WorldWideScience

Sample records for school literature instruction

  1. Curriculum and instructional methods for drug information, literature evaluation, and biostatistics: survey of US pharmacy schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer A; Gabay, Michael P; Ficzere, Cathy; Ward, Kristina E

    2012-06-01

    The drug information curriculum in US colleges of pharmacy continues to evolve. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Drug Information Practice and Research Network (DI PRN) published an opinion paper with specific recommendations regarding drug information education in 2009. Adoption of these recommendations has not been evaluated. To assess which recommendations made in the ACCP DI PRN opinion paper are included in US pharmacy school curricula and characterize faculty qualifications, educational methods, and recent changes in drug information education. An electronic survey was designed using the ACCP DI PRN opinion paper and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education standards and guidelines for accreditation of PharmD programs in the US. Survey questions addressed curricular content within the following categories: drug information, literature evaluation, and biostatistics. A letter including the online survey link was sent via email to the dean of each US college/school of pharmacy (N = 128). Recipients were instructed to forward the email to the individual at their institution who was the most knowledgeable about the content and methodology used for didactic drug information education. Sixty-four responses were included in the final analysis. Of the 19 ACCP DI PRN minimum core concepts, 9 (47%) were included in curricula of all responding institutions; 14 of 19 (74%) were included in curricula for all but 1 institution. In contrast, 5 of 16 concepts (31%) were not formally taught by a number of institutions. Many respondents noted an increased focus on evidence-based medicine, medication safety, and informatics. Although a survey of drug information curricula documented substantial inclusion of the essential concepts presented in the ACCP DI PRN opinion paper, room for improvement remains in drug information curricula in US colleges of pharmacy.

  2. Comics in language and literature teaching in lower primary school grades: Instructional potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Buba D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is presenting possibilities for using comics in teaching mother tongue, literature and linguistic culture in foreign language teaching, specifically the English language. Comics in teaching can motivate students to experience literary creation, to comprehend grammatical categories and spelling rules more completely or to be the feedback on the experience of what has been read. They boost the reading perception of students and develop students' ability to separate the key segments which are represented by picture and text. In modern age, dominated by digital media, comics surely deserve a special place in teaching in order to consolidate the value of books. The paper presents elements of comics, their structure and role the in teaching language and literature. Comics are visual aids for communication characterized by time dimension which is achieved by ordering scenes, which makes them similar to film. Their important characteristic is simultaneous expression by picture and text, which makes it a powerful aid in teaching language and literature. Dialogues are typical for comics, as well as dynamic storyline, which makes them especially interesting to students. Brief remarks on the historical development of comics are given because of the review on their general development, as well as on the possibilities for their application in teaching. The reading crisis occurs when children start school because they are supposed to acquire complex mental skills-technique of reading and writing. When aversion to the written media is obvious, comics can be of great help. The paper illustrates the use of comics in teaching literature, grammar, and linguistic culture as the motivational tool for reading and analysing a literary text. Special emphasis is placed on the possibilities of motivation to experience literary creation. Stimulated by comics, with compulsory reading, students can experience the work in pictures, which they will

  3. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  4. EFFECTS OF TWO METHODS OF INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ CRITICAL RESPONSE TO PROSE LITERATURE TEXT IN ENGLISH IN SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BENIN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. EZEOKOLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of two methods of instruction on secondary school students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. The study adopted a pretest, posttest, control group quasi experimental design. The participants in the study were 84 Senior Secondary II students of Literature-in-English purposively selected from four Schools in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Two intact classes were randomly assigned to each of the treatment and control groups. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The instruments used were: Critical Response to Prose Literature Test (r = .75, Questionnaire on Home Background of Students (r = .82, and Critical Response to Prose Literature Test Marking Guide. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Covariance and graph. The results showed significant main effect of treatment on students’ critical response to Prose Literature (F (1, 77 = 44.731; p < .05. Students exposed to Engagement Strategies Method performed better than those exposed to the Conventional Method of instruction. Further, home background of students had no significant effect on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77 = 4.902; p < .05. There was significant interaction effect of treatment and home background of students on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77 = 3.508; p < .05. It was concluded that Engagement Strategies Method is effective in promoting students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. Teachers of Literature-in-English should employ Engagement Strategies Method in teaching Prose Literature to students in Senior Secondary Schools.

  5. Discourse Analysis in Stylistics and Literature Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mick

    1990-01-01

    A review of research regarding discourse analysis in stylistics and literature instruction covers studies of text, systematic analysis, meaning, style, literature pedagogy, and applied linguistics. A 10-citation annotated bibliography and a larger unannotated bibliography are included. (CB)

  6. School Leadership Actions to Support Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Jennifer Pallon

    2011-01-01

    Schools are required to meet a range of students' learning needs and effective school leadership is needed for the implementation of pedagogical practices responsive to the challenges of increasing student diversity and academic accountability. Literature on differentiated instruction and its constituent elements suggests differentiation results…

  7. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  8. Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers state. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Background: Effective school health instruction in primary schools is ...

  9. Piano instruction for nursery school trainees

    OpenAIRE

    新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2012-01-01

    It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...

  10. Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…

  11. Instructional Leadership in Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…

  12. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  13. School Principals' Evaluations of Their Instructional Leadership Behaviours: Realities vs. Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa Cüneyt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine primary and middle school principals' evaluations of their own instructional leadership behaviours, and thereby pay closer attention to the ideal instructional leadership behaviours suggested in the related literature and the realities of principals' instructional leadership behaviours. Although…

  14. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  15. Instructional decision making of high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Jeffrey S.

    The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step

  16. Ethics Instruction at California Dental Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola K. Giusti

    2017-06-01

    Methods: Faculty members identified as Dental Ethics Course Directors at four schools were contacted by phone to inform them of the research project and invite participation. Subjects then responded to an emailed survey questionnaire. Results: Results were collated and analyzed. Conclusions: Effective ethics instruction is an essential component of modern dental education, and results show that each of the four schools uses a variety of methods to accomplish the task.

  17. Designing Customizable Reading Modules for a High School Literature Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. Roxanne; Cuevas, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This design case follows an ongoing collaboration between an instructional technologist and a high school literature teacher promoting reading comprehension through modules that provide visually interesting display of text on a computer screen along with cognitive tools. The modules were found to boost comprehension of specific content in even one…

  18. UNDERSTANDING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT WITH SCHOOL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on student engagement with school. There is a large agreement on the predictive role that individual differences in student engagement with school plays in relation to a wide range of educational outcomes and to general adjustment. Numerous empirical studies have attempted to explain how individual characteristics of students (e.g., gender, academic motivation, school-related self-efficacy etc., family environment (e.g., parent social support, aspirations of parents concerning the adolescents’ school trajectory or quality of adolescent-parents relationship, and the school/classroom climate (e.g., social support from teachers and peers, autonomy granted to students, quality of instructional practices etc. impact student engagement with school and the academic achievement/performance. This paper summarizes the existing literature on antecedents and positive outcomes of student engagement with school. The implications for educational practice and policy makers are discussed.

  19. Evaluating Blended and Flipped Instruction in Numerical Methods at Multiple Engineering Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee; Kaw, Autar; Lou, Yingyan; Scott, Andrew; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary

    2018-01-01

    With the literature calling for comparisons among technology-enhanced or active-learning pedagogies, a blended versus flipped instructional comparison was made for numerical methods coursework using three engineering schools with diverse student demographics. This study contributes to needed comparisons of enhanced instructional approaches in STEM…

  20. Instructional scaffolding to improve students' skills in evaluating clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Stefani; Dominguez, Karen D; Troutman, William G; Bond, Rucha; Cone, Catherine

    2011-05-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an activity to teach pharmacy students to critically evaluate clinical literature using instructional scaffolding and a Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric. The literature evaluation activity centered on a single clinical research article and involved individual, small group, and large group instruction, with carefully structured, evidence-based scaffolds and support materials centered around 3 educational themes: (1) the reader's awareness of text organization, (2) contextual/background information and vocabulary, and (3) questioning, prompting, and self-monitoring (metacognition). Students initially read the article, scored it using the rubric, and wrote an evaluation. Students then worked individually using a worksheet to identify and define 4 to 5 vocabulary/concept knowledge gaps. They then worked in small groups and as a class to further improve their skills. Finally, they assessed the same article using the rubric and writing a second evaluation. Students' rubric scores for the article decreased significantly from a mean pre-activity score of 76.7% to a post-activity score of 61.7%, indicating that their skills in identifying weaknesses in the article's study design had improved. Use of instructional scaffolding in the form of vocabulary supports and the Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric improved students' ability to critically evaluate a clinical study compared to lecture-based coursework alone.

  1. Instructional Leadership Responsibilities of Assistant Principals in Large Texas High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Schwind, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent secondary assistant principals in large Texas high schools demonstrate behaviors consistent with what the literature describes as instructional leadership. Three hundred seventy principals and assistant principals of large Texas high schools participated in this study. The Principal…

  2. Instructional Leadership in Primary and Secondary Schools in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Dimmock, Clive

    1993-01-01

    Investigates teachers' and principals' perceptions of instructional leadership in a sample of Western Australian government primary and secondary schools, using the Instructional Leadership Questionnaire. Instructional leadership was viewed as a shared responsibility; teachers felt principals were less involved than principals felt they were.…

  3. Towards a leadership programme for primary school principals as instructional leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy Naidoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to explore primary school principals’ instructional leadership. The study addressed a key issue in the school improvement literature, pertaining to the curriculum leadership of principals. The literature is not entirely clear about which leadership characteristic is more likely to produce the most favourable outcomes in terms of improved learner outcomes, in other words, how the curriculum has been implemented and how leadership in this regard has been effected. The article argues that robust training and development in instructional leadership practices become necessary to support school leaders in this regard. In South Africa, based on numerous reports of poor learner outcomes in schools, we question whether principals possess the necessary skills required to lead and manage curriculum in schools. In this article, the views of five principals, who have completed the Advanced Certificate in Education: School Leadership and Management (ACESLM programme, are examined. Findings indicate that not all principals who participated in the study are fully conversant with their roles and responsibilities as instructional leaders. They mainly interpret their functions to be purely managerial and to be leaders and administrators of schools. Thus, whilst some understanding of instructional leadership was apparent in some of the principals’ responses, it is the authors’ views that ACESLM, as a leadership development programme, needs to be redesigned to include greater focus on instructional leadership.

  4. Effective Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtel, Troy

    2010-01-01

    The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…

  5. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...... of increased instruction time....

  6. Academic Discipline and Personal Finance Instruction in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Cäzilia; Fisher, Patti J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite public support for personal finance instruction in high school, its effectiveness has not been firmly established. The current study investigates instructional approaches as a reason for these inconsistent outcomes by comparing survey responses of business education, family and consumer sciences, and social studies/economics teachers. The…

  7. Holistic School Leadership: Systems Thinking as an Instructional Leadership Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen

    2016-01-01

    As instructional leadership involves attempts to understand and improve complex systems, this study explored principals' perceptions regarding possible contributions of systems thinking to instructional leadership. Based on a qualitative analysis, systems thinking was perceived by middle and high school principals to contribute to the following…

  8. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Audrey S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)

  9. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  10. An evaluation of the California Instructional School Garden Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Eric L; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2012-02-01

    California Assembly Bill 1535 awarded $US 15 million to California public schools to promote, develop and sustain instructional school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Program (CISGP). The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the CISGP at assisting schools in implementing, maintaining and sustaining an academic school garden programme, determine how schools utilized the funding they received and assess the impact of the California state budget crisis on the CISGP. A mid-term evaluation was used to assess the degree to which schools achieved their instructional garden-related goals. California. Only schools that applied for the CIGSP grant as part of a school district and also provided a contact email and had a unique contact person were included in the study (n 3103, 80·6 %). In general, many schools reported not achieving their predicted goals with regard to the CISGP grant. Only 39·4 % of schools reported accomplishing all of their garden-related goals. Over one-third (37·8 %) of schools reported that their school gardens were negatively affected by the California budget deficit. The difference between predicted and actual utilization of the CISGP grants may be due to a combination of the effects of budget shortfall and insufficiency of the grant award amount.

  11. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  12. Informing Instruction of Students with Autism in Public School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The number of applied behavior analysis (ABA) classrooms for students with autism is increasing in K-12 public schools. To inform instruction of students with autism in public school settings, this study examined the relation between performance on mastery learning assessments and standardized achievement tests for students with autism spectrum…

  13. Health instruction in Nigerian schools: what are the missing links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunya, Oladele Simeon; Oseni, Saheed Babajide; Oyelami, Oyeku Akibu; Adegbenro, Caleb; Akani, Nwadiuto

    2014-01-01

    School health instruction (SHI) is the instructional aspects of school health programme. It provides information on key health issues to school children who are in their formative years. A cross sectional descriptive study of all the primary schools in a focal Local Government Area in Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the implementation of SHI with regards to the contents, methods of delivery and teachers preparation for health teaching using an evaluation checklist for SHI. There were more female pupils enrolled in the study area compared to their male counterparts with a male to female ratio of 0.9:1.0 and only 3.0% of the teachers had In-service training on health related issues in the previous five years preceding the study. 79.4% of the teachers had the recommended qualification to work in the schools. Teachings on emotional health, communicable diseases and safety education were sparingly given by 1.6%, 4.7% and 56% schools respectively. Only three (4.7%) schools (all private) had health instruction given by designated health education staff. No school gave health instruction at least thrice a week as recommended. Compliance with the implementation of SHI was very poor in the study area.

  14. School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…

  15. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  16. Instructional Technology for Rural Schools: Access and Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeen, Todd H.; Sundeen, Darrelanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating instructional technology into all classrooms has the potential to transform modern education and student learning. However, access to technology is not equally available to all districts or schools. Decreased funding and budgetary restraints have had a direct impact on technology acquisition in many rural school districts. One of the…

  17. School Climate Improvement Action Guide for Instructional Staff. School Climate Improvement Resource Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Improving school climate takes time and commitment from a variety of people in a variety of roles. This document outlines key action steps that instructional staff--including teachers, paraprofessionals, and others in the classroom who provide instruction or assistance--can take to support school climate improvements. Key action steps are provided…

  18. Urban school leadership for elementary science instruction: Identifying and activating resources in an undervalued school subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Diamond, John B.; Walker, Lisa J.; Halverson, Rich; Jita, Loyiso

    2001-10-01

    This article explores school leadership for elementary school science teaching in an urban setting. We examine how school leaders bring resources together to enhance science instruction when there appear to be relatively few resources available for it. From our study of 13 Chicago elementary (K-8) schools' efforts to lead instructional change in mathematics, language arts, and science education, we show how resources for leading instruction are unequally distributed across subject areas. We also explore how over time leaders in one school successfully identified and activated resources for leading change in science education. The result has been a steady, although not always certain, development of science as an instructional area in the school. We argue that leading change in science education involves the identification and activation of material resources, the development of teachers' and school leaders' human capital, and the development and use of social capital.

  19. Online Writing Instruction for Children with Disabilities: A Review of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eleazar, III.; Straub, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the evidence related to online instruction in writing for students with special needs with the purpose of determining whether the existing literature can provide a research base and responding to special education researchers' concerns about students with disabilities receiving instruction online. We identified…

  20. A Study of the Literature on Lab-Based Instruction in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Gillian; Drayton, Brian; Cohen, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the practitioner literature on lab-based instruction in biology in "The American Biology Teacher" between 2007 and 2012. We investigated what laboratory learning looks like in biology classrooms, what topics are addressed, what instructional methods and activities are described, and what is being learned about student…

  1. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  2. Teacher’s Instructional Behaviour in Instructional Management at Elementary School Reviewed from Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Eni Astuti Ni Putu

    2018-01-01

    This writing aimed at (1) describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2) describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classi...

  3. Secondary School Students Preferences for Instructional Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Yet, value pertaining to discipline in sexual attitude among adolescent is gradually being eroded. ... education into the secondary school curriculum. .... hidden. This result also goes to confirm the researcher's opinion that parents tend to shy ...

  4. Two Charter School Principals' Engagement in Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

    2014-01-01

    This comparative case (Merriam, 2009) study explored two charter school principals' engagement in instructional leadership. Analysis of three data sources--interviews, observations, and documents--revealed that principals were almost exclusively focused on state accountability and possessed limited knowledge of pedagogical practices. In…

  5. Instructional Leadership: How Principals Conceptualize Their Roles as School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caryn D.

    2017-01-01

    Several research studies in education have shown there is a strong correlation between K-12 school principals, instructional leadership, and student achievement (Liethwood, Seashore-Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Waters, Marzano, & McNulty, 2003). Research has further revealed that, second only to the classroom teacher, principals…

  6. Middle School Mathematics Teachers Panel Perspectives of Instructional Practicess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    In a local middle school, students were not meeting standards on the state mathematics tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore mathematics teachers' perspectives on effective mathematics instruction vis-a-vis the principles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Within this framework, the 6 principles in the…

  7. Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiyou

    2015-01-01

    The integration of technology into educational environments has become more prominent over the years. The combination of technology and face-to-face interaction with instructors allows for a thorough, more valuable educational experience. "Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction in Middle Schools" addresses the concerns associated with…

  8. Flipped Instruction in a High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two…

  9. Memory Retention in Second Language Acquisition and Instruction: Insights from Literature and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatullova-Allison , Elvira

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews some essential theoretical and empirical research literature that discusses the role of memory in second language acquisition and instruction. Two models of literature review--thematic and study-by-study--were used to analyze and synthesize the existing research. First, issues of memory retention in second language acquisition…

  10. Prioritizing Elementary School Writing Instruction: Cultivating Middle School Readiness for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Mason, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Helping elementary students with learning disabilities (LD) prepare for the rigor of middle school writing is an instructional priority. Fortunately, several standards-based skills in upper elementary school and middle school overlap. Teachers in upper elementary grades, specifically fourth and fifth grades, have the opportunity to provide…

  11. Suspended Education in Massachusetts: Using Days of Lost Instruction Due to Suspension to Evaluate Our Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Sun, Wei-Ling; Keith, Michael A., II

    2017-01-01

    Missed instruction can have a devastating impact on educational outcomes. Some reasons for missed instruction are beyond the control of schools and districts: some students miss school due to mental or physical illness or injury, and transportation problems sometimes are to blame. One major reason for missed instruction that schools can directly…

  12. Infusing Multicultural Literature into Teacher Education Programs: Three Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kristina M.; Bowles, Freddie A.; Lincoln, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Today's classrooms in the United States reflect the growing diversity of the changing world. In order to prepare high-quality multicultural educators, the authors of this article, three teacher educators at a large, mid-south, research-one university, collaborated to share successful strategies to infuse multicultural literature into the three…

  13. Community schools unfolded: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2011-01-01

    Community schools are quickly increasing in number, but there is no evidence whether they are more effective than traditional schools. No study has empirically compared community schools to other schools. This study reviews the literature on the effectiveness of community schools. We focus on their

  14. Integrating a WebQuest in the Primary School Curriculum Using Anchored Instruction: Effect on Learning Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature review, a means for integrating WebQuests in day-to-day school activities is introduced using principles of Anchored Instruction. Following these ideas in an effect study, including 109 children in 4th, 5th and 6th grade, significant learning gains were found, with a large

  15. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  16. Dyadic Instruction for Middle School Students: Liking Promotes Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Amy C.; DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether friendship facilitates or hinders learning in a dyadic instructional setting. Working in 80 same-sex pairs, 160 (60 girls, 100 boys) middle school students (M = 12.13 years old) were taught a new computer programming language and programmed a game. Students spent 14 to 30 (M = 22.7) hours in a programming class. At the beginning and the end of the project, each participant separately completed (a) computer programming knowledge assessments and (b) questionnaires ra...

  17. Perceptions of Elementary Teachers on the Instructional Leadership Role of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa; Bas, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, elementary school principals' instructional leadership behavior was evaluated based on the perceptions of elementary school teachers. The research is believed to contribute to the development of instructional leadership behavior of elementary school principals for the development of school organization. A "semi-structured…

  18. A comparison study of instruction between international school and state school of middle school level in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamelasari, S. D.; Nurkhalisa, S.; Laksmana, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the instruction in international school and state school in the middle level in Indonesia to find out the strength and weakness of each school in order to identify some professional development needs. The observation and interview were conducted to see the instruction of each school. Some pedagogy aspects consisting of attitude, strategy, and practice were observed to get the overview of instruction. Through this study, it has been found that the teachers apply an active learning approach that created an enthusiastic atmosphere of students’ participation. However, the different circumstance found is in the aspect of the number of students, the language of instruction and students’ characteristics between those schools.

  19. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  20. Exploring Instructional Differences and School Performance in High-Poverty Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, Regina G.; Hollo, Alexandra; Scott, Terrance M.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, federal funding under Title 1 is provided to schools to improve academic achievement for disadvantaged students. Many students attending schools eligible for Title 1 funding are from families in poverty and at risk for negative outcomes. Identifying instructional factors that mitigate this risk must be a priority for teachers…

  1. Blended/Hybrid Courses: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Instructional Designers and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the literature on blended/hybrid learning and identifies recommendations for instructional designers and faculty. Terminology and definitions are discussed first including the debate between the words "blended" and "hybrid." A working definition for the article is discussed but the article does not…

  2. Music in Motion Pictures: Review of Literature with Implications for Instructional Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, John V.

    This comprehensive review of literature pertinent to the use of music in instructional films presents selected opinions, viewpoints, and hypotheses as an approach preliminary to experimentation. The need for research work in seeking principles which govern the operation of music to reinforce learning and the need to state such relationships as may…

  3. School Leadership for Equity: Lessons from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sophie C.; Bagley, Carl; Lumby, Jacky; Woods, Philip; Hamilton, Tom; Roberts, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Responding to Thrupp's [2003. "The School Leadership Literature in Managerialist Times: Exploring the Problem of Textual Apologism." "School Leadership & Management: Formerly School Organisation" 23 (2): 169] call for writers on school leadership to offer "analyses which provide more critical messages about social…

  4. A Methodological Study Evaluating a Pretutorial Computer-Compiled Instructional Program in High School Physics Instruction Initiated from Student-Teacher Selected Instructional Objectives. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. Charles; Denton, Jon J.

    A study sought to develop and evaluate an instructional model which utilized the computer to produce individually prescribed instructional guides to account for the idiosyncratic variations among students in physics classes at the secondary school level. The students in the treatment groups were oriented toward the practices of selecting…

  5. Flipped Instruction in a High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.

  6. Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Instruction Expenditures towards High School Completion among Oahu's Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Larson S. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The following study attempted to ascertain the instructional cost-effectiveness of public high school teachers towards high school completion through a financially based econometric analysis. Essentially, public high school instruction expenditures and completer data were collected from 2000 to 2007 and bivariate interaction analyzed through a…

  7. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  8. A critical review of the literature on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.; Thyssen, G.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing literature on early school leaving. We clarify what is at stake with early school leaving, and touch upon underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature. The paper investigates the levels, the methods and models with which the topic has been

  9. Perceived Challenges in Primary Literature in a Master's Class: Effects of Experience and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Richard; Abdullah, Christopher; He, Wenliang; Tour, Ella

    Primary literature offers rich opportunities to teach students how to "think like a scientist," but the challenges students face when they attempt to read research articles are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of what master's students perceive as the most challenging aspects of engaging with primary literature. We examined 69 pairs of pre- and postcourse responses from students enrolled in a master's-level course that offered a structured analysis of primary literature. On the basis of these responses, we identified six categories of challenges. Before instruction, "techniques" and "experimental data" were the most frequently identified categories of challenges. The majority of difficulties students perceived in the primary literature corresponded to Bloom's lower-order cognitive skills. After instruction, "conclusions" were identified as the most difficult aspect of primary literature, and the frequency of challenges that corresponded to higher-order cognitive skills increased significantly among students who reported less experience with primary literature. These changes are consistent with a more competent perception of the primary literature, in which these students increasingly focus on challenges requiring critical thinking. Students' difficulties identified here can inform the design of instructional approaches aimed to teach students how to critically read scientific papers. © 2016 R. Lie, C. Abdullah, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. A Review of Literature: What Is an Ideal Internationalised School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Sherene

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a literature review conducted from 2005 to 2013 on the elements involved when a school internationalises. In the past there has been predominant focus on the teachers or the international students at schools with little emphasis on a whole school approach to internationalisation. This review considers the body…

  11. Success and failure in school mathematics: effects of instruction and school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, K

    2000-01-01

    Given the stubborn phenomenon of many children's serious difficulties and failure in mathematical learning, the hypothesis of developmental delay, or neurocognitively based deficiency should be complemented by further explanantions of children's weaknesses and substandard performance in mathematics. One obvious explanantion is that schooling and instruction for low ability children and for children with special needs is often inadequate. The present contribution examines selected research on mathematics learning under a cognitive instructional (didactical) perspective. Constructivist learning theory, the rooting of meaningful learning in concrete modeling activities, the balancing of understanding and practice in mathematics instruction, diagnostic and adaptive teaching, computer-assisted instruction, and the role of nonmathematical stumbling-blocks are discussed as principles and factors of effective mathematics learning and teaching.

  12. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership for Middle School Students of Color with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon-Luster, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…

  13. Target Inquiry: Changing Chemistry High School Teachers' Classroom Practices and Knowledge and Beliefs about Inquiry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Luxford, Karen M.; Luxford, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Inquiry-based instruction requires a deep, conceptual understanding of the process of science combined with a sophisticated knowledge of teaching and learning. This study examines the changes in classroom instructional practices and corresponding changes to knowledge and beliefs about inquiry instruction for eight high school chemistry teachers.…

  14. A Methodological Study of a Computer-Managed Instructional Program in High School Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jon James

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an instructional model which utilized the computer to produce individually prescribed instructional guides in physics at the secondary school level. The sample consisted of three classes. Of these, two were randomly selected to serve as the treatment groups, e.g., individualized instruction and…

  15. Effectiveness of Word Solving: Integrating Morphological Problem-Solving within Comprehension Instruction for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…

  16. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  17. Principals' instructional management skills and middle school science teacher job satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Harper, Nzinga A.

    The purpose of this research study was to determine if a relationship exists between teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behaviors and middle school teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, this study sought to assess whether principal's instructional leadership skills were predictors of middle school teachers' satisfaction with work itself. This study drew from 13 middle schools in an urban Mississippi school district. Participants included teachers who taught science. Each teacher was given the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS; Hallinger, 2011) and the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ; Lester, 1987) to answer the research questions. The study was guided by two research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between the independent variables Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program and the dependent variable Work Itself?; (b) Are Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program predictors of Work Itself? The Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis were utilized to examine the relationship between the three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. The data revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation between all three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. However, the multiple regression analysis determined that teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional management skills is a slight predictor of Defining the School's Mission only.

  18. Teacher’s Instructional Behaviour in Instructional Management at Elementary School Reviewed from Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Astuti Ni Putu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing aimed at (1 describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2 describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classified the cognitive development into concrete operational marked by the use of clear and logic rules. The children implement logic thinking on concrete object, yet abstract or hypothetical. Although the intelligence of this step has been advanced, the way of thinking of the children is still limited because still based on concrete object. Therefore, teacher should comprehend the importance of concrete operational instructional at elementary school so the children could maximally achieve the learning goal in accordance to their thinking level that they acquire. The suggestion that can be proposed is that the teacher should synergize the characteristics of elementary school students in concrete operational stage with the instructional readiness in the steps of planning, implementation and evaluation.

  19. Including Fathers in School Psychology Literature: A Review of Four School Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Jennifer L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that fathers have a significant influence on their children's success in school. To examine the ways in which fathers have been represented in school psychology literature, the authors searched over 1,000 recent articles published in four leading U.S. school psychology journals ("Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology…

  20. Authentic Instruction for 21st Century Learning: Higher Order Thinking in an Inclusive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus, Betty

    2012-01-01

    The author studied a public junior high school identified as successfully implementing authentic instruction. Such instruction emphasizes higher order thinking, deep knowledge, substantive conversation, and value beyond school. To determine in what ways higher order thinking was fostered both for students with and without disabilities, the author…

  1. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  2. Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors of School Principals by Means of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increases school accountability and requires educators to improve student academic outcomes using evidence-based practice. One factor that contributes to desirable school outcomes is principals' instructional leadership behaviors. Principals who allocate more time to instructional leadership behaviors are more…

  3. Reading Achievement and Reading Efficacy Changes for Middle School Students with Disabilities through Blended Learning Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Jesse R.; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a blended learning instructional experience for sixth-grade students in an English/language arts (ELA) course. Students at two treatment schools participated in a blended learning instructional paradigm, and their ELA test scores were compared to one comparison school that used a face-to-face delivery. Other…

  4. Curricular and Instructional Differentiation in Magnet Schools: Market Driven or Institutionally Entrenched?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Charles

    This paper examines market and institutional perspectives to provide a framework for exploring curricular and instructional differentiation in school choice. It reviews previous research on the relationship between school choice and curricular, and instructional differentiation and innovation, and explores the extent to which principals and…

  5. Ordeals of Physics Instruction in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Way Forward for the Attainment of Global Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderonmu, Temitope S. B.; Obafemi, Deborah T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Physics instruction in secondary schools is a fundamental panacea towards achieving scientific knowledgeable citizens which can propel a nation in the realization of a sustainable economic force. This paper therefore x-rayed ordeals of physics instruction in Nigerian secondary schools and the way forward for the attainment of global…

  6. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  7. Beyond the Initiatives: Developing instructional leadership in school principals as a system-wide effort to improve the quality of classroom instruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Sondra Denise

    2016-01-01

    This design research effort implemented a series of intervention activities designed to support a small group of elementary school principals improve their instructional leadership practices. The purpose of this research was to improve the skills of principals to lead instructional improvements identified through classroom observations, work with their school-level Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) to create teacher professional development that addresses the instructional improvement, and ...

  8. Teacher candidates' perceptions regarding the integration of fictional literature into elementary science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Daphne Jane

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs held by teacher candidates (TCs) regarding the integration of fictional literature into elementary science instruction. Data were collected in the forms of a Q sort completed by two sections of TCs as an in-class activity, demographics and background information filled out by each participant, and two focus groups. The data were analyzed through a blend of Q methodology and Yin's five phase analysis approach (2011), and a constructivist framework was used to analyze the potential impact TCs' background had on their perceptions of the use of fictional literature in elementary science. Key findings indicated that while many TCs have limited backgrounds in the use of fictional literature during science and would like more information about how to use it, overall, there was strong support for its use as a science teaching tool because it makes science more approachable, builds excitement, and encourages students to become more engaged.

  9. New York State Middle Schools and Instructional Scheduling, Teaming and Common Planning: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Chad; Babo, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding the type of instructional scheduling utilized along with the use of teaming and common planning at the middle school level has not been collected nor reported on the New York State School Report Card, and therefore it is not known whether and how middle schools are implementing these three school supports. Consequently, the purpose…

  10. Instructional and Career Guidance in STEM: An Improvement Initiative to Create Opportunities for Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Aaron Heath

    The purpose of this disquisition is to disseminate an improvement initiative in a public high school that addressed female Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) disparity in STEM classes. In this high school current instructional and career guidance practices were inadequate in providing female STEM students opportunities to experience relevant instruction in STEM through the application of real world practices. The improvement initiative identified four interventions using qualitative research that addressed the question, how do instructional and career guidance practices that emphasize the real world application of STEM impact the academic choices and career aspirations of female STEM students? The interventions include (1) instructional feedback (2) instructional resources, (3) career coaching, and (4) community college partnership. These interventions were chosen as a result of insider research methods that followed a scan, focus, summarize framework for understanding the problem. The aim of the improvement initiative was to develop structured protocols that impact STEM classroom and career guidance practices. An intervention team intended to identify opportunities for female STEM students to experience the real world application of STEM. First, the research context is explained. Then, a review of the literature explains foundation knowledge that led to the conceptual and leadership framework. Next, the research methodology is outlined including design and participants, survey instruments, procedures, timeline, and measures. The research methodology is followed by an analysis of data for instructional and career guidance practice efficacy. Finally, a discussion of the initiative and its outcome are illustrated through the stories of three female STEM students. As a result of these stories, the intervention team developed STEM classroom observation protocols. These protocols can be used by school leaders as a structure for STEM instruction and career

  11. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  12. Sequence and Uniformity in the High School Literature Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Edwin H.

    A good, sequential literature program for secondary school students should deal simultaneously with literary forms, with the chronological development of literature, and with broad themes of human experience. By employing the abundance of teaching aids, texts, and improved foreign translations available today, an imaginatively planned program can…

  13. Making American Literatures in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a Martin Luther King Program Series developed from a school-wide effort to "cherish differences and honor common humanity." Provides a brief description of three events from that series: (1) a coffee house poetry night; (2) a Martin Luther King day program; and (3) a Harlem Dance Company program, "Dancing Through…

  14. Working Together To Become Proficient Readers. Early Impact of the Talent Development Middle School's Student Team Literature Program. Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Plank, Stephen B.; Balfanz, Robert

    The Talent Development Model of Middle School Reform includes a "Student Team Literature" (STL) program that relies on: (1) curricular materials designed to assist students to study great literature; (2) recommended instructional practices, peer assistance processes, and assessments; and (3) staff development, mentoring, and advising to…

  15. The Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Radio Instruction for Improving Primary School Instruction in Honduras, Bolivia and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Thomas D.; And Others

    Findings are presented from studies on the use of radio for teaching primary school children mathematics in Honduras and Bolivia and English as a Second Language in Lesotho. Interactive radio instruction (IRI) is so called because of the active participation of the students. Although lessons are presented by conventional radio, scripts are written…

  16. Collaboration of chemistry instructional games and group investigation (Gi) model to improve learning outcome in high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspita, Ita; Sugiyarto, Kristian H.; Ikhsan, Jaslin

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this research are to: (1) develop chemistry instructional games on reaction rate matter; and (2) reveal the collaboration of chemistry instructional games and group investigation model to improvement learning outcome in high school student. This study is research and development (R&D). The procedure of developing product was adapted from Borg & Gall that modified into three principal steps: product planning, product developing, and product evaluating. The product planning step consist of field study, literature study, and manufacturing product. Product developing was developed product using Adobe Flash Professional CS 6 program. The last, product evaluating was performed by year XI of high school students, uses experimental methods nonequivalent control-group design by control class and experiment class. The results of this research show that: (1) a software of chemistry instructional games successfully developed using Adobe Flash Professional CS 6 and can be run on Android device; and (2) the test results of students showed that the collaboration of instructional games and group investigation model able to improvement learning outcome of hight school student.

  17. THE CONSTRUCTIVIST INSTRUCTION THROUGH CONCEPTUAL MAPS – A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DRĂGAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The constructivism, seen as a postmodern paradigm, discusses education based on classical and modern practices. Constructivist methods highlighted as a tool, the conceptual maps, an innovative learning method that captures the manner in which an individual perceives the relationships between things, ideas or people, solving problems they face with and how they use their memory. In the past 10 years, conceptual maps were used as a tool to support meaningful learning in science teaching and to help the students and experts to represent and to visualize knowledge in a structured manner. The study " The constructivist instruction through conceptual maps – A Review of the Literature" presents literature review of the maps conceptual and follows the presentation of conceptual maps taking into account their history, advantages and disadvantages shows, the way of drawing such an instrument and also the existing limits of the method.

  18. Computer Managed Instruction - Is It A System For Your School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a primer providing the distinction between computer-assisted instruction and computer-managed instruction (CMI), as well as application notes on how CMI contributes to cost-effective achievement of individualized instruction and enhanced student learning. (Author/BB)

  19. Flute Teachers’ One-to-One Instructional Strategies at Individual Teaching Stages in Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kavčič Pucihar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one-to-one studio based instrumental instruction in music schools. Some novelties in the music school woodwind curricula are presented within various contexts. Teacher – student relationship, their interactions, and knowledge transfer are essential in individual instrumental instruction. The learning process is systematically structured within six teaching stages, ranging from new content presentation to learning reviews. We examined music school flute teachers’ beliefs (N=78 about teaching stages in individual studio based instruction. We researched their new content teaching strategies, guided practice and reinforcement, feedback, homework monitoring strategies, formative review and assessment within music studio academic year.

  20. Evaluating the Use of Instructional Coaching as a Tool to Improve Teacher Instructional Strategies at a Title 1 Middle School: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmond, Karen W.

    2017-01-01

    This action research study focused on the use of an instructional coaching model to support teachers in the use of Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies at a low performing Title 1 middle school. The intervention was carried out over five and a half -month period and was aimed at improving teachers' classroom instruction. The…

  1. An Examination of the Instructional Leadership Role of High School Vice Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    High school vice principals do not typically play a key role in the instructional leadership duties at their sites, as they are typically responsible for being their school's chief disciplinarians, managers of attendance, and supervisors of student activities and athletics. This study examined the role and responsibilities of high school vice…

  2. Status of Instructional Physical Education Programs in Ohio Senior High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraibman, Carl

    High school level instructional physical education programs in the state of Ohio are examined to determine the quality of their organizational structure and curricula offerings. Data collected from a 74.3 percent questionnaire response from 70 Ohio school systems describes the functional arrangement of the school programs based on the sex of the…

  3. Promoting Academic Achievement in the Middle School Classroom: Integrating Effective Study Skills Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…

  4. The Value of Social Software in School Library Instruction, Communication, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    As budget cuts loom in school districts across the nation, school librarians are expected to show artifacts and share data to cement their credibility as instructional leaders, since according to Zmuda (2007) and many others, the effectiveness of the school library media program must be measured by what students learn as a result of their…

  5. The role of the principal's instructional leadership at schools in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Firmaningsih-Kolu, Yunita

    2016-01-01

    The education system in Indonesia, based on Ministry of National Education, has been performing instructional leadership as a major part of the effective school leaders’ behavior. One of the goals of instructional leadership implementation is to increase the learning outcomes of students. However, many of international student assessments have shown that Indonesia’s education system was among the incompetent countries. The purpose of the study is to analyze the implementation of instructional...

  6. Comparing Views of Primary School Mathematics Teachers and Prospective Mathematics Teachers about Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Baki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is rapidly improving in both hardware and software side. As one of the contemporary needs people should acquire certain knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits to understand this technology, to adapt to it and to make use of its benefits. In addition, as in all domains of life, change and improvement is also unavoidable for educational field. As known, change and improvement in education depends on lots of factors. One of the most important factors is teacher. In order to disseminate educational reforms, teachers themselves should accept the innovation first (Hardy, 1998, Baki, 2002; Oral, 2004. There has been variety of studies investigating teacher and prospective teachers‟ competences, attitudes and opinions (Paprzychi, Vikovic & Pierson, 1994; Hardy, 1998; Kocasaraç, 2003; Lin, Hsiech and Pierson, 2004; Eliküçük, 2006; YeĢilyurt, 2006; Fendi, 2007; Teo, 2008; Arslan, Kutluca & Özpınar, 2009. As the common result of these studies indicate that teachers‟ interest towards using instructional technology have increased. Accordingly, most of the teachers began to think that using instructional technologies becomes inevitable for teachers. By reviewing the related literature, no studies have been come across comparing the opinions of teachers and teacher candidates about instructional technologies. In this study, it was aimed to investigate and compare the views of mathematics teachers with prospective mathematics teachers about ICT. It was considered that collecting opinions of teachers and teachers candidates about the instructional technologies, comparing and contrasting them will contribute to the field. To follow this research inquiry, a descriptive approach type; case study research design was applied. The reason for choosing such design is that the case study method permits studying one aspect of the problem in detail and in a short time (Yin, 2003; Çepni, 2007. The study was conducted with the total sample of 12. 3 of

  7. Qualities of the medical school dean: insights from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C; Magrane, Diane; Kirch, Darrell G

    2008-05-01

    To review the literature and resources for professional development of medical school executives in order to identify the characteristics proposed as relevant to medical school deanship. In 2006, the authors conducted a PubMed search using the key words leadership, dean, medical school, and academic medical center to identify relevant publications since 1995. Articles were excluded that that did not address the roles and responsibilities of the North American medical school dean. Articles gleaned through review of materials from relevant executive development programs and interviews with leaders involved in these programs were added. Both management skills (e.g., institutional assessment, strategic planning, financial stewardship, recruitment and retention of talent) and leadership skills (e.g., visioning, maximizing values, building constituency) are commonly cited as important deans of contemporary medical schools. Key content knowledge (e.g., academic medical center governance, expectations of clinicians and scientists, process of medical education) and certain attitudes (e.g., commitment to the success of others, appreciation of institutional culture) are also noted to be valuable qualities for medical school deans. The literature review identifies a number of areas of knowledge and skill consistently affirmed by scholars as important to success for medical school deans. These characteristics can provide a basic foundation for needs assessment and professional development activities of academic medical executives preparing for and entering medical school deanships, and they can also provide insight to those charged with selecting their next dean.

  8. Flipped Instruction with English Language Learners at a Newcomer High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Kevin J.; Hall, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Research on flipped instruction with English Language Learners (ELLs) is sparse. Data-driven flipped research conducted with ELLs primarily involves adult learners attending a college or university. This study examined the academic performance of secondary ELLs who received flipped instruction in an algebra course at a newcomer school compared to…

  9. Relationship between the Instructional Leadership Behaviors of High School Principals and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Nuray; Erdogan, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and teachers' perceptions of organizational commitment and to test the extent to which instructional leadership behaviors predict organizational commitment. The study is designed in relational method. The…

  10. Lost Instruction: The Disparate Impact of the School Discipline Gap in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Whitaker, Amir

    2017-01-01

    This report is the first to analyze California's school discipline data as measured by days of missed instruction due to suspension. The state reports the number of suspensions for each district, disaggregated by racial/ethnic groups, but it does not provide any information on how much instructional time was lost. The authors used information from…

  11. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  12. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  13. Effects of Applying Blogs to Assist Life Education Instruction for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Kao, Mei-Chuan; Yen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to explore the effects of applying blog-assisted life education instruction to fifth grade elementary school students. The subjects were 30 fifth-grade students from southern Taiwan. The teaching experiment lasted 10 weeks with three sessions conducted each week. In the experiment, instructional effectiveness and the…

  14. Elementary School Principals' Knowledge of Literacy Development and Instruction and Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the knowledge of literacy development and reading instruction practices an elementary school principal possesses impacts the level of reading achievement of his/her students. Principals' scores on an assessment of knowledge of literacy development and instruction were compared to students'…

  15. Instructional Management of a Private and a Government Secondary School Principal in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the instructional management of a private and a government secondary school principal in the Gigit-Baltistan region of Northern Pakistan. The study used the following lenses to examine the instructional behavior of the two principals: supervisory techniques, professional development activities, curriculum enrichment, and…

  16. Multiple Representation Instruction First versus Traditional Algorithmic Instruction First: Impact in Middle School Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raymond; Koontz, Esther; Inan, Fethi A.; Alagic, Mara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the order of two teaching approaches on students' abilities and on-task behaviors while learning how to solve percentage problems. Two treatment groups were compared. MR first received multiple representation instruction followed by traditional algorithmic instruction and TA first received these teaching…

  17. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  18. Instructional Materials Physics High School with Multi Representation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvita Widi Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bahan Ajar Fisika SMA dengan Pendekatan Multi Representasi Abstract: One effort to improve understanding of concepts and problem-solving skills in learning physics is to provide instructional materials in accordance with the characteristics of the students and help students learn. The purpose of this study are: (1 developing a high school physics teaching materials especially materials Rotation Dynamics and Equilibrium Rigid objects using multiple representations approach to improve the understanding of physics concepts, (2 test the effectiveness of instructional materials development results. This research method is the development of research using Dick & Carey model tailored to the needs of research. The research instrument used in the form of feasibility questionnaire. The type of data that is obtained is quantitative data and qualitative data. Experimental results show that the result of the development of teaching materials can be categorized as very feasible. Results of field trials showed that: (1 most of the students in the experimental class above KKM obtain test results, (2 the results of the experimental class postes greater than the control class, so that teaching materials said to be effective, but not significant to improve the understanding of physics concepts. Key Words: teaching materials, multi-representation, the rotational dynamics Abstrak: Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan pemahaman konsep dan kemampuan memecahkan masalah dalam pembelajaran fisika adalah dengan menyediakan bahan ajar yang sesuai dengan karakteristik siswa dan memudahkan siswa dalam belajar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengembangkan bahan ajar fisika SMA khususnya materi Dinamika Rotasi dan Kesetimbangan Benda Tegar menggunakan pendekatan multi representasi untuk meningkatkan pemahaman konsep fisika, (2 menguji efektifitas bahan ajar hasil pengembangan. Metode penelitian ini adalah penelitian pengembangan menggunakan model Dick & Carey yang

  19. Computer Simulations to Support Science Instruction and Learning: A critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen; Bell, Randy L.

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have explored the effectiveness of computer simulations for supporting science teaching and learning during the past four decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the literature on the impact of computer simulations on science teaching and learning, with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and providing guidance for future research. We report on the outcomes of 61 empirical studies dealing with the efficacy of, and implications for, computer simulations in science instruction. The overall findings suggest that simulations can be as effective, and in many ways more effective, than traditional (i.e. lecture-based, textbook-based and/or physical hands-on) instructional practices in promoting science content knowledge, developing process skills, and facilitating conceptual change. As with any other educational tool, the effectiveness of computer simulations is dependent upon the ways in which they are used. Thus, we outline specific research-based guidelines for best practice. Computer simulations are most effective when they (a) are used as supplements; (b) incorporate high-quality support structures; (c) encourage student reflection; and (d) promote cognitive dissonance. Used appropriately, computer simulations involve students in inquiry-based, authentic science explorations. Additionally, as educational technologies continue to evolve, advantages such as flexibility, safety, and efficiency deserve attention.

  20. Immigrant Youth in Canadian Health Promoting Schools: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; McPherson, Charmaine; Murray-Orr, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, we review empirical, theoretical, and substantial grey literature in relation to immigrant youth and health promoting schools (HPS). We examine the health promotion concept to consider how it may inform the HPS model. Using Canada as an example, we examine current immigrant youth demographics and define several key terms including…

  1. Beliefs and Practices of Writing Instruction in Japanese Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lucy K.; Kite, Yuriko

    2018-01-01

    Focusing on writing instruction within an era of international curricular reform, this study analysed classroom observations, educator interviews, and documents related to Japanese elementary writing instruction. A deductive approach using discourses of writing framework and an inductive approach to Japanese cultural practices uncovered beliefs…

  2. Developing android-based science instructional media to improve scientific literacy of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, I. I.; Jumadi; Wilujeng; Senam

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study are: to develop android-based science instructional media and to reveal the characteristic, the quality, and the effectiveness of android-based science instructional media with global warming topic to increase junior high school students’ scientific literacy. This study is a development research. The instructional media were reviewed by a media expert, a material expert, science teachers, peer reviewers, and students. The data was collected using media evaluation questionnaires. The results of the study showed that: (1) the android-based science instructional media has characteristics including interesting visualization, easy to use, flexible, and practical, (2) the android-based science instructional media was appropriate for teaching, in terms of material evaluation aspects, media evaluation aspects, and based on student test results, and (3) the android-based science instructional media can effectively used for teaching.

  3. Instructional Materials Commonly Employed by Foreign Language Teachers at Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Çakır

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the teachers’ choices of instructional materials in teaching English at elementary schools. The reasons behind preferring or not preferring some certain instructional materials specified within the research were analysed. To this end, during the course of School Experience, 68 prospective English teachers observed 38 teachers of English working at 14 elementary schools on a weekly basis, and they completed a questionnaire. A semi-structured interview was also conducted with five randomly selected teachers to identify their reasons for choosing certain instructional materials. The descriptive results revealed that most of the teachers were reluctant to use many of the highly beneficial materials due to reasons including overcrowded classes, limited technological knowledge, lack of time for preparation, curricular time constraints, heavy work load, burnout etc. The study suggests that apart from course-books teachers should be encouraged to use other instructional materials to motivate learners and offer an interactive foreign language teaching atmosphere.

  4. Instructional materials commonly employed by foreign language teachers at elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Çakır

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the teachers’ choices of instructional materials in teaching English at elementary schools. The reasons behind preferring or not preferring some certain instructional materials specified within the research were analysed. To this end, during the course of School Experience, 68 prospective English teachers observed 38 teachers of English working at 14 elementary schools on a weekly basis, and they completed a questionnaire. A semi-structured interview was also conducted with five randomly selected teachers to identify their reasons for choosing certain instructional materials. The descriptive results revealed that most of the teachers were reluctant to use many of the highly beneficial materials due to reasons including overcrowded classes, limited technological knowledge, lack of time for preparation, curricular time constraints, heavy work load, burnout etc. The study suggests that apart from course-books teachers should be encouraged to use other instructional materials to motivate learners and offer an interactive foreign language teaching atmosphere.

  5. Instructional Technology and School Ethos: A Primary School Model in Southwest England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jon Byker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The way in which information and communication technology (ICT enhances the dimensions of teaching and student learning is not well understood. As a result, schools and teacher often integrate ICT with little thought to how it could be educationally profitable or pedagogically meaningful. The literature calls for models of primary school ICT integration. This paper reports on a case study of a primary school (or elementary school model of technology integration. Specifically, the case study investigates a public, primary school located in rural Southwest England. In particular, the paper describes how ICT is integrated in a Grade Six classroom in this primary school. Using a mixed-methods research methodology, the study’s data is drawn from 60 participants (n=60, including the school’s teachers and students. The analyses of this study uncovered a strong link between successful ICT integration and school ethos. Furthermore, the study found that along with school ethos the teacher leadership fostered an environment where the integration of ICT can flourish and students are motivated to learn.

  6. Recency or Relevance: A Quest for Pedagogical Framework in Teaching Philippine and World Literature in Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bañez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical questions on whether recency or relevance of literary texts, and the importance of generic academic over discipline-based learning objectives as the core of literature instruction are increasingly becoming the interest of debates in senior high school education. Hence, this study determined the degree of importance of literary instruction in preparation for college education and workplace challenges as assessed by 38 Grade 11 students at Malvar Senior High School, Philippines during the school year 2016-2017. By employing the survey type of descriptive research with a self-made questionnaire, it was found out that the respondents assessed both recency and relevance as important consideration in selecting literary texts. They also perceived that discipline-based/work-oriented learning objectives, especially those that focus on honing their human relation skills, were relevant in preparing themselves for college education and workplace responsibilities. Moreover, the respondents preferred language-based activities that tend to provide the former opportunities and develop other complex skills which are important in tertiary education and workplace challenges. With these, revitalizing the literature instruction in the senior high school is highly recommended in this study.

  7. Anti-bullying interventions in schools: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge Luiz da; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Andrade, Luciane Sá de; Bazon, Marina Rezende; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review addressing rigorously planned and assessed interventions intended to reduce school bullying. The search for papers was performed in four databases (Lilacs, Psycinfo, Scielo and Web of Science) and guided by the question: What are the interventions used to reduce bullying in schools? Only case-control studies specifically focusing on school bullying without a time frame were included. The methodological quality of investigations was assessed using the SIGN checklist. A total of 18 papers composed the corpus of analysis and all were considered to have high methodological quality. The interventions conducted in the revised studies were divided into four categories: multi-component or whole-school, social skills training, curricular, and computerized. The review synthesizes knowledge that can be used to contemplate practices and intervention programs in the education and health fields with a multidisciplinary nature.

  8. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Fankhauser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  9. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  10. The Effect of Cluster-Based Instruction on Mathematic Achievement in Inclusive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarhadi, Sunardi; Anwar, Mohammad; Andayani, Tri Rejeki; Shaari, Abdull Sukor

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of Cluster-Based Instruction (CBI) on the academic achievement of Mathematics in inclusive schools. The sample was 68 students in two intact classes, including those with learning disabilities, selected using a cluster random technique among 17 inclusive schools in the regency of Surakarta. The two…

  11. Revisiting Instructional and Transformational Leadership: The Contemporary Norwegian Context of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Marit; Brandmo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the taxonomy of two conceptual models of leadership roles for principals--instructional and transformational leadership (IL and TL)--can be traced empirically in a sample of Norwegian school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The participants consisted of 149 school leaders attending a…

  12. Instructional Supervision and the Pedagogical Practices of Secondary School Teachers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malunda, Paul; Onen, David; Musaazi, John C. S.; Oonyu, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the effect of instructional supervision by school authorities on the pedagogical practices of teachers in public secondary schools in Uganda. To date, research into this field in the country has focused more on the technicalities of supervision rather than on how the teachers have been responding to it. The study employed a…

  13. Rochester Castle MMORPG: Instructional Gaming and Collaborative Learning at a Western Australian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark J. W.; Eustace, Ken; Fellows, Geoff; Bytheway, Allan; Irving, Leah

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a project to develop and test the use of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) for promoting computer supported collaborative learning through instructional gaming in the high school classroom. Teachers and students of English and Science at Swan View Senior High School, Western…

  14. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  15. Instructional Leadership Challenges and Practices of Novice Principals in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezorek, Douglas; Manard, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    We report on a phenomenological study of the leadership experiences of six novice, rural public school principals in a midwestern U.S. state. We situated our analysis within existing research on leadership for learning, particularly how novice principals interpreted instructional leadership challenges in the context of rural school leadership. Our…

  16. Theory into Practice: Best Practices for a School-Wide Approach to Critical Thinking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Cherrie L.

    Educators at one Georgia high school identified improved student proficiency in critical thinking as a major school goal. In order to infuse thinking skills instruction across the curriculum, a nine-member interdisciplinary team of teachers worked with a learning consultant for 1 year. Collaboration resulted in the development of a new model for…

  17. Academic Instruction at a Distance: An Examination of Holistic Teacher Perceptions in a Virtual High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Serena; Walters, Nicole McZeal; Kiekel, Jean

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine holistic perceptions of teachers in a virtual high school who deliver secondary instruction using an online format. The demand for equitable learning spaces to support both teachers and students have led to the increased demand of virtual schools. The questionnaire administered to eight online…

  18. Educating English Language Learners: Instructional Approaches and Teacher Collaboration in Philadelphia Public Schools. PERC Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Rowland, Jeannette; Hughes, Rosemary; Lin, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Districts, charter management organizations, and individual schools can learn a great deal from each other about strategies for creating robust and supportive learning environments for English Language Learners (ELLS). This brief highlights key findings about how Philadelphia public schools were crafting instructional approaches to serve their…

  19. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  20. The Instructional Practice of School Principals and Its Effect on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouali, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the practice of Cypriot school principals' instructional role and its effect on teachers' job satisfaction, and also to investigate whether higher levels of teachers' job satisfaction can be predicted when school principals deal with and accomplish their…

  1. Supplementary Reading Instruction in Alternative High Schools: A Statewide Survey of Educator Reported Practices and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Kimber L.; Yan, Min-Chi; Perzigian, Aaron B.; Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Recent data suggest that a majority of secondary students read below the level considered proficient on state standardized tests of reading. Alternative high schools, in particular, serve a high proportion of struggling readers. This survey study investigated reading instruction provided to struggling readers in alternative schools in one state by…

  2. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  3. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  4. The Best Practices for Shaping School Culture for Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer; Asberry, Jacqueline; DeJarnett, Gregory; King, Gwendolyn

    2016-01-01

    School culture is the belief and attitude influencing every aspect of how a school functions. Culture shared by all school stakeholders makes the actualization of both short-and long-term objectives easier. In this context, the best practices for shaping school culture for professional educators are personal mastery, team learning, and building a…

  5. The Relationship between Recreational Reading Habits, Knowledge of Contemporary Young Adult Literature and Anticipated Instructional Practices in Secondary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodensteiner, Lacey

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of encouraging the development of recreational reading habits in secondary students, there is considerable evidence that many secondary schools implement instructional practices that negatively shape literary experiences. This study examined the recreational reading habits of secondary education majors, their knowledge of…

  6. Comparing Efficacy of Instructional Approaches to Develop Environmental Awareness Among School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris D’Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare efficacy of self-learning, audiovisual, and fun activity instructional approaches among school students of Patna, the capital city of Bihar state of India, to develop environmental awareness. The study participants include 144 randomly selected students (72 girls and 72 boys from eight different schools of Patna. During a weeklong environmental awareness program, students were instructed using above three approaches of instruction. Data have been analyzed by using linear regression. Regression was carried out to eliminate the effect of general mental ability (GMA scores. The results suggest about overall superiority of fun activity approach over other approaches tested in the present study. However, awareness gain has been significant among the students with high GMA when instructed through audiovisual approach.

  7. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.

  8. An Investigation of Turkish Middle School Science Teachers' Pedagogical Orientations Towards Direct and Inquiry Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahingoz, Selcuk

    One of the most important goals of science education is preparing effective science teachers which includes the development of a science pedagogical orientation. Helping in-service science teachers improve their orientations toward science teaching begins with identifying their current orientations. While there are many aspects of an effective science teaching orientation, this study specifically focuses on effective pedagogy. The interest of this study is to clarify pedagogical orientations of middle school science teachers in Turkey toward the teaching of science conceptual knowledge. It focuses on what instructional preferences Turkish middle school science teachers have in theory and practice. The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to elucidate teacher pedagogical profiles toward direct and inquiry instructional approaches. For this purpose, quantitative profile data, using a Turkish version of the Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT-TR) assessment instrument, was collected from 533 Turkish middle school science teachers; 2) to identify teaching orientations of middle school science teachers and to identify their reasons for preferring specific instructional practices. For this purpose, descriptive qualitative, interview data was collected from 23 teachers attending a middle school science teacher workshop in addition to quantitative data using the POSTT-TR. These teachers sat for interviews structured by items from the POSTT-TR. Thus, the research design is mixed-method. The design provides a background profile on teacher orientations along with insights on reasons for pedagogical choices. The findings indicate that instructional preference distributions for the large group and smaller group are similar; however, the smaller workshop group is more in favor of inquiry instructional approaches. The findings also indicate that Turkish middle school science teachers appear to have variety of teaching orientations and they have varied reasons. Moreover, the

  9. Blurred Lines: The School Librarian and the Instructional Technology Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Melissa P.

    2015-01-01

    "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" (AASL, 2009) charges school librarians "to play a leading role in weaving such skills throughout the curriculum so that all members of the school community are effective users of ideas and information" (p. 46). Providing leadership in technology integration for…

  10. Middle School Foreign Language Instruction: A Missed Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissau, Scott; Adams, Mary Jo; Algozzine, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies conducted over the past decade have suggested the motivational and proficiency-related benefits of commencing language instruction at an early age. Limitations in many of these studies, however, have prevented their results from being applied to the teaching of foreign languages in the United States. In response to calls for…

  11. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research, carried out in Manicaland Province in Zimbabwe, aimed to investigate the impact of computer-assisted instruction on students' performance in Geography. The equivalent group research design which included a pre-test post-test control group design was used. Respondents to interviews and pre-test and ...

  12. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  13. Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instruction for Teaching Multi-Step Equations to Middle School Students Struggling in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Stephenson, Grant W.; Hauth, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Six middle school students identified as having a specific learning disability or at risk for mathematical difficulties were taught how to solve multi-step equations by using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model of instruction. A multiple-probe-across-pairs design was used to evaluate instructional effects. Instruction was provided…

  14. Integrating Children's Literature in Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynsey; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this professional development project was to train teachers in using children's literature for math instruction and to also examine its effect on student math learning at an elementary school. Teachers were taught how to use children's literature to instruct and enhance their math curriculum through the use of literature pieces,…

  15. Medical Literature Evaluation Education at US Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Teresa A; Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra

    2016-02-25

    To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques.

  16. Teaching geometry in schools: An investigative rather than instructive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Sanni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has documented the prevalence of lessons  characterised by homework check,  followed by teacher lecture and demonstration, followed in turn, by learner practice sequence of classroom instructional activities in  our classrooms. This sequence of classroom activities does not allow for the development of sound mathematics practices and mathematical proficiency. Meanwhile, curriculum reforms in South Africa as well as in other parts  of the world recommend classroom activities where teachers create opportunities for, listen to  and extend learners.  This paper presents  a sequence of activities to be used in the teaching of geometry and surface areas of solid shapes in a grade 8 classroom. The sequence portrays the teaching of these concepts as an investigative rather than instructive process.

  17. Illinois School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Guide. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This trainee guide contains six units of materials for use by those studying to become school bus drivers in the State of Illinois. Covered in the units are the following topics: school bus driver role and responsibility, passenger control, first aid, driving fundamentals, accidents and emergencies, and detecting hazards. Each unit contains a…

  18. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  19. Effects of Self-Instructional Learning Strategy on Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... on the learning achievement of senior secondary school students. Three research ... On the other hand, the control group was taught the same ... scientific, industrial, technological and social progress of a society. It is a ... also designed to assist middle and secondary school students who have difficulty ...

  20. Blended Learning vs. Traditional Instruction as a Predictor of Student Achievement in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the differences in student achievement on New York State standardized tests between blended learning and traditional instructional methodologies. Specifically, the study compared student achievement in iLearnNYC schools, to their peer schools that deliver instruction in a traditional manner. iLearnNYC is a blended learning…

  1. The Developmental Trend of the Medium of Instruction in Secondary Schools of Hong Kong: Prospect and Retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Belinda; Ho, Kwok Keung

    2004-01-01

    The use of students' second language as the medium of instruction in schools is quite common in former colonies of Western countries. Schools in Hong Kong have had this kind of experience for more than 150 years. In this study, three factors, namely economic, political, and educational, are found to affect the choice of medium of instruction in…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Schema Instruction on the Problem-Solving Performance of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of instructional practices have been recommended to increase the problem-solving (PS) performance of elementary school children. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically review research on the use of schema instruction to increase the PS performance of elementary school-age students. A total of 21 studies, with 3,408…

  3. Middle School Engineering Problem Solving Using Traditional vs. e-PBL Module Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baele, Loren C.

    This multiple methods (Denzin, 1978) study investigated two instructional approaches, traditional module and electronic Problem-Based Learning instruction (e-PBL), used within a middle school engineering classroom focused on the variables of engagement, content knowledge, student self-assessment and teacher assessment of problem solving solutions. A non-equivalent group quasi-experimental research design (Creswell, 2015) was used on middle school students (N = 100) between those that received traditional module instruction (n = 51) and e-PBL instruction (n = 49). The qualitative approach of triangulation (Jick, 1979) was used to identify emergent themes for both between and within methods of data analysis on student engagement survey responses, two days of field observations notes, and six student interview transcripts. The quantitative results identified that students who received e-PBL instruction self-reported significantly greater engagement than those who received traditional module instruction. Further, there was a significant interaction effect between engineering content knowledge by group and gender as males who received e-PBL instruction had greater growth of content knowledge scores than males receiving traditional instruction, while females who received traditional instruction had greater growth of content knowledge scores than females in the e-PBL group. Through triangulation of the qualitative data, the emergent themes of the study suggest that hands-on learning produces higher levels of reported engagement independent of instructional method. The emergence of problem solving fatigue developed when both study groups reported a decline in engagement when entering into the final phase of the quantitative study suggesting that too many complex, ill-structured problems in rapid succession may negatively impact student engagement. Although females within the treatment group were most engaged, they did not achieve the knowledge growth of the females in the

  4. Teaching science to English Language Learners: Instructional approaches of high school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Betty-Vinca N.

    Students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) form the fastest growing segment of the American school population. Prompted by the call for scientific literacy for all citizens, science educators too have investigated the intersection of language and science instruction of ELLs. However these studies have typically been conducted with elementary students. Few studies have explored how high school science teachers, particularly those who have not received any special training, approach science instruction of ELLs and what supports them in this endeavor. This was a qualitative case study conducted with five science teachers in one small urban high school that predominantly served ELLs. The purpose of this study was to examine instructional approaches used by teachers to make science accessible to ELLs and the factors that supported or inhibited them in developing their instructional approaches. This goal encompassed the following questions: (a) how teachers viewed science instruction of ELLs, (b) how teachers designed a responsive program to teach science to ELLs, (c) what approaches teachers used for curriculum development and instruction, (d) how teachers developed classroom learning communities to meet the needs of ELLs. Seven instructional strategies and five perceived sources of support emerged as findings of this research. In summary, teachers believed that they needed to make science more accessible for their ELL students while promoting their literacy skills. Teachers provided individualized attention to students to provide relevant support. Teachers engaged their students in various types of active learning lessons in social contexts, where students worked on both hands-on and meaning-making activities and interacted with their peers and teachers. Teachers also created classroom communities and learning spaces where students felt comfortable to seek and give help. Finally, teachers identified several sources of support that influenced their instructional

  5. Supervision of Special Education Instruction in Rural Public School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Debora Ann

    2001-01-01

    The grounded theory presented in this study describes how the supervision of special education instruction occurs in public elementary schools in rural settings. Grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was employed in this study. Nine elementary schools in three rural districts in the state of Virginia participated in the study. Interview data were collected from 34 participants, including special and general education teachers, principals, and directors of special education. Obs...

  6. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  7. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' and Students' Views on Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction in Turkey: Mathematica Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Mehmet Alper; Isleyen, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the secondary school mathematics teachers' and students' views on computer-assisted mathematics instruction (CAMI) conducted via Mathematica. Accordingly, three mathematics teachers in Adiyaman and nine 10th-grade students participated in the research. Firstly, the researchers trained the mathematics teachers in the…

  8. Pedagogical Factors Affecting Integration of Computers in Mathematics Instruction in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjala, Martin M. S.; Aurah, Catherine M.; Symon, Koros C.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports findings of a study which sought to examine the pedagogical factors that affect the integration of computers in mathematics instruction as perceived by teachers in secondary schools in Kenya. This study was based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A descriptive survey design was used for this study. Stratified and simple…

  9. Within-Year Changes in Chinese Secondary School Students' Perceived Reading Instruction and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to expand on existing research about motivational change by investigating within-year changes of adolescents' intrinsic reading motivation and perceived reading instruction among students from different grades and achievement levels. Six hundred and ninety five students from 10 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily completed…

  10. Development of an Instrument to Measure Higher Order Thinking Skills in Senior High School Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanujaya, Benidiktus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument that can be used to measure higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in mathematics instruction of high school students. This research was conducted using a standard procedure of instrument development, from the development of conceptual definitions, development of operational definitions,…

  11. Teaching Weight-Gravity and Gravitation in Middle School: Testing a New Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal; Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the school instruction of the concept of weight. The historical review reveals the major steps in changing weight definition reflecting the epistemological changes in physics. The latest change drawing on the operation of "weighing" has been not widely copied into physics education. We compared the older instruction…

  12. Instructional Design to Measure the Efficacy of Interactive E-Books in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabrua Batoon, Maria Victoria; Glasserman Morales, Leonardo David; Yanez Figueroa, Jose Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive ebooks in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study…

  13. Principals' Application of Instructional Leadership Practices for Secondary School Effectiveness in Oyo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyce, Onyali Chiedozie; Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale

    2017-01-01

    This study ascertained the principals' application of instructional leadership practices for secondary school effectiveness in Oyo State. Two research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 8,701 which were made of 969…

  14. The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

  15. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  16. How School Principals Can Foster Effective Literacy Instruction: A Ten-Step Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchman, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    School principals can foster effective literacy instruction by orchestrating community collaboration in an ongoing cycle of literacy program development, implementation, evaluation, and revision outlined in this ten-step plan. The steps address forming a community advisory board, appointing a building literacy leader, forming a literacy team,…

  17. Needs of the Learning Effect on Instructional Website for Vocational High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Fu, Gwo-Liang; Chuang, Kuei-Chih

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of study was to understand the correlation between the needs of the learning effect on instructional website for the vocational high school students. Our research applied the statistic methods of product-moment correlation, stepwise regression, and structural equation method to analyze the questionnaire with the sample size of 377…

  18. Guide to Effective Business Practices in Buying School Supplies, Instructional Materials, Equipment and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This guide to effective business practices is intended to assist schools in establishing general policies and procedures for buying supplies, instructional materials, equipment, and services. Federal, state, and local laws must be considered in addition to the recommendations made in this report. Practical guidelines are given for selecting…

  19. Institutionalizing Peer-Mediated Instruction and Interventions in Schools: Beyond "Train and Hope."

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Sears, Margaret E.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for knowing when to institutionalize peer-mediated instruction and interventions (PMII), and generalization techniques familiar to special educators are linked specifically to institutionalization of PMII. Barriers and promoters of sustained PMII in schools are identified, with implications for how stakeholders…

  20. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  1. Does the Structure of Dental Hygiene Instruction Impact Plaque Control in Primary School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaizzi, Lynda R; Tomar, Scott L; Urdegar, Steven M; Kass, Susan H

    2015-06-01

    A 6-month pilot study was conducted to test the assumption that an interactive, contextualized tooth brushing education program would impact the oral hygiene of low income students. The intervention consisted of an educational program focused on tooth brushing that included interactive sessions with dental professionals and teachers. School 1 students received instruction, toothbrushes, and encouragement to brush their teeth daily after lunch. School 2 students received instruction only. School 3 students only received toothbrushes to remove plaque. Children in all 3 schools were examined by trained dental hygiene students who used plaque disclosing liquid to score the amount of plaque. A predictive correlational design was used to determine the extent that different intervention types and/or demographic/hygiene practices predicted differences in post intervention plaque level, once baseline plaque level was taken into account. A total of 254 first and second grade students in 3 public elementary schools in Miami participated in the study. Overall, mean plaque scores were significantly lower at the 6 month follow-up. Between-group comparisons of the mean follow-up scores, adjusted for the effect of the baseline scores, revealed greater but non-significant plaque reduction at School 1 compared to the other schools, and the presence of significant age and ethnic effects. The most intensive intervention instruction accompanied by repeated practice may lead to improved oral hygiene when compared to instruction alone, when oral hygiene practices and demographic characteristics are taken into account. Design changes intended to increase statistical power may help to explicate these effects. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  2. Instructional strategies in science classrooms of specialized secondary schools for the gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Donna Lorraine

    This study examined the extent to which science teachers in Academic Year Governor's Schools were adhering to the national standards for suggested science instruction and providing an appropriate learning environment for gifted learners. The study asked 13 directors, 54 instructors of advanced science courses, and 1190 students of advanced science courses in 13 Academic Year Governor's Schools in Virginia to respond to researcher-developed surveys and to participate in classroom observations. The surveys and classroom observations collected demographic data as well as instructors' and students' perceptions of the use of various instructional strategies related to national science reform and gifted education recommendations. Chi-square analyses were used to ascertain significant differences between instructors' and students' perceptions. Findings indicated that instructors of advanced science classes in secondary schools for the gifted are implementing nationally recognized gifted education and science education instructional strategies with less frequency than desired. Both students and instructors concur that these strategies are being implemented in the classroom setting, and both concur as to the frequency with which the implementation occurs. There was no significant difference between instructors' and students' perceptions of the frequency of implementation of instructional strategies. Unfortunately, there was not a single strategy that students and teachers felt was being implemented on a weekly or daily basis across 90% of the sampled classrooms. Staff development in gifted education was found to be minimal as an ongoing practice. While this study offers some insights into the frequency of strategy usage, the study needs more classroom observations to support findings; an area of needed future research. While this study was conducted at the secondary level, research into instructional practices at the middle school and elementary school gifted science

  3. Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

  4. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students’ ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Siew Eng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students‟ ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this initiative was to provide information to assist ESL teachers about their students‟ reading ability and to determine students' reading comprehension performance standards. The auto generated data is expected to facilitate classroom instructional process without necessitating teachers to prepare test materials or manage data of their students‟ reading comprehension track records. The respondents were 1,514 Year 5 students from urban and rural schools from a district in northern Malaysia. The idea was conceptualised through a series of tests and development of the Reading Evaluation and Decoding System (READS for Primary Schools. The findings indicated that majority of the respondents were „below standard‟ and „at academic warning‟. We believe the generated data can assist the Ministry of Education to develop better quality instructional processes that are evidence based with a more focused reading instruction and reading material to tailor to the needs of students.

  5. Music and Dance Instruction in Basic Schools in Ghana: v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors militating against the girl – child's music and dance education in basic schools in Ghana. The Population were music and dance teachers in Ghanaian pre-tertiary institutions, while purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample that covered all the 2005 of the 400 level music ...

  6. Differentiated Instruction in an Elementary School EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school English teachers in Taiwan face classes of students with differing levels of English proficiency, to the point where about one-third of the students may have never learned English before, and another third may already have read Harry Potter in English. A successful teacher recognizes that diversity may affect learning and works…

  7. training needs of school inspectors for quality instruction in delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com ... 29. Jude Ekuevugbe Omorigho, Post Primary Education Board, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. ... Effective communication training for school .... Decision. Inspectors. 3.12. 0.25. Important. Headmasters. 2.96. 0.11. Table 3, shows that the individual means.

  8. The Middle School Learner: Instructional Planning for a Transitional Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James

    1978-01-01

    Examines Piaget's concrete and formal operational stages of intellectual development in relation to the middle school learner. Presents teaching strategies requiring the learner to use concrete and formal operational forms of thought in dealing with a social studies unit about Quebec. (Author/JK)

  9. Instructional Strategies and Practices Used to Enhance Student Success in the High School Algebra I Inclusive Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Lillian Margretta

    2003-01-01

    Instructional Strategies and Practices Used to Enhance Student Success in the High School Algebra I Inclusive Classroom Lillian M. Lowery Dr. Jean B. Crockett, Chair (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the instructional conditions and practices described as successful for teachers in the Algebra I inclusive classroom. In the southeastern suburban school district used for this study, students who began their freshman year of high school in fiscal y...

  10. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  11. Literature Discussion: Encouraging Reading Interest and Comprehension in Struggling Middle School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…

  12. The effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Felita

    Student achievement in the Twenty First Century demands a new rigor in student science knowledge, since advances in science and technology require students to think and act like scientists. As a result, students must acquire proficient levels of knowledge and skills to support a knowledge base that is expanding exponentially with new scientific advances. This study examined the effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of hands-on science instruction versus traditional science instruction on the science test scores of middle school students. The subjects in this study were one hundred and twenty sixth-grade students in six classes. Instruction involved lecture/discussion and hands-on activities carried out for a three week period. Specifically, the study ascertained the influence of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the science test scores of middle school students. Additionally, this study assessed the effect of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the attitudes of sixth grade students toward science. The two instruments used to collect data for this study were the Prentice Hall unit ecosystem test and the Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers Study (SWEPT) student's attitude survey. Moreover, the data for the study was treated using the One-Way Analysis of Covariance and the One-Way Analysis of Variance. The following findings were made based on the results: (1) A statistically significant difference existed in the science performance of middle school students exposed to hands-on science instruction. These students had significantly higher scores than the science performance of middle school students exposed to traditional instruction. (2) A statistically significant difference did not exist between the science scores of male and female middle school students. (3) A statistically

  13. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

  14. Emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; de Moor, Jan; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of emergent literacy instruction. While time dedicated to storybook reading and independent picture-book reading was comparable, the children with CP received fewer opportunities to work with educational software and more time was dedicated to rhyming games and singing. For the children with CP, the level of speech, intellectual, and physical impairments were all related to the amount of time in emergent literacy instruction. Additionally, the amount of time reading precursors is trained and the number of specific reading precursors that is trained is all related to skills of emergent literacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction for Students with Specific Learning Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This review was conducted to evaluate the current body of scholarly research regarding the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach mathematics to students with specific learning disability (SLD). For many years, computers are utilized for educational purposes. However, the effectiveness of CAI for teaching mathematics to this specific…

  16. Direct Instruction in Second Language Acquisition: A Critical Review of Related Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Hjalmar Punla

    2017-01-01

    Second Language Acquisition (SLA), as a sub-discipline in applied linguistics, is rapidly growing and changing (Ellis & Shintani, 2014). As such, it has yielded stirring issues on both naturalistic and instructed settings causing reviews and/or investigations by language researchers. This paper accordingly serves as a humble attempt at…

  17. "You Know I Hate It when People Half Ass Things": A Case Study of a High School Science Student and the Role of Pre-Instructional Activities, Goal Orientation, and Self-Efficacy in Learning with Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Samuel Arthur

    2010-01-01

    This single subject case study followed a high school student and his use of a simulation of marine ecosystems. The study examined his metaworld, motivation, and learning before, during and after using the simulation. A briefing was conceptualized based on the literature on pre-instructional activities, advance organizers, and performance…

  18. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Claudia H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14. Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design. Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days. Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P

  19. The effect of high school chemistry instruction on students' academic self-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter Wallace

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.

  20. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P

  1. The Effects of Principals' Perceived Instructional and Distributed Leadership Practices on Their Perceptions of School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Liu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which leadership styles predict school climate, in order to identify whether a relationship exists between principals' perceived practices of instructional and distributed leadership and their perceptions of school climate (mutual respect and school delinquency), controlling for a net of…

  2. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of its...

  3. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  4. Instructing high school students in forensic environmental science using Brownfield Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Patterson, Angelica; Kelsey, Ryan; Cox, Alice; Tynes, Nicholas

    2010-05-01

    Barnard College and Columbia University's Center for New Media Teaching and Learning's Brownfield Action is a digital web-based, interactive simulation that combines lecture, laboratory exercises, and individual and collaborative out-of-classroom assignments. The objective of the instruction is to locate and define a subsurface plume of gasoline whose point source is a leaking underground storage tank (LUST) at a gas station. In the fall of 2009, fifteen pre-college high school students from the five boroughs of New York City used Brownfield Action in a 12-week after-school enrichment program at Barnard to investigate the gasoline plume using a variety of geophysical methods - excavation, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, soil gas, and drilling. The investigation resulted in individual Phase One Site Assessment Reports about the LUST. As coordinators and instructors of the program, we will share our experience teaching the students and the advantages and challenges of using a digital simulation as an instructional centerpiece. Such instruction is intended to include civic engagement and responsibility as part of science education and to create a curriculum that, instead of relying on fragmented and abstract instruction, provides students with a realistic, inquiry-based, and interdisciplinary construction of knowledge.

  5. Profile of elementary school science teacher instruction in disaster risk reduction: case study of volcano disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianto; Prabowo; Wasis

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the profile of science' teacher instruction in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as a feature of instructional quality, on students’ learning experiences. A qualitative study was done to observe teacher activities in teaching of disaster preparedness. Science teacher and 14 students at grade 4 of SDN (elementary school) Kiyaran 2 are involved as the subject of this study. Teacher’ instruction was coded with regard to preparation, action, and evaluation using observation sheets and documentation. Data analysis results showed a positive significant effect of the readiness during preparation on learning process of disaster risk reduction and an indirect effect of teacher’ action on students’ learning experiences. There is a lack of teaching materials about volcano disaster in the elementary school. Teacher found difficulties on evaluation of student achievement in disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of DRR in uphold science teachers’ education. Items of teachers’ skill in preparing of DRR may be used to offer model of concrete instruction situation during university workshop for maintain teacher education.

  6. Using Reflective Practice to Facilitate Conversations and Transform Instructional Practice for Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Robbie L.

    The process of teaching, especially inquiry, is complex and requires extended time for developing one's instructional practice (Loucks-Horsley, Stiles, Mundry, Love, & Hewson, 2010). The implementation of a continued cycle of self-reflection can engage teachers in analyzing their prior experiences and understandings about their instructional practice to promote the accommodation of new concepts and transform their practice. However, many teachers have difficulty engaging in the cognitive dissonance needed to identify those problems and promote their own growth without support. As one's professional practice becomes more repetitive and routine, it is difficult for the practitioner to recognize opportunities in which to contemplate one's habitual actions (Schon, 1983). In this multi-case study, two middle school science teachers who were engaged within a sustained professional development initiative participated in a series of one-on-one reflective dialogues regarding the decisions they made about the utilization of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, these teachers were asked to reflect upon the criteria used to determine how and when to implement these inquiry-based practices. These reflective dialogue sessions provided the opportunity to observe teacher conceptions and stimulate teacher cognitive dissonance about instructional practice. Qualitative analysis of data collected from these reflective dialogues along with informal and formal classroom observations of instructional practice uncovered diverse perceptions regarding the implementation of inquiry-based methods into present teaching practice. The use of reflective dialogue within the existing structure of the professional development initiative allowed for the facilitators of the professional development initiative to tailor ongoing support and their effective implementation of inquiry-based instruction. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of reflective dialogue in achieving

  7. Meeting the Needs of High School Science Teachers in English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonhee; McDonnough, Jacqueline T.

    2009-08-01

    This survey study explored high school science teachers’ challenges and needs specific to their growing English language learning (ELL) student population. Thirty-three science teachers from 6 English as a Second language (ESL)-center high schools in central Virginia participated in the survey. Issues surveyed were (a) strategies used by science teachers to accommodate ELL students’ special needs, (b) challenges they experienced, and (c) support and training necessary for effective ELL instruction. Results suggest that language barriers as well as ELL students’ lack of science foundational knowledge challenged teachers most. Teachers perceived that appropriate instructional materials and pedagogical training was most needed. The findings have implications for science teacher preservice and inservice education in regard to working with language minority students.

  8. Literature and TEFL: Towards the Reintroduction of Literatures in English in the Francophone Secondary School Curriculum in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature was once regarded as being inappropriate for the teaching of the English language. Nowadays, the importance of applying  literature in the development of learners’ language skills is receiving a lot of attention by EFL/ESL practitioners worldwide (Lee 2009. In spite of such “remarkable revival of interest in literature" in the English language classroom (Duff & Maley 1990: 3, literature as a component of the English language teaching programme in secondary schools in Cameroon "remains the exception rather than the rule"  (Macalister 2008: 248. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the withdrawal of English Literature from the English as a foreign language curriculum of French-speaking Cameroonians. In the article, we statistically compare the performances of French-speaking and English-speaking Cameroonian  teacher trainees  of the department of Bilingual Studies of the Higher Teachers’ Training College of the University of Maroua in English Literature and in French Literature. We also discuss the importance and effectiveness of the different models and approaches in the development of the cultural competence and communicative skills of learners. The results obtained reveal that the studying of literatures in French by Anglophones at the Advanced Level positively influences their performances in French in Higher Education. The poor performances of Francophone Student-teachers in courses like LBL 11 (Introduction to English Literature are attributable to the fact that they do not study literatures in English at the secondary school level.

  9. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers’ and Students’ Views on Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction in Turkey: Mathematica Example

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Alper Ardıç; Tevfik İşleyen

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the secondary school mathematics teachers’ and students’ views on computer-assisted mathematics instruction (CAMI) conducted via Mathematica. Accordingly, three mathematics teachers in Adıyaman and nine 10th-grade students participated in the research. Firstly, the researchers trained the mathematics teachers in the Mathematica program, a computer algebra system (CAS) and CAMI. Then, they provided a suitable environment for teachers to practice CAMI with their ...

  10. The Quality of Instruction in Urban High Schools: Comparing Mathematics and Science to English and Social Studies Classes in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; Robinson, Shanta R.; Sebastian, James

    2012-01-01

    Is the quality of instruction systematically better in one subject than another? Teachers and students in the same Chicago high schools reported on one core-curriculum class (English, mathematics, science, or social studies) in 2007 surveys. Teachers commented on instructional demands and student participation. Students described engagement,…

  11. Disentangling School Leadership and Its Ties to Instructional Practices--An Empirical Comparison of Various Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Marcus; Tulowitzki, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and indirect ties between various leadership styles, namely, instructional, transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership, and the instructional practices of teachers by applying a structural equation model. For this purpose, we analyzed survey data of n = 3,746 teachers from 126 schools collected…

  12. Toward Effective and Compelling Instruction for High School eCommerce Students: Results from a Small Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…

  13. Children, Technology, and Instruction: A Case Study of Elementary School Children Using an Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Examines elementary school students' use of an online public access catalog to investigate the interaction between children, technology, curriculum, instruction, and learning. Highlights include patterns of successes and breakdowns; search strategies; instructional approaches and childrens' interests; structure of interaction; search terms; and…

  14. Learning for Self-regulation: Improving Instructional Benefits for Pupils, Teachers, Parents, Schools, and Society At Large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2007). Learning for Self-regulation: Improving Instructional Benefits for Pupils, Teachers, Parents, Schools, and Society At Large. Inaugural address, Open University of the Netherlands, The Netherlands.

  15. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 1: Building a Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Part I of this paper aims to create a framework for an emerging theory of evidence based information literacy instruction. In order to ground this framework in existing theory, a holistic perspective views inquiry as a learning process that synthesizes information searching and knowledge building. An interdisciplinary approach is taken to relate user-centric information behavior theory and constructivist learning theory that supports this synthesis. The substantive theories that emerge serve as a springboard for emerging theory. A second objective of this paper is to define evidence based information literacy instruction by assessing the suitability of performance based assessment and action research as tools of evidence based practice.Methods – An historical review of research grounded in user-centered information behavior theory and constructivist learning theory establishes a body of existing substantive theory that supports emerging theory for evidence based information literacy instruction within an information-to-knowledge approach. A focused review of the literature presents supporting research for an evidence based pedagogy that is performance assessment based, i.e., information users are immersed in real-world tasks that include formative assessments. An analysis of the meaning of action research in terms of its purpose and methodology establishes its suitability for structuring an evidence based pedagogy. Supporting research tests a training model for school librarians and educators which integrates performance based assessment, as well as action research. Results – Findings of an historical analysis of information behavior theory and constructivist teaching practices, and a literature review that explores teaching models for evidence based information literacy instruction, point to two elements of evidence based information literacy instruction: the micro level of information searching behavior and the macro level of

  16. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  17. Perceived Challenges in Primary Literature in a Master's Class: Effects of Experience and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Richard; Abdullah, Christopher; He, Wenliang; Tour, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature offers rich opportunities to teach students how to "think like a scientist," but the challenges students face when they attempt to read research articles are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of what master's students perceive as the most challenging aspects of engaging with primary literature. We…

  18. Perceptions about the Influence of Instructional Leadership Practices of Elementary Principals on Teachers' ELA Pedagogical Changes in High-Poverty NYC Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Linda D.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationships between instructional leadership practices of elementary school principals in high-poverty schools and changes in teachers' ELA instructional practices. This research sought to identify principals' perceptions about their use of instructional leadership practices and the teaching practices used in…

  19. Developing School Heads as Instructional Leaders in School-Based Assessment: Challenges and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Govinda Ishwar; Lingam, Narsamma

    2016-01-01

    The study explored challenges faced by school leaders in the Pacific nation of Solomon Islands in school-based assessment, and the adequacy of an assessment course to prepare them. A questionnaire including both open and closed-ended questions elicited relevant data from the school leaders. Modelling best practices in school-based assessment was…

  20. The Content of Literature in the High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dwight L.

    The content of a literature program defined in terms of the structure of literature is proposed. A three-layer definition of structure is suggested which considers (1) the substance of literature, including man and his gods, man and the natural world, man and other men, and man and himself; (2) mode in literature, including the romantic, comic,…

  1. An Evaluation of the Instruction of Generalization in Elementary School Social Studies Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were

  2. The enhancement of students’ mathematical representation in junior high school using cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to get an in-depth understanding of the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation. This study is experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this study is the students’ of the eighth grade from junior high schools in Bandung: high-level and middle-level. In each school, two parallel groups were chosen as a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group was given cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI) treatment while the control group was given conventional learning. The results show that the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation who obtained CAI treatment was better than the conventional one, viewed which can be observed from the overall, mathematical prior knowledge (MPK), and school level. It can be concluded that CAI can be used as a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ mathematical representation.

  3. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  4. Digital Citizenship Instruction in Pennsylvania Public Schools: School Leaders Expressed Beliefs and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppo, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate digital citizenship in Pennsylvania public schools based on the responses of school leaders including superintendents, curriculum coordinators, and technology coordinators. This study examined the relationship between Pennsylvania school leader's beliefs and the implementation of digital citizenship…

  5. The Reality of Virtual Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual schooling was first employed in the mid-1990s and has become a common method of distance education used in K-12 jurisdictions. The most accepted definition of a virtual school is an entity approved by a state or governing body that offers courses through distance delivery--most commonly using the Internet. While virtual schools can be…

  6. Too Few Articles in the Journal Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries are Research‐Based. A review of: Crawford, Gregory A., and Jessica Feldt. “An Analysis of the Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46.3 (Spr. 2007: 77‐87.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Blythe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover which journals publish a preponderance of the literature on instruction in academic libraries, and to further learn what topics are discussed in the literature and what methods of inquiry are used to explore those topics.Design – Comparative analysis.Setting – The ERIC database.Subjects – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002, found in the ERIC database via the descriptor ‘library instruction.’Methods – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002 were searched in the ERIC database using the term ‘library instruction,’ because the term has been used by ERIC since the inception of the database. Article characteristics such as year of publication, journal in which a given article was published, and types of articles were identified. After normalizing the identification of article types by comparing individual codifications of a random sample of articles from the results list, the researchers coded all of the articles according to the articles’ main topics. These article topics were then condensed into broader topics (e.g. articles coded initially as addressing the topics of instruction to “graduate students” or “high school students” were condensed under the heading “instruction of specific populations”. Those articles deemed to have a research component were further analyzed in terms of research methodology, scope, and use of statistics. The questions guiding the authorsʹ study consisted of:• In which journals are articles on instruction in academic libraries published?• What are the topics of the articles that have been published?• How has the literature of instruction in academic libraries changed over the years?• What is the nature of research [authorsʹ emphasis] articles on instruction in academic libraries?• For research articles, what are the research methods used and what types of statistics are utilized? (77‐78.Main results – The search found 791

  7. Instructional Experiences That Align with Conceptual Understanding in the Transition from High School Mathematics to College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the first National study on high school preparation for college calculus success, the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this article connects student high school instructional experiences to college calculus performance. The findings reported here reveal that students were better prepared for…

  8. Can Instructional Reform in Urban Middle Schools Help Students Narrow the Mathematics Performance Gap? Some Evidence from the QUASAR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Compared mathematical performance of middle school students in low-income communities involved in the QUASAR project to those of a demographically similar school and of a nationally representative sample. QUASAR mathematics instruction emphasizes reasoning, problem-solving, and understanding. Quasar students outperformed NAEP's disadvantaged urban…

  9. How Instructional Coaches Support Data-Driven Decision Making: Policy Implementation and Effects in Florida Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Martorell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the convergence of two popular school improvement policies: instructional coaching and data-driven decision making (DDDM). Drawing on a mixed methods study of a statewide reading coach program in Florida middle schools, the article examines how coaches support DDDM and how this support relates to student and teacher outcomes.…

  10. The Influence of Instructional Minutes on Grade 11 Language Arts and Mathematics High School Proficiency Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Simone E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose for this cross-sectional, non-experimental explanatory quantitative research study was to explain the amount of variance in the High School Proficiency Assessment-11 Language Arts and Mathematics scores accounted for by the amount of instructional minutes at high schools in New Jersey. A proportional, stratified random sample which…

  11. Incorporation of constructivist assumptions into problem-based instruction: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to explore the use of distinct assumptions of constructivism when studying the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on learners in undergraduate nursing programs. Content analysis research technique. The literature review included information retrieved from sources selected via electronic databases, such as EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Sage Publications, SLACK Incorporation, Springhouse Corporation, and Digital Dissertations. The literature review was conducted utilizing key terms and phrases associated with problem-based learning in undergraduate nursing education. Out of the 100 reviewed abstracts, only 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Four constructivist assumptions based the review process allowing for analysis and evaluation of the findings, followed by identification of issues and recommendations for the discipline and its research practice in the field of PBL. This literature review provided evidence that the nursing discipline is employing PBL in its programs, yet with limited data supporting conceptions of the constructivist perspective underlying this pedagogical approach. Three major issues were assessed and formed the basis for subsequent recommendations: (a) limited use of a theoretical framework and absence of constructivism in most of the studies, (b) incompatibility between research measures and research outcomes, and (c) brief exposure to PBL during which the change was measured. Educators have made the right choice in employing PBL as a pedagogical practice, yet the need to base implementation on constructivism is mandatory if the aim is a better preparation of graduates for practice. Undeniably there is limited convincing evidence regarding integration of constructivism in nursing education. Research that assesses the impact of PBL on learners' problem-solving and communication skills, self-direction, and motivation is paramount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching psychomotor skills in the twenty-first century: Revisiting and reviewing instructional approaches through the lens of contemporary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon

    2016-10-01

    A diverse range of health professionals use psychomotor skills as part of their professional practice roles. Most health disciplines use large or complex psychomotor skills. These skills are first taught by the educator then acquired, performed, and lastly learned. Psychomotor skills may be taught using a variety of widely-accepted and published teaching models. The number of teaching steps used in these models varies from two to seven. However, the utility of these models to teach skill acquisition and skill retention are disputable when teaching complex skills, in contrast to simple skills. Contemporary motor learning and cognition literature frames instructional practices which may assist the teaching and learning of complex task-based skills. This paper reports 11 steps to be considered when teaching psychomotor skills.

  13. Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods: We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a “pay-it-forward” component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to “pay it forward” and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and “pay-it-forward” participants. Results: Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p < 0.0001. The pay-it-forward cohort saw an increase from 58% to 82% (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: A high school-centered, CPR educational intervention with a “pay-it-forward” component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision.

  14. School Funding and Resource Allocation: How It Impacts Instructional Practices at the School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Shelly R.

    2012-01-01

    In the 2006-2007 school year, the State of Wyoming adopted an evidenced-based school funding model. The Wyoming funding model reviewed in this study is considered an evidence-based approach, utilizing expert judgment to determine educational funding. In an evidence-based approach, educational strategies are identified and a dollar figure is…

  15. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  16. The Model of the Development of Instructional Material for Enhancing Students' English Speaking Skills at Elementary Schools in Bandar Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiyono, Akhmad

    2014-01-01

    The main problem of the research is what instructional material that should be developed to enhance students' speaking skills. The main objective of this research is to develop English instructional material for enhancing students' speaking skills at elementary schools. In conducting the research, the writer used Research and Development method. The data of the research were collected through observation, questionnaire, interview, test, and documentation. The validation of the model was carri...

  17. Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Josiah; Cano, Alejandra; Ramirez, Victor; Morales, Gabriel; Campbell, Teri L.; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a “pay-it-forward” component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to “pay it forward” and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and “pay-it-forward” participants. Results Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p CPR educational intervention with a “pay-it-forward” component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision. PMID:29560076

  18. Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rios, Marina; Han, Josiah; Cano, Alejandra; Ramirez, Victor; Morales, Gabriel; Campbell, Teri L; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to "pay it forward" and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and "pay-it-forward" participants. Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p pay-it-forward cohort saw an increase from 58% to 82% (p pay-it-forward" component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision.

  19. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME) to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characterist...

  20. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  1. Peculiarities of mathematics instruction for beginners for children with disabilities in regular primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the issue of education of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities in regular primary schools in the context of mathematics instruction for beginners. The authors state the basic characteristics of mathematics instruction for beginners with respect to the contents studied in the first four grades of primary school, as well as the key problems and educational needs of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. The basic characteristics of inclusive education and the key role of teacher in this process are pointed out. Starting from the developmental peculiarities of children with disabilities, the authors emphasize the importance of applying an individualized approach in teaching mathematics. Possible didactic and methodical solutions are discussed, as well as different approaches in teaching this subject that can facilitate learning of mathematical contents to visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. Bearing in mind the peculiarities of inclusive education, i.e. the need for the children with disabilities to participate in common activities with the other children in the class, the authors emphasize the importance of encouraging interaction and communication among children in the process of learning mathematical contents.

  2. An Assessment of Need for Instructional Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers Using Interactive Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda

    Numerous studies on the impact of interactive lessons on student learning have been conducted, but there has been a lack of professional development (PD) programs at a middle school focusing on ways to incorporate interactive lessons into the science classroom setting. The purpose of this case study was to examine the instructional practices of science teachers to determine whether the need for an interactive lessons approach to teaching students exists. This qualitative case study focused on teachers' perceptions and pedagogy to determine whether the need to use interactive lessons to meet the needs of all students is present. The research question focused on identifying current practices and determining whether a need for interactive lessons is present. Qualitative data were gathered from science teachers at the school through interviews, lesson plans, and observations, all of which were subsequently coded using an interpretative analysis. The results indicated the need for a professional development (PD) program centered on interactive science lessons. Upon completion of the qualitative study, a detailed PD program has been proposed to increase the instructional practices of science teachers to incorporate interactive lessons within the science classroom. Implications for positive social change include improved teaching strategies and lessons that are more student-centered resulting in better understanding and comprehension, as well as performance on state-mandated tests.

  3. CPR Instruction in U.S. High Schools: What Is the State in the Nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lorrel E; Lynes, Carlos; Carroll, Travis; Halperin, Henry

    2017-11-28

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in high schools is required by law in the majority of U.S. states. However, laws differ from state to state, and it is unknown how this legislation is being enacted. The authors sent a cross-sectional, closed survey to educational superintendents in 32 states with CPR laws in June 2016. The authors subsequently performed direct examination and categorization of CPR legislation in 39 states (several states passed legislation as of September 2017). Survey results indicated differing practices with regard to CPR instruction in areas such as course content (63% perform automated external defibrillator training), instructor (47% used CPR-certified teachers/coaches, 30% used other CPR-certified instructors, 11% used noncertified teachers/coaches), and method (7% followed American Red Cross methods, 55% followed American Heart Association methods). CPR laws differ, although almost all (97%) require hands-on training. Although hands-on practice during CPR instruction in high school is required by law in the majority of U.S. states, there is currently no standardized method of implementation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Augmenting Tertiary Students' Soft Skills Via Multiple Intelligences Instructional Approach: Literature Courses in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sherief Eman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the twentieth century is a witness to an unprecedentedly soaring increase in the number of students joining the arena of higher education(UNESCO,2001. Currently, the number of students at Saudi universities and colleges exceeds one million vis-à-vis 7000 in 1970(Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington. Such enormous body of learners in higher education is per se diverse enough to embrace distinct learning styles, assorted repertoire of backgrounds, prior knowledge, experiences, and perspectives; at this juncture, they presumably share common aspiration which is hooking a compatible post in the labor market upon graduation, and to subsequently be capable of acting competently in a scrupulously competitive workplace environment. Bunch of potentialities and skills are patently vital for a graduate to reach such a prospect. Such bunch of skills in a conventional undergraduate paradigm of education were given no heed, being rather postponed to the post-graduation phase. The current Paper postulated tremendous  merits of deploying the Multiple Intelligences theory as a project-based approach, within  literature classes in higher education; a strategy geared towards reigniting students’ engagement, nurturing their critical thinking capabilities, sustaining their individualistic dispositions, molding them as inquiry-seekers, and ending up engendering life-long, autonomous learners,  well-armed with the substantial skills for traversing the rigorous competition in future labor market.

  5. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  6. Impact of Hybrid Instruction on Student Achievement in Post-Secondary Institutions: A Synthetic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Mark A.; Hill, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid online instruction is a cross between traditional face-to-face classroom format and online-only instruction. The premise behind hybrid instruction is that it provides the benefits of personal interaction with the convenience and flexibility of online assignments and discussions. While there has been significant research on how students…

  7. Measuring the Level of Effectiveness of the High School Assistant Principal and the High School Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) in Preparing Their English I, II, and III Teachers and Students for End of Course/TN Ready Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    This research study addressed measuring the level of instructional leadership effectiveness of the high school assistant principal and the high school instructional leadership teams (ILT) at over forty (40) Shelby County Schools. More specifically, this research study examined their impact on teacher effectiveness and student achievement in their…

  8. Students of Color and Public Montessori Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debs, Mira C.; Brown, Katie E.

    2017-01-01

    Students of color comprise a majority in public Montessori school enrollments around the United States, and practitioners are often asked for evidence of the Montessori Method's benefits for these students. This article examines the relevant literature related to the experiences of students of color in public Montessori schools. Research finds…

  9. Prevalence of Mindfulness Literature and Intervention in School Psychology Journals from 2006 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stacy L.; Roth, Rachel; Zielenski, Alicia; Longo, Zachary; Chermak, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness has been gaining momentum in the field of school psychology, however compared to other applied psychology fields, less research on mindfulness interventions has been conducted. This study systematically reviewed mindfulness literature and empirical studies in nine school psychology journals from 2006-2016. The prevalence of mindfulness…

  10. Israeli School and Community Response to War Trauma: A Review of Selected Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Rachel M.; Friedman, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature focusing on mental health clinicians who have responded to war trauma in their work with children in Israeli schools. The review provides a brief introduction to the country's war history and inception of school psychological and counselling services. Within this framework, results of empirical…

  11. BETWEEN THE GRIMMS AND "THE GROUP"--LITERATURE IN AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDERSON, SCARVIA B.

    IN 1963, THE COOPERATIVE TEST DIVISION OF THE EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE SOUGHT TO ESTABLISH A LIST OF THE MAJOR WORKS OF LITERATURE TAUGHT TO ALL STUDENTS IN ANY ENGLISH CLASS IN UNITED STATES SECONDARY SCHOOLS. QUESTIONNAIRES ASKING FOR SUCH A LIST OF EACH GRADE WERE SENT TO RANDOM SAMPLES OF SCHOOLS, AND 222 PUBLIC, 223 CATHOLIC, 192…

  12. Effective Interventions Aimed at Reaching Out-of-School Children: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Ashim; Marian, Diana; Swimmer, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper aggregates the academic literature reviewing and reporting interventions for out-of-school children (OOSC) around the world to serve as a guide for potential interventions in South Asia and elsewhere. It complements the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children (OOSCI) South Asia Regional Study (2014). Thus the interventions reviewed…

  13. The Reincarnation of the Effective Schools Research: Rethinking the Literature on District Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the district effectiveness literature. It begins by summarizing the school effectiveness research, the correlates of effective schools, and the conceptual and methodological characteristics of this field. It then describes the findings from a review of 50 studies of district effectiveness, the most…

  14. Envisioning Multicultural Education Development in U.S. Islamic Schools in Light of Reviewed Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atwani, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is first to provide a literature review that informs the race, class, and ethnic diversity among Muslims in the United States; then to show how this literature review may acknowledge developing multicultural education in Islamic schools in the United States. In the direction of these aims, the author reviews the…

  15. School Uniforms: A Critical Review of the Literature. From Inquiry to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…

  16. Principals' Perceptions of Experiences That Helped to Improve Their Practice as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The concept of instructional leadership has emerged as a vital characteristic of the role of school principal. Yet there remains a lack of a universally accepted definition for instructional leadership within the research literature. Concepts such as transformational leadership, shared instructional leadership, integrated leadership, and balanced…

  17. Neglected Literature: An Experimental Curriculum Resource Bulletin for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    The materials presented in this teaching guide for Negro literature, prepared under an ESEA Title 3 grant, were collected for inclusion into the traditional English curriculum "to enable students to regard the works of Negro writers as a sharing of diversified human experiences." Sample units on the novel, slave narration, short story, poetry,…

  18. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  19. An analysis of program planning in schools with emerging excellence in science instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Karen Marie

    Science educators agree on many of the program elements that characterize exemplary science instructional programs, but it has not been clear how the processes of planning and implementation lead to excellence in program design. This study focuses on two K--12 school clusters located in unified school districts and one K--12 school cluster spanning two non-unified districts that are in the midst of building new science programs. The clusters were selected for support by an organization of educators, scientists, and businesspersons because they were recognized as likely to produce good programs. The investigation centers on three research questions: (1) To what extent have schools engaged in science education reform achieved excellence? (2) How did schools engaged in science program improvement go about achieving their goals, and (3) What contextual factors are most closely related to the realization of quality program elements? The degree to which each program studied met indicators of quality suggested by the National Science Education Standards (NSES) are described according to an Innovation Configuration (IC) Chart. Using a Stream Diagnostic method of analysis, levels of practice were associated with contextual factors categorized as Social, Organizing, and Resource. Findings reveal the importance of a balanced and synchronized function of all components, including administrative commitment, teacher participation, and favorable logistical aspects. Individual reform projects were more likely to be successful if they included exemplary program elements and mechanisms for program managers to access district personnel and procedures needed to implement programs. A review of the cluster case histories also revealed the positive impact of cooperation between the funding organization and the project, the degree to which professional development is directly related to the new program, and the availability of resources and support for each exemplary program element.

  20. The Presence of Spanish and Hispanic American Literature in Slovenian secondary Schools since 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Šifrar Kalan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Slovene secondary schools teach national and international literature as part of the study of Slovene. The article examines the presence and the selection of Spanish and Hispanic American literature in Slovene secondary schools between 1945 and 2017, taking into account sociopolitical, cultural and didactic factors. The analysis is based on all syllabuses for Slovene during this period and all text books for literature used and edited since the end of the second world war in Slovenia. Therefore the role of literature written in Spanish is analysed for two different sociopolitical contexts: Yugoslavia and the independent Republic of Slovenia. The aim of the article is to find out whether the presence and the role of Spanish language literature in Spanish has increased or decreased during this period and which are the authors and literary works which 19-year-old Slovenes who complete grammar school and continue their studies at the university are/were acquainted with. The article enumerates all writers and texts in Spanish from the analysed documents and textbooks, identifies drawbacks in the selection of the literature and concludes that experts from different fields, teachers of Slovene, Spanish, experts in literature and didactics should work on a well-balanced selection of Spanish and Hispanic American literature within the teaching of world literature.

  1. The Strategic Instruction Model: The Less Addressed Aspects of Effective Instruction for High School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Michael F.; Bulgren, Janis A.; Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we discuss research supporting the Strategic Instruction Model's™ (SIM) effort to address higher order reasoning and thinking skills in two lines of programmatic research. We review the extant body of evidence supporting the two lines of the SIM library, the Content Enhancement Routines and a comprehensive reading program, and the…

  2. Instructional Design to Measure the Efficacy of Interactive E-Books in A High School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria PABRUA BATOON

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive e-books in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study revealed that participants use interactive e-books as a technological educational resource. The professors pointed out that the design of the interactive e-books helped students develop essential learning skills: technological ability, reading and writing skills, as well as cognition and metacognition abilities. Furthermore, the students noted that the use of interactive e-books has a positive effect on their grades due to its high audio and visual contents. However, the students indicated that they were allured to chat, to play or to navigate in their mobile device while they were using it. Finally, this study can contribute to the relative knowledge about the use of mobile technology in education, as well as, it aids the professor to make a reflection about the Instructional Design of the educational technological resources used in the classroom to promote better result in the process of learning.

  3. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Michele T.

    2007-12-01

    A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.

  4. Spelling skills of Czech primary school children in relation to the method of literacy instruction

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    Seidlová Málková Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the importance of having a set reading instruction method for the development of spelling skills among Czech children ranging in age across the four beginning grades of primary school. 238 children learning to read and spell using an analytical-synthetic method and 251 children learning to read and spell using a genetic method participated in this study. The outcomes of word spelling tests were assessed for the different grade and age levels: first, second- third and fourth. Distributional patterns of spelling skills performance for both instruction method subgroups were created in each of the grade groups. Comparisons of spelling task outputs between both methods were conducted using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results indicate that children using the genetic method are more effective in acquiring phoneme-grapheme correspondences throughout the first grade, and thus show more accurate word spelling in the first grade spelling task. However, this initial advantage for children learning to spell using the genetic method soon disperses, and it is not reflected in better spelling performance throughout the second to third and fourth grade.

  5. Middle school special education teachers' perceptions and use of assistive technology in literacy instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Emily C; Richardson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this research the authors examined middle school special education teachers' perceptions of assistive technology during literacy instruction with students with high incidence disabilities. A survey explored the use, effectiveness, and factors impacting use or effectiveness of assistive technology for literacy teaching and learning. Results suggested teachers' perceived assistive technology to be an effective tool for literacy, but use it minimally. When assistive technology was used, teachers indicated it was an effective literacy support. Teachers also reported barriers to using assistive technology in literacy including cost, usability, and lack of training/experience. However, factors such as previous successful experiences with assistive technology and assistive technology supporting students' learning encouraged assistive technology use. The consistency of teachers' reports of needing more experience and knowledge in assistive technology to fully use it suggests implications for preservice preparation such as providing additional experiences and information on assistive technology.

  6. Improving Science Process Skills for Primary School Students Through 5E Instructional Model-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.

  7. Effects of flipped instruction on the performance and attitude of high school students in mathematics

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    Remalyn Q. Casem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of flipped instruction on the performance and attitude of high school students in Mathematics. The study made use of the true experimental design, specifically the pretest-posttest control group design. There were two instruments used to gather data, the pretest-posttest which was subjected to validity and reliability tests and the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes Scale. It was found out that the experimental and control groups were comparable in the pretest and posttest. Comparison on their gain scores revealed significant difference with performance of the experimental group higher than the control group. There was no significant difference on the level of attitude of the participants in the experimental group before and after the study in terms of confidence in learning mathematics, attitude toward success in mathematics, mathematics anxiety and perception of teacher's attitudes. A very weak positive relationship existed between performance and attitudes toward mathematics.

  8. Teacher Quality Indicators as Predictors of Instructional Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the

  9. An approach for integrating media education into everyday school-life and instruction at secondary school level

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    Dieter SPANHEL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The new media as a challenge for school education require to redefine its aims and methods. It is no longer sufficient to transmit knowledge and help young people to build up special competences. In addition and primarily they must learn to deal with unknown problems in the future, with uncertainty and insecurity, with an increasing lot of information, changing knowledge and truth and with the unknown. Therefore school must help students to build up flexible structures of operational thinking and orientation, abstract conceptual frames, phantasy and creativity and acquire the capability of learning to learn, to reorganize learning structures and knowledge and the ability for lifelong learning. within this context media in schools have two fundamental functions: they are instruments of teaching-learning-processes as well as subject matter helping students to acquire media competence. Our approach to integrated media education for secondary schools can be characterized as follows: It should imply all sorts of media, it should involve all teachers and embrace all subject matters (lessons. There should no longer be made a distinction between media education and computer literacy because of the integration of all media on the basis of ongoing digitalization. The different media with their specific capacities should be used naturally as a means of improving teaching and learning, as tools for problem-solving and coping with tasks, and as instruments of communication and self-reflexion, of documentation and formation, of expression and publicity. The realization of a sustainable media education is confronted with two difficulties: 1. Most teachers mostly are not trained for media education and they fear the great burden of this task. 2. Media education requires open forms and varying methods of instruction and specific media facilities must be at hand at any time and everywhere.

  10. The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: How Successful School Leaders Use Transformational and Instructional Strategies to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Christopher; Gu, Qing; Sammons, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article illustrates how successful leaders combine the too often dichotomized practices of transformational and instructional leadership in different ways across different phases of their schools' development in order to progressively shape and "layer" the improvement culture in improving students' outcomes. Research…

  11. Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Temel; Sezgin, Ferudun; Kavgaci, Hasan; Cagatay Kilinc, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and self-efficacy of teachers and collective teacher efficacy. In this regard, a model based on hypotheses was designed to determine the relationships among variables. The study sample consisted of 328 classroom and branch…

  12. Perceptions of Kentucky High School Principals and Superintendents on the Role of the Superintendent Influencing Principal Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charles L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study surveyed the promotion of instructional leadership of high school principals by superintendents, as perceived by self and the principals they supervise. The two-phased study included an initial questionnaire administered to both study groups and comparisons of responses analyzed. All superintendents (N = 173), except the…

  13. Influence of Instructional Resources in Learning Agriculture in Secondary School on Employment Creation in Vihiga County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholi, Seraphine Sherry; Konyango, Jacob J. J. Ochieng'; Kibett, Joash K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of instructional resources in learning agriculture in secondary school on employment creation in Vihiga County, Kenya. The study was conducted in Emuhaya Constituency, and it adopted qualitative research design using descriptive survey method. The target population was the youth who learnt…

  14. Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development and Its Implication for Instructional Management at Pre-Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simatwa, Enose M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional management focuses on planning, execution and evaluation of learning experiences. For teachers in pre-secondary schools to plan, execute and evaluate learning experiences effectively, they need to have good understanding of the process of cognitive development in children. Piaget has postulated that children progress through a series…

  15. The Evaluation of Enhanced Academic Instruction in After-School Programs: Final Report. NCEE 2009-4077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alison Rebeck; Somers, Marie-Andree; Doolittle, Fred; Unterman, Rebecca; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether providing structured academic instruction in reading or math to students in grades two to five during their afterschool hours--instead of the less formal academic supports offered in regular after-school programs-- improves their academic performance in the subject. This is the second and…

  16. Effects of Framing and Team Assisted Individualised Instructional Strategies on Senior Secondary School Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relative effectiveness of framing and team assisted individualised (TAI) instructional strategies on the attitudes toward mathematics of 350 senior secondary school year two Nigerian students. The moderating effects of gender and style of categorisation were also examined. The study adopted pre-test and post-test control…

  17. Effect of Programmed Instruction on Students' Attitude towards Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table among Kenyan Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, M. J.; Martin, W.; Ronald, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Programmed Instruction on students' attitude towards Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table (SAPT) among mixed (co-educational) secondary schools of Butere district, Kakamega county, Kenya. The quasi-experimental research design was adopted, using the nonrandomized Solomon four-group as a model. The sample…

  18. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  19. LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL, SCHOOL AND HOME EDUCATION

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    Izabela Kiełtyk-Zaborowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue, disclosed in the article, is still relevant, because it supports a child’s creative activity through his/her contact with the literature. Moreover, a book genres influence the linguistic awareness, aesthetic sensitivity, develops the imagination and the ability to speak properly. Developing reading habits and close contact with art positively affects the child. So the aim of the article is to show the importance of supporting the child in creative tasks using the fiction texts. Much attention is given to the fact that literature for children in pre-school, school and home education influences the expansion of a child’s vocabulary and imagination. Constant complementation of teachers’ and parents’ activities in shaping reading interests of children influences their versatile development. Books evoke emotions, they teach how to behave in a proper way and they enrich the awareness of the surrounding world. Both teachers and parents should choose the right texts for a young reader taking into consideration his/her perceptive skills. Ever present humour in belles-lettres for children (vocabulary, situational humour or the protagonists in the books definitely provides children with joy and positive emotions. The contact with belles-lettres texts allows to develop interests of children connected with stage, theatre or music which is frequently a meaningful element of plays based on books for young children. It is also reported that both poetry and prose texts should be included into young readers’ collection. But the text should be adapted to the child’s perceptual abilities, in terms of form, content, and language. Family reading is important for developing the child’s reading interests, becoming one of the participants influencing the cultural environment of the family. The author concludes that supporting children in creative tasks using fiction texts and their forms such as theater, press, radio, television develops

  20. Pacific CRYSTAL Project: Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction

  1. On the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: A Systematic Review of Supplemental Instruction and Peer-Assisted Study Sessions Literature between 2001 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip; van der Meer, Jacques; Skalicky, Jane; Cowley, Kym

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI)--variously known as peer-assisted learning, peer-assisted study sessions, and other names--is a type of academic support intervention popular in higher education. In SI sessions, a senior student facilitates peer learning between undergraduates studying a high-risk course. This article presents a systematic review of…

  2. Principal Instructional Leadership Behaviors: Teacher vs. Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, D. Keith; Anast-May, Linda; O'Neal, Marcia; Dozier, Randy

    2016-01-01

    In response to ever-increasing accountability of school principals to demonstrate higher levels of student achievement, instructional leadership continues to be an important focus among educational researchers. In this paper, researchers briefly review the literature base regarding instructional leadership, then present the conceptual framework…

  3. School Experiences of Siblings of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lucy L; Lum, Alistair; Wakefield, Claire E; Nandakumar, Beeshman; Fardell, Joanna E

    Siblings of children with chronic illness have unique experiences that can affect their school functioning, such that they may miss ongoing periods of school, experience difficulties with schoolwork or experience changes in their peer and teacher interactions. This review provides an overview of these siblings' school experiences. Six databases (Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase and The Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for studies examining the school experiences and peer relationships of siblings of children with chronic illness, as well as school-based interventions for these siblings. Studies were included if they were published in or after 2000 and were published in English. We identified 2137 articles upon initial search. From these, we identified 28 eligible studies examining the school experiences of >1470 siblings of children with chronic illness. Three key themes were identified throughout the reviewed articles. The literature described 1) the psychological impact on siblings at school; 2) decreases in school attendance and academic functioning, and; 3) changes or perceived differences in peer and teacher interactions. Siblings value teacher and peer support, and this support may contribute to better sibling school functioning. Many siblings are socially resilient, yet overlooked, members of the family who may present with psychological, academic and peer related difficulties at school following diagnosis of a brother or sister with chronic illness. Future research is needed to further delineate the sibling school experience to better facilitate the development of targeted sibling support interventions within the school environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  5. Yes/No/Maybe: Student Choice in Literature Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Sandra J.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies 22 Canadian high school English teachers' attitudes toward three categories of literature instruction (traditional, elective, and individualized). Concludes that teachers make use of all types of approaches, but that they should spend more time on individualized reading. (RL)

  6. Using inquiry-based instruction to meet the standards of No Child Left Behind for middle school earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of a specific instructional strategy employed to improve performance on the end-of-the-year Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) as mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. A growing body of evidence suggests that the perceived pressure to produce adequate aggregated scores on the CRCT causes teachers to neglect other relevant aspects of teaching and attend less to individualized instruction. Rooted in constructivist theory, inquiry-based programs provide a o developmental plan of instruction that affords the opportunity for each student to understand their academic needs and strengths. However, the utility of inquiry-based instruction is largely unknown due to the lack of evaluation studies. To address this problem, this quantitative evaluation measured the impact of the Audet and Jordan inquiry-based instructional model on CRCT test scores of 102 students in a sixth-grade science classroom in one north Georgia school. A series of binomial tests of proportions tested differences between CRCT scores of the program participants and those of a matched control sample selected from other district schools that did not adopt the program. The study found no significant differences on CRCT test scores between the treatment and control groups. The study also found no significant performance differences among genders in the sample using inquiry instruction. This implies that the utility of inquiry education might exist outside the domain of test scores. This study can contribute to social change by informing a reevaluation of the instructional strategies that ideally will serve NCLB high-stakes assessment mandates, while also affording students the individual-level skills needed to become productive members of society.

  7. Teachers’ perceptions of reading instruction in selected primary schools in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoda Cekiso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a general outcry that too many South African Foundation Phase (Grades 1–3 teachers do not know how to teach reading and are currently teaching reading in an ad hoc, unsystematic way. Objectives: In response to this, this study explored the Foundation Phase teachers’ perceptions of their role in teaching reading. The focus was on the relevance of the initial training, awareness of reading strategies and how these strategies were reflected in their classroom practice. Method: The study was qualitative in nature and a case study design was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine teachers who were purposively selected from three public schools. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: Regarding the initial training programme, teachers received at tertiary institutions, the findings of the study showed that the majority of teachers were not adequately prepared to teach reading and to deal with learners who experience problems in reading. Some teachers indicated that they were not even trained to teach in the Foundation Phase. The findings also showed that the majority of respondents doubted if their classroom practice would yield positive results as far as reading instruction is concerned. The findings further indicated that the majority of respondents only paid attention to oral reading (observing punctuation marks and pronunciation, without attending to reading comprehension. There was a general consensus that the new ways of teaching reading were necessary in order to improve the reading ability of learners. Conclusion: Recommendations based on the findings are that institutions of higher learning that train Foundation Phase teachers should do so in ways that adequately equip them to produce student teachers who are knowledgeable about research and theory regarding how individuals learn to read. Workshops on appropriate instruction of reading strategies are recommended for in

  8. Teacher–student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Kim, Hesook Suzie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the status of knowledge regarding the association between teacher–student relationship (TSR), dropout from upper secondary school, and student mental health. A literature search was conducted in Eric, PsycInfo, Medline, Scopus, Norart, and Idunn covering the period spanning 2000 to 2015. Sixteen articles were identified for review. These articles were analyzed via thematic analysis. The results indicate that the TSR in upper secondary school is associat...

  9. Improving the School Environment to Reduce School Violence: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2009-01-01

    Background: School violence can impact the social, psychological, and physical well-being of both students and teachers and disrupt the learning process. This review focuses on a new area of research, the mechanisms by which the school environment determines the likelihood of school violence. Methods: A search for peer-reviewed articles was made…

  10. Setting Instructional Expectations: Patterns of Principal Leadership for Middle School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterfeld, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Principal instructional leadership has been found to support improved instruction. However, the methods through which principal leadership influences classroom instruction are less clear. This study investigates how principals' leadership may predict the expectations that mathematics teachers perceive for classroom practice. Results from a…

  11. Multicultural Music Instruction in the Elementary School: What Can Be Achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kay L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates fourth-grade students' achievement following a model unit on American Indian music that utilized four different instructional approaches. Suggests implications for instruction with American Indian music regarding instructional approach, authenticity of instrument materials, learning from a native guest artist, and music teacher…

  12. The effect of science-technology-society issue instruction on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinnix, Debra Lynn

    An assessment of the science education programs of the last thirty years reveals traditional science courses are producing student who have negative attitudes toward science, do not compete successfully in international science and mathematics competitions, are not scientifically literate, and are not interested in pursuing higher-level science courses. When the number of intellectually-capable females that fall into this group is considered, the picture is very disturbing. Berryman (1983) and Kahle (1985) have suggested the importance of attitude both, in terms of achievement in science and intention to pursue high-level science courses. Studies of attitudes toward science reveal that the decline in attitudes during grades four through eight was much more dramatic for females than for males. There exists a need, therefore, to explore alternative methods of teaching science, particularly in the middle school, that would increase scientific literacy, improve attitudes toward science, and encourage participation in higher-level science courses of female students. Yager (1996) has suggested that science-technology-society (STS) issue instruction does make significant changes in students' attitudes toward science, stimulates growth in science process skills, and increases concept mastery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect STS issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science in comparison to female middle school students who experience traditional science instruction. Another purpose was to examine the effect science-technology-society issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students in comparison to male middle school students. The pretests and the posttests were analyzed to examine differences in ten domains: enjoyment of science class; usefulness of information learned in science class; usefulness of science skills; feelings about science class in general; attitudes about what took place

  13. Professionality of Junior High School (SMP) Science Teacher in Preparing Instructional Design of Earth and Space Sciences (IPBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, L.; Liliasari; Tjasyono, B.; Hendayana, S.

    2017-02-01

    The teacher is one important factor in the provision of education in schools. Therefore, improving the quality of education means we need to enhance the quality and the professionalism of teachers. We offer a solution through education and training of junior high school science teachers in developing the instructional design of Earth and Space Sciences (IPBA). IPBA is part of the science subjects which is given to students from elementary school to college. This research is a preliminary study of junior high school science teacher professionalism in creating instructional design IPBA. Mixed method design is used to design the research. Preliminary studies conducted on junior high school science teacher in one MGMPs in South Sumatera, and the respondent are 18 teachers from 13 schools. The educational background of science teachers who teach IPBA not only from physical education but also biology and agriculture. The result of preliminary study showed that the ratio of teachers who teach IPBA are 56% from physic education, 39% from biology, and 5% from agriculture. The subjects of IPBA that considered difficult by teachers are the distribution of sun, moon, and satellite motion; specific processes in lithosphere and atmosphere; and the correlation between lithosphere and atmosphere with the environment. The teachers also face difficulty in preparing media, choosing the right methods in teaching IPBA.

  14. Differentiated Instructional Strategies on Space Education for Sustained Capacity Building of Underprivileged School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Although innovations in space education were introduced in many developing countries with good intentions, too many changes and challenges in the existing system have often penalized those who needed them the most. Consequently, the students and teachers in the underprivileged schools face isolation, neglect and coupled with inadequate pedagogic attention, poor infrastructure and insufficient resources, inadvertently suffer. Surprisingly, these deprived school students possess cognitive capabilities of comprehending nature. One of the most compelling situations in Indian school education is that the syllabus is often modified haphazardly without the necessary groundwork and infrastructure to implement it. Apparently, there has neither been teaching nor learning on applied knowledge. Despite the growth in communication and technology applications in space education, inequalities continue to exist in developing countries. In our present society many crucial services are provided by space and it becomes imperative that students have a comprehensive knowledge of space and space based technologies. To realize these objectives, we have adopted a comprehensive and holistic capacity building mechanism which incorporates differentiated instructional strategy on teaching space education in underprivileged schools. Because differentiation and scaffolding techniques yield similar instructional goals, we have blended together both the approaches to the point of being indistinguishable and this proved successful. Initiation was done through the setting up of an Astronomy Club in a backward area in Hyderabad and necessary infrastructure was provided by one of the authors. A state of the art audio-visual room with LCD Projector for ICT mode of presentations of various astronomy and space topics, having a seating capacity of 50 students is in place. A laptop, printer and Wi-Fi connection exists. In addition, visual charts on various celestial phenomena and objects, inspirational

  15. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of

  16. Report on Action Research: An Analysis of the Effects of Selected Instructional Strategies on Student Achievement at Terre Haute North Vigo High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Vigo County School Corporation at Terre Haute North Vigo High School. During the 2009-2010 school year, 17 teachers participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which selected instructional strategies enhanced the…

  17. Academic Vocabulary Learning in First Through Third Grade in Low-Income Schools: Effects of Automated Supplemental Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Ziolkowski, Robyn A; Bojczyk, Kathryn E; Marty, Ana; Schneider, Naomi; Harpring, Jayme; Haring, Christa D

    2017-11-09

    This study investigated cumulative effects of language learning, specifically whether prior vocabulary knowledge or special education status moderated the effects of academic vocabulary instruction in high-poverty schools. Effects of a supplemental intervention targeting academic vocabulary in first through third grades were evaluated with 241 students (6-9 years old) from low-income families, 48% of whom were retained for the 3-year study duration. Students were randomly assigned to vocabulary instruction or comparison groups. Curriculum-based measures of word recognition, receptive identification, expressive labeling, and decontextualized definitions showed large effects for multiple levels of word learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that students with higher initial Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) demonstrated greater word learning, whereas students with special needs demonstrated less growth in vocabulary. This model of vocabulary instruction can be applied efficiently in high-poverty schools through an automated, easily implemented adjunct to reading instruction in the early grades and holds promise for reducing gaps in vocabulary development.

  18. Self-instructional "virtual pathology" laboratories using web-based technology enhance medical school teaching of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchevsky, Alberto M; Relan, Anju; Baillie, Susan

    2003-05-01

    Second-year medical students have traditionally been taught pulmonary pathophysiology at the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine using lectures, discussion groups, and laboratory sessions. Since 1998, the laboratory sessions have been replaced by 4 interactive, self-instructional sessions using web-based technology and case-based instruction. This article addresses nature of transformation that occurred from within the course in response to the infusion of new technologies. The vast majority of the course content has been digitized and incorporated into the website of the Pathophysiology of Disease course. The teaching histological slides have been photographed digitally and organized into "cases" with clinical information, digital images and text, and audio descriptions. The students study the materials from these cases at their own pace in 2 "virtual pathology" laboratory, with a few instructors supervising the on-site sessions. The students discuss additional cases available on the website in 2 other laboratory sessions supervised by a pulmonologist and a pathologist. Marked improvement in student participation and satisfaction was seen with the use of web-based instruction. Attendance at laboratory sessions, where the students had previously been required to bring their own microscopes to study histological slides at their own pace, increased from approximately 30% to 40% of the class in previous years to almost 100%. Satisfaction surveys showed progressive improvement over the past 4 years, as various suggestions were implemented. The value of web-based instruction of pathology at the UCLA School of Medicine is discussed.

  19. A Literature Review: The Effect of Implementing Technology in a High School Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study is a literature review to investigate the effects of implementing technology into a high school mathematics classroom. Mathematics has a hierarchical structure in learning and it is essential that students get a firm understanding of mathematics early in education. Some students that miss beginning concepts may continue to struggle with…

  20. School Leadership and Management in South Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on school leadership and management in South Africa, linked to the 20th anniversary of democratic government and integrated education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors conducted a systematic review of all published work since 2007 with a more selective…

  1. Employing Popular Children's Literature to Teach Elementary School Chemistry: An Engaging Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally, Laura M.; Levinger, Nancy E.; Grainger, David W.

    2005-01-01

    A chemistry outreach program to enthuse students of elementary school levels through employing popular children's literature Harry Potter is presented. The outreach activity performance found the students discovering new skills, learning more about science, and participating enthusiastically in the program without any added incentive from their…

  2. The Emergence and Evolution of School Psychology Literature: A Scientometric Analysis from 1907 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Oakland, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this current study is to identify the growth and development of scholarly literature that specifically references the term "school psychology" in the Science Citation Index from 1907 through 2014. Documents from Web of Science were accessed and analyzed through the use of scientometric analyses, including HistCite and…

  3. British Literature: Increasing Relevancy for High School Seniors through Multicultural Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Nancy C.

    A practicum aimed to increase the relevancy (to the ethnically diverse students of contemporary classrooms) of the regular high school senior English course in British literature and composition by expanding the curriculum to include selections from countries (other than the United States) influenced by the British Colonial Empire. Using a…

  4. Varieties of teacher expertise in teaching Danish language and literature in lower secondary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick

    2012-01-01

    In this study we seek to explore how expert teachers mediate the many influences on their practice. The research we report here is set in the context of lower secondary school teaching of Danish language and literature. Our findings suggest that teacher expertise can be conceptualized by a set...

  5. Beyond Sensitivity. LGBT Healthcare Training in U.S. Medical Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamsingh, Pooja Dushyant; Kenya, Sonjia; Lebron, Cynthia N.; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Training future physicians to address the health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population can potentially decrease health disparities faced by such individuals. In this literature review, we examine the characteristics and impact of current LGBT healthcare training at U.S. medical schools. Methods: We…

  6. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers’ and Students’ Views on Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction in Turkey: Mathematica Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Alper Ardıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the secondary school mathematics teachers’ and students’ views on computer-assisted mathematics instruction (CAMI conducted via Mathematica. Accordingly, three mathematics teachers in Adıyaman and nine 10th-grade students participated in the research. Firstly, the researchers trained the mathematics teachers in the Mathematica program, a computer algebra system (CAS and CAMI. Then, they provided a suitable environment for teachers to practice CAMI with their students to teach quadratic functions (parabola. Case study, a qualitative research design, was utilized in the study. Semi-structured interview forms were used as data collection tools. The interview data were analyzed using descriptive and content analysis, and the codes and themes related to the topic were obtained. The findings revealed that all the teachers found CAMI implementations interesting as supported by students’ views. While all mathematics teachers wanted to benefit from CAMI in mathematics and geometry courses, most of the students asked that CAMI be used in different courses. It was found that students did not have any problems with the Mathematica used with CAMI activities. However, it was also revealed by one student and one teacher that involving CAMI constantly in the courses would hinder preparations for the university entrance exam.

  7. Chinese and US Middle-School Science Teachers' Autonomy, Motivation, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2013-06-01

    This study examined Chinese and US middle-school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Previous research has documented the link between teachers' perceptions of autonomy and the use of student-oriented teaching practices for US teachers. But is not clear how the perception of autonomy may differ for teachers from different cultures or more specifically how motivation factors differ across cultures. The survey measured teachers' motivation, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' motivation, and level of autonomy support for students. Exploratory factor analysis of responses for the combined teacher sample (n = 201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n = 107) and US (n = 94) teachers revealed significant differences in teachers' motivation and perceptions of constraints at work and no significant differences for perceptions of students' motivation or their level of autonomy support for students. Chinese teachers' perceptions of constraints at work, work motivation, and perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the US teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of teachers (n = 19) was interviewed and results showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of science instruction they provided to students. The primary constraints on teaching reported by the US teachers related to materials and laboratory space while the Chinese teachers reported constraints related to the science curriculum and standards.

  8. Inspiring Instructional Change in Elementary School Science: The Relationship Between Enhanced Self-efficacy and Teacher Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2014-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which teachers' participation in a 3-year professional development program enhanced their self-efficacy and prompted changes in science instruction in the early elementary grades. The study used a mixed-methods design, and included 39 teachers who taught in kindergarten, first grade, or second grade classrooms in rural school districts. Data sources, administered pre-program and at the end of each year, included a self-efficacy assessment and teacher survey. Interviews and classroom observations provided corroborating data about teachers' beliefs and science instruction. Results showed significant increases in teachers' overall self-efficacy in teaching science, personal efficacy, and outcome expectancy efficacy during the 3 years. Gains in self-efficacy were correlated with changes in reported instructional practices, particularly student participation activities. However, changes in self-efficacy tended not to be correlated with changes in instructional time. Contextual factors beyond teachers' direct control, such as curricular and testing requirements in mathematics and language arts influenced time allotted to science instruction.

  9. The effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on the acquisition and generalization of community laundry skills by students with severe handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, S A; Bates, P E

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on acquisition and generalization of a community laundry skill by nine students with severe handicaps. School-based instruction involved artificial materials (pictures), simulated materials (cardboard replica of a community washing machine), and natural materials (modified home model washing machine). Generalization assessments were conducted at two different community laundromats, on two machines represented fully by the school-based instructional materials and two machines not represented fully by these materials. After three phases of school-based instruction, the students were provided ten community training trials in one laundromat setting and a final assessment was conducted in both the trained and untrained community settings. A multiple probe design across students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the three types of school instruction and community training. After systematic training, most of the students increased their laundry performance with all three sets of school-based materials; however, generalization of these acquired skills was limited in the two community settings. Direct training in one of the community settings resulted in more efficient acquisition of the laundry skills and enhanced generalization to the untrained laundromat setting for most of the students. Results of this study are discussed in regard to the issue of school versus community-based instruction and recommendations are made for future research in this area.

  10. Do Differences in School's Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps in Maths, Science and Language? Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries. CEE DP 118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Victor

    2010-01-01

    There are large differences across countries in instructional time in public schooling institutions. For example, among European countries such as Belgium, France and Greece, pupils aged 15 have an average of over a thousand hours per year of total compulsory classroom instruction while in England, Luxembourg and Sweden the average is only 750…

  11. The Effectiveness of Using an Explicit Language Learning Strategy-Based Instruction in Developing Secondary School Students' EFL Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…

  12. Reorganizing the Instructional Reading Components: Could There Be a Better Way to Design Remedial Reading Programs to Maximize Middle School Students with Reading Disabilities' Response to Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Sandow, Alexia; Hunter, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore if there could be a more beneficial method in organizing the individual instructional reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension) within a remedial reading program to increase sensitivity to instruction for middle school students with reading disabilities…

  13. "We Don't Understand English That Is Why We Prefer English": Primary School Students' Preference for the Language of Instruction in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ernest Kofi; Bishop, Alan J.; Seah, Wee Tiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which sought to investigate how social and political influences affect students' preference for language of instruction in mathematics in Ghana, where the language of instruction from grade 4 onwards in school is not the students' main language. 4 focus group interviews were carried out with 16 primary school…

  14. [Development and effect analysis of web-based instruction program to prevent elementary school students from safety accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Soon; Jeong, Ihn-Sook; Song, Mi-Gyoung

    2004-06-01

    This study was aimed to develop a WBI(Web Based Instruction) program on safety for 3rd grade elementary school students and to test the effects of it. The WBI program was developed using Macromedia flash MX, Adobe Illustrator 10.0 and Adobe Photoshop 7.0. The web site was http://www.safeschool.co.kr. The effect of it was tested from Mar 24, to Apr 30, 2003. The subjects were 144 students enrolled in the 3rd grade of an elementary school in Gyungju. The experimental group received the WBI program lessons while each control group received textbook-based lessons with visual presenters and maps, 3 times. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, and chi2 test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA. First, the WBI group reported a longer effect on knowledge and practice of accident prevention than the textbook-based lessons, indicating that the WBI is more effective. Second, the WBI group was better motivated to learn the accident prevention lessons, showing that the WBI is effective. As a result, the WBI group had total longer effects on knowledge, practice and motivation of accident prevention than the textbook-based instruction. We recommend that this WBI program be used in each class to provide more effective safety instruction in elementary schools.

  15. The emergence and evolution of school psychology literature: A scientometric analysis from 1907 through 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Oakland, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this current study is to identify the growth and development of scholarly literature that specifically references the term 'school psychology' in the Science Citation Index from 1907 through 2014. Documents from Web of Science were accessed and analyzed through the use of scientometric analyses, including HistCite and Pajek software, resulting in the identification of 4,806 scholars who contributed 3,260 articles in 311 journals. Whereas the database included journals from around the world, most articles were published by authors in the United States and in 20 journals, including the Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Review, School Psychology International, and School Psychology Quarterly. Analyses of the database from the past century revealed that 20 of the most prolific scholars contributed 14% of all articles. Contributions from faculty and students at University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of South Carolina, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and University of Texas-Austin represented 10% of all articles including the term school psychology in the Science Citation Index. Relationships among some of the most highly cited articles are also described. Collectively, the series of analyses reported herein contribute to our understanding of scholarship in school psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Students of Color and Public Montessori Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Debs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Students of color comprise a majority in public Montessori school enrollments around the United States, and practitioners are often asked for evidence of the Montessori Method’s benefits for these students. This article examines the relevant literature related to the experiences of students of color in public Montessori schools. Research finds Montessori education offers both opportunities and limitations for students of color in attending diverse schools, developing executive functions, achieving academically, accessing early childhood education and culturally responsive education, minimizing racially disproportionate discipline, and limiting overidentification for special education. Public Montessori education’s efficacy with students of color may be limited by several factors: the lack of diversity of the teaching staff and culturally responsive teacher education, schools that struggle to maintain racially diverse enrollments, and the challenge of communicating Montessori’s benefits to families with alternative views of education. The review concludes with directions for future research.

  17. School-wide implementation of the elements of effective classroom instruction: Lessons from a high-performing, high-poverty urban school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Hilarie

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive

  18. Strategies for implementing school-located influenza vaccination of children: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F; Rousculp, Matthew D

    2010-04-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts available as of January 7, 2008, was conducted for school-located vaccinations, using search words "School Health Services" and "Immunization Programs"; limited to "Child" (6-12 years) and "Adolescent" (13-18 years) for PubMed and "mass or universal" and (immuniz(*) or immunis(*) or vaccin(*)) and (school or Child or Adolescen(*)) for PsychLit and Dissertation Abstracts. Fifty-nine studies met the criteria for review. Strategies such as incentives, education, the design of the consent form, and follow-up can increase parental consent and number of returned forms. Minimizing out-of-pocket cost, offering both the intramuscular (shot) and intranasal (nasal spray) vaccination, and using reminders can increase vaccination coverage among those whose parents consented. Finally, organization, communication, and planning can minimize the logistical challenges. Schools-based vaccination programs are a promising option for achieving the expanded ACIP recommendation; school-located vaccination programs are feasible and effective. Adhering to lessons from the peer-reviewed scientific literature may help public health officials and schools implement the expanded recommendation to provide the greatest benefit for the lowest cost. Given the potential benefits of the expanded recommendation, both directly to the vaccinated children and indirectly to the community, prospective, well-controlled trials to establish the cost-effectiveness of specific vaccination strategies should be high priorities for future research.

  19. The Scope of Principal Efforts to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used many angles and perspectives to investigate how principals enact instructional leadership in schools. Most research has emphasized the practices of school leaders, although investigations of leadership styles and leadership processes are also present in the literature. In this study, the authors take a different approach by…

  20. Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics Computer--Assisted Instruction Environment in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwei, Philip K.; Wando, Dave; Too, Jackson K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research conducted in six classes (Form IV) with 205 students with a sample of 94 respondents. Data represent students' statements that describe (a) the role of Mathematics teachers in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) environment and (b) effectiveness of CAI in Mathematics instruction. The results indicated…

  1. Prospects and Challenges of Using the Argumentation Instructional Method to Indigenise School Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Partson Virira; Kizito, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Identifying an instructional tool for merging scientific and indigenous knowledge (IK) is problematic as there is no clear guidance on how this can be achieved. Argumentation is recommended as a possible integrative instructional theoretical methodology as it imbues notions of dialogue and persuasion, while at the same time embracing the…

  2. Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Case Study of Two Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in achievement gap between English language learners (ELLs) utilizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in the classroom, and ELLs relying solely on traditional classroom instruction. The study findings showed that students using CAI to supplement traditional lectures performed better…

  3. Instructional Strategies for Teaching Algebra in Elementary School: Findings from a Research-Practice Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Darrell; Balti, Aadina A.

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating algebra into the elementary grades has become a focus for teachers, principals, and administrators across the country. The Dinner Tables problem described in this article is a lesson commonly used in elementary grades for its algebraic potential. Instructional strategies for supporting algebra instruction use an example from a…

  4. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  5. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p young adults.

  6. Perception, Attitude and Instructional Preferences on Physics in High School Students: An Exploration in an International Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Mini; Gafoor, Abdul

    Questionnaire survey explored perception, attitude and instructional preferences with respect to gender and nationality in high school students of India and USA, a sample of 1101 Indian and 458 US students. Descriptive Statistics techniques were adopted for analysis. Male and female students in USA were at the high and low ends of the spectrum, respectively, in perception and attitude. Preference on instructional strategies was found to be independent of nationality, exposed strategies, opting science, class size and facilities. Responses from both countries indicate preference for an integrated instructional strategy that has strong teacher involvement in a student-centered framework. A thoughtful and properly designed instructional strategy could provide sufficient elements in modifying students' epistemological beliefs. Understanding the nature and process of physics along with a better learning outcome is usually not possible by administering student-centered or teacher-centered strategies alone in their purest form. This study provides adequate support in obtaining two equally significant but contrasting goals in Physics Education Research, to gain conceptual development with increased interest and attainment in learners, through integration.

  7. Instructional leadership in elementary science: How are school leaders positioned to lead in a next generation science standards era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Kathleen Mary

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are the newest K-12 science content standards created by a coalition of educators, scientists, and researchers available for adoption by states and schools. Principals are important actors during policy implementation especially since principals are charged with assuming the role of an instructional leader for their teachers in all subject areas. Science poses a unique challenge to the elementary curricular landscape because traditionally, elementary teachers report low levels of self-efficacy in the subject. Support in this area therefore becomes important for a successful integration of a new science education agenda. This study analyzed self-reported survey data from public elementary principals (N=667) to address the following three research questions: (1) What type of science backgrounds do elementary principals have? (2) What indicators predict if elementary principals will engage in instructional leadership behaviors in science? (3) Does self-efficacy mediate the relationship between science background and a capacity for instructional leadership in science? The survey data were analyzed quantitatively. Descriptive statistics address the first research question and inferential statistics (hierarchal regression analysis and a mediation analysis) answer the second and third research questions.The sample data show that about 21% of elementary principals have a formal science degree and 26% have a degree in a STEM field. Most principals have not had recent experience teaching science, nor were they every exclusively a science teacher. The analyses suggests that demographic, experiential, and self-efficacy variables predict instructional leadership practices in science.

  8. Teacher Effectiveness in Adapting Instruction to the Needs of Pupils With Learning Difficulties in Regular Primary Schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Kuyini Alhassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghana education system has failed to effectively address the needs of pupils with learning difficulties (LDs in regular classrooms. Underachievement, school dropout, streetism, and antisocial behaviors are the consequences. Teachers’ lack of adequate competence in adaptive instruction is one of the fundamental reasons responsible for this anomaly. This study aims to examine teachers’ competence in adapting instructions to teach pupils with LDs in the regular classroom in Ghana. The data were gathered from 387 sampled teachers in a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and structured observation methods. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistic, chi-square test, correlation, t test, and ANOVA. The results show that (a teachers have limited to moderate competence in adaptive instruction, (b adaptive teaching is strongly associated with teachers’ competence in teaching pupils with LDs in the regular classroom, and (c apart from gender and class size, teachers’ background variables such as school location and teaching experience differ significantly. The study has serious implications for Ghana’s inclusive education policy and teaching practice.

  9. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory for the use of action research as a tool of evidence based practice for information literacy instruction in school libraries. The emerging theory is intended to capture the complex phenomenon of information skills teaching as it is embedded in school curricula. Such a theory is needed to support research on the integrated approach to teaching information skills and knowledge construction within the framework of inquiry learning. Part 1 of this paper, in the previous issue, built a foundation for emerging theory, which established user‐centric information behavior and constructivist learning theory as the substantive theory behind evidence based library instruction in schools. Part 2 continues to build on the Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry as foundational to studying the information‐to‐knowledge connection and the concepts of help and intervention characteristic of 21st century school library instruction.Methods – This paper examines the purpose and methodology of action research as a tool of evidence based instruction. This is accomplished through the explication of three components of theory‐building: paradigm, substantive research, and metatheory. Evidence based practice is identified as the paradigm that contributes values and assumptions about school library instruction. It establishes the role of evidence in teaching and learning, linking theory and practice. Action research, as a tool of evidence based practice is defined as the synthesis of authentic learning, or performance‐based assessment practices that continuously generate evidence throughout the inquiry unit of instruction and traditional data collection methods typically used in formal research. This paper adds social psychology theory from Lewin’s work, which contributes methodology from Gestalt psychology, field theory, group dynamics, and change theory. For Lewin the purpose of action

  10. The uses and abuses of power: teaching school leadership through children's literature

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    There are relatively few studies of how representations of teachers, schools and educational administrators in popular films and television might be, and are, used in leadership preparation. This paper seeks to add to this small body of work; it reports on an exploratory study of the representation of headteachers in contemporary children's fiction. Thirty-one texts are analysed to ascertain key themes and the major characterisations. The paper draws on children's literature scholars to argue...

  11. Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wood, Taffeta S; Morrison, Frederick J

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills. Second graders received mathematics instruction in small flexible learning groups based on their assessed learning needs. Results of the study (n=32 teachers, 370 students) revealed significant treatment effects on standardized mathematics assessments. With effect sizes (d) of 0.41-0.60, we show that we can significantly improve 2nd graders' mathematics achievement, including for children living in poverty, by using assessment data to individualize the mathematics instruction they receive. The instructional regime, ISI-Math, was implemented by regular classroom teachers and it led to about a 4-month achievement advantage on standardized mathematics tests when compared to students in control classrooms. These results were realized within one school year. Moreover, treatment effects were the same regardless of school-level poverty and students' gender, initial mathematics or vocabulary scores. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Businesses assisting K--12 science instruction: Four case studies of long-term school partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trieste, Lynne M.

    Businesses lack enough qualified applicants to fill the increasing need for scientists and engineers while educators lack many resources for science programs in K-12 schools. This series of case studies searched for successful collaborations between the two in four geographic locations: Boise, Idaho; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles County, California, and Orange County, California. These science education partnerships were investigated to gain an understanding of long-term partnership structure, functioning and evaluation methods. Forty-nine individual interviews with representatives from the groups of stakeholders these programs impact were also conducted. Stakeholder groups included students, teachers, parents, school administrators, business liaisons, and non-profit representatives. Several recurring themes in these partnerships reinforced the existing literature research findings. Collaboration and communication between partners, teacher professional development, the need for more minority and female representation in physical science careers, and self-efficacy in relation to how people come to view their scientific abilities, are among these themes. Topics such as program replication, the importance of role models, programs using "hands-on" activities, reward systems for program participants, and program outcome measurement also emerged from the cases investigated. Third-party assistance by a non-profit entity is occurring within all of these partnerships. This assistance ranges from a service providing material resources such as equipment, lesson plans and meeting space, to managing the partnership fundraising, program development and evaluations. Discussions based upon the findings that support or threaten sustainment of these four partnerships, what a "perfect" partnership might look like, and areas in need of further investigation conclude this study.

  13. [Development and Effects of an Instructional Coaching Program Regarding Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Elementary School Teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Jeong; Park, Wan Ju

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a newly developed instructional coaching program regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for teachers. Seventy teachers participated in this study involving a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design. The instructional coaching program consisted of eight 60-minute sessions. The program was developed through a theoretical development program involving six steps. To evaluate the effects of the program, data were collected through self-report questionnaires including the Knowledge Scale of Attention Deficit Disorder, Attitude Scale of Primary School Teachers Experiencing Students with ADHD, Practice Scale of Educational Intervention Activity, and the Korean ADHD Rating Scale. Data were analyzed with an independent t test, a chi-square test, and an ANCOVA using SPSS WIN version 20. The intervention program consisted of 3 sectors, 8 subjects, and 24 content items. The experimental group showed a significant improvement in attitudes toward ADHD (F=22.83, pteacher's knowledge regarding ADHD (F=7.16, p=.010) and the implementation of instructional interventions (F=4.29, p=.043) improved. Further, teachers reported a reduction in children's ADHD-related behavior (F=4.34, p=.041). Results showed that the coaching program made a positive contribution to teaching skills and understanding of school-age children with ADHD. The instructional coaching program was well structured and significantly improved not only teachers'attitudes, knowledge, and teaching skills but also the behavior of children with ADHD in class. Therefore, the program is recommended as a means of facilitating teaching and managing children with ADHD in class. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  14. The Effect of Multiple Intelligence-Based Instruction on Critical Thinking of Full Day Islamic Elementary Schools Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamuddin Alhamuddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of critical thinking skills of elementary schools’ students was influenced by teachers’ domination in instructional activities; meanwhile students did not play independently as the learners. Theoretically, multiple intelligences based instruction is an appropriate solution. For that reason, this research aims to know the impact of multiple intelligences based instruction on students' critical thinking skills. The research was conducted at Al-Amanah and Buahati Islamic Elementary Schools by using a quantitative approach with case study method. Data collected through critical thinking tests was analyzed by using independent sample t-test to examine the impact of instruction on students' critical thinking skills. The results showed that the implementation of multiple intelligences based intruction had significant effect on students’ critical thinking skills. From the finding, some recommendations are given as follows: 1 The teacher’s role is not only for transferring knowledge based on his/her competencies but also students’ characteristics reflecting their instruction styles; and 2 for further researcher, it is suggested to investigate this issues more specifically and comprehensively.   Kurangnya keterampilan berpikir kritis dari siswa sekolah dasar dipengaruhi oleh dominasi guru dalam kegiatan pembelajaran; Sementara itu siswa tidak bermain secara independen sebagai peserta didik. Secara teoritis, pendekatan berbasis kecerdasan ganda merupakan solusi yang tepat. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak pendekatan berbasis kecerdasan ganda pada keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Sekolah Dasar Islam Al-Amanah dan Buahati dengan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode studi kasus. Data dikumpulkan melalui tes berpikir kritis dianalisis dengan menggunakan sampel independent t-test untuk menguji dampak dari pendekatan pada keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa. Hasil penelitian

  15. Effects of socioscientific issues-based instruction on argumentation ability and biology concepts of upper secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faelt, Surasak; Samiphak, Sara; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2018-01-01

    Argumentation skill is an essential skill needed in students, and one of the competencies in scientific literacy. Through arguing on socioscientific issues, students may gain deeper conceptual understanding. The purpose of this research is to examine the efficacy of a socioscientific issues-based instruction compared with an inquirybased instruction. This is to determine which one is better in promoting 10th grade students' argumentation ability and biology concepts of digestive system and cellular respiration. The forty 10th grade students included in this study were from two mathematics-science program classes in a medium-sized secondary school located in a suburb of Buriram province, Thailand. The research utilizes a quasi-experimental design; pre-test post-test control group design. We developed and implemented 4 lesson plans for both socioscientific issues-based instruction and inquiry-based instruction. Ten weeks were used to collect the data. A paper-based questionnaire and informal interviews were designed to test students' argumentation ability, and the two-tier multiple-choice test was designed to test their biology concepts. This research explore qualitatively and quantitatively students' argumentation abilities and biology concepts, using arithmetic mean, mean of percentage, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that there is no significant difference between the two group regarding mean scores of the argumentation ability. However, there is significant difference between the two groups regarding mean scores of the biology concepts. This suggests that socioscientific issues-based instruction could be used to improve students' biology concepts.

  16. Assessing the Challenges Heads of Department Encounter in Instructional Supervision in Ghana. A Case of Selected Senior High Schools in Kwabre East District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kweku Bedu; Howard, Peggy Maansah Ankai; Peligah, Y. S.; Cann, Lily Obu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the challenges HoDs in Senior High Schools face during instructional supervision. In so doing, the study employed case study and used mixed method approach. In all a total of 92 questionnaires were administered with a response rate of 75.40%. The population consisted of School Heads /Assistant Heads, HoDs and…

  17. Effects of Language of Instruction on Learning of Literacy Skills among Pre-Primary School Children from Low-Income Urban Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Njagi, Joan; Wekulo, Patricia; Ngware, Moses

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the language of instruction and learning of literacy skills among pre-primary school children in a multilingual environment. The sample consists of 1867 learners from low-income urban households, attending 147 low-cost private pre-primary schools located in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. About…

  18. Perceptions of Employment and Use of Part-Time Faculty among Chief Instructional Officers at Southern Association of Colleges and Schools-Accredited Public Associate's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Charlotte Nix

    2013-01-01

    Based on Yackee's (2000) study of the perceptions of chief instructional officers (CIOs) at community colleges accredited by North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), this study identified, described, and compared the perceptions of CIOs at institutions accredited by Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on…

  19. Use of a task-oriented self-instruction method to support children in primary school with poor handwriting quality and speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.J.; Linthorst-Bakker, E.; Westenberg, Y.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of a task-specific self-instruction intervention to improve handwriting ability of children with poor handwriting quality in schools for regular education (Study 1) and children with poor handwriting quality in schools for special education (Study

  20. Integrating Reading and Writing Instruction in Middle and High School: The Role of Professional Development in Shaping Teacher Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Southall, Gena

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which middle and high school English teachers integrate reading and writing instruction as complementary processes. Using qualitative research methods, researchers investigated the following: (a) Do middle and high school English teachers conceive of and enact the teaching of reading and writing as integrated…

  1. Examination of instructional strategies: Secondary science teachers of mainstreamed English language learners in two high schools in southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangambi, Matthieu Wakalewae

    2005-12-01

    Increasingly, English Language Learners (ELLs) are mainstreamed in science classes. As a result, science teachers must assume responsibility for these students' education. Currently, state tests show a wide performance gap between ELLs and non-ELLs in science and other content area courses. For instance, the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) shows a two years average performance of 6% for ELLs and 33% for non-ELLs in English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics, and Science and Technology, a 27% performance gap (Lachat, 2000). The use of research based effective teaching strategies for ELLs is indispensable in order to meet ELLs' learning needs (Jarret, 1999). The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between ELLs and non-ELLs regarding instructional strategies that secondary science teachers employ. Four areas were examined: instructional strategies mainstreamed ELLs and non-ELLs report as being most frequently employed by their science teachers, instructional strategies ELLs and non-ELLs consider most effective in their learning, the existing differences between ELLs and non-ELLs in the rating of effectiveness of instructional strategies their teachers currently practice, and factors impacting ELLs and non-ELLs' performance on high-stakes tests. This study was conducted in two urban high schools in Southern New England. The sample (N = 71) was based on the non-probability sampling technique known as convenience sampling from students registered in science classes. The questionnaire was designed based on research-based effective teaching strategies (Burnette, 1999; Ortiz, 1997), using a Likert-type scale. Several findings were of importance. First, ELLs and non-ELLs reported similar frequency of use of effective instructional strategies by teachers. However, ELLs and non-ELLs identified different preferences for strategies. Whereas non-ELLs preferred connecting learning to real life situations, ELLs rated that strategy as least

  2. Development of instructional manual encouraging student active learning for high school teaching on fluid mechanics through Torricelli's tank experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwan, Suttinee; Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Khemmani, Supitch

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to help students to perform Physics laboratory by themselves and to provide guidelines for high school teacher to develop active learning on fluid mechanics by using Torricelli's tank experiment. The research was conducted as follows: 1) constructed an appropriate Torricelli's tank experiment for high school teaching and investigated the condition for maximum water falling distance. As a consequence, it was found that the distance of the falling water measured from the experiment was shorter than that obtained from the theory of ideal fluid because of the energy loss during a flow, 2) developed instructional manual for high school teaching that encourages active learning by using problem based learning (PBL) approach, which is consistent with the trend of teaching and learning in 21st century. The content validity of our instructional manual using Index of Item-objective Congruence (IOC) as evaluated by three experts was over 0.67. The manual developed was therefore qualified for classroom practice.

  3. Improving Middle School Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Reading Infusion-Loaded Discovery Learning Model in the Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryakin; Riandi

    2017-02-01

    A study has been conducted to obtain a depiction of middle school students’ critical thinking skills improvement through the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model in science instruction. A quasi-experimental study with the pretest-posttest control group design was used to engage 55 eighth-year middle school students in Tasikmalaya, which was divided into the experimental and control group respectively were 28 and 27 students. Critical thinking skills were measured using a critical thinking skills test in multiple-choice with reason format questions that administered before and after a given instruction. The test was 28 items encompassing three essential concepts, vibration, waves and auditory senses. The critical thinking skills improvement was determined by using the normalized gain score and statistically analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test.. The findings showed that the average of students’ critical thinking skills normalized gain score of both groups were 59 and 43, respectively for experimental and control group in the medium category. There were significant differences between both group’s improvement. Thus, the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model could further improve middle school students’ critical thinking skills than conventional learning.

  4. The Role of Instructional Quality within School Sectors: A Multi-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Saralyn J.

    2013-01-01

    On average, private school students outperform public school students on standardized tests. Research confirms these differences in student scores, but also shows that when student background characteristics are controlled, on average, public school students outperform private school students. Explaining achievement differences between sectors…

  5. Using Video Modeling with Voice-over Instruction to Train Public School Staff to Implement a Preference Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Gina M Delli; Vladescu, Jason C; DeBar, Ruth M; Carroll, Regina A; Sarokoff, Randi A

    2017-03-01

    The identification of putative reinforcers is a critical component of programming for individuals with disabilities. A multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment is one option for identifying putative reinforcers; however, staff must be trained on the steps necessary to conduct the assessment for it to be useful in practice. This study examined the effectiveness of using video modeling with voice-over instruction (VMVO) to train two public school staff to conduct this assessment. Results demonstrate that VMVO was effective in training, producing generalized responding, maintenance, and high social validity ratings.

  6. Technology-Aided Interventions and Instruction for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Samuel L.; Thompson, Julie L.; Hedges, Susan; Boyd, Brian A.; Dykstra, Jessica R.; Duda, Michelle A.; Szidon, Kathrine L.; Smith, Leann E.; Bord, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    The use of technology in intervention and instruction for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing at a striking rate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the research literature underlying the use of technology in interventions and instruction for high school students with ASD. In this paper, authors propose a theoretical…

  7. The impact of a school based oral hygiene instruction program on the gingival health of middle school children in Riyadh: Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessa Alwayli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.

  8. The Needs for Multicultural Knowledge in Instructional Material on Theme 7 "Beautiful Diversity in My Country" Grade 4th Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifatul Jannah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of research consist of the following (1 to know need analysis of Curriculum 2013 instructional materials in elementary school (2 to develop instructional material based on multicultural values.The study employs descriptive qualitative method which the data are collected by interview,  observation, and document analysis.The observation and interview results about instructional materials of Curriculum 2013 in some elementary school in Surakarta consist of the following (1 teachers need additional materials in order to deliver suitable material of Curriculum2013 for students. (2 teachers get difficulties in selecting suitable additional material. (3 teachers need additional material which can develop students good characters by adding Indonesian multicultural knowledge in all subjects. By enriching and developing multicultural values for students so it can be integrated in instructional materials such as tolerance, nationalism, and spirit of unity in diversities.

  9. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  10. "La Chanson de Roland" in the Elementary School Classroom: A Case for Medieval Literature and Young Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Karla L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes successful experiment in teaching of medieval literature to elementary French language classes in the Cincinnati public schools. Purpose was to strengthen linguistic awareness and expand social studies unit on medieval France. (BK)

  11. Follow These Step-by-Step Instructions to Prevent Avoidable Tumbles at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Almost a quarter of disabling work injuries among school employees are caused by slips and falls. Outlines prevention steps and safety programs that can help lower the possibilities of accidents from falls in schools. (MD)

  12. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Angell, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  13. Organizing for Instruction in Education Systems and School Organizations: "How" the Subject Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Hopkins, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Teaching, the core technology of schooling, is an essential consideration in investigations of education systems and school organizations. Taking teaching seriously as an explanatory variable in research on education systems and organizations necessitates moving beyond treating it as a unitary practice, so as to take account of the school subjects…

  14. The Effect of Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Instruction of Middle School Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Sara Talley

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between middle school math teacher pedagogical content knowledge as gathered from a teacher assessment and student Standards of Learning scores. Nine middle-school math teachers at two rural schools were assessed for their pedagogical content knowledge in geometry and measurement in the specific area of…

  15. A Synthesis of Instructional Strategies in Geoscience Education Literature That Address Barriers to Inclusion for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Ivan G.; Marshall, Anita M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    People with disabilities make up the largest minority population in the U.S. yet remain sorely underrepresented in scientific disciplines that require components of field-based training such as the geosciences. This paper provides a critical analysis of broadening participation within geoscience education literature through the use of accessible…

  16. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  17. The Impacts of Educational Asthma Interventions in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto Cardoso, Laís Souza; de Souza-Machado, Carolina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N = 5,879 subjects). 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies) were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies) showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies) reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies) reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies) increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators. PMID:27656097

  18. The Impacts of Educational Asthma Interventions in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N=5,879 subjects. 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators.

  19. Instructional Context and Student Motivation, Learning, and Development: Commentary and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Kaplan, Avi

    2015-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, learning and development in childhood and throughout the lifespan occur in the context of interactions within complex social networks. Collectively, the articles in this special issue illuminate three important themes related to teacher-student interactions within instructional contexts: relationships, competence,…

  20. Literacy Coaching: Middle School Academic Achievement and Teacher Perceptions Regarding Content Area Literacy Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anjell H.; Neill, Patricia; Faust, Phyllis B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in perceptions of content area teachers receiving literacy coaching and teachers receiving no literacy coaching regarding implementation of literacy instruction. It also examined student achievement on standardized tests relative to literacy coaching. A survey measured teachers' perceptions regarding their…

  1. Teaching for Scientific Literacy? An Examination of Instructional Practices in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the instructional practices of science teachers in Barbados are congruent with best practices for teaching for scientific literacy. Additionally, through observation of practice, it sought to determine the teachers' demonstrated role in the classroom, their demonstration of learning through discourse,…

  2. An Analysis of Modular Instruction of Newspaper Reading Skills to Poor Readers in Junior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Charles

    Fifty instructional modules designed to improve newspaper reading skills were field tested in this study. During a 50-day period, modules were used by Wilkes County, Georgia teachers as they saw fit in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade classes primarily for 338 students with poor reading skills. In summary, the effectiveness of the instructional…

  3. Handbook for Instruction on Aging in California Public Schools. Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is designed to assist teachers at the elementary and secondary level in the development of curricula on aging which can integrate the concepts of aging into ongoing lesson plans. The five content areas of instruction include chronological aging, physiological and biological aging, sociocultural aspects of aging, psychological aging,…

  4. An Analysis of Data Activities and Instructional Supports in Middle School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.; Baker, Katie; Junglen, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of science and math education is reasoning with data. Science textbooks are instructional tools that provide opportunities for learning science content (e.g. facts about force and motion) and process skills (e.g. data recording) that support and augment reasoning with data. In addition, the construction and design of textbooks…

  5. The QUASAR Project: The "Revolution of the Possible" in Mathematics Instructional Reform in Urban Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Edward A.; Stein, Mary Kay

    1996-01-01

    Examines critical features of the QUASAR Project, a mathematics instruction program oriented toward helping students develop a meaningful understanding of mathematical ideas through challenging mathematical tasks, and discusses findings regarding the positive impact it has had on students. Challenges and obstacles in implementing the project are…

  6. Analysis of an Instructional Coach's Role as Elementary School Language Teachers' Professional Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Coaches can provide teachers with quality professional development experiences by mentoring, providing workshops, modeling, or encouraging professional growth (York-Barr & Duke, 2004). This study focuses on the instructional coach's role in the professional development of teachers of English language learners (ELLs). The study has the following…

  7. Implementation of a School-Wide Approach to Critical Thinking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Cherrie L.

    2000-01-01

    To improve students' critical-thinking skills, an interdisciplinary team of educators collaborated with a specialist. The result: a new model for infusing thinking-skills instruction. This paper describes the change process, the CRTA model's evolution, derivation of its acronym, and early qualitative results. (Contains 31 references.) (MLH)

  8. The Collegial Focus: Teaching Fields, Collegial Relationships, and Instructional Practice in American High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Yasumoto, Jeffrey Y.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theory of collegial social control of teacher's instructional beliefs and practices that centers on the idea of "collegial focus." Examines whether social control affects teachers' practices, if collegial focus strengthens social control, the role of subject-matter specialization, and the effects of bureaucratic control on collegial…

  9. Middle School Teachers' Strategies for Including Overweight Students in Skill and Fitness Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah; Li, Weidong; Manson, Mara; Beale, Angela

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper describes teachers' perspectives and strategies on including overweight and obese students (OWS) in instruction related to motor skill/game play and fitness development in physical education. Using the Social Ecological Constraints framework, a qualitative multicase study was conducted using multiple in-depth…

  10. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ)-Themed Literature for Teens: Are School Libraries Providing Adequate Collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Overberg, Elizabeth; Harris, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults have access through school libraries to LGBTQ-themed literature. The library collections in 125 high schools in one Southern U.S. state were examined for the inclusion of LGBTQ-themed fiction, nonfiction, and biographies, including a core collection of 21 recommended titles. Results showed…

  11. Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

    2011-01-01

    In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

  12. The Impact of School-Located Influenza Vaccination Programs on Student Absenteeism: A Review of the U.S. Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Harry F.; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to summarize the impact of school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs on school absenteeism. Seven studies were identified: six peer-reviewed articles and one conference presentation. The number of students vaccinated ranged from 185 to 5,315, representing 35-86% of enrolled students. Six studies…

  13. Friends and Family: A Literature Review on How High School Social Groups Influence Advanced Math and Science Coursetaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Owens, Ann; Williams, Darryl; Kim, Hui Yon; Musto, Michela

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized the literature on how informal contexts, namely friends and family social groups, shape high school students' likelihood of pursuing advanced math and science coursework. Extending scholarly understandings of STEM education, we turned to the body of literature with three guiding questions: (1) What influence do…

  14. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  15. Instructional Leadership as Defined by Virginia Elementary Title I Principals: a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Rebecca G.

    2012-01-01

    Rebecca G. Eastwood Abstract Policymakers have tried to link the principal to student outcomes, thus shifting the role of the principal from manager to instructional leader of the school. The significance of instructional leadership has increased especially since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in January of 2002. However, a common definition of instructional leadership is difficult to locate in the literature. In this three-round Delp...

  16. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  17. Method of Instruction in Cooking and Experimenting with Eggs in Elementary School Homemaking Education

    OpenAIRE

    富士栄, 登美子; Fujie, Tomiko

    1997-01-01

    It is our wish and heart's desire that school children cultivate creative and active minds through homemaking education. Homemaking education also aims to develop school children's spirit of inquiry into various phenomena in their daily lives. We can take up a variety of subjects in homemaking classes in order to realize these wishes and desires. For instance, we can cook and experiment with eggs. Teachers should encourage school children not only to acquire the basic knowledge and skill to c...

  18. Substance use education in US schools of pharmacy: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyk, Andrew J; Peedin, Emily; Lipetzky, Juliana; Parker, Haley; McEachern, Mark P; Thomas, Kelan

    2017-01-01

    The authors sought to systematically review the quantity and quality of literature describing substance use disorders (SUDs) education in US schools of pharmacy and determine the effectiveness of the educational interventions employed. The authors conducted a systematic review of SUDs education studies in US pharmacy schools. All literature database searches were performed on April 30, 2016, in 5 databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase.com, ERIC via FirstSearch, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. The study authors conducted this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines and registered it with PROSPERO, which is an international prospective register of systematic reviews. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42016037443. The study authors created a modified data extraction sheet based on the Best Evidence in Medical Education coding sheet. A Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) score was calculated for included articles. Results: From the 1626 retrieved records, 7 were included in the present review. The studies assessed students' impressions and abilities regarding SUDs pre- and post-intervention. The mean ± SD MERSQI score of the 7 studies was 9.86 ± 1.21 (range: 8-11.5). The included articles assessed pharmacy students at various academic years, with the majority students in either their first or second year of pharmacy school, and described both required and elective courses. The educational interventions varied in design and outcomes measured. Education included nicotine, alcoholism, and SUDs in general. None of the included articles reported on education regarding opioid use disorders. Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review demonstrate that teaching pharmacy students about SUDs produces a positive impact in their attitudes and knowledge on this subject.

  19. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  20. High School Physics: An Interactive Instructional Approach That Meets the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaobo; Mejia, Joel Alejandro; Becker, Kurt; Neilson, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Improving high school physics teaching and learning is important to the long-term success of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Efforts are currently in place to develop an understanding of science among high school students through formal and informal educational experiences in engineering design activities…

  1. Instructional Comparative Advantages May Exist Despite the "Comprehensive Uniformity" of Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, John

    2012-01-01

    A special tabulation of individual student scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test allowed a ranking of Texas schools according to test score changes ("value added"). The rankings varied greatly by student subpopulation. That is, the vast majority of schools are much more effective with some kinds of students than…

  2. Teacher Support, Instructional Practices, Student Motivation, and Mathematics Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongrong; Singh, Kusum

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among teacher classroom practices, student motivation, and mathematics achievement in high school. The data for this study was drawn from the base-year data of High School Longitudinal Study of 2009. Structural equation modeling method was used to estimate the relationships among variables. The results…

  3. Fourth "R" in Analytic Mode: A Study of Alternatives to Religious Instruction in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Noel W.

    This doctoral dissertation examines alternatives for public-school religious education which stress spiritual values but do not conflict with legal restrictions. The study is divided into four parts. Part one is an historical survey of religious education in public schools that includes an interpretation of the legal restrictions and the…

  4. Differentiating Instruction through Multiple Intelligences in a Middle School Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    Eighth grade students at a middle school in a southern state were required a mathematics pass rate of 67.6% to meet annual yearly progress (AYP). Black and Hispanic students performed below the required pass rate on state assessments; thus, the school did not make AYP from 2007-2010. In an attempt to address low test scores in mathematics, the…

  5. An Evaluation of Supplemental Reading Instruction for At-Risk Middle School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Regan, Kelley; Nealy, Allison; Southall, Candice; Stagliano, Christina

    2012-01-01

    One middle school's implementation of corrective reading was evaluated for student reading outcomes and treatment fidelity. Findings indicated that sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students made progress in decoding and oral reading fluency over the school year; however, students did not demonstrate greater gains during the semester enrolled in…

  6. Does the Organization of Instruction Differ in Charter Schools? Ability Grouping and Students' Mathematics Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Donaldson, Kristi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have learned a good deal from lottery-based and quasi-experimental studies of charter schools, much of what goes on inside of charter schools remains a "black box" to be unpacked. Grounding our work in neoclassical market theory and institutional theory, we examine differences in the social organization of schools…

  7. Stimulating students’ academic language : Opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Nanke; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, J.J.H.; Ros, Anje; Kroon, Sjaak

    2017-01-01

    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  8. Stimulating students’ academic language : opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rian Aarts; Jeanne Kurvers; Sjaak Kroon; Anje Ros; Nanke Dokter

    2017-01-01

    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  9. Addressing secondary school students' everyday ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reinfried

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available "Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1 to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2 to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.

  10. Addressing secondary school students' everyday ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

    2012-05-01

    "Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.

  11. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  12. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  13. Teachers' instructional behaviors as important predictors of academic motivation : Changes and links across the school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Learning environments play an important role for students' learning and outcomes. Research indicates that many students show poor academic motivation. Teachers' behavior can function as a protective factor for sustaining students' interest and active engagement in schools. However, the knowledge

  14. Instruction in nuclear physics in Italian science and technology high schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langella, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    The study of nuclear energy in Italian secondary schools was recently given notable impetus in the context of a general reassessment of scientific education. The current and previous situations as to the teaching of nuclear physics are compared and the new curriculum designed for industrial high schools specializing in nuclear energy, following the 1989 referendum on nuclear power generation (which led to a halt in the construction of new plants and the shutdown of those in service), is analyzed

  15. Instruction in Musical Education during the Transitory Stage from Kindergarten to Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 宏明; Hiroaki, TANAKA; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科非常勤講師; Department of Erarly Childhood Care and Dducation, Faculty of Human Life Sciences, Fuji Women's University

    2015-01-01

    Kindergarten curricula are designed to encourage children to naturally learn music through everyday activities centered on playing as prescribed for the field of expression in Japan's Educational Guidelines for Kindergartens. In the revised 2008 Educational Guidelines for Elementary Schools, the phase "basic ability in musical activity"was added. The term "expression,"which appears at the beginning of the objectives in the Educational Guidelines for Elementary Schools, is not an ability consi...

  16. An analysis of the relationship between K--5 elementary school teachers' perceptions of principal instructional leadership and their science teaching efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between K-5 elementary school teachers' perceptions of principal instructional leadership and their science teaching efficacy. The influence of background variables on both leadership and efficacy is also analyzed. A sequential mixed methods approach was used in this study. The survey sample was comprised of teachers in the elementary divisions of schools from the nine international school regional associations. Teacher participation was obtained through an email containing an online survey link. Following the analysis of survey responses (N=356), in-depth interviews (N=17) were conducted. Reliability for the instructional leadership scale was found to be .94 (coefficient alpha) and .69 for the personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) scale. The results show a significant correlation between elementary school teachers' perceptions of principal instructional leadership and their PSTE levels, with the most significant correlation that between the study of a science-related major or minor at college and higher PSTE scores. Strong correlations were also found between PSTE levels and having principals who discussed goals at faculty meetings, participated in science curricular review, supported recognition of student progress, encouraged new skills and concepts, discussed student progress with faculty, and used assessments to see science progress towards easily understood goals. PSTE levels were also higher in schools where principals had grade or school level science coordinators in place and where they supported the use of science kits.

  17. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  18. It's Not a Math Lesson--We're Learning to Draw! Teachers' Use of Visual Representations in Instructing Word Problem Solving in Sixth Grade of Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J. H.; Reed, Helen C.; Schoonenboom, Judith; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Non-routine word problem solving is an essential feature of the mathematical development of elementary school students worldwide. Many students experience difficulties in solving these problems due to erroneous problem comprehension. These difficulties could be alleviated by instructing students how to use visual representations that clarify the…

  19. A Study of Principals' Instructional Leadership Behaviors and Beliefs of Good Pedagogical Practice among Effective California High Schools Serving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peariso, Jamon Frederick

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods descriptive and causal-comparative study investigates what instructional leadership behaviors effective California high school principals have and what their beliefs are in regards to pedagogy, related issues, and professional issues, either constructivist or instructivist in nature, in the environment of the current NCLB…

  20. Teachers' Adherence to Highly Effective Instructional Practices as Related to Graduation Rates in Average-Need School Districts in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannucci, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school administrators' perceptions of teachers' adherence to the highly effective critical attributes of the four domains of Charlotte Danielson's "Framework for Teaching" (Planning and Preparation, The Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities) in kindergarten…

  1. Relationship between Instructional Leadership of Headmaster and Work Discipline and Work Motivation and Academic Achievement in Primary School at Special Areas of Central Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriadi, Eddi; Yusof, Hj. Abdul Raheem Bin Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership of the headmaster and the work discipline of teachers and the work motivation and the academic achievement of primary school students from Special Province of Central Jakarta. The research method will be done with quantitative research methods. The study uses data…

  2. The Effect of Differentiating Instruction Using Multiple Intelligences on Achievement in and Attitudes towards Science in Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Omema Mostafa Kamel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction using multiple intelligences on achievement in and attitudes towards science in middle school students with learning disabilities. A total of 61 students identified with LD participated. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n= 31 boys )and control (n=…

  3. Availability and Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Primary Schools in Nandi North District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuimur, Hilda Ng'etich; Chemwei, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the availability and use of instructional resources necessary for teaching Conflict and Conflict Resolution as a topic in Social Studies subject in primary schools in Nandi North District in Kenya. The study was carried out through descriptive survey. The study population included Social Studies teachers in Kosirai Division of…

  4. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  5. No Certification, No Training...No Problem: The Influence of Formative Beliefs and Learning Experiences in the Instructional Practice of New Independent School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derick Graham

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to answer the question: "To what extent do prior beliefs about and experiences of teaching and learning influence the instructional practices of new independent school teachers," who are generally not required to have any formal pedagogical training or hold teacher certification prior to beginning full-time employment.…

  6. The Lived Experiences of Leading Edge Certified Elementary School Teachers Who Use Instructional Technology to Foster Critical Thinking, Collaboration, Creativity, and Communication in Their Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of current and former Leading Edge Certified (LEC) elementary school teachers regarding instructional technology practices that facilitate students' development of critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity (4Cs) in one-to-one computer…

  7. The Impact of the Role of an Instructional Technology Facilitator on Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Technology Integration in Two Rural Public Schools in Northwestern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karri Campbell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a limited body of research on the impact of the role of the school-level instructional technology facilitator on teacher technology efficacy. This mixed-methods study involved the administration of a survey instrument designed to measure teacher technology efficacy, the Computer Technology Integration…

  8. Influence of Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality, Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Nzabonimpa Buregeya

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the Influence of Secondary School Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance. Qualitative and qualitative methods with a descriptive-correlational research approach were used in the study. Purposive sampling technique alongside random sampling technique was used to select the…

  9. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Knowledge of Math Problem-Solving Processes of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade…

  10. A Report To The Superintendent Regarding the Progress of Venice Junior High School Towards Flexible Instructional Organization (F10), or Staff Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.

    This report determined the results of the implementation of flexible instructional organization (F10) or staff differentiation at Venice Junior High School, Sarasota, Florida. The introductory portion concerns the report purpose, procedures and scope as well as background material. Results of interviews, conferences, surveys, observations, and…

  11. Increasing High School Students' Chemistry Performance and Reducing Cognitive Load through an Instructional Strategy Based on the Interaction of Multiple Levels of Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic´, Dus?ica D.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Hrin, Tamara N.

    2014-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to examine the extent to which a teaching approach focused on the interaction between macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic levels of chemistry representations could affect high school students' performance in the field of inorganic reactions, as well as to examine how the applied instruction influences…

  12. Efficacy of Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instruction for Developing Writers with and without Disabilities in Rural Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Cramer, Anne Mong; Garwood, Justin D.; Varghese, Cheryl; Hamm, Jill; Murray, Allen

    2017-01-01

    A workshop with virtual consultation practice-based professional development model for self-regulated strategy development persuasive writing instruction was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Nineteen general education teachers and 564 Grade 5 and 6 students in 16 low-wealth rural schools participated. Following training, teachers…

  13. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanne

    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

  14. The Effect of Labels Only and Labels with Instruction on the Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Retarded and Normally Developing Boys of School Age. Technical Report No. 301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Richard Michael

    Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…

  15. The Influences of Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Practical Rationality on Instructional Decision Making Regarding the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski-McMahon, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of various facets of middle school mathematics teachers' practical rationality on their instructional decision making as they plan to enact the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice, CCSS-MP1 (perseverance in problem solving) and CCSS-MP3 (communicating and critiquing). The…

  16. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Package in Supplementing Teaching of Selected Concepts in High School Chemistry: Writing Formulas and Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Camille L.

    Four classes of high school chemistry students (N=108) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups to investigate the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) package during a unit on writing/naming of chemical formulas and balancing equations. Students in the experimental group received drill, review, and reinforcement…

  17. Instructional Leadership Behaviors in Principals Who Attended an Assistant Principals' Academy: Self-Reports and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, D. Keith; Anast-May, Linda; O'Neal, Marcia; Lee, H. T.; Shores, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Focus on the development of instructional leadership skills for school principals in the U.S. continues to be at the forefront of educational research and reform in response to the increased call for accountability. In this article we review relevant literature regarding instructional leadership from a historical perspective, then present a…

  18. Digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting upper elementary and middle school science and mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Daniel

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation was to study digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting elementary and middle school science and mathematics education. Article one analyzed the effects of digital fabrication activities that were designed to contextualize mathematics education at a summer mathematics enrichment program for upper elementary and middle school students. The primary dependent variables studied were the participants' knowledge of mathematics and science content, attitudes towards STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and STEM-related careers. Based upon the data collected, three results were presented as having justifiable supporting empirical evidence: (1) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in non-significant overall gains in students' mathematics test scores and attitudes towards STEM. (2) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in noteworthy gains on the "Probability & Statistics" questions. (3) Some students who did poorly on the scored paper test on mathematics and science content were nonetheless nominated by their teachers as demonstrating meritorious distinction during the digital fabrication activities (termed "Great Thinkers" by the 5th-grade teachers). Article two focused on how an instructional technology course featuring digital fabrication activities impacted (1) preservice elementary teachers' efficacy beliefs about teaching science, and (2) their attitudes and understanding of how to include instructional technology and digital fabrication activities into teaching science. The research design compared two sections of a teaching with technology course featuring digital fabrication activities to another section of the same course that utilized a media cycle framework (Bull & Bell, 2005) that did not feature digital

  19. Instructional Management Strategy: A Multi-Sites Study on Science Teaching for Islamic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghofur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how management strategies in science learning are done by teachers in Islamic schools. This is motivated by the ranking of Indonesia which 87 percent of the population of Muslims always occupy the lowest position for the ability of science literacy. This research was conducted for four months using descriptive qualitative design with data collection technique of interview, observation and documentation. The subjects of the study were six Islamic schools in Lamongan, East Java. The six Islamic schools were chosen by purposive sampling. The results showed that the learning activities of science more dominated by teachers, students heard more explanation than the practice in verifying the process of science. The majority of teachers use lecture, question and answer methods, and assignments, and occasionally apply discussion and demonstration methods. Science laboratories in schools have not been maximally used, some have limited tools and materials, some of which lack laboratory space and even two schools without a science laboratory. Assessment of student learning progress done through pretest, posttest, daily test, question and answer during lessons, UTS and UAS. Teacher's strategy in managing student learning motivation by using animated video as apperception, integrating science materials with Islamic religious values.

  20. Science Instructional Leadership: The Role of the Department Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    With science teachers facing comprehensive curriculum reform that will shape science education for decades to come, high school department chairs represent a critical resource for instructional leadership and teacher support. While the historical literature on the department chair indicates that chairs are in prime positions to provide…

  1. Promoting Instructional Improvement: A Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Wenzel, Stacy A.

    2006-01-01

    This report argues that instructional improvement, which goes hand-in-hand with efforts at education reform, can be promoted through the strategic use of human resource management (HRM) practices at the school, district, and state levels. The authors present information from the organizational and management literatures on how firms in several…

  2. Effects of traditional teaching vs a multisensory instructional package on the science achievement and attitudes of English language learners middle-school students and English-speaking middle-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, Haver

    This research was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a Multi-sensory Instructional Package (MIP) (Dunn & Dunn, 1992) versus Traditional Teaching (TT) on the science achievement- and attitude-test scores of middle-school English Language Learner (ELL) and English-speaking sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade middle-school students. The dependent variables were students' science- and attitude-test scores. The independent variables were the two instructional strategies, ELL and English-speaking (Non-ELL) status, and three grade levels. The sample consisted of 282 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade ELL and Non-ELL middle-school students. Learning Styles: The Clue to You! (LS: CY) (Burke & Dunn, 1998) was administered to determine learning-style preferences. The control groups were taught sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade science lessons traditionally and the experimental groups were instructed on the same units using MIPs. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. All three groups experienced both traditional and multi-sensory instruction in all three sub-units. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of an MIP rather than a traditional approach for teaching science content to both ELLs and English-speaking middle-school students. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores. Furthermore, the students indicated significantly more positive attitudes when instructed with an MIP approach.

  3. School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

  4. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  5. Primary school student teachers’ perception to Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI) instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, A.; Putri, R. I. I.; Zulkardi; Somakim

    2017-12-01

    This article aimed to report the perceptions of the students of primary school education to PMRI. PMRI or Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) in Indonesian version is one of the promising mathematics learning innovations developed in Indonesia. The research method consisted of three steps, namely preliminary, teaching experiment, and retrospective Analysis. The participants were six students of the primary school teacher education. In the second phase, the participants took an PMRI lesson. Then, they filled in the perception questionnaire (open and closed). The results of the study showed that the participants agreed that learning by realistic mathematics education principles helped them understand the topic.

  6. Teacher Use of Instructional Technology in a Special Education School for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Sola Özgüç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate use of Instructional Technology (IT by special education teachers in a school for students with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID. Research questions were a Which IT do teachers use during class time? b What are the ways of providing IT? (c What are the problems that teachers encountered while using IT? (d What are the results and effects of the encountered problems? (e Is there any use of assistive technology (AT devices? This is a case study based on collecting and analyzing qualitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine teachers; students with moderate to severe ID in the first, second, fifth, and seventh grade were observed in social studies lessons, as were eight teachers of those students. The study showed that use of IT is limited in a special school for children with ID and this situation is affecting teachers and students in a negative way. Also, use of AT is lacking

  7. Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebecca

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

  8. The Effect of Verbal Self-Instruction on the Recovery of Inattention Symptoms in Elementary School Students with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghassabi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common and chronic mental health disorder through childhood. It is characterized with symptoms such as: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effect of verbal self-instruction on the recovery of inattention symptoms in elementary school students with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Type (ADD. Materials & Methods: This research was experimental with pretest–posttest control group design. By cluster sampling from second and third grades students of elementary schools in Tabriz, 30 boys who were diagnosed ADD by using Children Symptom Inventory (CSI-4 and interviewing through clinical psychologist based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR standards, selected and matched according to Raven intelligence test. Then subjects were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. Experimental group received verbal self instruction training for 8 sessions. To study the relationship between inattention symptoms and intervention of verbal self-instruction and control of pretest effect, analysis of covariance was used. Results: The results of analysis of covariance indicated significant relation (P<0.001 between intervention of verbal self-instruction and inattention symptoms. Conclusion: In sum, the intervention of verbal self-instruction program decreased inattention symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder students.

  9. Instructional Supervisory Practices of Headteachers and Teacher Motivation in Public Basic Schools in Anomabo Education Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esia-Donkoh, Kweku; Baffoe, Stella

    2018-01-01

    The study examined the supervisory practices of headteachers and how these supervisory practices relate with teacher motivation in public basic schools in the Anomabo Education Circuit of the Mfantseman Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana. Quantitative approach of the cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Using purposive and…

  10. Electric Motors. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Delmer; Carpenter, Bruce

    Designed as a 3-week course of study in the agricultural mechanics curriculum to be taught at the junior or senior high school level, this unit on electric motors is divided into 11 major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested teaching and learning activities, resources, and evaluation. Topics for…

  11. Initiating Preservice Education Majors in the Integration of Health Instruction in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta; Zaccone, Paula R.

    2004-01-01

    Losses to the workforce and drains on the national economy posed by illnesses, injuries, and environmental hazards dictate that schools operate to prevent, intervene, and help resolve these social and personal health issues. The costs to society for the medical care of children born to addicted and abusive parents, exposure to smoke and pollution,…

  12. The Impact of a Technology Integration Academy on Instructional Technology Integration in a Texas School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This applied dissertation was designed to determine the impact of a technology integration professional development on high school teachers' technology integration and students' use of computers in core content areas. The District invested in technology for all classrooms, as well as 1:1 technology for all secondary students with an expectation…

  13. Toward Instructional Leadership: Principals' Perceptions of Large-Scale Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytula, Michelle; Noonan, Brian; Hellsten, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the perceptions that Saskatchewan school principals have regarding large-scale assessment reform and their perceptions of how assessment reform has affected their roles as principals. The findings revealed that large-scale assessments, especially provincial assessments, have affected the principal in Saskatchewan…

  14. Instruction Workbook for Tracheostomy Suctioning and Misting in a School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karen McKinney; Roach, Antionette Andolfatto

    The handbook presents California guidelines for training school personnel to provide skilled nursing procedures such as tracheostomy suctioning and misting for students with special health needs. The workbook begins with an overview of the anatomy and function of the respiratory system, specifically breathing mechanics. Part 2 considers the…

  15. "Platooning" Instruction: Districts Weigh Pros and Cons of Departmentalizing Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    To platoon or not to platoon? That's the question facing Irving Hamer, Deputy Superintendent of Academic Operations, Technology and lnnovation for the Memphis City Schools. This year for the first time, the state's achievement test, Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), will include algebraic concepts on the 5th-grade test. Of the…

  16. Sign Language as Medium of Instruction in Botswana Primary Schools: Voices from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpuang, Kerileng D.; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Malatsi, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study investigates teachers' experiences of using sign language for learners who are deaf in the primary schools in Botswana. Eight in-service teachers who have had more than ten years of teaching deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) learners were purposively selected for this study. Data were collected using multiple…

  17. Aligning High School and College Instruction: Preparing Students for Success in College Level Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Across the United States, students are entering college with a need for improvement in basic mathematics and communication skills. In 2008, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1908 which changed the expectations for the senior year of high school for many students. Students who score within certain levels on the mandatory high school…

  18. Who Gets to Play? Investigating Equity in Musical Instrument Instruction in Scottish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Lio; Barron, David S.; Wilson, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely held view that learning to play a musical instrument is a valuable experience for all children in terms of their personal growth and development. Although there is no statutory obligation for instrumental music provision in Scottish primary schools, there are well-established Instrumental Music Services in Local Education…

  19. STEAM Enacted: A Case Study of a Middle School Teacher Implementing STEAM Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…

  20. An Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Tsai, Wen-Shin; Lin, Yu-Si; Hsu, Chen-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment. However, many schools do not have the ability to build and maintain an ecological pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a web-based virtual…

  1. An Examination of the Instructional Practices of Mathematics Teachers in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Sueanne E.; Chappell, Shannan; Berry, Robert Q.; Hickman, Bythella T.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have given increased attention to the teaching and learning of mathematics since the release of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)'s Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM). Despite the clear and focused goals, recommendations, and standards set by the NCTM (2000), a majority of classrooms continue to…

  2. Virtue and Moral Development, Changing Ethics Instruction in Business School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsha, Stephen K.

    2017-01-01

    Focus on business ethics has increased however, incidents of academic dishonesty among business school students has also increased at the same time. Simply adding ethics courses to business programs appears to offer little guidance for student action, action that is transferred from the university to the business world. More is needed if we wish…

  3. Civic Education in Ethiopian Schools: Adopted Paradigms, Instructional Technology, and Democratic Citizenship in a Multicultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semela, Tesfaye; Bohl, Thorsten; Kleinknecht, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After nearly two decades of military dictatorship, democratic civic education has been integrated into the Ethiopian school curriculum. This paper examines the policy-practice concordance in implementing the civic education curriculum based on empirical evidence generated on the philosophical underpinnings, curricular contents, pedagogical…

  4. The Role of School Health Instruction in Preventing Injury: Making It Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Robert M.

    Reducing the incidence and severity of child and adolescent injuries requires a multifaceted approach involving broad-based health and social service agencies, including schools. Recognition of the need for injury prevention education began with the Industrial Revolution in the 1900s, and safety education was developed as a unit of health…

  5. Summary and conclusion : instructional leadership in schools as loosely coupled organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    In this final chapter a summary of the main outcomes is given. The study has looked at the definition and concept formation of school leadership, analyzed modeling and theory foundation and presented results of meta-analyses of leadership effects. In the last section some implications for

  6. The Principalship: Essential Core Competencies for Instructional Leadership and Its Impact on School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorrell J.; Cozzens, Jeffry A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership behaviors influencing the schools' climate according to Green's (2010) ideologies of the 13 core competencies within the four dimensions of principal leadership. Data from the "Leadership Behavior Inventory" (Green, 2014) suggest 314…

  7. Creating a Culture of High Expectations, Student Motivation and Instructional Support in Schools and Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Schoolwide support for higher achievement is essential. Students need a nurturing environment where they feel secure about learning, where the goal is success for every student and where students are confident they will receive mentoring and encouragement to prepare for their futures. Many schools are reinventing themselves to motivate students to…

  8. An Update on Practice Management Instruction in U.S. Dental Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Lange

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice management in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corporations marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identified. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.

  9. An Update on Practice Management Instruction in U.S. Dental Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice man-agement in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corpora-tions marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identi-fied. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.

  10. Phenomenological Investigation of Elementary School Teachers Who Successfully Integrated Instructional Technology into the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lori Raquel; Shepard, MaryFriend

    2011-01-01

    Technology integration in school curricula promotes student achievement, yet many teachers are not successfully integrating technology for learning. This phenomenological study explored the strategies of 10 elementary teachers in Georgia who overcame barriers to technology integration to successfully incorporate lessons within the public school…

  11. The Rationalizing Logics of Public School Reform: How Cultural Institutions Matter for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…

  12. Dewey, Dale, and Bruner: Educational Philosophy, Experiential Learning, and Library School Cataloging Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, LeAnn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses educational philosophies of John Dewey, Edgar Dale, and Jerome Bruner dealing with experience and learning and describes experiential learning activities within the curriculum of the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Hawaii. Results of a study examining student attitudes toward experiential learning are…

  13. Economics (A High School One Semester Course). Instructional Materials/Resources for Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackstadt, Stephen L.; And Others

    Designed to aid teachers of a high school economics course, this curriculum guide is presented in self-contained units of study. Thirteen units, each with specific lessons, cover economic problems, the market system, market structure, market imperfections, government regulation, the national economy, aggregate supply and demand, the business…

  14. Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education: Improving Instructional Practice and Student Learning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    "Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education" offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital." Grounded in extensive research and examples of leading edge districts, this book shows how the entire human resource system in schools--from recruitment, to selection/placement,…

  15. Using Empirical Data to Refine a Model for Information Literacy Instruction for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesset, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As part of a larger study in 2006 of the information-seeking behaviour of third-grade students in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, a model of their information-seeking behaviour was developed. To further improve the model, an extensive examination of the literature into information-seeking behaviour and information literacy was conducted…

  16. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  17. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Irribarra, D.; Freund, R.; Fisher, W.; Wilson, M.

    2015-02-01

    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting.

  18. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irribarra, D Torres; Freund, R; Fisher, W; Wilson, M

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting

  19. Optimizing the orchestration of resemiotization with teacher "talk moves": A model of guided-inquiry instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Rachel Diana

    The current conceptualization of science set forth by the National Research Council (2008) is one of science as a social activity, rather than a view of science as a fixed body of knowledge. This requires teachers to consider how communication, processing, and meaning-making contribute to science learning. It also requires teachers to think deeply about what constitutes knowledge and understanding in science, and what types of instruction are most conducive to preparing students to participate meaningfully in the society of tomorrow. Because argumentation is the prominent form of productive talk leading to the building of new scientific knowledge, one indicator of successful inquiry lies in students' abilities to communicate their scientific understandings in scientific argumentation structures. The overarching goal of this study is to identify factors that promote effective inquiry-based instruction in middle school science classrooms, as evidenced in students' abilities to engage in quality argumentation with their peers. Three specific research questions were investigated: (1) What factors do teachers identify in their practice as significant to the teaching and learning of science? (2) What factors do students identify as significant to their learning of science? and (3) What factors affect students' opportunities and abilities to achieve sophisticated levels of argumentation in the classroom? Two teachers and forty students participated in this study. Four principle sources of data were collected over a three-month period of time. These included individual teacher interviews, student focus group interviews, fieldnotes, and approximately 85 hours of classroom videotape. From this sample, four pathways for guided-inquiry instruction are identified. Opportunities for student talk were influenced by a combination of factors located in the domains of "teacher practice," "classroom systems," and "physical structures." Combinations of elements from these three

  20. Secondary School Students’ English Literacy: Use of Interactive Read Aloud Instructional Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Ayu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global era has had a great impact on the existence of English as a global language which requires students to be good at its every skill. It is believed that students’ English could be enhanced well with the use of certain strategies, one of which is Interactive Read Aloud Instructional Strategy (IRAIS. This study was aimed at examining the efficacy of IRAIS to help students to improve their English literacy achievements. Forty five out of 746 students were selected randomly as sample based on their grade levels (7th, 8th, 9th and their levels of comprehension. By using time series design, these students were given interventions for three months using IRAIS and their English achievements were obtained from pre- and post-tests of four English literacy skills. During the interventions, the progress of the students was also monitored regularly by using three formative tests.The results showed consistent progress on the students’ achievement during the interventions and upon their total English literacy achievement after the interventions. Among the four English literacy skills, the most significant improvement was in listening followed by writing, reading, and speaking. In terms of aspects of each literacy skill, the highest achievement scores were in inference of listening, narrative techniques of writing, vocabulary of reading, and vocal expression of speaking. These findings lead to the conclusion that IRAIS  is an effective strategy in helping students to improve their level of English proficiency.

  1. Principals' Perceptions of Their Instructional Leadership Behaviors in Jewish Day Schools: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Devorah Grosser

    2016-01-01

    This study examined principals' perceptions of their instructional leadership behavior. It incorporates a mixed-methodology and explored principals' perceptions of instructional leadership as defined by Hallinger and Murphy (1985). The perceptions of male and female principals' instructional leadership behaviors were compared. In addition, other…

  2. A Review of Homework Literature as a Precursor to Practitioner-Led Doctoral Research in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Nicholas Paul Charles

    2014-01-01

    Homework in the primary school is a subject much debated by teachers, parents and pupils. This paper offers a brief critique of key issues in the current homework debate with particular reference to research literature, theoretical perspectives, educational policy and other professional publications. Consequently, a discourse between homework in…

  3. Commentary on "Childhood Leukemia Survivors and Their Return to School: A Literature Review, Case Study, and Recommendations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article, "Childhood Leukemia Survivors and Their Return to School: A Literature Review, Case Study, and Recommendations" by D. Scott Hermann, Jill R. Thurber, Kenneth Miles, and Gloria Gilbert in this issue (2011). This article addresses issues related to the compatibility of the suggested practices with contemporary…

  4. Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been…

  5. A Call to Adopt the Concept of Responsible Leadership in Our Schools: Some Insights from the Business Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the literature about responsible leadership in business administration, this article brings the concept of responsible leadership to the fore in the theoretical and empirical debates about educational leadership and to encourage scholars to study the particular characteristics and determinants of responsible leadership in schools. More…

  6. Connecting Mathematics and Literature: An Analysis of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Changing Beliefs and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburne, Jane M.; Napoli, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics calls for students to see relationships and connections with mathematics (2000). This study examined the influences on eight pre-service elementary school teachers' beliefs and knowledge of teaching mathematics through literature. The semester long project involved both the language arts and…

  7. The development of a handbook from heritable literature for desirable characteristics among Thai youths in schools in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mali Mokaramanee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was deigned to develop a teacher’s handbook for desirable characteristic creation from heritable literature for Thai youth in schools in Bangkok. The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing four pieces of heritable literature: Ramayana (King Rama I Issue, I-nao (King Rama II Issue, Khun Chang – Khun Phan (National Library Issue and Phra Aphai Mani (Sunthorn Phu Issue. The research results found that there are nine current problems that need to be overcome in order to develop desirable characteristics for youths in schools. There are additionally eight desirable characteristics that need to be developed among youths, based on the statement of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The investigation found that families, social media, community and religious leaders and schools all have an important role in promoting or creating desirable characteristics for youths. The content analysis found that all but one piece of heritable literature analysed contained content according to the eight desirable characteristics for youths. The handbook developed from the four pieces of heritable literature could be divided into four books for each piece of literature, which can be used as classroom teaching materials to create desirable characteristics for youths.

  8. Teacher performance and work environment in the instructional process in vocational school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro, Tri; Dardiri, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Teachers should have pedagogical, personality, social, and professional competency. stated that performance appraisal has several benefits, namely for the implementation of reward and punishment system, provision of feedback for teachers to develop their competencies, identification of training needs, and diagnosis of problems. According to performance is one's work result or success rate as a whole over a certain period of time in performing tasks compared to various possibilities, such as work standards, targets or criteria which have been predetermined and agreed. One's performance is based on daily tasks and responsibilities assigned to him/her. The racial differences in personality are largely due to different environmental influences, where people of different races have progressed for generations. Vocational high school teachers have a low pedagogic and professional performance. The factors that influence performance, according to the partner-lawyer model proposed, are expectations about rewards, encouragements, abilities, needs and traits, perceptions of tasks, internal and external rewards, perceptions of reward levels and job satisfaction. This study used a survey method to collect data or information about a large population using relatively small samples. The population of this research was vocational high school teachers. Data analysis techniques used the Regression Analysis with the assistance of SPSS. The results of teacher performance are as follows: 1) the pedagogic performance was relatively good; 2) professional performance was relatively good, and the overall performance of vocational high school teachers was still less effective and efficient; 3) the teachers' work environment was 42.5234%; and 4) there was no correlation between work environment and teacher performance, meaning that the work environment (conditions of physical work environment, psychological work environment, and non-physical work environment) does not positively support the

  9. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  10. Relationships among School Climate, School Safety, and Student Achievement and Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Identified Methods and Techniques Teachers Adopt in Prose Literature Lessons in some Secondary Schools in Owerri

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    F. O. Ezeokoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the methods adopted by teachers in prose literature-in-English classrooms, activities of teachers and students, teachers’ perceived effectiveness of techniques used. It also examined the objectives of teaching prose literature that teachers should address and the extent teachers believe in student-identified difficulties of studying prose literature. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 85 schools in Owerri metropolis and in each school, all literature teachers of senior secondary I and II were involved. In all, 246 literature teachers participated out of which 15 were purposively selected for observation. The two instruments were: Teachers’ Questionnaire (r = 0.87 and Classroom Observation Schedule (r = 0.73. Data were analysed using frequency counts and percentages. Results revealed that teachers adopted lecture (28.4%, reading (10.9% and discussion (7.3% methods. Teacher’s activities during the lesson include: giving background information, summarizing, dictating notes, reading aloud and explaining and asking questions. The adopted techniques include: questioning, oral reading, silent reading and discussion. Teachers’ perceived questioning as the most effective technique followed by debating and summarizing. Teachers identified development of students’ critical faculties and analytical skills, literary appreciation and language skills to be of utmost concern. It was concluded that the methods adopted by teachers are not diverse enough to cater for the needs and backgrounds of students. Keywords: Methods, Techniques, Perceived Effectiveness, Objectives, Literature-in-English

  12. Ensinar, formar, educar e instruir: a linguagem da crise escolar Teaching, forming, educating and instructing: the school crisis language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Barbosa-Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade pedagógica tem sido designada por quatro vocábulos básicos: ensinar, formar, educar e instruir. O sentido dessas palavras e a preferência por cada uma delas mudaram significativamente através do tempo, refletindo não só a filosofia escolar da época, mas, também, o estágio de desenvolvimento da sociedade. Um estudo etimológico indica que seus significados originais, extremamente pregnantes, podem ter algo a nos dizer sobre a relação professor - aluno - escola. Apontamos a existência de uma possível relação entre o uso dessas palavras e as concepções filosóficas implícitas na didática das Ciências Físicas, seus impasses, suas crises, sua evolução histórica, com ênfase no caminho que vai do instruir ao educar.In Portuguese, four words have been used to describe the pedagogical activity: ensinar (to teach, formar (to form, educar (to educate and instruir (to instruct. Their meanings and uses have shifted significantly, reflecting not only changes in the school system but also in the society development. An etymological study shows that their original meanings and uses may tell us something about the school - teacher - student relationship prevailing at a given time. The special case of Physical Sciences is examined to show that there seems to have a clear connection between the use of these words and the underlying philosophical conceptions embodied in the pedagogical practices.

  13. Maximizing the Production of Biogas in an Instructional Manipulative Designed to Teach Energy Concepts to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shakira Renee

    In an effort to stress the benefits of the application of renewable energy to the next generation of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) professionals, instructional modules on energy and biogas were integrated into a summer camp curriculum that challenged students to apply STEAM concepts in the design and development of chain reaction machines. Each module comprised an interactive presentations and a hands-on component where students operated a manipulative relevant to the content. During summer 2013, this camp was implemented at two high schools in Arizona and one in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessments showed that the overall modules were effective in helping students learn and retain the information presented on energy and biogas production. To improve future implementations of these modules, specifically the module on biogas production, the anaerobic digester was redesigned. In addition, a designed experiment was conducted to determine how to optimize the influent and operational environment that is available in an average high school classroom to generate maximum biogas yield. Eight plug-flow anaerobic digesters made of PVC piping and fixtures were used in a 2x3 factorial design assessing: co-digestion (20mL or 50mL) used cooking oil, temperature (25°C or 40°C), and addition of inoculum (0mL or 200mL). Biogas production was captured at two intervals over a 30-day period, and the experiments were replicated three times. Results showed that temperature at 40°C significantly increased biogas production and should be used over 25°C when using anaerobic digesters. Other factors that may potentially increase biogas production are combination of temperature at 40°C and 50mL of used cooking oil. In the future, the improvements made in the design of the anaerobic digester, and the applications of the finding from the experimental design, are expected to lead to an improved manipulative for teaching students about biogas production.

  14. Possible relationships between literacy-based instructional coaching and effects on high school teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jessica Lynn

    Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.

  15. The Influence of Organizational Culture on School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kayla N; Solari Williams, Kayce D; Warren, Judith; McKyer, E Lisako Jones; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    Although the influence of organizational culture has been examined on a variety of student outcomes, few studies consider the influence that culture may have on school-based obesity prevention interventions. We present a systematic review of the literature to examine how elements of organizational culture may affect the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions. Fourteen studies examining the impact of organizational-level characteristics on school-based obesity prevention interventions were identified through the online databases EBSCO (CINAHL, ERIC, Agricola), Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Scopus. Five themes were identified as elements of organizational culture that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions: organizational response to limited resources, value placed on staff training and professional development, internal support, organizational values, and school climate. Organizational culture can greatly influence the success of school-based obesity interventions. The collection of data related to organizational-level factors may be used to identify strategies for creating and sustaining a supportive environment for obesity prevention interventions in the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Video Instruction on Social and Communication Skills Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Miller, Trube; Callahan, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Video instruction as an intervention for teaching skills to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is gaining increased momentum in applied settings.Video instruction, comprised of video modeling, video self-modeling, and point-of-view video, has been utilized in various fields of study with various populations and target behaviors.…

  17. At-risk elementary school children with one year of classroom music instruction are better at keeping a beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.

  18. Perceptions of a computer-based instruction system in special education: high school teachers and students views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsin-Yu Ariel; Jacobs, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Researchers investigated how one type of computer-based instruction (CBI)--Kurzweil 3000 (K-3000), was perceived to affect the reading, functional task performance, and academic self-perception of high school students with special needs. 16 students with special needs used K-3000 (assistive software that provides students with reading support) for six months to read assignments for their English language arts class and six teachers who had previous experience with integrating K-3000 into their classes were recruited. Data from focus group interviews of students and teachers were used. The advantages and disadvantages of K-3000, the factors that affected teachers' use of CBI and users' progress were explored. After the regular use of K-3000, students and teachers reported improvement in the amount and speed of reading and increased academic self-perception, specifically related to reading comprehension and pronunciation. Teachers reported that lack of accessibility to technology, time constraints, and difficulties with class management were the major reasons that hindered CBI use in their classrooms. Student participants noted that CBI was helpful when they were engaged in functional activities related to reading and writing. The progress of students in self-perception, and the advantages and drawbacks of the K-3000, along with the mechanism of users' progression were described and discussed.

  19. MOTIVATIONAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS ON LITERATURE IN CONTEXT OF D. MCCLELLAND’S THEORY

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    E. V. Bataeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main motives of human behavior are formed at the primary school age. Several factors play a determining role in children’s development: up-bringing in the family, style of teaching at school, quality of popular literature and other sources of information, and, in particular, school textbooks. The special importance is given to the content quality of school textbooks. The influence of school textbooks is determined by the fact that school children should necessarily get familiar with the printed materials, resulting, as a consequence, in accepting the patterns of social interaction and motive-codes introduced there. Due to high constructivist potential of school textbooks, it seems necessary to carry out content analysis of textbooks’ for the purpose of identifying the influence on certain motive trends formation in schoolchildren.The aim of the publication is to present the methodology of motivational analysis of school textbooks on literature and the results of its approbation when studying the motivational content of Ukrainian textbooks for primary school.Methodology and research methods. The research methodology is based on comparative, socio-constructivist, sociocultural and system-activity approaches to implementation of educational process and preparation of didactic materials. Scientific methods involve: analysis and synthesis of the content of sociological, socio-psychological, pedagogical and methodical literature; content analysis of educational texts.Results and scientific novelty. The author’s methodology of motivational content analysis of primary school textbooks on literature developed in the context of D. McClelland’s theory is described. As the main categories of motivational content analysis of texts, the motives of behavior introduced by D. McClelland (achievements, affiliation, positive and negative power, avoidance of failure as well as the motives of self-expression and refusal of affiliation have

  20. Effects of Post-School Options Instruction on Knowledge of Options and Ability to Orally Present Post-School Goals for High School Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effects of teaching presentation skills and post-school options to three high school students with developmental disabilities. While previous research has indicated students with learning disabilities can learn both academic and life skills within the same activity (Collins, Hager, & Galloway, 2011; Falkenstine, Collins,…

  1. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  2. Development of the Curriculum and Instructional Model for Learning the Tactical Awareness by the Each Role in the Baseball Game in the Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    中井, 隆司; 宗野, 伸哉; 川島, 弘美

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the curriculum and instructional model for learning the tactical awareness by the each role in the baseball game in the elemetary school. This baseball game' s practice composed three task games, the drill game and the teaching process for learning "tactical awareness". For analyzing the learning process and the products, four students were selected by the throwing ability. In this teaching unit, the learning process and the products were measured in t...

  3. Experimental instruction in photonics for high school students: approaches to managing problems faced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Zhengyang

    2017-08-01

    Student research projects are increasingly common at the K-12 level. However, students often face difficulties in the course of their school research projects such as setting realistic timelines and expectations, handling problems stemming from a lack of self-confidence, as well as being sufficiently disciplined for sustained communication and experimentation. In this work, we explore manifestations of these problems in the context of a photonics project, characterising the spectrum of the breakdown flash from Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes. We report on the process of planning and building the setup, data collection, analysis and troubleshooting, as well as the technical and human problems at each step. Approaches that were found to be helpful in managing the aforementioned problems are discussed, including an attention to detail during experimental work, as well as communicating in a forthcoming manner. Œe former allowed for clearer planning and the setting of quantifiable proximal goals; the latter helped in motivating discipline, and also helped in the understanding of research as an iterative learning process without a clear definition of success or failure.

  4. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  5. Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew Owen

    This study identifies three distinct levels of text-image integration in page design in a linear relationship of lesser to greater integration: prose primary, prose subsumed, and fully integrated strategies. Science textbook pages were redesigned according to these holistic design strategies for 158 7th-grade students. There were three separate treatment tests, as well as a pre-test and post-test, and pilot tests with both undergraduate students and the subjects themselves. Subjects found the fully integrated strategy to produce the most visually interesting designs and the prose primary strategy to produce the least interesting, with prose subsumed definitively in between (according to 95% confidence intervals). The strategy employed significantly altered interest in science subject matter in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0446), where a Student's t-test revealed that the prose subsumed strategy produced higher interest in subject matter than prose primary. The strategy employed significantly altered comprehension of abstract relationships in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0202), where a Student's t-test revealed that the fully integrated strategy resulted in greater comprehension than prose primary. For the same treatment condition significant differences were found through ANOVA for factual-level knowledge (P=0.0289) but not conceptual-level knowledge ( P=0.0586). For factual-level knowledge prose primary resulted in lesser comprehension than both prose subsumed and fully integrated. Comprehension is defined according to cognitive load theory. No strategy impact on perception of task difficulty was found. This study was approved by North Carolina State University's Institutional Review Board and Wake County Public School System's Research Review Committee.

  6. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nurse Practice: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonkaitis, Catherine F.

    2018-01-01

    School nurses report that evidence-based practice (EBP) is not a part of their daily practice, and most have had no formal education regarding EBP or its implementation. The purpose of this review is to identify what strategies might be effective to educate school nurses about EBP as a first step toward establishing EBP in school nurse practice.…

  7. What Role Does Taste Play in School Meal Studies? A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Annemarie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    School meals play an important role in student well-being. However, studies have given evidence that school meals may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence suggests that taste plays an influential role in students' food decisions and eating experiences. This review of current research finds that studies around improving school meals mainly…

  8. The School Leadership Literature in Managerialist Times: Exploring the Problem of Textual Apologism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrupp, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Critiques major topics or themes in school-leadership texts, such as problem-solving techniques; suggests alternative topics or themes for school administrators, such as ideas-based leadership. Draws implications for writers on school leadership. (Contains 59 references.) (PKP)

  9. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  10. An Analysis of Discourse Present in Sex Education Literature from Palm Beach County Middle Schools: Are Kids Really Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Avila, Elizabeth

    Issues of sexual assault have become pervasive across all social strata in American society. Citizens need to start having conversations regarding these issues. To combat the issue of sexual assault, children need to be educated regarding the multifaceted aspects of sex through sex education in order to understand consent and resources they have available to them. Utilizing grounded theory methodology, this thesis analyzes sex education literature provided to Palm Beach County Middle School students. Using Burke's theory of terministic screens and Foucauldian theories of power and control; an understanding of the ideological underpinnings of this literature and discourse were acquired. After analysis, suggestions for disclosure and sex education programs are provided.

  11. Leadership in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Business students nowadays are not, for the most part, poets. A growing proportion come to business school with a background in investment banking or management consulting and an undergraduate business major, rather than a degree in the arts and sciences. MBA students are already very familiar with business. A number of scholars and businesspeople have begun to question the scientific model that dominates business research and teaching. Formalized management tools work well enough if you're studying techniques for financial valuation, but less so when you're studying leadership and organizational behavior. Some argue that students could learn a lot more about these subjects if they took a course in literature. Examples from fiction can be as instructive as any business textbook. HBR senior editor Diane Coutu recently met with Joseph Badaracco, Jr., for a wide-ranging discussion of what leaders can learn from literature. For the past decade, Badaracco, the John Shad Professor of Business Ethics at Harvard Business School, has used classical literature to provide well-rounded, complex pictures of leaders in all walks of life-particularly leaders whose psychological and emotional challenges parallel those of senior executives. Fiction provides some of the most powerful and engaging case studies ever written. Unlike contemporary management literature, which is relentlessly upbeat, classical literature is unsparingly realist. Leaders often struggle and sometimes fail-and the stakes are high. When business leaders read about the conflicts of literary characters, they can better understand their own circumstances. We pay far too little attention to the inner lives of leaders. Business school courses seem to suggest that you can treat executives like lab animals and control their behavior through their environment. But behaviorism is not enough. Literature suggests that leaders should learn more about themselves if they want to succeed.

  12. Barriers and Advantages to Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program Based on the Social Ecological Model: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Neyman, Stephanie M.; Warren, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in school meals is a preventive measure against childhood hunger. Participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) continues to lag behind that of the National School Lunch Program. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the barriers and advantages to student participation in the SBP. Using the adaptable…

  13. Construction of Context-Based Module: How OLED can be used as a Context in High School Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, I. R.; Mudzakir, A.; Sumarna, O.

    2017-09-01

    Teaching materials used in Indonesia generally just emphasize remembering skill so that the students’ science literacy is low. Innovation is needed to transform traditional teaching materials so that it can stimulate students’ science literacy, one of which is by context-based approach. This study focused on the construction of context-based module for high school using Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) topics. OLED was chosen because it is an up-to-date topic and relevant to real life. This study used Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) to reconstruct science content structure about OLED through combining scientist’s perspectives with student’s preconceptions and national curriculum. Literature review of OLED includes its definition, components, characteristics and working principle. Student’s preconceptions about OLED are obtained through interviews. The result shows that student’s preconceptions have not been fully similar with the scientist’s perspective. One of the reasons is that some of the related Chemistry concepts are too complicated. Through curriculum analysis, Chemistry about OLED that are appropriate for high school are Bohr’s atomic theory, redox and organic chemistry including polymers and aromatics. The OLED context and its Chemistry concept were developed into context-based module by adapting science literacy-based learning. This module is expected to increase students’ science literacy performance.

  14. The role and importance of Tuvan literature and teaching it in schools in the preservation and development of Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiia Kh. Oorzhak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article start off by expressing their concern about the level of command of Tuvan by the younger generation, especially children. Preserving and developing Tuvan language is impossible without literature in Tuvan and teaching it in schools and other educational institutions. The article deals with the issues of teaching Tuvan literature in secondary comprehensive schools of the Republic of Tuva. The authors also provide an overview of textbooks of Tuvan literature compiled at the laboratory of Tuvan philology, Institute for the Development of National Schools of the Republic of Tuva, in compliance with the Federal educational standards of Russian Federation. The textbook provide the mandatory minimum of the standard-provided content of general education and guarantee the required quality of knowledge for school graduates. In 2013-2017, textbooks titled «Tөreen chogaal» (Literature in the Native Tongue were compiled and published for Grades 5-9, as well as two accompanying textbooks for Grades 5 and 6. The textbooks rely on the methodological principles of the study program «Tyva aas chogaaly bolgash literatura. Niiti өөredilge cherleriniң 5-11 klasstarynga chizhek programma» (Tuvan folklore and literature. Sample Study Program for Grade 5-11 of Comprehensive Schools. In comparison to the previous generation of textbooks, these have been largely updated both in their structure and scope of its content. The texts were grouped in the following categories: “Folklore, the nation’s boundless treasury”, “From folklore to literary genres”, “The world of childhood”, “The world of wonders”, “Holy places”, “The Stars of Victory” and “Animal world”. They prominently feature folklore texts, including shaman songs; tests and creative tasks have also been developed. In terms of their content and methodology, the textbooks intend to familiarize students with the spiritual, moral and aesthetic values of

  15. Teaching Classic Literature with Comic Books and Virtual Lit Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the assignments the author created to engage preservice teachers in designing instructional materials that befit today's students to help them overcome hurdles sometimes present when learning classic literature. Secondary and middle school English teachers may find these assignments useful as well so their students, too,…

  16. Instructional Supervision and Its Relationship with Professional Development: Perception of Private and Government Secondary School Teachers in Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaw, T. A.; Hofman, R. H.

    2012-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study is to examine the existing perceptions and preferences of teachers toward instructional supervision, more specifically on the actual and ideal use of selected instructional supervisory approaches (such as clinical supervision, peer coaching, cognitive coaching, mentoring, reflective coaching, teaching…

  17. Attitudes towards Instructional Games on Peace Education among Second Year Students in Junior Secondary Schools in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanlawon, A. E.; Fakokunde, J. B.; Yusuf, F. A.; Abanikannda, M. O.; Oyelade, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of games and their availability through both ICT and non ICT tools require the investigation of students' attitude towards the use in instructional delivery. The study therefore examined students' attitudes towards instructional games on peace education. A total of 360 students randomly selected from the six states forming the…

  18. The effects of computer game elements in physics instruction software for middle schools: A study of cognitive and affective gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, David Alan

    Can the educational effectiveness of physics instruction software for middle schoolers be improved by employing "game elements" commonly found in recreational computer games? This study utilized a selected set of game elements to contextualize and embellish physics word problems with the aim of making such problems more engaging. Game elements used included: (1) a fantasy-story context with developed characters; and (2) high-end graphics and visual effects. The primary purpose of the study was to find out if the added production cost of using such game elements was justified by proportionate gains in physics learning. The theoretical framework for the study was a modified version of Lepper and Malone's "intrinsically-motivating game elements" model. A key design issue in this model is the concept of "endogeneity", or the degree to which the game elements used in educational software are integrated with its learning content. Two competing courseware treatments were custom-designed and produced for the study; both dealt with Newton's first law. The first treatment (T1) was a 45 minute interactive tutorial that featured cartoon characters, color animations, hypertext, audio narration, and realistic motion simulations using the Interactive PhysicsspTM software. The second treatment (T2) was similar to the first except for the addition of approximately three minutes of cinema-like sequences where characters, game objectives, and a science-fiction story premise were described and portrayed with high-end graphics and visual effects. The sample of 47 middle school students was evenly divided between eighth and ninth graders and between boys and girls. Using a pretest/posttest experimental design, the independent variables for the study were: (1) two levels of treatment; (2) gender; and (3) two schools. The dependent variables were scores on a written posttest for both: (1) physics learning, and (2) attitude toward physics learning. Findings indicated that, although

  19. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  20. Practices for Improving Secondary School Climate: A Systematic Review of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Adam; Nation, Maury

    2016-09-01

    School climate has received increased attention in education policy and, in response, educators are seeking strategies to improve the climates of their middle and high schools. However, there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the empirical evidence for what works in school climate improvement. This article constitutes a systematic review of programs and practices with empirical support for improving school climate. It defines school climate and provides a methodology for identifying and evaluating relevant studies. The review identified 66 studies with varying strength of evidence and nine common elements that cut across reviewed programs and practices. The review concludes with a critical appraisal of what we know about school climate improvement and what we still need to know. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.