting - the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study 'Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries' (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils' school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils' school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries.

  19. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  20. Hormesis on life-history traits: is there such thing as a free lunch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Barsi, Alpar; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-03-01

    The term "hormesis" is used to describe dose-response relationships where the response is reversed between low and high doses of a stressor (generally, stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high ones). A mechanistic explanation is needed to interpret the relevance of such responses, but there does not appear to be a single universal mechanism underlying hormesis. When the endpoint is a life-history trait such as growth or reproduction, a stimulation of the response comes with costs in terms of resources. Organisms have to obey the conservation laws for mass and energy; there is no such thing as a free lunch. Based on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory, we introduce three categories of explanations for hormesis that obey the conservation laws: acquisition (i.e., increasing the input of energy into the individual), allocation (i.e., rearranging the energy flows over various traits) and medication (e.g., the stressor is an essential element or acts as a cure for a disease or infection). In this discussion paper, we illustrate these explanations with cases where they might apply, and elaborate on the potential consequences for field populations.

  1. Investigating Elementary School Children's Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors during Weekdays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Chaoqun; Stodden, David F.; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-minute recess and 75-minute lunch time daily, 25-minute regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (p < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: p = .63), light physical activity (p < .001), and sedentary behavior (p < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break, and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, p < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, p = .002) and sedentary behavior (t = -3.91, p < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Conclusions Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilized to organize structured physical activity. PMID:26950823

  2. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  3. Reducing the use of sugar in public schools: a randomized cluster trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-08-01

    To test the efficacy of nutritional guidelines for school lunch cooks aiming to reduce added sugar in school meals and their own sugar intake. A controlled randomized cluster trial was carried out in twenty public schools in the municipality of Niteroi in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. A nutrition educational program was implemented in the schools in question through messages, activities and printed educational materials encouraging reduced levels of added sugar in school meals and in the school lunch cooks' own intake. The reduced availability of added sugar in schools was evaluated using spreadsheets including data on the monthly use of food item supplies. The cooks' individual food intake was evaluated by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standardized techniques and variation in weight was measured throughout the duration of the study. There was a more marked reduction in the intervention schools compared to the control schools (-6.0 kg versus 0.34 kg), but no statistically significant difference (p = 0.21), although the study power was low. Both groups of school lunch cooks showed a reduction in the consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages, but the difference in sugar intake was not statistically significant. Weight loss and a reduction in total energy consumption occurred in both groups, but the difference between them was not statistically significant, and there was no alteration in the percentages of adequacy of macronutrients in relation to energy consumption. The strategy of reducing the use and consumption of sugar by school lunch cooks from public schools could not be proved to be effective.

  4. Many Eligible Children Don't Participate in School Nutrition Programs: Reauthorization Offers Opportunities to Improve. National Issue Brief Number 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    This brief uses data from the 2013 Current Population Survey's Food Security Supplement to document levels of participation in two of the largest programs authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010--the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program--by region and place type (rural, suburban, and city), to identify…

  5. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  6. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kaufman-Shriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.

  7. 76 FR 13342 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... from State child nutrition (CN) and education agencies, as well as local education agencies (LEAs). The... Matching in the National School Lunch Program.'' OMB Number: 0584-0529. Form Number: N/A. Expiration Date... together, the information collected will help FNS, State CN directors, and LEAs recognize promising trends...

  8. 77 FR 25122 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Report of School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities... Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive, Room 640, Alexandria, VA 22302... School Lunch Act (NSLA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 1751, et seq.), and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as...

  9. 7 CFR 226.19 - Outside-school-hours care center provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., snacks and suppers. In addition, outside-school-hours care centers shall be eligible to serve lunches to... claimed for more than two meals and one snack provided daily to each child or for meals served to children... licensed capacity, whichever is less) were eligible for free or reduced price meals or were title XX...

  10. Measuring the impact of classmates on children’s liking of school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Vassard, Ditte; Havn, Louis N.

    2016-01-01

    of a parent. The results show that the classmates influenced children’s ranking of a new type of school meal but did not influence rankings of familiar lunch packs. These results are important not only because they add to our knowledge of the social dimension of liking, but also because they show that we...

  11. Daily consumption of foods and nutrients from institutional and home sources among young children attending two contrasting day-care centers in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, M; Jaramillo, P M; Soto-Méndez, M-J; Panday, B; Hamelinck, V; Bermúdez, O I; Doak, C M; Mathias, P; Solomons, N W

    2012-12-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical to child development and institutions such as day-care centers could potentially complement children's diets to achieve optimal daily intakes. The aim of the study was to describe the full-day diet of children, examining and contrasting the relative contribution of home-derived versus institutional energy and nutrient sources. The present comparison should be considered in the domain of a case-study format. The diets of 33, 3-6 y old children attending low-income day-care centers serving either 3 or a single meal were examined. The home-diet was assessed by means of 3 non-consecutive 24-hr recalls. Estimated energy and nutrient intakes at the centers and at home were assessed and related to Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). Nutrient densities, critical densities and main sources of nutrients were computed. We observed that in children attending the day-care center serving three meals, home-foods contributed less than half the daily energy (47.7%) and between 29.9% and 53.5% of daily nutrients. In children receiving only lunch outside the home, energy contribution from the home was 83.9% and 304 kcal lower than for children receiving 3 meals. Furthermore, between 59.0% and 94.8% of daily nutrients were provided at home. Daily energy, nutrient intakes and nutrient densities were well above the nutrient requirements for this age group, and particularly high for vitamin A. The overall dietary variety was superior in the situation of greater contribution of home fare, but overall the nutrient density and adequacy of the aggregate intakes did not differ in any important manner.

  12. Nutrient intake of working women in Bangkok, Thailand, as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Shimbo, S; Zhang, Z W; Srianujata, S; Banjong, O; Chitchumroonchokchai, C; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2000-03-01

    To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people. Cross-sectional study. Community. 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study. The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected to nutritional evaluation taking advantage of the Thai food composition tables (FCTs), and analyzed for eight nutrient elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The participants took 1630 kcal from 55 g protein (63% from animal sources), 57 g lipid (mostly from vegetable oil), and 224 g carbohydrate (60% from rice) daily. Nutrient intake at lunch was as large as that at dinner. About a half of the women had insufficient energy intake (ie 120%). Protein intake was sufficient in most cases, whereas lipid intake was in excess in more than a half of the women. Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and possibly P intakes were below the RDA values in many participants. FCT-based estimates agreed well with the ICP-MS measures in cases of Fe and Ca but tended to be greater than the measures by 50% with regard to P. Lunch as substantial as dinner for Thai urbanites. There was a marked dependency on rice as an energy source. Whereas protein intake is generally sufficient, the intake of Ca (and to a lesser extent Fe) was insufficient in a majority of the study participants. Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance, Japan; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the government of Japan.

  13. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Sit, Cindy Hui-Ping; Yu, Jane Jie; Sum, Raymond Kim-Wai; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Cheng, Kenneth Chik-Chi; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys) were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health: Evaluation System) at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class) and at home (before dinner) during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9-56.0% ( p motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  14. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  15. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  16. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak...

  17. Total food duplicate study on nutrient intake of working women in Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, H; Zhang, Z W; Agetano, M G; Subida, R D; Inouguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    1998-03-01

    Intakes of various nutrients by working women in Manila, the Philippines, was surveyed by the total food duplicate method, with foci to elucidate relative weight of three meals and snack in addition to quantitative evaluation of nutrient intakes. In practice, 45 women (average age; 37.2 years) volunteered, who were all nonsmokers and nonhabitual drinkers, and mostly married. In parallel, hematology, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examinations were conducted. On average, the women took 1787 kcal energy, 57 g protein, and 54 g lipid daily. Comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Filipinos showed that intakes of energy and major nutrients were adequate, whereas that of minerals (e.g., 15 mg Fe/day vs. 26 mg Fe/day as RDA) and vitamins (e.g., 0.65 mg vitamin B1/day vs. 1 mg/day as RDA) were generally insufficient. Prevalence of anemia was however rather low with an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.9 g/100 ml blood. Rice was the staple source of energy for daily life, and beef rather than fish and shellfish was the leading source of protein. Lunch was the richest meal of a day (with the largest intake of energy, protein and lipid), and snacks rather than dinner appeared to be next substantial.

  18. School farming for school feeding: experiences from Nakuru, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Foeken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available School feeding is an important development tool and is related to at least three Millennium Development Goals. School farming has been largely overlooked in the urban agriculture literature but with many parents nowadays unable to afford school lunches for their children, it can play a vital role in reducing the costs involved in providing nutritional meals for pupils. This paper examines school farming in an urban setting, namely Nakuru town, Kenya and looks at the current practice, the extent to which school farming contributes to school feeding programs, and the challenges it faces and how these can be overcome. Based on a survey done in almost all primary and secondary schools in Nakuru, it shows that school farming and school feeding are now common practice in the town and that in many cases school farming does indeed contribute to school feeding programs. However, much more is possible and the paper indicates how various constraints in terms of land, water, support and leadership might be overcome.

  19. Availability of Vending Machines and School Stores in California Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katharine E; Kassem, Nada; Irvin, Veronica L; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the availability of foods sold in vending machines and school stores in United States public and private schools, and associations of availability with students' food purchases and consumption. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests, and Spearman product-moment correlations were conducted on data collected from 521 students aged 8 to 15 years recruited from orthodontic offices in California. Vending machines were more common in private schools than in public schools, whereas school stores were common in both private and public schools. The food items most commonly available in both vending machines and school stores in all schools were predominately foods of minimal nutritional value (FMNV). Participant report of availability of food items in vending machines and/or school stores was significantly correlated with (1) participant purchase of each item from those sources, except for energy drinks, milk, fruits, and vegetables; and (2) participants' friends' consumption of items at lunch, for 2 categories of FMNV (candy, cookies, or cake; soda or sports drinks). Despite the Child Nutrition and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Reauthorization Act of 2004, FMNV were still available in schools, and may be contributing to unhealthy dietary choices and ultimately to health risks. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  20. Observation and assessment of the nutritional quality of ‘out of school’ foods popular with secondary school pupils at lunchtime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Crawford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contemporary Scottish diet is unhealthy and a risk factor for poor health outcomes including obesity. Over a third of Scottish children are at risk of being overweight or obese, and there have been calls to strengthen the evidence base on the role of the food retail environment around schools in influencing the consumption of unhealthy foods. Methods We examined the food retail environment around five secondary schools in Glasgow city, Scotland. Trained fieldworkers observed the food purchasing behaviour of school pupils in local shops. Samples of the most popular foods were subsequently purchased by the research team and assessed for nutritional content, including energy, total and saturated fat, and salt. This was compared with the nutrient standards for school lunches established by the Scottish Government. Results There was marked variation in the number of outlets identified within a 10 min walk from each school, ranging from five in the area with the lowest number of outlets to thirty in the area with the highest number of outlets. Outlets identified were heterogeneous and included fish and chip shops, kebab shops, convenience stores, newsagents, bakeries, mobile catering units, cafés, pizzerias, sandwich shops and supermarkets. Lunchtime offers and other marketing strategies targeting school pupils were observed at most outlets. Nutritional analysis of the 45 savoury food items purchased was conducted by laboratory staff. Of the foods analysed, 49% of the samples exceeded recommended calorie intake, 58% exceeded total fat recommendations and 64% exceeded saturated fat recommendations, 42% exceeded recommended salt levels. Over 80% of the 45 food items sampled did not comply with one of more of the nutrient standards for fat, saturated fat and salt. Meal deals and promotions of unhealthy foods aimed at pupils were widely available. Conclusions The majority of pupils purchased unhealthy convenience food of poor

  1. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  2. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  3. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  4. Examining How Adding a Booster to a Behavioral Nutrition Intervention Prompts Parents to Pack More Vegetables and Whole Gains in Their Preschool Children's Sack Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Ranjit, Nalini; Calloway, Eric E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Almansor, Fawaz; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia R

    2016-01-01

    Data from a five-week intervention to increase parents' packing of vegetables and whole grains in their preschool children's sack lunches showed that, although changes occurred, habit strength was weak. To determine the effects of adding a one-week booster three months post-intervention, children's (N = 59 intervention and 48 control) lunches were observed at baseline (week 0), post-intervention (week 6), pre-booster (week 20), and post-booster (week 26). Servings of vegetables and whole grains were evaluated in repeated measures models and results inspected relative to patterns projected from different explanatory models of behavior change processes. Observed changes aligned with projections from the simple associative model of behavior change. Attention in future studies should focus on behavioral intervention elements that leverage stimulus-response associations to increase gratification parents receive from providing their children with healthy lunches.

  5. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  6. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. School nurse perspectives on school policies for food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Lauren M; Wang, Julie; Kagan, Olga; Russell, Anne; Mustafa, S Shahzad; Houdek, Diane; Smith, Bridget; Gupta, Ruchi

    2018-03-01

    Although school health care professionals are integral to the management of students with food allergy, their views on school food allergy policies have not yet been reported. To characterize food allergy policies currently being used in schools and their utility and potential barriers to implementation from the perspective of school health care professionals. An electronic survey was disseminated to school nurses at the 2016 National Association of School Nurses meeting and through the Allergy and Asthma Network listserv. Frequencies were calculated to describe participant characteristics and responses. Unadjusted associations were examined using χ 2 tests; adjusted associations were examined using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 242 completed surveys were included in the analysis. Thirty-two percent of nurses reported an allergic reaction in their school in the past year. Most schools used a variety of policies, including anaphylaxis training for staff (96.7%), stock epinephrine availability (81.7%), designated lunch areas (62.2%), and food guidelines for classrooms (61.8%). Barriers to implementation included financial, time, and attitudinal considerations. Schools with pre-K or kindergarten students had higher odds of having designated lunch areas (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-4.1; P schools with a full-time nurse (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3; P schools reporting at least 1 severe reaction in the past year (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.5; P school nurses reporting an allergic reaction in the past year, schools use many strategies to minimize allergen exposures and increase anaphylaxis preparedness. Most school nurses favor these policies and acknowledge barriers to implementation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  9. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  10. Measurements of the solar UVR protection provided by shade structures in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Peter; Mackay, Christina

    2004-01-01

    To reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure during childhood, shade structures are being erected in primary schools to provide areas where children can more safely undertake outdoor activities. This study to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and purpose built shade structures in providing solar UVR protection was carried out on 29 such structures in 10 schools in New Zealand. Measurements of the direct and scattered solar UVR doses within the central region of the shade structures were made during the school lunch break period using UVR-sensitive polysulfone film badges. These measurements indicate that many of the structures had UVR protection factors (PF) of 4-8, which was sufficient to provide protection during the school lunch hour. However, of the 29 structures examined, only six would meet the suggested requirements of UVR PF greater than 15 required to provide all-day protection.

  11. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2013-01-01

    from 0.89 to 0.97. The proportion of meals classified in the same or an adjacent quartile ranged from 98% (starch) to 100% (fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grain, and Meal IQ). There was no statistical difference between fish, fat, starch, whole grains, and Meal IQ using the two methods. Differences...

  14. GEMS: A Graduate-level Community Nutrition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1985-01-01

    Describes a project which: (1) compared cost and nutritive value of six student lunches (type A school lunch, a-la-carte school lunch, lunch at home, vended lunch, fast-food lunch, and brown bag lunch); (2) used findings to make recommendations for improving student lunches; and (3) developed graduate student assessment/research skills. (JN)

  15. Doing homework and consolidating mathematical knowledge in the after-school care class

    OpenAIRE

    Mlinar, Klara

    2016-01-01

    Extended stay is a form of educational care, which is attended by students voluntarily or. depending on the decision of their parents, when school lessons end. Teachers, school management and parents, attach a different value to the role of the extended stay. Some think that the extended stay is meant only for eating lunch, doing homework and entertainment. Extended stay can be much more than that. How to organize quality time and activities, how to motivate pupils to write homework, how to ...

  16. Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors and Beliefs of High School Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Manore, Melinda M.; Patton-Lopez, Megan M.; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun

    2017-01-01

    For adolescent athletes (14–18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p <...

  17. Homework particularities for small school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  18. Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors and Beliefs of High School Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda M. Manore

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For adolescent athletes (14–18 years, data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP participants (80% Latino completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition. The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p < 0.01. Supplement knowledge differed by sex (16% lower in females; p = 0.047 and race/ethnicity (33% lower in Latinos; p < 0.001. Breakfast consumption was 57%; females ate breakfast less (50% than males (60%; p < 0.001; NSLP-participants ate breakfast less (47% than non-NSLP (62%; p < 0.001. Supplement use was 46%, with Latinos using more supplements than Whites do (p = 0.016. Overall, 30% used protein shakes, with females using less than males (p = 0.02, while use was twice as likely in Latino vs. White (p = 0.03. Overall, 45% reported their nutrient requirements were different from non-athlete peers. Latinos were less likely (p = 0.03 to report that their diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p < 0.001. Adolescent athletes, especially females and Latinos, would benefit from sport nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.

  19. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  20. Nutrient intake of adolescents in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Khandelwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutrient requirements during adolescence are higher than at any other stage of life. Inadequate nutrient intake leads to poor growth, delayed sexual maturation, slow linear growth, anaemia and osteomalacia. Aim &Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of adolescents in 13-15 years belonging to rural area of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Material & Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014 - 2015 in rural area of Shimla district. Thirty clusters were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method.  A total of 170 adolescents in the age group of 13-15 years studying in government schools were enrolled. Dietary assessment was done using 24h dietary recall method. Results: The percentage deficit in boys for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake was found 37.9%, 53.7%, 35.5% and 22.4% respectively as compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. The girls had percentage deficit for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake as 47.7%, 61.5%, 53.6%, and 43.6 % respectively as compared to RDA. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicate that the nutrient intake of adolescents aged 13-15 years was inadequate.

  1. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  2. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  3. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbernd, S L; Reicks, M M; Mann, T L; Redden, J P; Mykerezi, E; Vickers, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  5. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  6. What's Lunch Got to Do with It? Critical Literacy and the Discourse of the Lunchroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Lee; Lewison, Mitzi

    2005-01-01

    Critical literacy practices in a third-grade classroom involved working with texts that disrupted commonplace assumptions about social norms. As students read and talked about social issues such as racism, ageism, and sexism, they became "border crossers" in their school lunchroom. Without informing their teacher, they worked on a social action…

  7. Everybody's Somebody's Lunch: The Roles of Predator and Prey in Nature. Teacher's Guide [and Student Text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cherie; Markowsky, Judy Kellogg

    A sensitive young girl, shocked and confused by the death of her cat, learns the roles that predator and prey play in the balance of nature. Through experiences at school with her teacher, at home with her father and her grandmother, and through her own journey in nature, the girl learns why some animals kill and eat other animals in order to…

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  9. Meal Counting and Claiming by Food Service Management Companies in the School Meal Programs: Briefing for the Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies, House Committee on Appropriations. November 21, 2008. GAO-09-156R

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The federal government spends about $10 billion each year to provide meals to over 30 million students through the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. However, a 2007 study estimated that of this amount, $860 million (8.6 percent) in school year 2005-2006 was paid improperly because of errors in the number of meals counted and claimed…

  10. Energy density at a buffet-style lunch differs for adolescents born at high and low risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Kabay, April; Faith, Myles S

    2009-12-01

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of foods, when manipulated in the laboratory, affects short-term energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine if, when given a choice, dietary ED (foods only) and energy intake (expressed as a percentage of subjects' estimated daily energy requirement; EER) at a self-selected, single meal differ for teens born with a different familial predisposition to obesity and as a function of their sex. Subjects (13 males, 17 females) were 12years of age and born at high risk (HR; n=15) or low risk (LR; n=15) for obesity based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). The buffet meal, served for lunch and consumed ad libitum, consisted of a variety of foods and beverages with a range in ED. HR subjects consumed a more energy-dense meal (foods only) than LR subjects (1.84 vs. 1.42kcal/g; P=0.02) and males consumed a more energy-dense meal than females (1.83 vs. 1.43kcal/g; P=0.03). Total energy intake, when expressed as a percentage of subjects' daily EER, did not differ between HR and LR subjects (42% vs. 33%; P=0.16). Males, compared to females, consumed ~59% more energy from foods and beverages during the meal (46 vs. 29%; P=0.008). During a single multi-item lunch meal, teens with a familial predisposition to obesity and males, independent of their obesity risk status, self-selected a more energy-dense meal. Familial risk for obesity, through either genetic or environmental pathways, may facilitate a more energy-dense diet.

  11. The influence of herbs, spices, and regular sausage and chicken consumption on liking of reduced fat breakfast and lunch items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O; Peters, John C

    2014-10-01

    Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta, and the overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (breakfast: 6.50 RF compared with 6.84 FF, P = 0.0061; 6.50 RF compared with 6.82 RFS, P = 0.0030; lunch: 6.35 RF compared with 6.94 FF, P spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Americans consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This study shows that you can take foods like French toast, chicken, or a vegetable side and cut the fat and calories by up to 50% while restoring flavor with herbs and spices. People typically use butter, cheese, or fatty meat to enhance the flavor of their food. We found that even when we reduced the fat in our meals by using lower fat dairy and meat products but then added herbs and spices, we were able to deliver the flavor people desire for a fraction of the calories. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Coordinated school health program and dietetics professionals: partners in promoting healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Sandra M; Cinelli, Bethann

    2004-05-01

    Although research indicates that school meal programs contribute to improved academic performance and healthier eating behaviors for students who participate, fewer than 60% of students choose the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. School meal programs have a difficult time competing with foods that are marketed to young people through sophisticated advertising campaigns. Youth's preferences for fast foods, soft drinks, and salty snacks; mixed messages sent by school personnel; school food preparation and serving space limitations; inadequate meal periods; and lack of education standards for school foodservice directors challenge school meal programs as well. A coordinated school health program offers a framework for meeting these challenges and provides children and adolescents with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthful eating. This article identifies challenges facing school foodservice directors in delivering healthful meals and acquaints dietetics professionals with the coordinated school health program to be used as a tool for addressing unhealthful weight gain and promoting healthful eating.

  13. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A; Gordon, Ruth W

    2010-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that schools and communities have a shared responsibility to provide students with access to high-quality, affordable, nutritious foods and beverages. School-based nutrition services, including the provision of meals through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, are an integral part of the total education program. Strong wellness policies promote environments that enhance nutrition integrity and help students to develop lifelong healthy behaviors. ADA actively supported the 2004 and proposed 2010 Child Nutrition reauthorization which determines school nutrition policy. ADA believes that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans should serve as the foundation for all food and nutrition assistance programs and should apply to all foods and beverages sold or served to students during the school day. Local wellness policies are mandated by federal legislation for all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. These policies support nutrition integrity,including a healthy school environment. Nutrition integrity also requires coordinating nutrition education and promotion and funding research on program outcomes. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, and other credentialed staff, are essential for nutrition integrity in schools to perform in policy-making, management, education, and community building roles. A healthy school environment can be achieved through adequate funding of school meals programs and through implementation and evaluation of strong local wellness policies.

  15. Milk Options Observation (MOO): A Mixed-Methods Study of Chocolate Milk Removal on Beverage Consumption and Student/Staff Behaviors in a Rural Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M.; Spurlock, Margaret; Ramsey, Katrina; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    Providing flavored milk in school lunches is controversial, with conflicting evidence on its impact on nutritional intake versus added sugar consumption and excess weight gain. Nonindustry-sponsored studies using individual-level analyses are needed. Therefore, we conducted this mixed-methods study of flavored milk removal at a rural primary…

  16. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (Pschool year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of administrative daily records of children's school-meal participation is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in first-year primary school children: the AVall study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llargués, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Anna; Vila, Maria; José Pérez, M; Martínez-Mateo, Francesc; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Castells, Conxa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in children attending the first year of primary school in the city of Granollers (Spain). We performed a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in the schools of the city of Granollers. All the children were born in 2000. Data were collected from September to October 2006. Weight and height were measured in each schoolchild. The parents completed a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and physical activity and the Krece Plus test. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index were used to define overweight and obesity. A total of 566 schoolchildren were included. The prevalence of overweight was 19.6% and that of obesity was 8.5%. Only 3.8% of the children had an adequate breakfast and 17.1% ate five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Some families consumed a low amount of fruit (22%), vegetables (37%), bread/pasta/ rice/cereals (14%), fish (32%), legumes (13%) and nuts (9%). Children who had lunch at school ate more fruits (38% vs 29%), vegetables (35% vs 25%) and fish (82% vs 73%) than those who did not have lunch at school. A total of 82% of the schoolchildren exercised regularly. A quarter of the children who participated in the study were overweight. The schoolchildren who had lunch at school had better dietary patterns. Inappropriate family habits can determine children's dietary habits.

  18. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  19. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  20. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  1. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  2. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  3. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  4. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2015-10-01

    Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced

  5. Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Brener, Nancy D; McManus, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  7. Exploring Strategies to Promote Middle School Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I.; Watson, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Providing a school breakfast to students may be a practical intervention that improves energy balance, nutrient intake, and school academic achievement variables. This purpose of this pilot study was to identify the ecological factors influencing middle school student school breakfast participation and possible strategies to…

  8. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  9. Impact of protected mealtimes on ward mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Connolly, A; Whelan, K

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalised inpatients, resulting in a range of negative clinical, patient-centred and economic sequelae. Protected mealtimes (PM) aim to enhance the quality of the mealtime experience and maximise nutrient intake in hospitalised patients. The present study aimed to measure mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake before and after the implementation of PM.   PM were implemented in a large teaching hospital through a range of different approaches. Direct observations were used to assess ward-level mealtime environment (e.g. dining room use, removal of distractions) (40 versus 34 wards) and individual patient experience (e.g. assistance with eating, visitors present) (253 versus 237 patients), and nutrient intake was assessed with a weighed food intake at lunch (39 versus 60 patients) at baseline and after the implementation of PM, respectively. Mealtime experience showed improvements in three objectives: more patients were monitored using food/fluid charts (32% versus 43%, P = 0.02), more were offered the opportunity to wash hands (30% versus 40%, P = 0.03) and more were served meals at uncluttered tables (54% versus 64%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in the number of patients experiencing mealtime interruptions (32% versus 25%, P = 0.14). There was no difference in energy intake (1088 versus 837 kJ, P = 0.25) and a decrease in protein intake (14.0 versus 7.5 g, P = 0.04) after PM. Only minor improvements in mealtime experience were made after the implementation of PM and so it is not unexpected that macronutrient intake did not improve. The implementation of PM needs to be evaluated to ensure improvements in mealtime experience are made such that measurable improvements in nutritional and clinical outcomes ensue. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  11. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  12. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  13. Investigating elementary school children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours during weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Charles C; Stodden, David F; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-min recess and 75-min lunch time daily, 25-min regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (P < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: P = .63), light physical activity (P < .001) and sedentary behaviour (P < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, P < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, P = .002) and sedentary behaviour (t = -3.91, P < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilised to organise structured physical activity.

  14. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  15. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  16. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  17. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  18. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  19. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... for the breakfast measure: per cent agreement 0.70-0.87, kappa 0.43-0.65. Fair agreement for the lunch measure: per cent agreement 0.53-0.84, kappa 0.26-0.54. High per cent agreement for the evening meal measure (0.83-0.95) but poor kappa agreement (0.14-0.19). Being immigrant predicted disagreement between the two...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  20. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles.

  1. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    This dissertation explores the role of different school meal arrangements in children’s social life from a child’s perspective. The dissertation utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011-12 to compare the same group of children in different school meal arrangements, thereby...... overcoming typical challenges of comparison across school meal arrangements, such as differences across children, schools or countries. The dissertation builds on data from a four month field work in 4th grade, 26 semi-structured interviews with children, chefs, and teachers, and 834 children’s self...... in children’s evaluation of new food initiatives in school; that children meet conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context; and that the social powers of sharing and exchanging individual lunch packs could outweigh some of the benefits of a collective meal system. Overall...

  2. The “We Act – together for health study”: design of a multicomponent intervention study to promote physical activity, healthy diet and wellbeing in school among children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane; Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr

    and the family. Three educational components targeted the school: 1) Lunch meal habits integrated into science and Danish (“IEAT”) and physical activity integrated into maths (“IMOVE”), 2) Vision workshop integrated primarily into Danish, and 3) the Action and Change process at class and school level. Teachers...... process was demanding due to the context of the school reform and the present pressure on schools. In total 27 municipalities and 256 schools were contacted. A moderation of the theory based intervention, reducing the school level, was done to recruit the necessary number of schools. The result of theory...

  3. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  4. [A survey on the contents of nutrient and nutrition in the orderings of customers when eating at three restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Baojing; Zhao, Nanxi; Li, Liming; Lyu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To study the median nutrient content of customers' ordering in the restaurants in Beijing. The median contents of nutrients regarding ordering/per person from the customers were estimated, via combining the nutrient content of menu offering. Data, based on all weights of ingredients and Chinese food composition with all the ordered records from customers, was collected within a set period of time, from 2011 to 2013. Nutrition status was then estimated, under the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF). The median energy intake reached 4 973.9 (P25-P75: 3 575.6-6 971.0) kJ and 88.2% of the tables were exceeding the recommended energy limits, respectively, with 3 347.2 kJ for lunch and 2 510.4 kJ for dinner. Data was gathered from three restaurants in Beijing. In all the three restaurants, the median nutrient contents appeared 70% outnumbered the daily value of fat and cholesterol. The median sodium contents (87.9%) were also over the standard set for sodium adequate intake. In addition, the median nutrition on fibers, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were far below the recommended nutritional intakes (RNI), in the ordering. For NRF9.3, the Wenzhou restaurant showed the highest score (5.50) but the restaurant in Yunnan appeared the lowest (2.26), with difference statistically significant (P<0.001). Eating-out habit ended in taking low nutrition with higher limited nutrients, but with low recommended nutrients, when compared to the recommended Chinese Dietary Reference Intake.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  6. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  7. Prediction of Optimal Daily Step Count Achievement from Segmented School Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity in childhood is needed for prevention of disease and for healthy social and psychological development. There is limited research examining how segmented school physical activity patterns relate to a child achieving optimal physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between step counts during specific school segments and achieving optimal school (6,000 steps/day and daily (12,000 steps/day step counts in children. Participants included 1,714 school-aged children (mean age = 9.7±1.0 years recruited across six elementary schools. Physical activity was monitored for one week using pedometers. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of achieving both school and daily step count standards for every 1,000 steps taken during each school segment. The school segment that related in strongest way to a student achieving 6,000 steps during school hours was afternoon recess (OR = 40.03; P<0.001 and for achieving 12,000 steps for the entire day was lunch recess (OR = 5.03; P<0.001. School segments including lunch and afternoon recess play an important role for optimizing daily physical activity in children.

  8. Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Raquel Duarte Moreira; de Oliveira, Fernanda Cristina Esteves; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (-10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMAIR. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.

  9. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  10. Water Recycling in Schools & Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeten, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Consider the waste streams generated in schools and universities. So what is in the typical used water generated in schools and universities? It is typically about 99 percent water, with the remaining 1 percent mainly made up of organic compounds. Used water contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When one judges it on its quality, it…

  11. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  12. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  13. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  14. Energy and nutrient intake among Mexican school-aged children, Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos en edad escolar, Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age. RESULTS: Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Coexistence of over and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Estimar el consumo y adecuación de energía y nutrimentos en niños escolares mexicanos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos en 8 716 niños de entre 5 y 11 años de edad. Se calcularon la ingesta y la adecuación de energía y nutrimentos. Se hicieron comparaciones por región, área urbana/rural, nivel socioeconómico (NSE y estado nutricio (índice de masa corporal y talla/edad. RESULTADOS: La mediana de ingestión de energía fue 1 501 kcal/día (% adecuación 88.0; 25.5% de los niños tuvieron sobrepeso u obesidad; 10%, retardo en talla. Los niños con menor NSE, los indígenas y los de comunidades rurales mostraron mayores inadecuaciones dietarias de vitamina A, folato, zinc y calcio. Los niños con sobrepeso y los de mayor NSE presentaron más riesgo de ingestiones excesivas. CONCLUSIONES: La coexistencia de malnutrición por exceso y por deficiencia

  15. Successional dynamics drive tropical forest nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that nutrients such as N and P may significantly constrain the land carbon sink. However, we currently lack a complete understanding of these nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems and how to incorporate them into Earth System Models. We have developed a framework of dynamic forest nutrient limitation, focusing on the role of secondary forest succession and canopy gap disturbances as bottlenecks of high plant nutrient demand and limitation. We used succession biomass data to parameterize a simple ecosystem model and examined the dynamics of nutrient limitation throughout tropical secondary forest succession. Due to the patterns of biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests, we found high nutrient demand from rapid biomass accumulation in the earliest years of succession. Depending on previous land use scenarios, soil nutrient availability may also be low in this time period. Coupled together, this is evidence that there may be high biomass nutrient limitation early in succession, which is partially met by abundant symbiotic nitrogen fixation from certain tree species. We predict a switch from nitrogen limitation in early succession to one of three conditions: (i) phosphorus only, (ii) phosphorus plus nitrogen, or (iii) phosphorus, nitrogen, plus light co-limitation. We will discuss the mechanisms that govern the exact trajectory of limitation as forests build biomass. In addition, we used our model to explore scenarios of tropical secondary forest impermanence and the impacts of these dynamics on ecosystem nutrient limitation. We found that secondary forest impermanence exacerbates nutrient limitation and the need for nitrogen fixation early in succession. Together, these results indicate that biomass recovery dynamics early in succession as well as their connection to nutrient demand and limitation are fundamental for understanding and modeling nutrient limitation of the tropical forest carbon sink.

  16. Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Keith; Jarvis, Steve; Whitmore, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the inputs of nutrients has played a major role in increasing the supply of food to a continually growing world population. However, focusing attention on the most important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), has in some cases led to nutrient imbalances, some excess applications especially of N, inefficient use and large losses to the environment with impacts on air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. In contrast, food exports from the developing to the developed world ...

  17. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  18. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  20. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Introducing systems change in the schools: the case of school luncheons and vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Redmond, Ladonna; Kouba, Joanne; Hellwig, Maureen; Davis, Rochelle; Martinez, Louise I; Jones, Lara

    2007-06-01

    A major public health crisis facing America's society is the increase in child and youth obesity, which has seen a fourfold increase in the last four decades. Major concerns include what children eat for school lunch and what other foods are available in schools. This paper illustrates efforts towards systems change in the luncheon program and food vending machines in the Chicago Public Schools. We discuss the different factors that lead to such changes using the framework of the social ecological model and the soft systems methodology, and we analyze how the resulting innovation was implemented and evaluated. First, we present a theoretical perspective to explain factors that influence children's eating patterns from a systems approach. Second, we discuss the antecedent factors that lead to systems change. Finally, we examine challenges to systems change, such as resistance to change, different stakeholder priorities, lack of resources, institutional bureaucracy, and unrealistic funder expectations.

  2. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  3. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Slow progress in changing the school food environment: nationally representative results from public and private elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pschool size. For public schools, scores were higher in the Pacific and West South Central divisions compared with the national average. Changes in the school food environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise B.; Dyssegaard, Camilla B.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2015-01-01

    . The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794......It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children...... than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention...

  6. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  7. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  8. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  9. Nutrient management regulations in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The application of nutrients affect the quality of the environment which justifies the consideration of regulations regarding their use in agriculture. In the early 1990s The Netherlands decided to use the indicator `nutrient surplus at farm level¿ as the basis for a regulation which was called the

  10. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  11. EVE and School: Important announcement

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School of the CERN Staff Association would like to inform you that there are still a few places available within the structure for the school year 2017–2018, in the: Nursery for 2, 3 or 5 days a week (2- to 3-year-olds); Kindergarten for mornings (2- to 4-year-olds); Primary 1 (1p) class in the School (4- to 5-year-olds). Please get in touch with us quickly if you are interested in any of the available places. We will gladly provide further information and answer any questions you may have: Staff.Kindergarten@cern.ch or (+41) 022 767 36 04 (mornings). EVE and School of the CERN Staff Association welcomes children of CERN Members of Personnel (MPE, MPA), as well as children whose parents do not work on CERN site. We would like to remind you that registrations are also open for the Summer Camp. The camp will run through the four weeks of July from 8.30 am to 5.30 pm with a weekly registration for 450 CHF, lunch included. For more information and regist...

  12. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, S; Peterken, R; Burns, C

    2007-09-01

    The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the programme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS framework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over a 2-year period. The study design was an interrupted time series. Four primary schools in the inner west of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the programme intervention. Baseline data were collected using a lunch box audit to assess the frequency of children with fresh fruit, water and sweet drinks, either brought from home or selected from canteen lunch orders. The lunch box audit was repeated periodically for up to 2 years following programme implementation to assess the sustainability of dietary changes. Across all participating schools, significant increases between 25 and 50% were observed in the proportion of children bringing fresh fruit. Similarly, all schools recorded increases between 15 and 60% in the proportion of students bringing filled water bottles to school and reductions between 8 and 38% in the proportion of children bringing sweet drinks. These significant changes in dietary patterns were sustained for up to 2 years following programme implementation. Targeting key nutrition behaviours and using the HPS framework is an effective and simple approach which could be readily implemented in similar childhood settings. Effective strategies include facilitating organizational change within the school; integrating curriculum activities; formalizing school policy and establishing project partnerships with local community nutrition and dietetic services.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  15. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  16. Delahunt Lunch Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    “After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head C...

  17. Ox : Lunch Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Ox, Belfast

    2015-01-01

    In March 2013 two long standing friends, each passionate about their craft, each with a desire to bring something new to the Belfast restaurant scene combined forces and opened OX overlooking the River Lagan. Belfast-born Stephen and Brittany native Alain met while working in L’Arpège, the iconic, world-famous restaurant of radical talent Alain Passard in Paris. Having gone on to work in various other influential and inspirational restaurants they have honed their skills, developed their t...

  18. No free lunch

    KAUST Repository

    Ture, Ferhan; Elsayed, Tamer; Lin, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the problem of cross-lingual pairwise similarity, where the task is to extract similar pairs of documents across two different languages. Solutions to this problem are of general interest for text mining in the multilingual

  19. Rational consumption of nutrients at school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, F.; Lupu, V. V.; Pallag, A.; Barz, C.; Fodor, K.

    2017-05-01

    Nutrition lies at the basis of life being a factor of permanent action by which the individual, respectively small or large communities have ensured their survival in relation to the environment. Food represents a natural component which provides the energy and the vitality of the body and helps preserve people’s health and welfare. Rational nutrition is closely related to the physical and mental development of the young persons, to the adults’ work capacity, to the maintaining, as long as possible, of the elderly’s health condition, to the prevention of some acute and/or chronic diseases.

  20. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  1. [Factors associated with the consumption of school meals by Brazilian adolescents: results of the PeNSE survey 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Nathália Tarossi; Canella, Daniela Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2017-05-18

    The aim was to study the association between socio-demographic and routine dietary variables and consumption of school meals by adolescents enrolled in public schools in Brazil. The study used data used from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012. To assess differences between schoolchildren based on whether or not they ate school meals, the study used Pearson's chi-square test, and associations were analyzed with univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Of the 86,660 students included in the study, 22.8% eat school meals. Higher consumption of school meals is associated with male gender, brown skin color, residence outside state capitals, working, and low maternal schooling, for those that ate breakfast and lunch with their parents. The findings are relevant for planning strategies to encourage consumption of school meals.

  2. Impact of a school-based intervention to promote fruit intake: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, R; Araújo, A; Padrão, P; Lopes, O; Moreira, A; Abreu, S; Vale, S; Pereira, B; Moreira, P

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence that fruit consumption among school children is below the recommended levels. This study aims to examine the effects of a dietary education intervention program me, held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of fruit as a dessert at lunch and dinner, among children 6-12 years old. This is a randomized trial with the schools as the unit of randomisation. A total of 464 children (239 female, 6-12years) from seven elementary schools participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Three schools were allocated to the intervention and four to the control group. For the intervention schools, we delivered professional development training to school teachers (12 sessions of 3 h each). The training provided information about nutrition, healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop classroom activities focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic was assessed at baseline and anthropometric, dietary intake and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall and fruit consumption as a dessert was gathered at lunch and dinner. Intervened children reported a significant higher intake in the consumption of fruit compared to the controlled children at lunch (P = 0.001) and at dinner (P = 0.012), after adjusting for confounders. Our study provides further support for the success of intervention programmes aimed at improving the consumption of fruit as a dessert in children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  4. The role of a short post-lunch nap in improving cognitive, motor, and sprint performance in participants with partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Atkinson, G; Edwards, B; Reilly, T

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a post-lunch nap on subjective alertness and performance following partial sleep loss. Ten healthy males (mean age 23.3 years, s = 3.4) either napped or sat quietly from 13:00 to 13:30 h after a night of shortened sleep (sleep 23:00-03:00 h only). Thirty minutes after the afternoon nap or control (no-nap) condition, alertness, short-term memory, intra-aural temperature, heart rate, choice reaction time, grip strength, and times for 2-m and 20-m sprints were recorded. The afternoon nap lowered heart rate and intra-aural temperature. Alertness, sleepiness, short-term memory, and accuracy at the 8-choice reaction time test were improved by napping (P 0.05). Sprint times were improved. Mean time for the 2-m sprints fell from 1.060 s (s(x) = 0.018) to 1.019 s (s(x) = 0.019) (P = 0.031 paired t-test); mean time for the 20-m sprints fell from 3.971 s (s(x) = 0.054) to 3.878 s (s(x) = 0.047) (P = 0.013). These results indicate that a post-lunch nap improves alertness and aspects of mental and physical performance following partial sleep loss, and have implications for athletes with restricted sleep during training or before competition.

  5. Interrelation between the Author and the Text in W. S. Burroughs’s Naked Lunch and Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Grivina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article adopts Jacques Lacan’s concept of the “mirror stage” to study the mechanisms of the way the Author’s identity evolves in W. Burroughs’s Naked Lunch and Ch. Palahniuk’s Fight Club. Evolution of the Author is set against general process of personal growth. The study is primarily concerned with features of the Author’s evolution within transgressive fiction, as Chuck Palahniuk and William Burroughs are the key figures of this genre. Transgression presupposes addressing social taboos by explicating them, thus creating strong reactions within the readership. We argue and find evidence that Burroughs and Palahniuk in the process of facing their perfect images of the Author digress from what Lacan would consider normal development. When they are given a chance to produce a unified body of text, the writers chose unconscious strive for fragmentation instead. Fragmented images invade Naked Lunch and Fight Club. However the mirror stage in the case of Palahniuk and in the case of Burroughs differ. While Burroughs in the myth of the Interzone ends up rejecting the notion of unique Author as such, Palahniuk accepts the fact that he managed to form a new niche for transgressive fiction and stays true to this niche, continuing similar aesthetics in the works that follow.

  6. Structuring Process Evaluation to Forecast Use and Sustainability of an Intervention: Theory and Data From the Efficacy Trial for Lunch Is in the Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Sweitzer, Sara J; Ranjit, Nalini; Potratz, Christa; Rood, Magdalena; Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2017-08-01

    A cluster-randomized trial at 30 early care and education centers (Intervention = 15, waitlist Control = 15) showed the Lunch Is in the Bag intervention increased parents' packing of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in their preschool children's bag lunches (parent-child dyads = 351 Intervention, 282 Control). To examine the utility of structuring the trial's process evaluation to forecast use, sustainability, and readiness of the intervention for wider dissemination and implementation. Pretrial, the research team simulated user experience to forecast use of the intervention. Multiattribute evaluation of user experience measured during the trial assessed use and sustainability of the intervention. Thematic analysis of posttrial interviews with users evaluated sustained use and readiness for wider dissemination. Moderate use was forecast by the research team. Multiattribute evaluation of activity logs, surveys, and observations during the trial indicated use consistent with the forecast except that prevalence of parents reading the newsletters was greater (83% vs. 50%) and hearing their children talk about the classroom was less (4% vs. 50%) than forecast. Early care and education center-level likelihood of sustained use was projected to be near zero. Posttrial interviews indicated use was sustained at zero centers. Structuring the efficacy trial's process evaluation as a progression of assessments of user experience produced generally accurate forecasts of use and sustainability of the intervention at the trial sites. This approach can assist interpretation of trial outcomes, aid decisions about dissemination of the intervention, and contribute to translational science for improving health.

  7. SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT EXCHANGES IN RIVERINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...

  8. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  9. Availability of Automated External Defibrillators in Public High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle J; Loccoh, Emefah C; Goble, Monica M; Yu, Sunkyung; Duquette, Deb; Davis, Matthew M; Odetola, Folafoluwa O; Russell, Mark W

    2016-05-01

    To assess automated external defibrillator (AED) distribution and cardiac emergency preparedness in Michigan secondary schools and investigate for association with school sociodemographic characteristics. Surveys were sent via electronic mail to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties, stratified by population. Association of AED-related factors with school sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ(2) test, as appropriate. Of 188 schools, 133 (71%) responded to the survey and all had AEDs. Larger student population was associated with fewer AEDs per 100 students (P schools. Schools with >20% students from racial minority groups had significantly fewer AEDs available per 100 students than schools with less racial diversity (P = .03). Schools with more students eligible for free and reduced lunch were less likely to have a cardiac emergency response plan (P = .02) and demonstrated less frequent AED maintenance (P = .03). Although AEDs are available at public high schools across Michigan, the number of AEDs per student varies inversely with minority student population and school size. Unequal distribution of AEDs and lack of cardiac emergency preparedness may contribute to outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  11. Effect of school wellness policies and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on food-consumption behaviors of students, 2006-2016: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Jennifer L; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-07-01

    Federal regulation mandates that the US National School Lunch Program nutrition standards align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As students consume a substantial proportion of their nutrition during school lunch, increasing access to healthy foods is proposed to improve student dietary outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess whether policy changes impacted food-consumption behaviors of students during periods when (1) school wellness policies were implemented (2006-2007); (2) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was passed (2010-2012); and (3) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was implemented (2012-present). PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for primary research studies. Policy evaluations and interventions implemented from 2006 to 2016 were included. A total of 31 studies evaluating plate waste, dietary intake, food selection, and/or purchasing patterns were identified and reviewed. Fourteen of 19 intervention and longitudinal observation studies reported improved food-consumption behaviors (increased selection, intake, and sales of healthy foods, and decreased plate waste). Only 2 of 12 one-time observation studies reported food-consumption behaviors meeting target nutrition standards. The majority of studies indicated that increasing access to healthy foods during school lunch improved students' dietary intakes. Challenges related to study design, adaptation period, quality of foods, and policy implementation likely affect a school lunch program's ability to impact students' food-consumption behaviors. Ongoing evaluation of these programs is warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macrobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Watkins, James M.; Hotaling, Christopher; Lantry, Jana R.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Munawar, Mohi; Weidel, Brian C.; Barbiero, Richard; Luckey, Frederick J.; Dove, Alice; Johnson, Timothy B.; Biesinger, Zy

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic levels support the prey fish on which most sport fish depend. Therefore, understanding the production potential of lower trophic levels is integral to the management of Lake Ontario’s fishery resources. Lower trophic-level productivity differs among offshore and nearshore waters. In the offshore, there is concern about the ability of the lake to support Alewife (Table 1) production due to a perceived decline in productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas, in the nearshore, there is a concern about excessive attached algal production (e.g., Cladophora) associated with higher nutrient concentrations—the oligotrophication of the offshore and the eutrophication of the nearshore (Mills et al. 2003; Holeck et al. 2008; Dove 2009; Koops et al. 2015; Stewart et al. 2016). Even though the collapse of the Alewife population in Lake Huron in 2003 (and the associated decline in the Chinook Salmon fishery) may have been precipitated by a cold winter (Dunlop and Riley 2013), Alewife had not returned to high abundances in Lake Huron as of 2014 (Roseman et al. 2015). Failure of the Alewife population to recover from collapse has been attributed to declines in lower trophic-level production (Barbiero et al. 2011; Bunnell et al. 2014; but see He et al. 2015). In Lake Michigan, concerns of a similar Alewife collapse led to a decrease in the number of Chinook Salmon stocked. If lower trophic-level production declines in Lake Ontario, a similar management action could be considered. On the other hand, in Lake Erie, which supplies most of the water in Lake Ontario, eutrophication is increasing and so are harmful algal blooms. Thus, there is also a concern that nutrient levels and algal blooms could increase in Lake Ontario, especially in the nearshore. Solutions to the two processes of concern—eutrophication in the nearshore and oligotrophication in the offshore—may be mutually exclusive. In either circumstance, fisheries management needs information on

  13. The school food environment and adolescent obesity: qualitative insights from high school principals and food service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellerbeck Edward F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine high school personnel's perceptions of the school environment, its impact on obesity, and the potential impact of legislation regulating schools' food/beverage offerings. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the principal (n = 8 and dietitian/food service manager (n = 7 at 8 schools (4 rural, 4 suburban participating in a larger study examining the relationship between the school environment and adolescent health behavior patterns. Results Principal themes included: 1 Obesity is a problem in general, but not at their school, 2 Schools have been unfairly targeted above more salient factors (e.g., community and home environment, 3 Attempts at change should start before high school, 4 Student health is one priority area among multiple competing demands; academic achievement is the top priority, 5 Legislation should be informed by educators and better incorporate the school's perspective. Food service themes included: 1 Obesity is not a problem at their school; school food service is not the cause, 2 Food offerings are based largely on the importance of preparing students for the real world by providing choice and the need to maintain high participation rates; both healthy and unhealthy options are available, 3 A la carte keeps lunch participation high and prices low but should be used as a supplement, not a replacement, to the main meal, 4 Vending provides school's additional revenue; vending is not part of food service and is appropriate if it does not interfere with the lunch program. Conclusion Discrepancies exist between government/public health officials and school personnel that may inhibit collaborative efforts to address obesity through modifications to the school environment. Future policy initiatives may be enhanced by seeking the input of school personnel, providing recommendations firmly grounded in evidence-based practice, framing initiatives in terms of their potential impact on the

  14. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  15. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA of children with physical disabilities (PD in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class and at home (before dinner during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9–56.0% (p < 0.01 of the variance predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA after controlling for demographic variables. Prompts to be active were positively associated with MVPA at school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  16. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  17. Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors and Beliefs of High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun

    2017-04-01

    For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players ( n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos ( p nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training ( p nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.

  18. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  19. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: ... and yields, marker assisted selection breeding, to develop new uses for agricultural products, to facilitate early maturation and to improve food and feed ...

  20. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations......Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...

  1. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrients in some estuaries of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Remani, K.N.; Zacharias, D.; Unnithan, R.V.

    phosphate and ammonia were high at Kallai compared to other three estuaries. All the estuaries showed an increase in nitrate content during monsoon. Nitrite values were high in postmonsoon. Ammonia levels were generally high except at Korapuzha. Nutrient...

  3. Neuronal regulation of homeostasis by nutrient sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tony K T

    2010-04-01

    In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the homeostatic control of glucose and energy balance is impaired, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperphagia. Recent studies indicate that nutrient-sensing mechanisms in the body activate negative-feedback systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis through a neuronal network. Direct metabolic signaling within the intestine activates gut-brain and gut-brain-liver axes to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, respectively. In parallel, direct metabolism of nutrients within the hypothalamus regulates food intake and blood glucose levels. These findings highlight the importance of the central nervous system in mediating the ability of nutrient sensing to maintain homeostasis. Futhermore, they provide a physiological and neuronal framework by which enhancing or restoring nutrient sensing in the intestine and the brain could normalize energy and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity.

  4. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  5. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  6. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  7. School food cost-benefits: England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the costs per relevant unit (pupils and meals) associated with improvements to school food and the potential economic and health gains that may result. Calculation of costs per relevant unit (pupils and meals) based on (i) Department for Education expenditure to support improvements in school food, 2005–2011 and (ii) measures of the changes in the number of pupils taking school lunch and the number of meals served over the same time period; plus examples of the use of linked data to predict longer-term economic and health outcomes of healthier eating at school. England. Local authorities, government departments and non-departmental public bodies. Analysis of investment over a 6-year period indicates that costs of setting up and maintaining a change organization such as the School Food Trust were low in relation to short-term benefits in nutrition and behaviour. Models that predict long-terms gains to the exchequer and to quality-adjusted life years need further elaboration. Modest levels of government investment in the delivery and promotion of healthier school food is likely to yield both short-term and long-term benefits in relation to nutrition, learning, economics and health.

  8. Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Koschwanez, John H.; Nelson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells’ spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ℓ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ν that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ν can vary over many orders of magnitude between different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ℓ decreases with increasing ν, increasing cell volume fraction ϕ, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ψ∞. The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ℓ. PMID:23848711

  9. HEALTHY study school food service revenue and expense report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P; Pham, Trang; Mobley, Connie; Hartstein, Jill; El Ghormli, Laure; Songer, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Food service directors have a concern that federal reimbursement is not meeting the demands of increasing costs of healthier meals. The purpose of this article is to report the food option changes and the annual revenues and expenses of the school food service environment. The HEALTHY study was a 3-year (2006 to 2009) randomized, cluster-designed trial conducted in 42 middle schools at 7 field centers. The schools selected had at least 50% of students who were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch or who belonged to a minority group. A randomly assigned half of the HEALTHY schools received a school health intervention program consisting of 4 integrated components: nutrition, physical activity, behavioral knowledge and skills, and social marketing. The nutrition component consisted of changing the meal plans to meet 5 nutrition goals. Revenue and expense data were collected from income statements, federal meal records, à la carte sale sheets, school store sale sheets, donated money/food records, and vending machines. Although more intervention schools reached the nutritional goals than control schools, revenues and expenses were not significantly different between groups. The HEALTHY study showed no adverse effect of school food policies on food service finances. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  10. Back to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... d rather pack, consider adding carrot sticks, a piece of fresh fruit, or pretzels to your lunch ... a reprimand!). Not only will this keep you going, it will also help you avoid overeating when ...

  11. Unhealthy and healthy food consumption inside and outside of the school by pre-school and elementary school Mexican children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lilian; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-12-01

    Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside and outside of school. Eight public schools participated in the study. A random sample of all the groups from a school district was conducted. A questionnaire was administered to children in first through sixth grade (ES) and to the parents of PS. LP and food available inside and outside of the school were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and adequate according to the guidelines set forth by the Secretariat of Health. A total of 2,716 questionnaires were administered and the content of 648 LP was assessed. It was observed that 99% of PS had LP prepared at home, a higher percentage than ES. None of the LP of the ES was classified as healthy, and 1% was classified as adequate. Among PS, 21% of the LP were classified as healthy and 6% as adequate. More than half of the children recognized the brand name of foods high in fat, salt, and added sugar available inside and outside of school grounds. Most of the LP of ES and PS and the foods available inside and outside of school were unhealthy and inadequate. A strategy to prevent the availability of unhealthy and inadequate food in LP and foods available inside and outside schools is recommended.

  12. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  13. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  14. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  15. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  16. Does easily accessible nutritional labelling increase consumption of healthy meals away from home? A field experiment measuring the impact of a point-of-purchase healthy symbol on lunch sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect on meal consumption away from home of a point-of-purchase healthy symbol. We base the analysis on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant. Our results suggest that meal consumption does not increase if the meal is labelled with a healthy symbol. Also, the mean...

  17. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  18. Above-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation in the tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that the impact of logging in the Ebom rainforest remains low. However, additional research is needed on nutrient input in the forest from outside as well as on the impact of logging on nutrient leaching in order to get a complete picture of the nutrient cycles. Key-words: phytomass, nutrient pools, logging, ...

  19. 9 Nutrient Load of the Sakumo Lagoon.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    nutrients studied, phosphates were the highest in the Sakumo lagoon. The decreasing ... (2008), used nutrient and the trophic status to assess the ... the level of nutrient pollution of the Ramsar site. Materials and ... In assessing the nutrient load, water samples of the .... tidal waves resulting in sea water intrusion may account ...

  20. Food photography II: use of food photographs for estimating portion size and the nutrient content of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the errors in the conceptualization of portion size using photographs. Male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years (n 136) from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 602 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects served themselves between four and six foods at one meal (breakfast, lunch or dinner). Portion sizes were weighed by the investigators at the time of serving, and any waste was weighed at the end of the meal. Within 5 min of the end of the meal, subjects were shown photographs depicting each of the foods just consumed. For each food there were eight photographs showing portion sizes in equal increments from the 5th to the 95th centile of the distribution of portion weights observed in The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults (Gregory et al. 1990). Subjects were asked to indicate on a visual analogue scale the size of the portion consumed in relation to the eight photographs. The nutrient contents of meals were estimated from food composition tables. There were large variations in the estimation of portion sizes from photographs. Butter and margarine portion sizes tended to be substantially overestimated. In general, small portion sizes tended to be overestimated, and large portion sizes underestimated. Older subjects overestimated portion size more often than younger subjects. Excluding butter and margarine, the nutrient content of meals based on estimated portion sizes was on average within +/- 7% of the nutrient content based on the amounts consumed, except for vitamin C (21% overestimate), and for subjects over 65 years (15-20% overestimate for energy and fat). In subjects whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m2, the energy and fat contents of meals calculated from food composition tables and based on estimated portion size (excluding butter and margarine) were 5-10% greater than the nutrient content calculated using actual portion size, but for those