Stevenson, Kathryn Tate
Solving environmental challenges will require an environmentally literate citizenry, equipped with ecological knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, problem-solving skills, and motivation toward environmentally responsible behaviors. This dissertation addresses three approaches to building environmental literacy (EL) among middle school students: through schools (Chapter 1), through activities outside of school (Chapter 2), and through understanding psychological factors that affect environmental perceptions (Chapter 3). Chapter 1. This study examined school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student demographics, and school attributes. Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered schoolwide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years) were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black) was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that though school-wide EE programs may vary in effectiveness, the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a promising strategy. Further, investments in both new and veteran teachers to build and maintain enthusiasm for EE may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially
Haerens, L.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Bourdeaudhuij, I.D.; Craeynest, M.; Maes, L.
The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.
Masella, Richard S
A career in dental academics offers ample rewards and challenges. To promote successful careers in dental education, prospective and new dental faculty should possess a realistic view of the dental school work environment, akin to the informed consent so valuable to patients and doctors. Self-assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses provides helpful information in matching faculty applicants with appropriate dental schools. Essential prehiring information also includes a written job description detailing duties and responsibilities, professional development opportunities, and job performance evaluation protocol. Prehiring awareness of what constitutes excellence in job performance will aid new faculty in allotting time to productive venues. New faculty should not rely solely on professional expertise to advance careers. Research and regular peer-reviewed publications are necessary elements in academic career success, along with the ability to secure governmental, private foundation, and corporate grant support. Tactful self-promotion and self-definition to the dental school community are faculty responsibilities, along with substantial peer collaboration. The recruitment period is a singular opportunity to secure job benefits and privileges. It is also the time to gain knowledge of institutional culture and assess administrative and faculty willingness to collaborate on teaching, research, professional development, and attainment of change. Powerful people within dental schools and parent institutions may influence faculty careers and should be identified and carefully treated. The time may come to leave one's position for employment at a different dental school or to step down from full-time academics. Nonetheless, the world of dental and health professional education in 2005 is rapidly expanding and offers unlimited opportunities to dedicated, talented, and informed educators.
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents ...
Dagmara eDimitriou; Dagmara eDimitriou; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Patrick eMilton; Patrick eMilton
Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took pa...
Cvetković Vladimir M.
Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective
Full Text Available Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results. An average of 7.08 hours of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behaviour problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.Conclusion. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in
López-Barrón, Rita Gabriela; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat
The increasing overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) prevalence in Mexican children warrant the assessment of the environmental risk factors. To assess whether there is an association between food availability in children's environments and their food consumption with BMI z-score and waist circumference (WC). Six hundred and eighty four children, 264 parents, 22 teachers and cafeteria staff in the schools and street vendors participated in the study. Weight, height, and WC of 5(th) grade children were assessed. Food frequency, physical activity (PA) and eating habits questionnaires were applied to parents, children and teachers. A food inventory questionnaire was applied to parents, cafeteria staff in the schools, street vendors and stores near the schools. The children's mean age was 10.5. Twenty eight per cent of the children were overweight, 26% obese and 25% had abdominal obesity. A positive correlation was found between energy-dense foods (EDF), fruit and vegetable availability at home and their weekly consumption. Also a correlation between consumption of soft drinks and other EDF was found. The largest contributors to food consumption were the availability at home and at school (R2 = 0.11, p = 0.0001). Children's TV viewing was positively correlated with parents TV viewing time. For each hour of increase (from cero to seven) in daily TV viewing children were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR=1.22 95% CI 1.02-1.45, p=0.026). EDF, fruit and vegetable availability in and near home and school along with hours of TV viewing were positively associated with obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Abdi, Tariku A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Adal, Tamirie A
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), social factors (e.g., peer influence, parental gambling), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of gambling venues, advertisements) were significant correlates of problematic gambling. The study also revealed that men were more at risk for severe problematic gambling than females. Among the identified types of gambling activities, the most prevalent ones were playing cards followed by flipping coin and pool gambling while internet gambling was among the least reported gambling activities. By identifying personal, social and environmental correlates of risky gambling activities this study provides evidence-based information for the systematic design and evaluation of educational interventions to prevent problematic gambling in young people.
Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif
Betel quid (BQ) is one of the fourth most commonly used substance globally. Though BQ is a psycho-active substance, yet little has been explored regarding dependency on it particularly among adolescents. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine adolescents' dependency on BQ, along with their intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental determinants of dependency. This cross-sectional study focused on 2200 school-going adolescents of Karachi, Pakistan in 2016. Primary outcome was dependency on BQ among adolescents. Both univariate and multivariate regressions were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (after adjustments for all intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors) with 95% confidence level. Out of 2200 students, 874 (39.7%) were found to be BQ users amongst whom 69 (7.9%) were dependent on BQ. Comparing the groups with only areca nut users as reference category, betel quid with tobacco additives chewers were considerably dependent (OR = 14.08, 95% CI 3.64-54.16). The individuals who chewed >5 chews per day (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.08-3.29) and chronic users (>1year) (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.09-3.74) were more likely to be dependent. Older students (>12 years) (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.23), and who studied in government schools were significantly dependent (OR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.80-6.10) than those who studied in private schools. In conclusion, intrapersonal characteristics like more than 5 chews per day, chronic chewers of more than a year, BQ with tobacco chewers, older adolescents and children studying in government schools were significantly associated with BQ dependency.
A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.
Raja'a, Y A; Assiragi, H M; Abu-Luhom, A A; Mohammed, A B; Albahr, M H; Ashaddadi, M A; Al Muflihi, A N
An epidemiological comparative survey aimed at determination of prevalence and focal distribution of Schistosomes infection and intestinal parasites to provide a reference for evaluating the need for community intervention. All children of 14th October Primary School were involved. The children were from 7 villages that lie on the Assahul valley of lbb governorates in Yemen. The total number was 230 with (82%) boys and (18%) girls. Their age was between 5-18 years with a mean of 10.24 +/- 2.6 years. Millipore and modified Kato techniques were adopted to quantify urinary and intestinal Schistosomes eggs. Other ova, larvae, cysts were recorded whenever seen. It was revealed that there was a Schistosomes infection rate of 37%. The mansoni prevalence was 35%, hematobia was 5% and mixed infections were 3%. Light infection was classified among 17% of all children; moderate infection among 18% and no intense mansoni infection was determined. Whereas in the case of hematobia species, 2% were intense and 3% were light. Intensity in all children was 5% eggs/g feces in case of intestinal bilharzia and 1% egg/10 ml urine in case of urinary. With regard to the prevalence of any soil-transmitted parasites, it was found to be 69% (Ascariosis 68%, Trichuriosis 10%). Double infection was found in 10%. Hookworm eggs were not seen. Infection rates with other parasites were as follows: Giardiosis 18%, Amoebiosis 14%, ova of Hymenolepes nana were seen in 13%, Taeniosis affected 13% and E. Vermicularis 1%. Bivariate analysis revealed significant associations between Schistosomes infection with residence near the valley, male sex and frequent water contact activities. No significant association was found with the age of the child, parents' education, availability of latrine or household standpipe water. In conclusion, schistosomosis was moderate, whereas soil transmitted helminthosis were intense.
Barrreto-Munévar, Deisy P; Cháux-Ramos, Oriana M; Estrada-Rangel, Mónica A; Sánchez-Morales, Jenifer; Moreno-Angarita, Marisol; Camargo-Mendoza, Maryluz
Determining the relationship between vocal habits and environmental/ occupational conditions with the presence of vocal disturbance (dysphonia) in teachers and functionaries working at community-based, initial childhood education centres (kindergartens). This was a descriptive study which adopted across-sectional approach using 198 participants which was developed in three phases. Phase 1: consisted of identifying participants having the highest risk of presenting vocal disturbance. Phase 2consisted of observation-analysis concerning the voice use and vocal habits of participants who had been identified in phase 1. Phase 3consisted of perceptual and computational assessment of participants' voices using Wilson's vocal profile and the multidimensional voice program. Individuals having pitch breaks, throat clearing, increased voice intensity, and gastro-oesophageal reflux were found to present below standard fundamental frequency (FF). Subjects having altered breathing and increased voice intensity were identified as having above standard shimmer and jitter acoustic values. A high rate of inability to work was found due to vocal disturbance. It is thus suggested that there is a correlation between vocal habits and vocal disorders presented by preschool teachers in kindergarten settings.
Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan
This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among guidance-and high school students and its relation to modifiable environmental factors."nMaterials and Methods: The subjects have been 1000 girls and 1000 boys aged between 11-18 years, selected by multi-stage random sampling, their parents (2000 subjects and their school staffs (500 subjects in urban and rural areas of two provinces in Iran. Data have been analyzed by SPSSV10/ Win software."nResults: The prevalence of 85th < BMI<95th percentile and BMI>95th percentile in girls was significantly higher than boys (10.67±1.1%, 2.9±0.1% VS. 7.37±0.9%, 1.87±0.1% respectively, p<0.05. The mean BMI value was significantly different between urban and rural area (25.38±5.2 VS. 23.25±7.1, P< 0.05. BMI > 85th percentile was more prevalent in those with lower educated mothers (9.2+2.1 vs. 11.5+2.4 years of mothers education respectively. The mean of the total energy intake was not different between overweight or obese and normal- weight subjects (1825±90Kcal VS. 1815±85Kcal, P>0.05 but the percent of energy derived from carbohydrates was significantly higher in former than the latter (69.4% VS. 63.2%, P<0.05. Regular out-school sport activities were significantly lower and the time spent on television watching was significantly higher in overweight or obese than non-obese subjects (300±20 VS. 240±30 minutes/day, P<0.05. Significant linear association was shown between the consumption frequency of rice, bread, pasta, fast foods and fat/salty snack and BMI (p=0.05-0.06, p<0.05. A significant correlation was shown between BMI percentiles with serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (Pearson r=0.38,-0.32 and 0.47 respectively.
Investigations on the association between environmental hazards and the development of various types of leukaemia are reviewed. Regarding acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-documented risk factor. According to several recent studies exposure to strong electromagnetic fields may be suspected to be of etiologic importance for ANLL. There is evidence that occupational handling of benzene is a risk factor and other organic solvents may also be leukaemogenic. Occupational exposure to petrol products has been proposed to be a risk factor although the hazardous substances have not yet been defined. Results of cytogenetic studies in ANLL suggest that exposure to certain environmental agents may be associated with relatively specific clonal chromosome aberrations. Exposure in utero to ionizing radiation has been proposed to be a risk factor for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Unlike ANLL there seems at present to be little evidence that ALL is related to exposure to some chemicals. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) may follow exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation whereas such exposure seems to be of insignificant importance for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). According to some studies an abnormally high incidence of CLL may be found among farmers in the USA. These results have not been confirmed in Scandinavian studies. There seems to be little evidence that CML or CLL are related to occupational handling of some chemicals. 35 references.
Derycke, Virginie; Coftier, Aline; Zornig, Clément; Léprond, Hubert; Scamps, Mathilde; Gilbert, Dominique
One of the goals of the French national campaign called "Etablissements Sensibles (Sensitive Establishments)" is to evaluate indoor air degradation in schools because of vapor intrusion of volatile compounds from soil gases towards the indoor air, related to the presence of former industrial sites on or near the establishment. During this campaign, as recommended by the United States of Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), indoor air quality was evaluated from soil gas concentrations using generic attenuation factors, and extra investigations into soil gases and indoor air were performed when the estimated values exceeded target indoor air concentrations. This study exploits matched data on subsurface soil gases and indoor air that came from the "Sensitive Establishments" campaign. It aims to consolidate and refine the use of attenuation factors as a function of environmental variables acquired routinely during environmental assessments. We have been able to select the measured environmental variables that have the most influence on vapor intrusion using Principal Components Analysis and hypotheses tests. Since the collected data are mainly related to weak sources (only 15% schools required risk management measures related to vapor intrusion), halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) were selected as tracer compounds for vapor intrusion for this study. This choice enables the exclusion or minimization of background sources contributions. From the results we have calculated the descriptive statistics of the attenuation factors distribution for the subslab-to-indoor air pathway and refined the attenuation factors for this pathway through an easily obtained parameter, building age. Qualitative comparison of attenuation factors according to the building age shows that attenuation factors observed for building less than 50 years are lower than attenuation factors for buildings 50 years old and above. These results show the utility of creating databases for
Lü, Hai-bo; Deng, Fu-rong; Sun, Ji-dong; Wu, Shao-wei; Sun, Xiu-ming; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yan-hua; Guo, Xin-biao
To study the indoor environmental factors associated with the prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children. A cluster sampling method was used and the ISAAC questionnaire was conducted. A total of 4612 elementary students under Grade Five of 7 schools were enrolled in the survey for the impact of indoor environmental factors on the prevalence of asthma and related allergies in several urban and suburban schools of Beijing. A total of 4060 sample were finally analyzed including 1992 urban and 2068 suburban. The prevalence of wheeze, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema in the past 12 months was 3.1% (61/1992), 5.3% (106/1992), 1.1% (22/1992) among urban children while 1.3% (27/2068), 3.1% (65/2068), 1.0% (22/2068) among suburban children respectively. The prevalence of wheeze and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis of the past 12 months in urban were both significantly higher than that in suburban (χ(2) = 14.77, 11.93, P children (5.3% (105/1992), 29.4% (586/1992)) were significantly (χ(2) = 39.03, 147.22, P interior decoration had different influence on the prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children in the two areas. The significant impact of passive smoking on having asthma ever among suburban children was observed (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.17 - 6.23) while no significant result in urban (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.71 - 1.58); the percentage of interior decoration was 84.0% (1673/1992) among urban children and 80.0% (1655/2068) among suburban children, there was significant impact of interior decoration on the prevalence of having eczema ever among urban children (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.17 - 2.10) but no significant results were found in suburban sample (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.76 - 1.48). The prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children is much higher in urban areas than that in suburban areas and the indoor environmental factors such as passive smoking and interior decoration may differently explain the
Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo
This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…
Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J
Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.
Dupper, David R.; Rocha, Cynthia; Jackson, Rebecca F.; Lodato, Gayle A.
National and state surveys over the past several decades have concluded that school social workers, despite an awareness of and training in macro level practice strategies, are highly individualistic in their practice focus. Although clinical skills are necessary, they are insufficient for effective school social work practice in the 21st century.…
Solis-Soto, María Teresa; Patiño, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja
In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2340 children attending the fifth grade in 36 randomly selected elementary schools in Oropeza province. The prevalence of symptoms was determined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Environmental factors were assessed by the ISAAC environmental questionnaire including questions related to exposure to pets, farm animals, indoor and outdoor pollution, presence of disease vectors at home and precarious household conditions. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex and place of living. Thirty seven percent of children reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. Wood or coal was used as cooking fuel in 19% of the homes and 29% reported intense truck traffic on the street where they lived. With respect to hygiene conditions, 86% reported exposure to dogs, 59% exposure to cats and 36% regular contact to farm animals. More than one precarious household condition was reported by 8% of children. In the adjusted model exposure to dog (adjusted OR 1.4; CI 95% 1.0-1.9), cat (1.2; 1.0-1.5), farm animals (1.5; 1.2-1.8); intense truck traffic (1.3; 1.0-1.6), parents smoking at home (1.2; 1.0-1.5), presence of disease vectors at home (fourth quartile vs. first quartile: 1.6; 1.2-2.3) and two or more precarious household conditions (1.5; 1.0-2.2) were significantly associated with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. The associations were similar for asthma and eczema symptoms; however it did not reach the level of statistical
Omer Faruk Tekbas
Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444
Full Text Available Background: Objective of the study was to assess the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec, based on the questionnaire data. Materials and methods: The crosssectional epidemiological questionnaire study was performed in the years 2005–2006. Parents of 709 primary school children aged 7–12 years took part in the study. Questionnaire was completed by parents to collect information on children health status, particularly respiratory symptoms, chronic diseases of respiratory system, allergic diseases, use of medical services, children dietary habits and family socio-economic status. Results: In the study group the statistical significance was found for the incidence of respiratory symptoms in children and housing conditions, i.e.: the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Results of the study showed, that incidence of whizzing differed statistically significantly in the groups of different professional status of the parents. It is difficult to estimate if this is only the influence of socio-economic conditions or any other environmental factors as well. Conclusions: Results of the study demonstrated statistical significance between the status of respiratory system in children and housing occupancy rate (the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Relation between respiratory symptoms in children, parents education and professional status was analyzed, but findings of the conducted studies do not give explicit evidence of such a relation.
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.
Tooker, Gail Patricia
This study focuses on how fourteen elementary and middle level teachers in New York chose to teach environmental topics as part of their science curricula. Prior research suggested that factors influencing teachers to make curricular decisions are different from those that motivated them to become teachers in the first place (Espinet, et.al. 1992). This was supported by the results of this study, which found that most of these teachers made the decision to begin teaching environmental education (EE) well after deciding to become teachers and that the decision to teach EE was influenced by a variety of factors including participation in EE-oriented in-service programs, media coverage of environmental issues, encouragement from colleagues and school administrators to undertake EE, and personal experiences in childhood or early adulthood with the environment and/or with EE. Studies examining experiences that influence people to practice "environmentally responsible" behaviors (Chawla, 1995; McGarry, 1994; Tanner, 1994) suggested that positive childhood contacts with nature were important predictors for such behavior in adulthood. Findings of this study were largely consistent with these results, however, this sample of teachers viewed their childhood nature experiences as being mostly responsible for the development of their appreciation of the environment, while their actual decision to begin teaching EE was primarily influenced by other experiences, as discussed above. This study also examined how these teachers prepared themselves for teaching EE. The findings indicate that these teachers used a wide variety of preparation strategies. A minority reported becoming prepared for teaching EE through their pre-service teacher education programs. These results were in agreement with prior findings that most teacher education programs in this country do not include a focus on EE. Even where preparation for EE is included, it has been rated by the participants as
Martens, M.; Assema, P.; Knibbe, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.
Purpose. Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program. Design. Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaires completed by adolescents in 10 schools
Luiza O. de Sousa
Full Text Available This research explores sustainable environmental management indicators in South African primary schools. Of key interest is the comparison of a township, farm and urban primary school that identify indicators that promote education for sustainable development in schools that implement an environmental management system. Data are drawn from one-on-one interviews, focus group interviews, observations and document analysis from 35 participants in three schools. A comparison of the three schools was done by content and thematic analysis of a within-case analysis. Data from the township school revealed that socioeconomic factors and organisational structure promote education for sustainable development. The farm school data revealed that health promotion can be managed within an environmental management system within a hierarchical school structure. The urban school data revealed that an economic inducement brings a school to realise that it can reduce its carbon footprint, gain financially and utilize its resources with innovation. A case is made that the four pillars of sustainable development (environment, society, economy, and governance endorse education for sustainable development. Furthermore, the objectives of environmental education ought to remain nested in an environmental management system to ensure that the global goal of quality education is achieved.
Brenner, Anton; Scott, Leland H.
This paper is an empirical statistical analysis and interpretation of data relating to school readiness previously examined and reported on a theoretical basis. A total of 118 white, middle class children from six consecutive kindergarten groups in Dearborn, Michigan were tested with seven instruments, evaluated in terms of achievement, ability,…
With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
Rowe, Daryl E.
Environmental health, as it relates to schools, is defined. Site, chemical, biological, and physical health hazards are identified. Recommendations and precautions to help achieve optimal health, safety, and comfort are presented. Resources are noted. (Author/MT)
Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal
, trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...... to sperm motility. In case of air pollution, studies suggest a link between ambient air pollutants and various semen characteristics. Additional research is needed to corroborate this association and to establish the causal agents. Results of few studies on subfertile men demonstrate associations between...... phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (impact on sperm concentration, morphology, motility), but the findings have not been corroborated in studies of men from the general population. Mobile phones might adversely affect the quality of semen by decreasing mostly...
Small, B.M. [Envirodesic Certification Program, Stouffville, ON (Canada)
Indoor health is a concern today because unhealthy environments can cause adverse health effects, poor learning and teaching and increased costs. The holistic view of the environment and human health links sick kids, absenteeism, teacher illness, education costs and mouldy schools. An historical perspective is provided on the problem and its treatment referring to: 1962 and chemical susceptibility, 1975 and open systems theory, 1978 and high risk groups, 1985 and pollution and education in Toronto, 1987 and health environments for Canadians, 1995 and the National Education Association in the U.S., 1997 and a U.S. Executive Order, 1998 and the Texas Dept. of Health, 1998 and the U.S. EPS website 'IAQ Tools for Schools', and 1998 and 'The air children breathe.' It is known that pollutants adversely affect health, that children are highly susceptible, that the role in schools has being known for decades, and that information is now available worldwide through the Internet. The reasons why mould is a problem are listed, and the effects of an unhealthy indoor environment are referred to. The benefits of a healthy indoor environment are listed, and the various means of creating a healthy indoor environment are outlined. New developments are referred to including: fresh air, building envelope, building leakage, airtightness of buildings, tight envelope and air supply, low-emission materials, maintenance and cleaning, strategy and financing, collaboration, and the possibility of healthy schools.
Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
Lisiane de Souza
Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.
Our findings support other studies which found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school progress and performance. Contrary to most research findings mother tongue instruction did not eme1rge as an important explanatory factor on school progress and performance, however; home ...
performed to gain a real is tic understanding of the successes and failings of the environmental study. Ve~~.vo.lg vatt bt. 13. VAN ZYL A. E. 1985: Language and Experience: Educa- tional barriers in teaching. SAM!:.B. Vol. 16 no. 5 pp.244-247 March. VAN ZYL S. 1gs1: The Albany Museum School Service. - 44 years. SAJ.
Wardani, R. A. K.; Karyanto, P.; Ramli, M.
The student’s environmental literacy (EL) is a vital component to improve the awareness of student on environmental issues. This research aims to measure and analyse the EL of high school students, and how the topic of environment has been taught in high school. The research was conducted in February to April 2017. The EL was measured on three aspects, i.e. knowledge, attitude and concern. The participants were sixty-five (21 boys, 44 girls) purposively selected from students of grade X, XI and XII of one Senior High School in Karanganyar Regency, Indonesia. The knowledge of students on concepts of environmental issues was tested by fourteen main questions followed by supported questions. The result showed that 80% of students were classified as inadequate category. The attitude of students was measured by New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) consisted of fifteen items, and students’ average score was 46.42 (medium). The concern was measured by fifteen statements about environment, and it was ranged from 2.58 to 4.18. EL of students may low due to students’ lack understanding of the environment concepts, the limited theories and concepts transferred to students, inappropriate lesson plan to meet the EL components.
Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.
In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed
Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç
The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…
Brown, Gregory; Devlin, Ann Sloan
To explore the relationship between vandalism, college residence hall size, and a number of social factors, 688 college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the University Residence Environment Scale (Moos, 1988), and answered questions about their television habits and athletic participation.…
Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita
Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993
STAR grantees will describe their planned research and hear from EPA programs and a regional schools coordinator about EPA’s programs and resources. A guest speaker will provide a lunchtime seminar.
Adeyemi, A. J.; Yusuf, S. A.; Ezekiel, O. B.
Learning, which is the expected outcome of any educational institution, can be influenced by many factors that include environmental factors. This study is aimed at comparing the learning environment of junior secondary schools, in a North-western state of Nigeria, with established standards in some other countries. Four government-owned and four private owned schools participated in the study. Environmental variables such as classroom temperature, noise level, lighting and classroom si...
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.
Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Sheffield, Perry E; Uijttewaal, Simone A M; Stewart, James; Galvez, Maida P
The changing climate is creating additional challenges in maintaining a healthy school environment in the United States (U.S.) where over 50 million people, mostly children, spend approximately a third of their waking hours. Chronic low prioritization of funds and resources to support environmental health in schools and lack of clear regulatory oversight in the U.S. undergird the new risks from climate change. We illustrate the extent of risk and the variation in vulnerability by geographic region, in the context of sparse systematically collected and comparable data particularly about school infrastructure. Additionally, we frame different resilience building initiatives, focusing on interventions that target root causes, or social determinants of health. Disaster response and recovery are also framed as resilience building efforts. Examples from U.S. Federal Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and nationally are used to illustrate these concepts. We conclude that better surveillance, more research, and increased federal and state oversight of environmental factors in schools (specific to climate risks) is necessary, as exposures result in short- and long term negative health effects and climate change risks will increase over time.
May 11, 2010 ... internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners ... Namibia. Although numerous studies have confinned socio-economic ... Many studies support the view that family background is the strongest single predictor of ..... Windhoek is clearly stratified, mainly following income levels.
This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…
Edelson, Daniel C.
With the dramatic growth of environmental science as an elective in high schools over the last decade, educators have the opportunity to realistically consider the possibility of incorporating environmental science into the core high school curriculum. Environmental science has several characteristics that make it a candidate for the core…
Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A
Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor
Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida
Full Text Available The growing concern about the environment has been changing the people's behaviour, leading to questions about the origin of products and the damage they cause to the environment, resulting in a new type of consumer, known as "green consumer". The purpose is to identify the influence of socio-demographic and psychographic factors on the environmental behaviour of individuals in the city of Brasilia and to provide information for the planning of environmental marketing strategies. Data were collected through a questionnaire and by way of logistic regression as analytical tools.The results indicated that the environmentally conscious individuals are those with higher levels of education and, especially, those who perceive the effectiveness of their environmental actions, however small or isolated.
Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an immune-complex-mediated multi-systemic autoimmune condition of multifactorial etiology, which mainly affects young women. It is currently believed that the onset of SLE and lupus flares are triggered by various environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Various environmental agents and toxicants, such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, occupationally- and non-occupationally-related chemicals, ultraviolet light, infections, sex hormones and certain medications and vaccines, have been implicated to induce SLE onset or flares in a number case series, case-control and population-based cohort studies and very few randomized controlled trials. Here, we will describe some of these recognized environmental lupus triggering and perpetuating factors and explain how these factors potentially bias the immune system towards autoimmunity through their interactions with genetic and epigenetic alterations. Further in-depth exploration of how potentially important environmental factors mechanistically interact with the immune system and the genome, which trigger the onset of SLE and lupus flares, will certainly be one of the plausible steps to prevent the onset and to decelerate the progress of the disease.
The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...
Zaenuri, Z.; Sudarmin, S.; Utomo, Y.
is designed using a qualitative approach. This study is focused on the implementation of environmental education in primary schools. Data collection uses observation sheet instrument (observation), focused interview, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The research data were analyzed descriptively. The results......The purpose of this study is to analyze the implementation of environmental education in Elementary School. The study was conducted at SDN 1 Kota Banda Aceh. The research subjects are school residents (students, teachers, education personnel, principals, and school committees). This research...... show that the implementation of environmental education can be realized in habituation to maintain personal hygiene, class cleanliness, and worship together according to his beliefs and sports....
Students ’ environmental concern s w ere investigated using a questionnaire with 1 2 items. The study sample comprised 410 first and second year students of general upper secondary school from NW Slovenia . Results provide evidence that students’ concerns for the consequences of environmental damage formed three correlated factors organized around self and family, all peop le, and the biosphere. The highest ...
Koruoglu, Nergiz; Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin
Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the…
Full Text Available Introduction: A child's intelligence quotient (IQ is determined by both genetic and environmental factors that start from the prenatal period itself. There is a lack of data on the factors which influence IQ in Indian children; therefore, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire-based study to determine the environmental factors which influence IQ in Indian children. Participants and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, we recruited 1065 schoolchildren between the age of 12 and 16 years from 2 government and 13 private schools in 5 towns, 6 cities, and 2 villages across India. All the children were administered a questionnaire consisting of various environmental factors such as parents' education, occupation, income, and the physical activity of the students. IQ scores were assessed using Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices. An approximate IQ score was calculated using the score on the Ravens test. IQ scores were divided into three groups: below normal IQ (0–79, normal IQ (80–119, and high IQ (above 120. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In this study, it was observed that the environmental factors such as place of residence, physical activity, family income, parental education, and occupation of the father had an impact on the IQ of the children. Children living in cities (P = 0.001, children having physical activity more than 5 h/weeks (P = 0.001, children with parents having a postgraduate or graduate level of education (P = 0.001, children whose father having a professional job (P = 0.001, and those with a higher family income (P = 0.001 were more likely to have high IQ. Conclusions: In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic
environmental factors. Rain will wash many pollutants from the atmosphere or winds will disperse them; rain or humidity will sup- press sand and dust...atmosphere (Ref. 11). (4) Air movement. Air movement serves to disperse 2-55 AMCP 70G-117 pollutants throughout the atmosphere. Airspeed and...CaCCL MgC03 MgCO^ Pure clay, kaolin , china clay Al203-2Si02.2H20 sand or dust environment includes (1) concentration (count or weight), (2
Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies.
John C. Benjamin; George H. Moeller; Douglas A. Morrison
A modified semantic differential was developed to measure environmental attitudes of sixth-graders. Classes were selected to represent different socioeconomic and residence backgrounds and degrees of previous exposure to structured environmental programs. Results indicate that: exposure to environmental education fosters favorable environmental attitudes; socioeconomic...
Andriola, L.; Ceccacci, R.
The environment analysis is the basis of environmental management for organizations and it is considered as the first step in EMAS. It allows to identify, deal with the issues and have a clear knowledge on environmental performances of organizations. Schools can be included in the organizations. Nevertheless, the complexity of environmental issues and applicable regulations makes very difficult for a school, that wants to implement an environmental management system (EMAS, ISO 14001, etc.), to face this first step. So, it has been defined an instrument, that is easy but complete and coherent with reference standard, to let schools choose their process for elaborating the initial environmental revue. This instrument consists, essentially, in cards that, if completed, facilitate the drafting of the environmental analysis report [it
Seyyed Alireza Mousavi
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A most part of children time is spent in a school environment. Important part of the basic mission of schools is promoting the health and safety. So assessing the existing conditions is an important factor in promotion and this study conducted to investigate the environmental health and safety status of Paveh city schools in Kermanshah province. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive-cross sectional study and has performed in Paveh city of Kermanshah province. The study population consisted of primary, secondary and high schools of Paveh city. Data has been collated by referring to schools, direct observation and completion of environmental health and safety checklist. Schools conditions were determined according to the environmental health and safety checklist in desirable, semi-desirable and undesirable. The collected data were analyzed using Excel software, and data means and frequencies sign in tables and were drawn by charts. Results: From the 28 schools have visited 35.6% of school building is old and 63.7% of school building is new built. In the study of all schools in 8% of schools environmental health status were undesirable and in 21% semi-desirable and in 71% were desirable, also safety status in 4% of all schools were undesirable and in 21% semi-desirable and in 75% were desirable. Undesirable safety conditions related to adjacent to waste accumulation areas, brick buildings without footing beam, inappropriate distance of first row bench from the boards, lack of green spaces Conclusion: Given the importance of safety in schools, more attention should be paid to this issue. It is essential to compliance with the principles of health and safety in schools, also any consideration and action in this field can be effective in reducing the risk of many related health problems.
Full Text Available In this paper some of the basic natural and social-geographic factors are analyzed, with the aim to identify their influence on the environmental status. Qualitative assessment are attempted about the various elements of the environment, and attention directed to the problems of noise, and problems of communal waste disposal. A synthetic presentation of the environmental status in the municipality of Ljig is given. The territory of Ljig has been spatially differentiated, namely, it has been categorized according to the degree of pollution. High concentration of the population, and activities, in the town Ljig itself has produced a degradation worse than in the other settlements. On the other hand, the settlements in which is situated the locationally non-flexible industry (quarrying and processing of stone are facing problems of other sort. In the villages, however, which are slowly becoming depopulated, the quality of the environment is satisfactory. In accordance with such facts, revealed about the environmental status, basic aims have been defined as to how to protect the environment in the future. For the realization of environmental aims, various measures and activities are being proposed, with the purpose to improve the situation in the threatened zones, and to safeguard the quality of the environment on the entire municipal territory of Ljig.
Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent atopic diseases in childhood. It is characterized by inflammation of conductive airways and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Environmental factors introduced to child in early years of life may have a protective or harmful role in developing atopic diseases. To evaluate the influence of some environmental factors such as cat or dog ownership, smoking of mother or father and environmental pollution on prevalence of wheezing in children. Subjects and methods: This was a cross sectional retrospective study. A questionnaire was designed based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC. Parents of the subjects were asked to fill in the questionnaires. Children’s wheezing association with keeping cats and dogs, smoking mother and father and frequency of truck passing in place of residence was investigated. 545 children were recruited in our study. Prevalence of wheezing was 9%. Keeping cats in first year of life and last year was associated with less wheezing. But the latter association was not statistically significant. Keeping dogs was so scarce in area of our study, so we could not perform a rightful analysis. Frequency of truck passing was significantly higher in those with wheezing. Keeping cats in first year of life was a significant protective factor, whereas residence in an area with frequent truck passing increased wheezing in children. Results of our study can emphasize the need to keep children away from polluted areas. Further studies are needed to investigate whether keeping a pet in household can benefit children regarding all possible concerns and benefits.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...
Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob
This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, affect, skills and behavior which are the main components of environmental literacy. The sample consisted of 45 students (25 males, 20 females) studying in 4th through 8th grades and living in…
Owens, Marcia Allen
This dissertation study assessed the environmental literacy of 292 urban, middle school teachers using the Wisconsin Environmental Literacy Survey (WELS). Environmental literacy may be defined in terms of observable behaviors. Specifically, the study examined four dimensions of participants' environmental literacy: (a) attitudes toward the environment, (b) beliefs about their own power and responsibility to affect environmental change, (c) personal behaviors and actions toward the environment, and (d) knowledge regarding ecology and environmental issues. The WELS measures these components of environmental literacy through a Likert-type attitude survey, a self-reporting behavior instrument, and a multiple choice measure of cognitive learning outcomes or environmental knowledge. These scores were combined to derive a total environmental literacy score. In addition, the study explored differences between African American and European American female teachers' environmental literacy; interactions between demographic variables; and patterns of frequently missed questions, environmental attitudes, or environmental behaviors. Differences in teachers' environmental literacy were examined relative to gender, racial/ethnic background, number of preservice environmental courses taken, number of inservice environmental courses taken, years of teaching experience, and subject area taught. Overall, teachers in the present study demonstrated nominal environmental literacy. Significant differences in scores on various subscales were found among teachers according to racial/ethnic background, subject area taught, and years of teaching experience. Taking preservice and inservice environmental courses appears to have a positive impact on environmental behavior, environmental sensitivity, awareness and values, but not appear to impact environmental knowledge. This study underscores the need for further descriptive environmental literacy research on urban, minority, and poor students
Peele, Katherine N.; Malone, Sara
Discusses sustainable school design and its benefits to the environment, offering examples of illustrative schools. Provides suggestions on site selection (such as using smaller sites and recycling existing buildings), sharing facilities with the community, and construction elements that improve environmental impact (such as flexibility,…
Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.
This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…
This publication focusses on factors which are important for formulating a strategy for environmental restoration. In parallel to this effort, the IAEA has conducted activities in related areas which have been reported in companion reports dealing with (1) the characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes and (2) available technology for cleanup and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Additionally, follow-up activities will focus on two other areas, viz. planning and management options for cleanup of contaminated groundwater, and post-restoration monitoring of decommissioned sites. In a separate initiative the IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on radiological criteria for determining when cleanup action is needed and for deciding on when areas have been cleaned up to a sufficient extent. It is also concerned with radioactive contamination of soils, groundwaters, structures and biota which may have the potential for harm to people. It is intended that it will serve as an important source of information and data on the key factors to be considered in the formulation of an environmental restoration strategy
Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.
environment were the major barriers to school attendance. Conclusion: To ... Key words: Parents/caregivers, children with disabilities, barriers. Introduction .... It is not safe to walk ... feeling, learning, behaviour, and fits or convulsions.  The ...
The major finding of study reveals that teachers possessed positive attitudes towards both environmental issues and environmental education. We found that contrary to a number of findings from studies in other parts of the world, male respondents were the most concerned about the environment and more knowledgeable ...
Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.
This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…
Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C.; Leroux, Audrey J.; Truscott, Stephen D.
High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors…
This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping
Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.
Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç; Cem Oktay Güzeller
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school at...
This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.
DEMIR, Kamile; AKMAN KARABEYOGLU, Yasemin
Problem Statement: There are many factors that affect student achievement directly and indirectly at the secondary educational level. Lower attendance rates have been cited as detrimental to academic achievement; therefore, it is suggested that improved attendance is a direct indicator, rather than determinant of students’ academic achievement.Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individual, family and school variables on absenteeism among high sch...
Bronson, F H
Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the
Environmental education is a learning process that increases people's knowledge and awareness abou the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations, and commitments to make informe...
Rahman, Norshariani Abd
This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…
Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob
To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....
Determinants of educational achievement extend beyond the school environment to include the home environment. Both environments provide tangible and intangible resources to students that can influence science achievement. South Africa provides a context where inequalities in socio-economic status are vast, thus the ...
Andrea L. Juan
Determinants of educational achievement extend beyond the school environment to include the home ... generation of relevant knowledge and the productive use of that knowledge to advance growth (World Bank, .... language of teaching and learning when it differs ..... students are likely to be at a disadvantage, because.
Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel
The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…
Zaikova, Z A; Burdukovskaya, A V; Belykh, A I
In the Irkutsk region there are recorded high indices of rates of morbidity, disability, mortality rate of the working-age population and low levels of life expectancy of the population, that is confirmed by ranking position levels among the all subjects of the Russian Federation. According to all mentioned indices of health the region is inside the top ten unfavorable regions of Russia. In relation to the problem in the state of health of the adult population the estimation of the causal relationships between environmental factors and certain health indices is actual. The list of studiedfactors included health indices that characterize the harmful working conditions of the working population and basic socioeconomic indices in the region. Estimation of causal-relationship relationships was performed with the use of methods of multivariate analysis - correlation and multiple linear regression. In the selection offactors for the construction of mathematical models of multiple regression there were used methods of the analysis of variables variability, pair correlation coefficients matrix and sequential switching covariates to eliminate the problems of multicollinearity, pre-standardization of indices for the elevation of the numerical stability of regression analysis algorithm. As a result of the execution of the analysis there were constructed statistical models for the dependence in the system variables “environment - public health”, which allowed to identify the most informative regression models for the adult population health according to indices of primary disability of the population, the mortality rate and life expectancy of the working age population. According to results of the analysis there were identified priority factors affecting on the health of the adult population of the Irkutsk region. To these factors there are referred the proportion of workplaces failing to meet sanitary standards for vibration and 8 socio-economic indices of living
Yalçinkaya, Elvan; Çetin, Oguz
The purpose of this study is to determine the environmental attitudes of secondary school students and their opinions about environmental education (EE). It also aims to make recommendations in order to give more importance to studies on this subject in Turkey based on the findings obtained. The research problem is 'What are the opinions and…
Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom
School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools.
Berman, J D; McCormack, M C; Koehler, K A; Connolly, F; Clemons-Erby, D; Davis, M F; Gummerson, C; Leaf, P J; Jones, T D; Curriero, F C
School facility conditions, environment, and perceptions of safety and learning have been investigated for their impact on child development. However, it is important to consider how the environment separately influences academic performance and attendance after controlling for school and community factors. Using results from the Maryland School Assessment, we considered outcomes of school-level proficiency in reading and math plus attendance and chronic absences, defined as missing 20 or more days, for grades 3-5 and 6-8 at 158 urban schools. Characteristics of the environment included school facility conditions, density of nearby roads, and an index industrial air pollution. Perceptions of school safety, learning, and institutional environment were acquired from a School Climate Survey. Also considered were neighborhood factors at the community statistical area, including demographics, crime, and poverty based on school location. Poisson regression adjusted for over-dispersion was used to model academic achievement and multiple linear models were used for attendance. Each 10-unit change in facility condition index, denoting worse quality buildings, was associated with a decrease in reading (1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9%) and math scores (0.21% (95% CI: 0.20-0.40), while chronic absences increased by 0.75% (95% CI: 0.30-1.39). Each log increase the EPA's Risk Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) value for industrial hazards, resulted in a marginally significant trend of increasing absenteeism (p < 0.06), but no association was observed with academic achievement. All results were robust to school-level measures of racial composition, free and reduced meals eligibility, and community poverty and crime. These findings provide empirical evidence for the importance of the community and school environment, including building conditions and neighborhood toxic substance risk, on academic achievement and attendance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Mohsen Hesami Arani
Conclusion: Schools environmental management plays an important role in preparing students for environmental education that the results of this study showed a significant relationship between education and promotion of students' environmental awareness.
The influence of bioregion and important environmental factors in South Africa ... the production efficiency of cows through the implementation of management ... genetic component was not separated from the environmental components.
Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter
The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…
Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate
The main goal of environmental education is to improve environmental literacy, including not just more knowledge but also a better attitude toward the environment and a higher prevalence of pro-environmental behaviours. The Eco-School Program is considered the world largest environmental education program for schools, but it keeps growing without…
Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.
Kathryn T Stevenson
Full Text Available Building environmental literacy (EL in children and adolescents is critical to meeting current and emerging environmental challenges worldwide. Although environmental education (EE efforts have begun to address this need, empirical research holistically evaluating drivers of EL is critical. This study begins to fill this gap with an examination of school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student attributes (age, gender, and ethnicity, and school attributes (socio-economic status, student-teacher ratio, and locale. Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered school-wide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that school-wide EE programs were not associated with improved EL, but the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a strategy that may improve all key components of student EL. Further, investments in teacher development and efforts to maintain enthusiasm for EE among teachers with more than 5 years of experience may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially among black and
Full Text Available The rapid decline in young children's active commutes to and from school has prompted investigations into ways to raise activity levels. The period after school is recognized as very important in the daily activity regime of primary school children. In this study, we examine the relative effects of local environmental factors and socio-economic status on children's after-school commute mode choice. Environmental factors are pedestrian priority streets, street intersection density, motorways, shops, and play spaces. Property values are used as a proxy for income. Twenty-four school districts are selected using intersection density and motorway length as criteria. All children's exit behaviors were film-recorded on October weekdays and extracted as four choices–alone, in a group of children, on foot with a parent or guardian, on e-bike driven by an adult. A multinomial logistic regression reveals that gated communities, higher priced housing, motorways and bus stops are associated with children accompanied by adults. The presence of pedestrian streets is associated with children travelling alone and in groups. Greater travel distance is also associated with parents accompanying children on foot or on e-bike. The amount of play space is associated with children leaving school in groups. Overall, social and environmental factors are influential in the independent travel of primary school children after the school day ends in south China.
Shaheen, Abeer M; Hammad, Sawsan; Haourani, Eman M; Nassar, Omayyah S
The purpose of this study was to identify the Jordanian school adolescents' experience of being bullied, and to examine its association with selected socio-demographic variables. This cross sectional descriptive study used multi-stages cluster sampling technique to recruit a sample of in-school adolescents in Jordan (N=436). The Personal Experiences Checklist was used to measure the experience of bullying. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used in the analysis. Relational-verbal bullying was the most common form of bullying while cyber bullying was the least common type. Male adolescents experienced bullying more than females. In addition, adolescents belonging to low-income families experienced bullying more than those from moderate-income families. Finally, being bullied was negatively correlated with academic performance of students. This study indicated that risk factors for bullying are multifaceted which necessitate the development of prevention and intervention strategies to combat bullying taking into consideration these factors. Schools should introduce environmental changes to discourage bullying and establish a policy with specific guidelines of what constitutes bullying behavior and expected disciplinary procedures. Staff training on information about the definition of bullying, current trends, and the effects of bullying is also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M
Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.
Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun
The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…
Zeng, Jinrong; Luo, Shuaihantian; Huang, Yumeng; Lu, Qianjin
Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disease with multifactorial etiology including genetic and non-genetic factors, such as drugs, smoking, drinking, diet, infection and mental stress. Now, the role of the interaction between environmental factors and genetics are considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, it is a challenge to explore the mechanisms how the environmental factors break the body balance to affect the onset and development of psoriasis. In this article, we review the pathogenesis of psoriasis and summarize numerous clinical data to reveal the association between environmental factors and psoriasis. In addition, we focus on the mechanisms of environmental risk factors impact on psoriasis and provide a series of potential treatments against environmental risk factors. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.
In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA), put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13). A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.
Full Text Available In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA, put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13. A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.
At an individual and familial level age, mental health and child rearing arose as risk factors of school ... community and societal risk factors for school violence. ... drug abuse may also preclude parents from having an interest in school matters thus ..... You see some other things are these movies that they see in [sic] TV.
The study examined the contribution of three factors to the life satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Jos North. The three factors include monthly income, job satisfaction and meaningful work. Ninety-two secondary school teachers working in public and private schools within Jos North participated in the study.
. Prevention movement is considered ineffective; therefore, a more efficient early warning system is required. It is required strongly correlated variables to as predictor in early warning system. This study aims to identify the environmental ...
Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...
A. J. Adeyemi
Full Text Available Learning, which is the expected outcome of any educational institution, can be influenced by many factors that include environmental factors. This study is aimed at comparing the learning environment of junior secondary schools, in a North-western state of Nigeria, with established standards in some other countries. Four government-owned and four private owned schools participated in the study. Environmental variables such as classroom temperature, noise level, lighting and classroom size were all evaluated using standard equipment. Using statistical analytical tools, such as descriptive and comparison of means, the result shows that classroom lighting, noise and temperature do not meet the established standards. The noise level in all the schools was above the recommended maximum comfort noise level of 40 dB(A but still below noise harmfulness level of 85dB. The lighting in the classes was also not sufficient based on international recommendations of 300 Lux. The temperature in the classrooms is significantly higher than the acceptable level of 18-28°C. Although public schools have significantly larger classrooms than private schools, they have a smaller space/pupil ratio because of larger population. There is need to improve the building design of schools so that they might aid learning among the children.
Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine
Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…
Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.
Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and Serono Symposia International was convened to examine the evidence of a secular trend, identify potential environmental factors of concern, and identify research needs regarding environmental factors and puberty timing at "The...
Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A.; Evangelou, Evangelos
factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. Methods: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD......Objectives: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...... met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.
Robledo, Jorge A; Siccardi, Leonardo J
Pediatric hypercholesterolemia has increased over the past decades. Knowing the environmental and genetic factors that have an impact on it would allow establishing more adequate screening guidelines. To determine if there is an association between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children. To assess the predictive qualities of outcome measures associated with hypercholesterolemia. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study. students from all schools located in Jovita. Age: > 6 and hypercholesterolemia. Three hundred and eighty-two students were included. Their mean cholesterol level was 168 mg/dL, and 13.4% had hypercholesterolemia. A sedentary lifestyle was observed in 22.8%, and obesity, in 10.5%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.10, 2.10 and 2.05, respectively). No association was found between physical activity and fat/cholesterol intake and hypercholesterolemia. A positive FMH and a high/middle SEL were sensitive enough (75% and 88%) to predict hypercholesterolemia. The presence of hypercholesterolemia inboth parents in relation to hypercholesterolemia in their child showed an OR of 9.59, a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 71%, a positive predictive value of 57%, and a negative predictive value of 83%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia in children. The presence of hypercholesterolemia in both parents was associated with hypercholesterolemia in their child and showed itself to be a great potential predictor and screening criterion. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria
The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author)
Lawson, Joshua A; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Cockcroft, Donald W; McDuffie, Helen H
The authors have previously reported an increased prevalence of asthma in Estevan, Saskatchewan (21.4%) compared with Swift Current, Saskatchewan (16.2%). To determine the association between asthma and personal and indoor environmental risk factors in these communities. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2000. A questionnaire was distributed to school children in grades 1 to 6 for completion by a parent. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between various risk factors and physician-diagnosed asthma. Asthma was associated with respiratory allergy (adjusted OR [adjOR]=8.85, 95% CI 6.79 to 11.54), early respiratory illness (adjOR=2.81, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.03) and family history of asthma (adjOR=2.37, 95% CI 1.67 to 3.36). Several environmental factors varied with asthma by town. In Estevan, asthma was associated with home mould or dampness (adjOR=1.82, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.69) and was inversely associated with air conditioning (adjOR=0.56, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.85). The risk of asthma was increased if the child had previous exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from the mother in both communities (Swift Current: OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.30; Estevan: OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.43), and there was an inverse association with current exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from the mother in Estevan (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.00). When multivariate analyses were stratified by sex, the relationship between home mould or dampness and asthma was most prominent in girls in Estevan. Despite a similar regional location, different risk factors for asthma were identified in each community. Local environmental factors are important to consider when interpreting findings and planning asthma care.
Recent legislation on both federal and state levels has placed the intersection between children’s health and environmental justice on the forefront of public policy debate. This study looks at the intersection of air quality, children’s health, and school performance in the context of environmental equity in California. Information from the U.S. EPA’s National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is used to calculate a respiratory hazard ratio for each of California’s census tracts. These ratios ar...
Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti
This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.
Knight, Louise; Nakuti, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Gannett, Katherine R; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
The nature and structure of the school environment has the potential to shape children's health and well being. Few studies have explored the importance of school-level factors in explaining a child's likelihood of experiencing violence from school staff, particularly in low-resource settings such as Uganda. To quantify to what extent a student's risk of violence is determined by school-level factors we fitted multilevel logistic regression models to investigate associations and present between-school variance partition coefficients. School structural factors, academic and supportive environment are explored. 53% of students reported physical violence from staff. Only 6% of variation in students' experience of violence was due to differences between schools and half the variation was explained by the school-level factors modelled. Schools with a higher proportion of girls are associated with increased odds of physical violence from staff. Students in schools with a high level of student perceptions of school connectedness have a 36% reduced odds of experiencing physical violence from staff, but no other school-level factor was significantly associated. Our findings suggest that physical violence by school staff is widespread across different types of schools in this setting, but interventions that improve students' school connectedness should be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has shown that it is of proven benefit to the overall planning and environmental management of resource development projects, but certain elements within the application and practice of EIA remain problematic for proponents and regulatory decision makers alike. The use of the word 'critical' in the title of this paper suggests that if the components identified are not considered or implemented properly through the process of EIA, the product will be of less value to both the proponent and decision maker. In the context of EIA, the regulatory, financial, legal and social benefits that accrue make the need for good EIA practice even more imperative. A discussion is included that highlights a number of issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of EIA, a tool necessary to attaining provincial and federal regulatory approvals. To a large extent, the discussion reflects items of contemporary public concern, and those emerging issues of the scientific and regulatory community. At the same time, it needs to be realized that not all the identified items are necessarily new to the practice of impact assessment, but are nonetheless important to professional environmental impact assessment and decision making. Insight is also provided into the direction of decision making of the Energy and Utilities Board as it will affect the regulatory review and administration of resource development projects in the province of Alberta. 16 refs
Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi
Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…
Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.
The purpose of this project is to determine the effects of various environmental factors such as vibration, noise, heat, cold, and illumination on task performance in U.S. nuclear power plants. Although the effects of another environmental factor, radiation, is of concern to licensees and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), much less attention has been paid to the potential effects of these other environmental factors. Performance effects from these environmental factors have been observed in other industries; for example, vibration can impair vision and noise can cause short- or long-term hearing loss. A primary goal of this project is to provide the technical basis for determining the likelihood of these factors affecting task performance in nuclear power plants, and thus the safety of the public
Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J
Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...
Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L
Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.
The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig
Gönül Cengiz; Osman Titrek; Özcan Erkan Akgün
It is studied that to determine the school related factors which affects the students’ choices of the high school, according to the type of the schools. This is a survey study. The participants are 523 9 th grade students in 21 secondary schools in Adapazarı. SPSS is used for analyzing data. Kay-Kare Test is used to determine the demografic differences due to the type of the school. To analyze the data for the school related factors, Kruskal Wallis is used. As a result, it is expr...
Hsu, Joy; Qin, Xiaoting; Beavers, Suzanne F; Mirabelli, Maria C
Asthma is a leading cause of chronic disease-related school absenteeism. Few data exist on how information on absenteeism might be used to identify children for interventions to improve asthma control. This study investigated how asthma-related absenteeism was associated with asthma control, exacerbations, and associated modifiable risk factors using a sample of children from 35 states and the District of Columbia. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Child Asthma Call-back Survey is a random-digit dial survey designed to assess the health and experiences of children aged 0-17 years with asthma. During 2014-2015, multivariate analyses were conducted using 2006-2010 data to compare children with and without asthma-related absenteeism with respect to clinical, environmental, and financial measures. These analyses controlled for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with children without asthma-related absenteeism, children who missed any school because of asthma were more likely to have not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma (prevalence ratio=1.50; 95% CI=1.34, 1.69) and visit an emergency department or urgent care center for asthma (prevalence ratio=3.27; 95% CI=2.44, 4.38). Mold in the home and cost as a barrier to asthma-related health care were also significantly associated with asthma-related absenteeism. Missing any school because of asthma is associated with suboptimal asthma control, urgent or emergent asthma-related healthcare utilization, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Further understanding of asthma-related absenteeism could establish how to most effectively use absenteeism information as a health status indicator. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...
In this article, the author discusses her experiences with developing an English-language science curriculum for students at the experimental Hai Bin Lu Primary School in China. She uses Schwab's (1973) four common denominators (or essential factors) of curricula--teacher, student, subject matter, and milieu--and Genette's (1980) three…
Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S
This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.
Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.
The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)
Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Roth, Rachel A.; Fefer, Sarah A.
In this qualitative study, we investigated 15 successful and 15 struggling high school students, perceived stressors, coping strategies, and intrapersonal and environmental factors that students perceive to influence their success in college-level courses. We found that students' primary sources of stress involved meeting numerous academic demands…
Halpert, Michael A.
The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…
Greenberg, Jonathan; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao; Dobrowski, Solomon; Vanderbilt, Vern; Ustin, Susan
Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2)
Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... What are these environmental variables that affect the fluctuation of share prices in Nigeria? ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.
Firewood cooking, cigarette smoking, and use of white maize flour all had ... Environmental exposures may be important risk factors ... Correspondence to: Nora E. Rosenberg ..... including in southern Africa.29 To our knowledge, this is the ...
Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...
May 30, 2011 ... significant (P < 0.05). Type of birth also had effect on the body weight of lambs at birth in both Pirot and ... Key words: Environmental factors, birth weight variability, indigenous sheep. ... breeding plans to improve production.
Seabed sediment; corrosion; environmental factors. 1. Introduction. The corrosion ... plays an important role in the corrosion behaviour of steel in sediment. Figure 2b shows the change in oxidation-reduction po- tential, Eh with distance from ...
Oct 26, 2017 ... development and environmental risk factors influencing it provides useful guide for early ..... sporting activities, video games, and play with large mobile toys .... in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science. 2005 ...
Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben Zvi; Shaharabani, Dina
One of the solutions implemented by schools for conducting value-based environmental education (EE) is outsourcing: allocating external environmental organizations that develop and conduct EE programmes. This study addressed such a programme--the Green Council Programme (GCP)--developed and implemented in schools by the Israeli Society for…
Environmental education in schools is an element of civic education and skills, the students should learn in school. This is part of the state and public order in the school and as such lies in the mandatory training documentation for various objects from the natural and social sciences. With the idea to help teachers in this activity in recent years with teachers, students, and government and municipal authorities had organized a number of activities aimed at: 1. Targeted analysis of curricula for middle school and increase their knowledge and professional competence of teachers towards the standards set forth by the state educational requirements, analysis shows that knowledge is competencies aimed at environmental education of young people are out (to varying degrees) in significant part of the subjects taught in secondary schools - man and society, and man and nature (in early stages) Geography (including the risks associated with natural - causes and effects), Biology and Health Education, Chemistry and protection of the environment, physics and astronomy, history and civilization and interdisciplinary civic education field. 2. Seminar courses to acquire skills to conduct interactive activities with students and in conjunction with textbooks (Green Package, Natura 2000, WSP, Flupi for a better environment). 3. Visits interesting and protected areas and objects by exploring opportunities for outings with students. 4. Conducting workshops and classes using the provided tools, techniques and interesting games aimed at awareness of the need for care and attention to our surroundings. 5. Organizing and conducting competitions between students from schools in our city, usually associated with the most popular day - Earth Day, World Day for Environmental Protection, Day of Danube). 6. Participation in outdoor activities - studying the structure and features of parks hometown, Work shop for making objects from natural materials and waste materials; race making ikebana
Tatiana Santos Saraiva
Full Text Available Decades ago, the only requirement to construct a building was to give men the right conditions for the execution of their work or leisure activities. With the development of knowledge about the internal and external environments of buildings, other requirements have been added such as the issue of user comfort. New construction techniques have been incorporated and new products have been created to improve internal environment comfort. This research addressed the importance of using indicators related to environmental comfort in sustainability assessment tools applied to school buildings. It also considered the importance of environmental issues for the good performance of human beings, and the harmonious coexistence of the comfort indicators indoor air quality, thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort and ergonomic comfort based on data gathered in research carried out with users of high schools (only students. This research was carried out in two different cities of different countries, Guimarães (Portugal and Juiz de Fora (Brazil, that have similar characteristics of teaching standards and climate conditions (temperature and air humidity. In this study, interviews were made through questionnaires and, later, the information collected was analyzed. This study demonstrates the need to include an ergonomic indicator for school buildings in sustainability assessment tools.
Hidayah, N.; Agustin, R. R.
This paper aims to reveal students’ pro-environmental behavior in a High School. Self-reported behavior assessment was administered in this study involving students with age range 15 to 18 years. Pro-environmental behavior in this study comprises six domains. Those are recycling, waste avoidance, consumerism, energy conservation, mobility and transportation, and vicarious conservation behavior. Pro-environmental behavior (PEB) of science class students was compared to behavior of non-science class students. Effect of students’ grade level and extracurricular activity on the behavior was evaluated. Study revealed that science could improve students’ PEB. It is because environmental topics are covered in science class. Student’s involvement in extracurricular activity may enhance PEB as well. In conclusion, students’ PEB is influenced by class program (science or non-science) but it is not influenced by time length in learning science. This finding could be consider by science educator in choosing strategy to enhance student’s pro-environmental behaviour.
Christina A Brook
Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.
Adriana Del Rosario Mejías Vetancourt
Full Text Available The present research has as main objective to generate a theoretical approach of the Joint Environmental Promotion from the Triad: School, Family, Community Primary School "Cinqueña III" town Barinas state of Barinas. The nature of this research is supported by the phenomenological qualitative approach critical partner paradigm. Key informants were considered five (05, which were chosen at the discretion of the investigator, according to the actors who are considered binding: a manager, a teacher, a representative, a member of the school board, a member of the community council. Among the techniques of information collection are: participant observation and qualitative depth interview. As techniques for analyzing information categorization, coding and triangulation, accompanied by descriptive and interpretative phase it is contemplated. Then, a comparative matrix is made to analyze the information collected and shall determine the findings as a result of addressing the issue of research in the Basic School Cinqueña III, municipality of Barinas Barinas state.
McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.
Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…
Jerns, Pamela Renee
The focus of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is to address the dropout rate at Sussex Central High School (SCHS) in the Indian River School District (IRSD). Studies conducted for this EPP align with current research--student dropout is a result of culminating school-based factors that include poor attendance and lack of exposure to rigorous…
Schulz, Lisa L.
This article explores students at risk of academic non-completion. Schools and school counselors need to target the factors which put students at risk of academic non-completion to reduce the number of adolescents feeling a sense of alienation from school, from educators, and from learning. The construct of student alienation is examined based on…
G. Zhang (Guohua)
textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and
Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A
Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Alle...
Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....
Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan
This study investigated elementary school students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental knowledge and attitudes, and how self-reported environmentally friendly behaviour is related to environmental knowledge, behavioural intentions, environmental affects, and the students' locus of…
Treagust, David F.; Amarant, Arlene; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye
Environmental education in schools is of increasing importance as the world population increases with the subsequent demand on resources and the potential for increased pollution. In an effort to enhance the standing of environmental education in the school curriculum, this study was designed to determine primary students' knowledge about the…
Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu
Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B
Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...
Kanyimba, Alex; Richter, Barry; Raath, Schalk
Environmental management systems implemented in schools are regarded by many as a mechanism for the integration of environmental matters in all the operational functions of the school. The links, however, between environmental management and curriculum practice have not been adequately addressed in the literature. This article reports on the…
Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley
To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected from a stratified sample to vary in location, proximity to Indian reservations, size, and type. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. In 9 of 11 schools, neither faculty nor students voiced overwhelming concerns about safety. When asked what makes school safe, students tended to report physical security features. School climate and staff actions also increased feelings of safety. Faculty reported that relationships and climate are key factors in making schools safe. High student performance on standardized tests does not buffer students from unsafe behavior, nor does living in a dangerous neighborhood necessarily lead to more drug use or violence within school walls. School climate seemed to explain the difference between schools in which students and faculty reported higher versus lower levels of violence and alcohol and other drug use. The findings raise provocative questions about school safety and provide insight into elements that lead to perceptions of safety. Some schools have transcended issues of location and neighborhood to provide an environment perceived as safe. Further study of those schools could provide insights for policy makers, program planners, and educational leaders. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Jonathan A Greenberg
Full Text Available Environmental limiting factors (ELFs are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1 Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2 How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3 To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET and PET minus precipitation (PET-P as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4 environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25% were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60% were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…
Caio César Rangel
Full Text Available The term sustainability is important for the comprehension of how Environmental Education and practices of Permaculture can be used as tools of education. Permaculture is characterized as a system for planning and creation, in a harmonic manner, of productive, sustainable and ecologic environments. The goal of this paper is to evaluate permaculture’s practices efficiency as a tool of environmental education and mechanism of integration between the human being and the environment. The project was developed in a school of municipal education system located in the rural part of Ituiutaba, State of Minas Gerais, involving 40 people directly. Students and staff participated taking to school plants that are part of their everyday life, in other words, that have cultural value for their community. The integration between students, staff and the remaining residents was noticed mainly when everyone got involved in developing the vegetable garden, showing the aggregating potential through joint actions that such activities allow. The unity and estimation of one’s own living place bring the feeling of belonging and the improvement of ambiance, important aspects for the improvement of people’s, that live far from urban centers, life quality.
Jacobson, K C; Rowe, D C
This study investigated (a) genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between family and school environment and depressed mood and (b) potential sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to both variation in and covariation between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood. Data are from 2,302 adolescent sibling pairs (mean age = 16 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Although genetic factors appeared to be important overall, model-fitting analyses revealed that the best-fitting model was a model that allowed for different parameters for male and female adolescents. Genetic contributions to variation in all 3 variables were greater among female adolescents than male adolescents, especially for depressed mood. Genetic factors also contributed to the correlations between family and school environment and adolescent depressed mood, although, again, these factors were stronger for female than for male adolescents.
This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.
Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi
Background: The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia......) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects. Methods: Data from 26 twin cohorts in 16 countries including 57 613 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were pooled. Genetic and environmental variations of birth size were estimated using genetic structural equation modelling....... Results: The variance of birthweight and length was predominantly explained by shared environmental factors, whereas the variance of PI was explained both by shared and unique environmental factors. Genetic variance contributing to birth size was small. Adjusting for gestational age decreased...
The purpose of this pilot study is to gain more insight into learner factors prominent in high-poverty urban schools and to suggest pedagogical approaches appropriate to this environment. To this end, three surveys were administered to students attending a high-poverty, urban middle school in order to measure their learning style preferences,…
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...
Rojas Flórez, Luisa Fernanda
This research was carried out with the purpose of identifying how and which risk and protective factors affect academic outcomes. The study explored how different family and individual environmental factors foster academic resilience. The exploratory study took place with a group of six students from a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. The school…
Rieckenberg, Cara Rae
This case study investigated what conditions and characteristics contributed to a successful environmental education program within elementary schools of a school district where environmental education was the mandate. While research does exist on practical application of environmental education within schools, little if any literature has been written or research conducted on schools actually implementing environmental education to study what contributes to the successful implementation of the program. To study this issue, 24 participants from a Midwestern school district were interviewed, six of whom were principals of each of the six elementary schools included in the study. All participants were identified as champions of environmental education integration within their buildings due to leadership positions held focused on environmental education. Analysis of the data collected via interviews revealed findings that hindered the implementation of environmental education, findings that facilitated the implementation of environmental education, and findings that indicated an environmental education-focused culture existed within the schools. Conditions and characteristics found to contribute to the success of these school's environmental education programs include: professional development opportunities, administrative support, peer leadership opportunities and guidance, passion with the content and for the environment, comfort and confidence with the content, ease of activities and events that contribute to the culture and student success. Keywords: environmental education, integration, leadership, teachers as leaders.
Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.
Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses the factors internal to the organization, which affect the activity of environmental scanning, understood here as the information seeking activity of managers, directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness". The main relationships among them are also analysed. These factors were identified in the course of research aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process (Correia & Wilson, 1996. The methodology used - a case-study approach coupled with the grounded theory method of qualitative analysis - was of major importance in obtaining information that is grounded largely on the personal experience of managers.
Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.
Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki
Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.
Katane, Irēna; Laizāne, Anna
Under conditions of changes and instability in any state rural schools are faced to look for different directions of development in order to manage in the rural areas. Thus the inner structure of rural schools becomes complex and causes formation of new educational environmental models of Latvian rural schools. The aims of the article: 1) to give substantiation of the concept model; 2) to give classification of educational environmental models of rural schools; 3) to emphasize the advantages ...
Yount, James R.; Horton, Phillip B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between factors believed to contribute to the formation of environmental attitudes by college nonscience majors. Key relationships addressed were the effects of a university environmental studies course on (a) environmental attitudes, (b) the amount of factual information that is brought to bear on an environmental attitude decision (defensibility), and (c) the linkages between the affective and the cognitive domains of freshman and sophomore students. When compared to the control group, the students who attended an environmental studies class did not significantly change their attitudes, but they did exhibit increases in their total [F(3, 132) = 5.91, p cognitive reasoning scores were more prone to increase defensibility [F(6, 129) = 3.78, p cognitive and affective domains in the environmental attitude decision-making process.
Wilson, S.; Tamsitt, V. M.
A two week high school course for high-achieving 10th-12th graders was developed through the combined efforts of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Graduate Students and UC San Diego Academic Connections. For the high school students involved, one week was spent at SIO learning basic climate science and researching climate-related topics, and one week was spent in Washington D.C. lobbying Congress for an environmental issue of their choosing. The specific learning goals of the course were for students to (1) collect, analyze and interpret scientific data, (2) synthesize scientific research for policy recommendations, (3) craft and deliver a compelling policy message, and (4) understand and experience change. In this first year, 10 students conducted research on two scientific topics; sea level rise using pier temperature data and California rainfall statistics using weather stations. Simultaneous lessons on policy messaging helped students learn how to focus scientific information for non-scientists. In combining the importance of statistics from their Science lessons with effective communication from their Policy lessons, the students developed issue papers which highlighted an environmental problem, the solution, and the reason their solution is most effective. The course culminated in two days of meetings on Capitol Hill, where they presented their solutions to their Congressional and Senate Members, conversed with policymakers, and received constructive feedback. Throughout the process, the students effectively defined arguments for an environmental topic in a program developed by SIO Graduate Students.
MiJeong Park, PhD, RN
Conclusion: Findings indicate that depression, academic stress, and grade (second grade influence aggression. To decrease aggressive behavior, it is necessary to provide systematic and political programs in schools and local communities that can ameliorate negative emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression.
De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Esqueda, Monica Christina; Gilreath, Tamika D
The majority of studies examining substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have focused on a wide array of risk factors (e.g., victimization). Few studies have explored the protective role of schools. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature and inform programs aimed at reducing substance use among LGB youth. More specifically, this study explores the extent to which school connectedness and support from teachers and other adults at school are associated with substance use among LGB youth in school and within the past 30 days. A secondary analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) was conducted to examine associations between school protective factors (i.e., school connectedness and adult support) and substance use among LGB youth, above and beyond a key risk factor, school victimization. The study outcomes were past 30-day and in-school use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, prescription pain medication, and other illegal drugs. Overall, school connectedness and school adult support were associated with lower odds of substance use. For example, higher levels of school connectedness were associated with 22% decreased odds of past 30-day inhalant use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.86), and 25% decreased odds of past 30-day prescription pain medication use (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69-0.82). Higher levels of adult support in school were also associated with 17% decreased odds of marijuana use on school property in the past 30 days (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77-0.91). The results indicate a need for substance use prevention programs that integrate school connectedness and adult support in school.
For the majority of Polish students school is a source of negative experiences and therefore may increase the risk of adolescent problem behaviors. The results of the study conducted in Warsaw middle schools (N=2244, 54% girls) indicated that changes for worse (between 7 and 8 grade) in students' behavior increase the risk of drug use. However, changes for better in students' perception of school value and school achievements are risk factors, too (even when family and peer risk factors are controlled). PMID:21152104
Andreea Iluzia IACOB
Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.
Lappe, M. D.
We present results of the first longitudinal evaluation of a nation-wide environmental edutainment program. There has recently been rapid growth in curricula on the environment and climate change, yet few reach large and diverse audiences, and fewer still are evaluated. These results are from high schools participating in the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) program. ACE is a 3 year-old program that has reached 1.2 million students with an edutainment presentation incorporating music, multi-media, animation, and documentary footage (www.acespace.org). A projected 850 schools across 23 states will see the presentation this year; 6% of schools (3 classes each) are randomly selected to be evaluated. The data described here were collected in Fall 2011 from 1,270 students in 21 schools; the full evaluation will be complete in May 2012. The sample is ethnically and socio-economically diverse — 29% are white, and 46% receive free/reduced lunches (a proxy for socio-economic status). Outcome measures included a test of climate knowledge and intentions to take (and to ask others to take) climate-related actions. The analyses examined direct effects of the ACE program on climate knowledge and intentions, as well as the moderating effects of student gender and age on learning. Before the ACE presentation, boys had significantly higher knowledge scores than girls (54% vs. 48% correct, respectively, p < .001). Afterward, boys and girls both had significantly higher knowledge scores (64% and 63% correct, respectively) and no longer differed from each other in this respect. Before the presentation, girls expressed significantly greater intentions to take climate-related actions than did boys. Afterward, intentions increased significantly in both groups, but the gap between girls and boys remained. The gap-closing pattern was somewhat different for the moderating variable of age. Before the presentation, knowledge and intentions were significantly higher among older students
Claeson, Anna-Sara; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven
Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI. All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors. The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Male reproductive function in the general population has been receiving attention in recent years due to reports of various reproductive and developmental defects, which might be associated with various lifestyle and environmental factors. This study was carried out to determine the role of various lifestyle and environmental factors in male reproduction and their possible association with declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damage. Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 240 male partners of the couples consulting for infertility problem. Semen analysis was carried out using WHO criteria and subjects were categorized on the basis of self reported history of lifestyle as well as environmental exposure. The oxidative and antioxidant markers; lipid peroxidation (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as DNA damage by acridine orange test (AO were determined. Results: The presence of abnormal semen parameters was significantly higher among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects as compared to the non-exposed population. Further, the levels of antioxidants were reduced and sperm DNA damage was more among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects, though the changes were not significant. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings indicated that various lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol use as well as exposure to toxic agents might be attributed to the risk of declining semen quality and increase in oxidative stress and sperm DNA damage.
Paschoa, A.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.
Environmental transfer factors, as well as concentration and accumulation factors, have been increasingly used in environmental dosimetric models. These models are often the basis for decision-making processes concerning radiological protection. However, the uncertainties associated with measured and default values of transfer and concentration factors are usually not taken into account in the decision making processes. In addition, laboratory-based values for these factors do not necessarily agree with site-specific and species-specific transfer and concentration factors. Soil-to-plant transfer factors and water-to-aquatic-organisms concentration factors are not only time and concentration-dependent, but also species-and site-specific environment-dependent. These uncertainties and dependencies may make the decision-making process, based on models, quite a difficult exercise. The current work examines, as an example, the time-dependent variations in the accumulation of 226 Ra in zooplankton in a laboratory experiment as compared with the concentration factor measured in a natural environment. In addition, the work reviews differences in 228 Ra and 226 Ra concentration factors for several plant families measured in a highly radioactive environment. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs
Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.
Methods A hospital-based case-control study of the association between environmental risk factors and oesophageal cancer was conducted at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Ninety-six persons with squamous cell carcinoma and 180 controls were ...
By knowing the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content of dairy cows, the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization can be improved. The main objectives of this study were to identify and quantify environmental factors affecting MUN in South African Holstein cows. This will enable better interpretation of MUN results by accounting ...
The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...
Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of rabbits ... There was a non-significant effect of season on litter site at birth, kits alive at birth and ... to rabbit reproduction as it influenced negatively more litter parameters than ...
Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...
Alves Paula M
Full Text Available Abstract Background While functional genomics, focused on gene functions and gene-gene interactions, has become a very active field of research in molecular biology, equivalent methodologies embracing the environment and gene-environment interactions are relatively less developed. Understanding the function of environmental factors is, however, of paramount importance given the complex, interactive nature of environmental and genetic factors across multiple time scales. Results Here, we propose a systems biology framework, where the function of environmental factors is set at its core. We set forth a "reverse" functional analysis approach, whereby cellular functions are reconstructed from the analysis of dynamic envirome data. Our results show these data sets can be mapped to less than 20 core cellular functions in a typical mammalian cell culture, while explaining over 90% of flux data variance. A functional enviromics map can be created, which provides a template for manipulating the environmental factors to induce a desired phenotypic trait. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of cellular function reconstruction guided by the analysis and manipulation of dynamic envirome data.
Full Text Available The structure and intensity of dental disease among the examinees of the same sex and adolescence. The relationship of the influence of some environmental, nutritional and endogenous factors on the manifestation of dental caries and anomalies of occlusion
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç
Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.
Lakatos, Peter Laszlo
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.
Marrie, Ruth Ann
As with susceptibility to disease, it is likely that multiple factors interact to influence the phenotype of multiple sclerosis and long-term disease outcomes. Such factors may include genetic factors, socioeconomic status, comorbid diseases, and health behaviors, as well as environmental exposures. An improved understanding of the influence of these factors on disease course may reap several benefits, such as improved prognostication, allowing us to tailor disease management with respect to intensity of disease-modifying therapies and changes in specific health behaviors, in the broad context of coexisting health issues. Such information can facilitate appropriately adjusted comparisons within and between populations. Elucidation of these factors will require careful study of well-characterized populations in which the roles of multiple factors are considered simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. V. Kozachek
Full Text Available The aim is to consider the features of impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity in the future.Methods. We suggest an approach, according to which nanotechnologies are viewed as key technologies of the sixth technological order. It is assumed that nanotechnology may be a potential source of environmental problems of the future, and the basis for the creation of new advanced types of environmental engineering and technology. Since all of the above is important both within the actual environmental performance and for the purposes of professional engineering and environmental training. We suggest in this paper to view the problem of the impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity and the state of the environment through environmental and educational aspects.Results. We considered and analyzed the environmental and educational aspects of the application of nanotechnology in the period of the sixth technological order. Implementing procedures for their analysis has contributed to the identification and systematization of the various impacts of nanotechnology on biodiversity and the state of the environment, and identification of options for the prevention of such factors. Based on the results of such studies we have identified educational aspects of training environmental engineers during the sixth technological order; defined a new focus of the training in the sixth technological order, which involves, in our opinion, the study of features of a rational and prudent use of natural resources with the use of appropriate innovative eco-oriented nanotechnology, education of students in terms of the understanding of the causes, consequences and ways to prevent the global resource crisis on the planet due to the emergence of a new class of nano-contamination.Main conclusions. The results can be recommended to be used in practice for more in-depth analysis of the specific environmental challenges of nanotechnology, and revising approaches to the design of the
Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...
de Zeeuw, L.E.J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.
The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational
This study examines the links between students' reports of sexual harassment victimization by peers and a number of individual and school contextual factors. It is based on a nationally representative sample of 16,604 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 327 schools across Israel who completed questionnaires during class. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine the links. Overall, approximately one in four students (25.6%) were victims of at least one unwanted and unwelcome act of harassment by peers (such as being touched or pinched in sexual manner) in the prior month. The most vulnerable groups were Israeli-Arab boys and students with negative perceptions of their school climate. The school correlates associated with higher levels of victimization were a higher share of students with less-educated parents, larger schools and classrooms, and negative school climate. The interactions between gender and school-related factors indicate that the gender patterns are different for Israeli-Arab and Jewish schools and for schools with different concentrations of students' families with low socioeconomic status. The study emphasizes the need for an ecological perspective in addressing school-based sexual harassment.
Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Aziz, Zalena Abdul; Isa, Mohd Hafizal Mohd
Thermal Comfort is one of the key criteria for occupants' comfort and productivity in a building. In schools, it is vital for a conduciveness for teaching and learning environment. Thermal comfort is dependent on air temperature, humidity, radiation, internal lighting, air movement, activities, clothing and climatic change and is part of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) components which have has significant effects on occupants. The main concern over energy and running cost has meant that most public schools in Malaysia are designed for natural ventilation and not air-conditioning. The building envelope plays a significant role in reducing the radiant heat and keeps the interior cooler than the outdoor temperature for acceptable thermal comfort level. The requirement of Industrial Building System (IBS) as the envelope system for school building in Malaysia could affect the role of envelope as a climate moderator. This paper is based on a research conducted on two schools in Malaysia of varied construction materials as the building envelopes to ascertain the thermal comfort level of the classrooms. Elements of IEQ such as air temperature, air movement, daylighting and noise level were taken of various classrooms to fulfill the required objectives of determining the level of quality. The data collected and analysed from the study shows that in terms of air temperature which range from 28°C to 34.5°C, the schools do not achieve the recommended comfort level for tropical climate. As for daylighting element, results also show that some classrooms suffered with too much glare whilst others had insufficient daylighting. The findings also show the unsatisfactory level of air movement in the classrooms as well as an unacceptable noise level exceeding the allowable threshold. This research also concluded that the use of materials and orientation in the school design are the major determinant factors towards good IEQ levels in school buildings.
Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.
Environmental problem is a real problem that occur in student’s daily life. Junior high school students’ perception about environmental problem is interesting to be investigated. The major aim of this study is to explore junior high school students’ perception about environmental problems around them and ways to solve the problem. The subject of this study is 69 Junior High School Students from two Junior High School in Bandung. This study use two open ended question. The core of first question is environmental problem around them (near school or house). The core of second question is the way to prevent or to solve the problem. These two question are as an impact of problem based learning in science learning. There are two major findings in this study. The first finding, based on most students’ perception, plastic waste cause an environmental problem. The second finding, environmental awareness can be a solution to prevent environmental pollution. The third finding, most student can classify environmental pollution into land, water and air pollution. We can conclude that Junior High School Students see the environmental problem as a phenomenon and teacher can explore environmental problem to guide the way of preventing and resolving environmental problem.
Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly
This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…
Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances
This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…
Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J
Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sankpal, Umesh T; Pius, Hima; Khan, Moeez; Shukoor, Mohammed I; Maliakal, Pius; Lee, Chris M; Abdelrahim, Maen; Connelly, Sarah F; Basha, Riyaz
The environment and dietary factors play an essential role in the etiology of cancer. Environmental component is implicated in ~80 % of all cancers; however, the causes for certain cancers are still unknown. The potential players associated with various cancers include chemicals, heavy metals, diet, radiation, and smoking. Lifestyle habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorines), metals and pesticides also pose risk in causing human cancers. Several studies indicated a strong association of lung cancer with the exposure to tobacco products and asbestos. The contribution of excessive sunlight, radiation, occupational exposure (e.g., painting, coal, and certain metals) is also well established in cancer. Smoking, excessive alcohol intake, consumption of an unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity can act as risk factors for cancer and also impact the prognosis. Even though the environmental disposition is linked to cancer, the level and duration of carcinogen-exposure and associated cellular and biochemical aspects determine the actual risk. Modulations in metabolism and DNA adduct formation are considered central mechanisms in environmental carcinogenesis. This review describes the major environmental contributors in causing cancer with an emphasis on molecular aspects associated with environmental disposition in carcinogenesis.
Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C; Leroux, Audrey J; Truscott, Stephen D
High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors associated with dropout for the purpose of better understanding how to prevent it. We used the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 dataset. Participants included 14,106 sophomores across 684 public and private schools. We identified variables of interest based on previous research on dropout and implemented hierarchical generalized linear modeling. In the final model, significant student-level predictors included academic achievement, retention, sex, family socioeconomic status (SES), and extracurricular involvement. Significant school-level predictors included school SES and school size. Race/ethnicity, special education status, born in the United States, English as first language, school urbanicity, and school region did not significantly predict dropout after controlling for the aforementioned predictors. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts within a multitiered intervention model are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kers, Jannigje G; Velkers, Francisca C; Fischer, Egil A J; Hermes, Gerben D A; Stegeman, J A; Smidt, Hauke
The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to
Jannigje G. Kers
Full Text Available The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates
Rom, William N.
Occupational and environmental health programs are beginning to be developed in many medical schools. The attitudes of medical school deans on their past experiences, current plans, and thoughts for the future for occupational and environmental health were surveyed and are described. (MLW)
Belle, Kara; Utebay, Kudret; McArthur, Ashley
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers resources to help a school or school district improve the environmental health and energy performance of its facilities, and in many cases, apply the savings generated through improved energy efficiency toward facility improvements, for the betterment of students, faculty, and staff. As an…
Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…
Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna
The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…
Bousquet, Woodward S.; Jarvis, Ralph W.
An assessment of conservation and environmental education needs in southern Appalachian schools is provided in this survey. Superintendents of school districts and teachers within the southern Appalachian region responded to a questionnaire which was designed to determine: (1) the current status of conservation and environmental education; (2)…
Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M
Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Measuring the quality of the ‘product’ is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size etc. But there is little evidence of learner perceptions. 553 students from two different universities, who graduated from 3 high school types, were asked to respond to two fundamental questions to reflect on schoo...
MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN
Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…
Grace Mary George
Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.
Ezeonu, C T; Anyansi, M N
In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we used a validated school health program evaluation scale (SHPE) to assess the environmental health status of primary schools in Ebonyi State, southeastern Nigeria. Parameters assessed included water supply, sewage and refuse disposal, school building ventilation, lighting and seating, as well as the availability of toilet tissue, basins for washing hands, regular cleaning of toilets, and so forth. Of all the schools assessed, only two schools, both private, attained the minimum acceptable SHPE score of 57. The mean SHPE score of the private schools (50.40) was significantly higher than that of the public schools (28.69) (t-test, p=.00). Policy reforms are needed that would ensure a healthy primary school environment in Nigeria and in other developing countries with similar settings.
Greek school community emphasizes on the discovery direction of teaching methodology in the school Environmental Education (EE) in order to promote Education for the Sustainable Development (ESD). In ESD school projects the used methodology is experiential teamwork for inquiry based learning. The proposed tool checks whether and how a school…
Sanders, Joan G.
Scope and Method of Study: This study assesses the status of Earth and environmental sciences education in Texas Public High Schools by analyzing enrollment proportions of 11th and 12th grade students in 607 Independent School Districts (ISD) for the 2010-2011 academic school year using a quantitative, non-experimental alpha research design. This…
Demir, Kamile; Akman Karabeyoglu, Yasemin
Problem Statement: There are many factors that affect student achievement directly and indirectly at the secondary educational level. Lower attendance rates have been cited as detrimental to academic achievement; therefore, it is suggested that improved attendance is a direct indicator, rather than determinant of students' academic achievement.…
Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.
Benavides, B. A. C.; Coto, C. J. M.
Elementary school is a propitious space to contribute to knowledge and adoption of habits related to the use of environmentally friendly energies. This article refers to a methodological strategy used in education for renewable energies, specifically solar energy, within the framework of the environmental school. Its objective is to share a successful strategy to diffuse the thermal applications of solar energy for home and school. (Author)
Restrepo, Paula Andrea
Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment
Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo
The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Meilinda, Hephi; Prayitno, Baskoro Adi; Karyanto, Puguh
Environmental literacy refers to the knowledge of the mechanism of how the nature works and the roles of human to preserve the nature sustainably. The dynamic relation between human and environment can be seen from the life interaction along with all the components. One characteristic of society that has environmental literacy is highly concerned with environmental. This research aims to analyze students’ environmental literacy in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta. Environmental literacy co...
Full Text Available Brazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1 to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2 to describe the macroclimatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3 to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections.Our model assessed seven environmental factors (annual rainfall, annual temperature, elevation, seasonality of temperature, seasonality of precipitation, thermal amplitude, and daytime temperature variation for their association with the occurrence of outbreaks in the last 50 years. Our results suggest that various environmental factors distinctly influence the distribution of each arbovirus, with temperature being the central determinant of disease distribution in all high-risk areas. These areas are subject to change, since the average temperature of some areas has increased significantly over the time.This is the first spatio-temporal study of the Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis, and Rocio arboviruses, and our results indicate that they may become increasingly important public health problems in Brazil. Thus, next studies and control programs should include these diseases and also take into consideration key environmental elements.
Hens, Luc; Wiedemann, Torsten; Raath, Schalk; Stone, Riana; Renders, Paul; Craenhals, Eric
Quantitative results from Environmental Management Systems (EMS) at primary schools have rarely been examined in literature. This paper presents the monitoring results of environmental care in 39 primary schools in Northern South Africa. During 2 years, after the EMS was implemented in the curriculum and in the school's management, the progress of environmental performances of the participating schools has been measured, by means of detailed questionnaires, related to four environmental aspects: water, waste, energy and greening. At the beginning of the project, 50% of the schools performed well on water-related environmental actions. Two years later it was 76%. For waste-related activities the improvement was even stronger: from 50% to 100%. The environmental performances of the schools improved also for greening-related actions, from 50% at the start of the project to 64% two years later. Only energy-related activities did not improve significantly with only 24% of all schools performing well at the end of the survey period. In general, the introduction of an EMS succeeded in an improvement of the overall environmental performances of the schools, but cost-intensive activities were less successful than others. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shield, Bridget M; Dockrell, Julie E
While at school children are exposed to various types of noise including external, environmental noise and noise generated within the classroom. Previous research has shown that noise has detrimental effects upon children's performance at school, including reduced memory, motivation, and reading ability. In England and Wales, children's academic performance is assessed using standardized tests of literacy, mathematics, and science. A study has been conducted to examine the impact, if any, of chronic exposure to external and internal noise on the test results of children aged 7 and 11 in London (UK) primary schools. External noise was found to have a significant negative impact upon performance, the effect being greater for the older children. The analysis suggested that children are particularly affected by the noise of individual external events. Test scores were also affected by internal classroom noise, background levels being significantly related to test results. Negative relationships between performance and noise levels were maintained when the data were corrected for socio-economic factors relating to social deprivation, language, and special educational needs. Linear regression analysis has been used to estimate the maximum levels of external and internal noise which allow the schools surveyed to achieve required standards of literacy and numeracy.
Yang, Yong; Hong, Xue; Gurney, James G; Wang, Youfa
Active travel to school (ATS) is positively associated with various health indicators. The rapid social, economic, and environmental changes in China provide a unique setting to study changes and predictors of ATS over time. Using logistic regression modeling, we analyzed data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1997 to 2011 (N = 9487, ages 6 to 17 years) to estimate the change over time in ATS and to identify associated factors. The prevalence of reported ATS among children dropped from 95.8% in 1997 to 69.3% in 2011. ATS was common in children living closer to school, in middle school, from low-income households, with low parental education status, and those without a private vehicle. Children who were living in a metropolitan area and who had more than 40 minutes of total PA per day were less likely to report ATS. The decrease of ATS had been concurrent with the increase of the children living at a longer distance from school and the increase of household owning private vehicles which were associated with the rapid urbanization and economic growth in China. Factors associated with the decreased ATS in China are similar to other countries but the underlying reasons may be different.
Cho, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea); John, M. Gate [University of Rhode Island, Kingston (United States)
Atlantic herrings have held the important position as fish-baits in the marine ecosystem such as major baits in fishing lobsters. The Atlantic herring is sensitively influenced by the environmental factors of the marine ecosystem, such as the temperature of seawater, the amount of planktons, and the submarine deposit of the habitat. In the immature phase of herrings, especially, they are very sensitive of the low temperature of seawater. This study analyzes the correlation between two-year-old imported herring resources and the temperature of seawater, measured by a satellite. The area of measuring temperature is limited to the spawning ground of Atlantic herrings. As results of the analysis, the coefficient is 0.69, which means that the environmental factors should be very seriously considered in explaining the change of fishing resources. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Gross, Cornelius; Hen, René
Both genetic and environmental factors influence normal anxiety traits as well as anxiety disorders. In addition it is becoming increasingly clear that these factors interact to produce specific anxiety-related behaviors. For example, in humans and in monkeys mutations in the gene encoding for the serotonin transporter result in increased anxiety in adult life when combined with a stressful environment during development. Another recent example comes from twin studies suggesting that a small hippocampus can be a predisposing condition that renders individuals susceptible to post traumatic stress disorder. Such examples illustrate how specific mutations leading to abnormal brain development may increase vulnerability to environmental insults which may in turn lead to specific anxiety disorders.
Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off the Light House Beach, Lagos, Nigeria. ... (28.37±1.88), pH (7.85±0.17), conductivity (44738.75±6262.76 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (29236.71±4273.30 mg/L), salinity (27.11±3.91 ‰), alkalinity (126.99±42.81 mg/L) and chloride (15056.
Cienciala, E.; Russ, R.; Šantrůčková, H.; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, I.; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, J.; Stähl, G.
Roč. 573, dec (2016), s. 541-554 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Norway spruce * Environmental change * Drought * N-deposition * Managed forest * Tree increment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J); GK - Forestry (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016
Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.
Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.
Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro
To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.
Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.
Full Text Available What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. Factorial analysis was also used to identify the principal components of school effectiveness of private and public elementary schools. The participants of the study were the 182 public and private elementary school principals and teachers from the 20 sampled schools. School effectiveness was measured using the seven correlates of effective schools. On the other hand, the level of school performance was gauged through the National Achievement Test (NAT results for the past three years. The qualitative part of the study focused on the school effectiveness practices and NAT practices of selected private and public elementary schools. The findings of the study revealed that the level of school effectiveness of both private and public elementary schools was excellent. However, test of difference showed that public schools exhibited stronger home-school relations than the private schools. In terms of the level of school performance, public schools perform better than the private schools for the past three years. Significantly, there exists a strong positive relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. The factorial analysis revealed that among all the correlates of school effectiveness, school leadership competency and professional collaboration influenced the performance of both schools. Recommendations of the study can help the government and school officials to plan appropriate strategies in improving the quality of
Bahali, K; Tahiroglu, A Y; Avci, A; Seydaoglu, G
To assess the levels of psychological symptoms in the parents of children with school refusal and determine the familial risk factors in its development. This study was performed on 55 pairs of parents who had children exhibiting school refusal and were compared with a control group. A socio-demographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 revised were applied to these parents. Parents of the school refusal group had higher anxiety and depression scores than the controls. Among the risk factors for school refusal, physical punishment by the parents, a history of organic disease in the parents or children, and a history of psychiatric disorders in the parents or other relatives were found to be significant. Depending on genetic and environmental factors, parents with psychiatric disorders appeared to be associated with development of psychiatric disorders in their children. Moreover, psychiatric disorders in parents negatively affected the treatment of their children and adolescents who exhibited school refusal. It is therefore vital to treat psychiatric disorders of parents with the children having psychiatric disorders, and thus increase parent participation in their children's therapeutic process.
Cheng, Yuh-Ming; Lou, Shi-Jer; Kuo, Sheng-Huang; Shih, Ru-Chu
In order to improve and promote students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour, integrating environmental education into the primary education curriculum has become a key issue for environmental education. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate elementary school students' acceptance of technology applying digital game-based…
Wen, Li Ming; Fry, Denise; Rissel, Chris; Dirkis, Helen; Balafas, Angela; Merom, Dafna
In this study, we examined factors associated with children being driven to school. Participants were 1603 students (aged 9-11 years) and their parents from 24 public primary schools in inner western Sydney, Australia. Students recorded their modes of travel to and from school for 5 days in a student survey. Parents recorded their demographic data, their attitudes to travel, and their modes of travel to work, using a self-administered survey. An analysis of the two linked data sets found that 41% of students travelled by car to or from school for more than 5 trips per week. Almost a third (32%) of students walked all the way. Only 1% of students rode a bike and 22% used more than one mode of travel. Of those who were driven, 29% lived less than 1 km and a further 18% lived between 1 and 1.5 km from school. Factors associated with car travel (after adjusting for other potential confounders) were mode of parents' travel to work, parent attitudes, number of cars in the household, and distance from home to school. To be effective, walk to school programs need to address the link between parent journey to work and student journey to school.
Stanišić, Jelena M.
The results of the recent research in the field of environmental education point to the fact that it is not enough to incorporate environmental content in the curricula and expect the students to behave environmentally responsibly. This is only a small step on the long and complex path of developing environmental awareness. Apart from the fact that environmental issues are included in the curricula, it is very important how these environmental issues are conveyed to students. The aim of this ...
Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad
Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the
Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L
Racial disparities in health cannot be explained solely on the basis of poverty, access to health care, behavior, or environmental factors. Their complex etiology is dependent on interactions between all these factors plus genetics. Scientists have been slow to consider genetics as a risk factor because genetic polymorphisms tend to be more variable within a race than between races. Now that studies are demonstrating the existence of racial differences in allelic frequencies for multiple genes affecting a single biologic mechanism, the present argument for a significant genetic role in contributing to health disparities is gaining support. Individuals vary, often significantly, in their response to environmental agents. This variability provides a high "background noise" when scientists examine human populations to identify environmental links to disease. This variability often masks important environmental contributors to disease risk and is a major impediment to efforts to investigate the causes of diseases.Fortunately, investments in the various genome projects have led to the development of tools and databases that can be used to help identify the genetic variations in environmental response genes that can lead to such wide differences in disease susceptibility. NIEHS developed the environ-mental genome project to catalog these genetic variants (polymorphisms)and to identify the ones that play a major role in human susceptibility to environmental agents. This information is being used in epidemiologic studies to pinpoint environmental contributors to disease better. The research summarized in this article is critically important for tying genetics and the environment to health disparities, and for the development of a rational approach to gauge environmental threats. Common variants in genes play pivotal roles in determining if or when illness or death result from exposure to drugs or environmental xenobiotics. Most common variants exist in all human
Goldman, Daphne; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shaharabani, Dina
One of the solutions implemented by schools for conducting value-based environmental education (EE) is outsourcing: allocating external environmental organizations that develop and conduct EE programmes. This study addressed such a programme-the Green Council Programme (GCP)-developed and implemented in schools by the Israeli Society for Protection of Nature. A pre-test/post-test design was used to investigate the influence of participation in the GCP on components of junior high-school students' environmental literacy. Conceptualizations of 'environment', environmental attitudes and sense of ability to act on environmental issues were studied employing quantitative and qualitative tools. Contribution of the programme to the cognitive domain, in developing a systemic understanding of the environment, was limited. On the other hand, participating in this programme heightened students' sensitivity to human-environment interrelationships and developed a more ecological worldview. After the programme, students demonstrated greater perception of humans as part of the environment, an increased sensitivity to human impact on the environment and their value for non-human nature moved from an anthropocentric to a more ecocentric orientation. While students' internal locus-of-control increased, when environmental protection entailed personal economic trade-offs, their support was limited and remained unchanged. The article concludes with recommendations, based on the findings, regarding supplementing the school (science) curriculum with external EE enrichment programmes.
This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…
Anita Frajman Jakšić
Full Text Available Economic growth was long perceived as the key goal of economic development. But as the capitalist economies got richer and as negative consequences of the growth spurt became more obvious, the development paradigm began to change course towards sustainability, which encompasses economic, environmental and social dimensions. The purpose of the article is to link the value system in the society and the possibility of the society to embrace the sustainable development model. We first provide the theoretical framework, followed by an empirical analysis of Croatia. The stress is on the environmental component of sustainability. The article builds from the popular stream of economic theory, i.e. economic analysis of happiness, which claims that happiness results not solely from economic factors, but also personal and broader social elements. These can also include environmental variables. In economic analysis of happiness, the consumer is not a standard utility maximizing consumer, who directly links utility and consumption of goods. His happiness is largely determined also by environmental elements. The existence of such consumers is consequently a prerequisite for the establishment of the sustainable economy. Empirical results show that: (1 consumers in general are at the moment not well educated about ecological problems, but (2 those that are give a lot of attention to environmental aspects. It is also important to note that future sustainability depends primarily on the attitude of current young cohorts (15 to 24 years, which, unfortunately, are least environmentally conscious. The role of the government and public institutions in preparing broader educational campaigns can therefore be significant.
Courcier, E A; Thomson, R M; Mellor, D J; Yam, P S
To assess the relationships between socioeconomic and other environmental factors with canine obesity. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study of dog owners attending five primary veterinary practices in the UK. Owners were asked about dog age, neuter status, feeding habits, dog exercise, household income and owner age. The body condition score of the dogs was also assessed. Factors hypothesised to be associated with obesity were investigated. In total, data from 696 questionnaires were evaluated. Out of those data evaluated, 35.3% of dogs (n=246) were classed as an ideal body shape, 38.9% (n=271) were overweight, 20.4% (n=142) were obese and 5.3% (n=37) were underweight. Identified risk factors associated with obesity included owner age, hours of weekly exercise, frequency of snacks/treats and personal income. Environmental risk factors associated with canine obesity are multifactorial and include personal income, owner age, frequency of snacks/treats and amount of exercise the dog receives. Awareness about health risks associated with obesity in dogs is significantly less in people in lower income brackets. This phenomenon is recognised in human obesity.
Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.
What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school ...
Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Richmond, Sarah A; Macpherson, Alison
Child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) have decreased in Canada in the past 20 years. Many believe this trend is explained by the rise in automobile use for all travel. Initiatives to increase walking to school need to consider PMVC risk. Potential risk factors related to walking to school, the built environment and social factors were examined for schools with historically high child PMVC rates. Child PMVCs (age 4-12 years) from 2000 to 2013 and built environment features were mapped within school attendance boundaries in the City of Toronto, Canada. Case and control schools were in the highest and lowest PMVC quartiles respectively. Observational counts of travel mode to school were conducted. Logistic regression evaluated walking to school, built environment and social risk factors for higher PMVC rates, stratified by geographic location (downtown vs. inner suburbs). The mean PMVC rates were 18.8/10,000/year (cases) and 2.5/10,000/year (controls). One-way street density (OR=4.00), school crossing guard presence (OR=3.65) and higher social disadvantage (OR=1.37) were associated with higher PMVCs. Higher residential land use density had a protective effect (OR=0.56). More walking was not a risk factor. While several built environment risk factors were identified for the inner suburbs; only social disadvantage was a risk factor within older urban neighbourhoods. Several modifiable environmental risk factors were identified for child PMVCs. More walking to school was not associated with increased PMVCs after controlling for the environment. School social disadvantage was associated with higher PMVCs with differences by geographic location. These results have important implications for the design of roadways around schools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena
We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.
Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena
Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589
Borup, Jered; Stevens, Mark A.
As K-12 online programs mature, it is increasingly important that they work to retain their effective teachers. However, there is little research that has examined teacher satisfaction in K-12 online learning environments. Our analysis of 22 interviews with 11 teachers at an online charter school identified three primary factors that influenced…
of treatment in 89(41.6%), 42 (19.6%) and 6 (2.8%) children respectively. Conclusion: Arousal difficulty, positive family history of enuresis and family stress were common risk factors for enuresis. Also, enuretic children had higher rates of poor school performance compared with non-enuretic children. The inappropriate ...
Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang
In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…
This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.
Thessin, Rebecca A.; Scully-Russ, Ellen; Lieberman, Daina S.
Research has demonstrated career and technical education (CTE) programs have a strong positive influence on secondary students' behavior, attendance, academic achievement, and college persistence. Critical success factors common to career academies, small schools, and CTE programs include socio-emotional support and community, along with a culture…
Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.
Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…
Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth
The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)
It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.
Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim
Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. © FEMS 2017.
Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk
Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.
Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.
Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
山中, 康裕; 三井, 翔太
The course “Introduction to Environmental Science” was designed and held during the academic year 2015-2016 for new masterʼs course students at the Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University. The course was designed in accord with societal needs such as consensus building for environmental conservation and associated scientific evidence, bringing together a large number of students from various disciplines. The course was composed of six modules in which multipl...
Xing, Xiu-Ya; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Xu, Shao-Jun; Su, Pu-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Hui
This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement, bullying, low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school. An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years). An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide, bullying involvement and learning performance. Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively. In total, 10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey. Multiple logistic-regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic variables, was used to analyze if underachievement, bullying, low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors. 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months. Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (chi2 = 11.39, P = 0.023). Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs. 15.8% , P bullying, lower school life satisfaction and low self conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide. Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in Anhui province. It is of importance to improve the school' s environments to reduce the risk of attempted suicide among this group.
Omaima Ibrahim AboElkheir
Full Text Available Background: Childhood asthma is a complex disorder in which many environmental and personal factors play a role. However, the contribution of these factors to asthma severity is poorly understood. This study aims to determine the relationship between environmental exposures, personal factors and asthma severity among asthmatic children. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted on 180 asthmatic children; they were divided into mild, moderate and severe asthma according to forced expiratory volume in first second. Environmental factors (indoor and outdoor, food allergy, history of other allergic diseases, family history of allergic disorders, time trend of attacks as well as asthma outcome were reported. Results: Children with severe asthma were younger than those with mild or moderate asthma. Severe asthma was significantly linked to family history of allergy, presence of co-morbid allergic diseases, fish, egg and milk allergy, as well as exposure to passive smoking (73.7% and poor housing conditions. Also, it was significantly linked to presence of unauthorized factories in residential area (31.6 %, p=0.001. As well as, contact with pets (42.1%. Children with severe asthma had more limitations of physical activities (73.7%, missed school days (81.5%, with poor school performance (p=0.04 than those with mild moderate or asthma. Conclusion: Severe asthma was linked to female gender and younger age, co-morbid allergic diseases, family history of atopy and food allergy. It was higher among children residing in places with unauthorized factories and living in substandard housing condition. Children with severe asthma had poor asthma outcome.
Méndez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; López-García, J J
The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between peer school victimization and some risk and protection factors and to compare the differences by role in victimization with those of non-involved bystanders. Our participants were 1,264 secondary students ( M = 14.41, SD = 1.43) who participated voluntarily, although an informed consent was requested. A logistic regression model (LR) was used in order to identify the victim's potential risks and protective factors related to non-involved bystanders. A multiple LR and a forward stepwise LR (Wald) were used. The results showed the variables related to the victim profile were: individual features (to be male, to be at the first cycle of compulsory Secondary Education and a few challenging behaviors), school environments (i.e., school adjustment), family environment (parental styles like authoritarianism) and social environment (i.e., friends who occasionally show a positive attitude toward drug consumption and easy access to drugs, access to drugs perceived as easy, rejection by peers or lack of social acceptance and social maladjustment). The results of the study will allow tackling prevention and intervention actions in schools, families, and social environment in order to improve coexistence at school and to assist the victimized students in the classroom.
Rose, Kathryn Ailsa; French, Amanda Nicole; Morgan, Ian George
The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors. The rise in prevalence of high myopia has an unusual pattern of development, with increases in prevalence first appearing at approximately age 11. This pattern suggests that the increasing prevalence of high myopia is because of progression of myopia in children who became myopic at approximately age 6 or 7 because age-specific progression rates typical of East Asia will take these children to the threshold for high myopia in 5 to 6 years. This high myopia seems to be acquired, having an association with educational parameters, whereas high myopia in previous generations tended to be genetic in origin. Increased time outdoors can counter the effects of increased nearwork and reduce the impact of parental myopia, reducing the onset of myopia, and this approach has been validated in 3 randomized controlled trials. Other proposed risk factors need further work to demonstrate that they are independent and can be modified to reduce the onset of myopia.
Menachemi, Nir; Shin, Dong Yeong; Ford, Eric W; Yu, Feliciano
: Previous studies have provided theoretical and empirical evidence that environmental forces influence hospital strategy. : Rooted in resource dependence theory and the information uncertainty perspective, this study examined the relationship between environmental market characteristics and hospitals' selection of a health information technology (HIT) management strategy. : A cross-sectional design is used to analyze secondary data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics Database, and the Area Resource File. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses are used. : Overall, 3,221 hospitals were studied, of which 60.9% pursed a single-vendor HIT management strategy, 28.9% pursued a best-of-suite strategy, and 10.2% used a best-of-breed strategy. Multivariate analyses controlling for hospital characteristics found that measures of environmental factors representing munificence, dynamism, and/or complexity were systematically associated with various hospital HIT management strategy use. Specifically, the number of generalist physicians per capita was positively associated with the single-vendor strategy (B = -5.64, p = .10). Hospitals in urban markets were more likely to pursue the best-of-suite strategy (B = 0.622, p < .001). Dynamism, measured as the number of managed care contracts for a given hospital, was negatively associated with the single-vendor strategy (B = 0.004, p = .049). Lastly, complexity, measured as market competition, was positively associated with the best-of-breed strategy (B = 0.623, p = .042). : By and large, environmental factors are associated with hospital HIT management strategies in mostly theoretically supported ways. Hospital leaders and policy makers interested in influencing the adoption of hospital HIT should consider how market conditions influence HIT management decisions as part of programs to promote meaningful use.
Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Sigsgaard, T.
, including health, building characteristics of the home, and socioeconomic factors between participating and non-participating families in a nested case-control study on asthma and allergy among children. Information was collected in a baseline questionnaire to the parents of 14,077 children aged 1-6 years...... in a first step. In a second step 2,156 of the children were invited to participate in a case-control study. Of these, 198 cases and 202 controls were finally selected. For identifying potential selection bias, information concerning all invited families in the case-control study was obtained from...
Perlman, J M
There is growing evidence that a large number of very low birth weight infants are exhibiting neurobehavioral problems in the absence of cerebral palsy at follow-up that has extended into school age and adolescence. Many clinical factors (ie, chronic lung disease, recurrent apnea and bradycardia, transient hypothyroxemia of prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, nutritional deficiencies, glucocorticoid exposure), as well as stressful environmental conditions, including infant-provider interaction, constant noise, and bright light, may act in combination to impact on the developing brain, even in the absence of overt hemorrhage and/or ischemia. Any potential intervention strategy designed to prevent cognitive and behavioral problems has to account for the numerous biological and clinical conditions and/or interventions, as well as postdischarge social and environmental influences.
Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more
Full Text Available Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystem disorder of unclear etiology that involves any organ, most commonly the lung and the lymph nodes. It is hypothesized that the disease derives from the interaction between single or multiple environmental factors and genetically determined host factors. Multiple potential etiologic agents for sarcoidosis have been proposed without any definitive demonstration of causality. We report the case of two patients, husband (57 years old and wife (55 years old, both suffering from sarcoidosis. They underwent a lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy which showed a “granulomatous epithelioid giant cell non-necrotising chronic lymphadenitis”. They had lived up to 3 years ago in the country in a farm, in contact with organic dusts, animals such as dogs, chickens, rabbits, pigeons; now they have lived since about 3 years in an urban area where there are numerous chemical industries and stone quarries. The aim of this case report was to focus on environmental factors that might be related to the pathogenesis of the sarcoidosis.
Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A
Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Allergens associated with dust mites (DM) and cockroaches (CR) are probably important in both onset and worsening of asthma symptoms for children who are chronically exposed to these agents. Young children spend a great deal of time on or near the floor where these allergens are concentrated in dust. Of children (2 to 10 years of age) living in metropolitan Washington, DC, 60% were found to be sensitive to CR and 72% were allergic to DM. Exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to onset of asthma earlier in life and is a risk factor for asthma morbidity. Since disparity of asthma mortality and morbidity among minority children in urban centers is closely linked to socioeconomic status and poverty, measures to reduce exposure to environmental allergens and irritants and to eliminate barriers to access to health care are likely to have a major positive impact. Interventions for children in urban centers must focus on prevention of asthma symptoms and promotion of wellness.
Full Text Available The risk of digestive cancer in each country is analyzed in cancer registries for Incidence and Mortality. Survival is estimated from registries with a correct follow-up. Estimated values of Incidence and Mortality, expressed as an age standardized rate (ASR for 100 000 persons, for all the population of a country are also found in the WHO-IARC database Globocan, recently edited for the year 2008. At each site of digestive tumors, the variations between countries, in cancer incidence, mortality and survival, depend on the resources and the global health status of the country. Indeed environmental causal factors linked to lifestyle may have an increasing or decreasing impact on the risk of cancer. Such factors are classified on 3 categories: 1- nutrition plays a determinant role in colorectal cancer with a higher risk in countries with more resources and more calories in the diet. 2- Toxic agents like alcohol and tobacco increase the risk at all sites of digestive cancer; their role is preponderant in esophageal cancer. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant in tropical, less developed countries, increases the risk of liver cancer. 3 – Infectious agents play a major role with the Bacteria H.pylori for stomach cancer over the world, and the Hepatitis virus B and C for liver cancer in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. The control of carcinogenic causal environmental factors is included in the primary prevention of digestive cancer.
Fals Martínez, Juntzo; González Martínez, Farith; Orozco Páez, Jennifer; Correal Castillo, Sandra Patricia; Pernett Gómez, Cindy Vanessa
To describe the musculoskeletal disorders and association with physical and environmental in students of Dentistry. Cross sectional study. Simple random sampling was conducted obtaining a proportional sample of 182 students per semester. Collecting information from physical and environmental exposures related to different clinical practice and this was assessed by a structured survey questionnaire type. The valuation muscle was performed by visual analysis with Scan-test. To assess factors related to working position, the instrument was used RULA. For the analysis of the association were used odds ratios with confidence intervals of 95%. For the multivariate analysis using logistic regression. 58.2% of students had pain tenderness in upper trapezius and 45.6% in area cervical. Lateral movements in the cervical found pain in 35.7%, with the bending cervical 35.1% related to all these factors own dental practice and not to other factors external. The onset of muscle pain in this population is influenced by multiple variables, most of them, related to dental practice of students to interact with each other can trigger symptoms at neck and back.
Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Leigh, Seung-Bok
In this study, a model that is capable of evaluating the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility was developed. The model is composed of three steps: (i) retrieval of elementary school facilities having similar characteristics as the new elementary school facility using case-based reasoning; (ii) creation of energy consumption and material data for the benchmark elementary school facility using the retrieved similar elementary school facilities; and (iii) evaluation of the environmental benefits of the new elementary school facility by assessing and comparing the environmental impact of the new and created benchmark elementary school facility using life cycle assessment. The developed model can present the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility in terms of monetary values using Environmental Priority Strategy 2000, a damage-oriented life cycle impact assessment method. The developed model can be used for the following: (i) as criteria for a green-building rating system; (ii) as criteria for setting the support plan and size, such as the government's incentives for promoting green-building projects; and (iii) as criteria for determining the feasibility of green building projects in key business sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang; Zuo, Pengxiang
Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11). The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.
Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia.Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9% and Uyghur (7.0% children (P < 0.05, and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68 and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11.The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.
S. Mahmoud Mirzamani
Full Text Available "nObjective: This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school managers' job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. "nMethod: For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity and its load factor was 0.4 which was high. "nResults: The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing managers' job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51% including 28 indices; social factor (7/9% including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2% including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2% including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8% including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6% including 4 indices. "nConclusions: The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of managers' motivation.
Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.
The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…
N. K. Shemetova
Full Text Available The paper deals with the main trends of higher school management strategy formation. The author specifies the educational changes in the modern information society determining the strategy options. For each professional training level the author denotes the set of strategic factors affecting the educational service consumers and, therefore, the effectiveness of the higher school marketing. The given factors are classified from the stand-points of the providers and consumers of educational service (enrollees, students, graduates and postgraduates. The research methods include the statistic analysis and general methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison, and classification. The author is convinced that the university management should develop the necessary prerequisites for raising the graduates’ competitiveness in the labor market, and stimulate the active marketing policies of the relating subdivisions and departments. In author’s opinion, the above classification of marketing strategy factors can be used as the system of values for educational service providers.
Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.
Zhang, Haiyan; Carbone, Marco; Lleo, Ana; Invernizzi, Pietro
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the most paradigmatic autoimmune liver disease with still several controversial issues in epidemiology, diagnosis, causation, and therapy. Although we are witnessing an enormous increase in the quantum of our basic knowledge of the disease with an initial translation in clinical practice, there are still a number of key open questions in PBC. Among them are the following questions: Why are there vast geographical variations in disease frequency? What are the reasons for female preponderance? Why do only small-size bile ducts get affected: What is the real role of genetics and epigenetics in its development? In particular, the prevalence of PBC is known to vary both on an international and a regional level, suggesting the existence of substantive geographical differences in terms of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. New theories on potential environmental triggers, such as chemical xenobiotics, which lead to the breaking of self-tolerance within a unique immunological milieu of the liver, have been suggested. On the other hand, new and solid data on the genetic architecture of PBC are now obtained from recent high-throughput studies, together with data on sex chromosomes defects, and epigenetic abnormalities, thus strongly suggesting a role of genetic and epigenetic factors in the triggering and perpetuation of the autoimmune aggression in PBC. Based on these evidences, a number of novel drugs directed against specific immune-related molecules are currently under development. In this paper, we review a comprehensive collection of current epidemiological reports from various world regions. We also discuss here the most recent data regarding candidate genetic and environmental risk factors for PBC. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Silberg, Judy; Rutter, Michael; D'Onofrio, Brian; Eaves, Lindon
The present study was undertaken with the goal of understanding the causes of association between substance use and both conduct disturbance (CD) and depression in adolescent boys and girls. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were fitted to multi-informant, multi-wave, longitudinal data collected in extensive home interviews with parents and children with respect to 307 MZ male, 392 MZ female, 185 DZ male, and 187 DZ female, same-sex twin pairs aged 12-17 years from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD). Although conduct disturbance and depression were moderately associated with substance use, the pattern of genetic and environmental risk differed for males and females and across the two disorders. Genetic factors were predominant in girls' substance use whereas boys' use was mediated primarily by shared environmental factors reflecting family dysfunction and deviant peers. The patterns of correlations across the two waves of the study were consistent with conduct disturbance leading to substance use in both males and females, but depression leading to smoking, drug use and, to a lesser extent, alcohol use in girls. The comorbidity between substance use and depression, and between substance use and conduct disturbance in childhood/adolescence, probably reflects rather different mediating mechanisms--as well as a different time frame, with conduct disturbance preceding substance use but depression following it. In both, the co-occurrence partially reflected a shared liability but, in girls, genetic influences played an important role in the comorbidity involving depression, whereas in both sexes (but especially in boys) environmental factors played a substantial role. The extent to which these differences reflect genuine differences in the causal mechanisms underlying substance use and CD/depression in boys and girls revealed in the present analysis awaits replication from studies of other general population samples.
Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware
Full Text Available Environmental literacy refers to the knowledge of the mechanism of how the nature works and the roles of human to preserve the nature sustainably. The dynamic relation between human and environment can be seen from the life interaction along with all the components. One characteristic of society that has environmental literacy is highly concerned with environmental. This research aims to analyze students’ environmental literacy in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta. Environmental literacy covers some components including environmental knowledge, attitude, and environmental concern.This research was developed through descriptive qualitative design to obtain data by employing classroom observation and questionnaire based on environmental literacy to the students in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta. The research finding shows that (1 students’ environmental literacy in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta is categorized as low level. Data obtained from the instrument are 77,38% for environmental knowledge, 59,50% for attitude, 70,12% for environmental concern. The average percentage for all components is 68,97%. Based on the finding, it can be concluded that the environmental literacy is still low. It can be seen from (1 knowledge and concern aspects are higher than attitude aspect, (2 attitude aspect contains two components which are anti anthropocentrism and anti-exemptionalism, so that it is necessarily to increase students’ concern toward the environment.
Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M
Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jobran M. Alqahtani
Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.
Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.
Adams, J; Dudenhöffer, S; Claus, M; Kimbel, R; Letzel, S; Rose, D-M
Teachers' mental health is commonly discussed in organizational health studies, but studies in special schools are rare. Work-related coping and experience patterns (WCEPs) have been shown to be associated with mental health and intentions to leave. The influence of organizational factors on coping patterns has not been examined. To assess the distribution of WCEPs in special school staff and to identify potential influencing factors. We surveyed a sample of teachers and educational staff in 13 German special schools using the WCEP questionnaire and COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Of 245 teachers and 417 educational staff contacted, 114 teachers (47%) and 252 educational staff (60%) responded, an overall response rate of 55% (366/662). Coping patterns of special school staff were classified as unambitious (30%), excessively ambitious (7%), resigned (17%), healthy-ambitious (12%) or unclassifiable (34%). Furthermore we found several significant relations with demographic and organizational factors. For example, the resigned pattern is associated with age [Exp(B) 1.12; 95% CI 1.05-1.19], emotional demands [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.12], work-family conflict [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10] and bullying [Exp(B) 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08]. Since emotional and social factors are associated with risky (excessively ambitious or resigned) and unambitious coping patterns in special school teachers and educational staff, interventions should focus on them. Further research could explore causal relations and observe the development of coping styles over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors from the literature that influence teachers' implementation of environmental education (EE), and to predict the implementation of EE in the Indiana K--8 Schools by knowledge of these factors. By adapting two earlier instruments, a complete EE assessment instrument was developed, consisting of scales measuring teachers' implementation of EE, their pre-/in-service environmental training, their attitudes toward and competencies in teaching EE, their perceived barriers in teaching EE, and their significant life experiences related to the environment or EE. A questionnaire was sent to 1,200 randomly selected K--8 teachers in public schools throughout Indiana in April 2003, and 385 completed surveys were returned (32.1% return rate). The demographic characteristics of the respondents and the Indiana teacher population were found to be similar. Thus, the results from this study can be generalized to the Indiana teacher population. The construct validity and reliability of each scale were examined after the completion and return of the questionnaires by using factor analysis, item-test correlation analysis, and ANOVA, and also by assessing their alpha indices. It was found that all nine scales were homogeneous, valid, and reliable. Multiple regression analysis was calculated to predict the level of EE implementation in Indiana K--8 schools. Regression analyses indicated that the extent of the teachers' exposure to EE during their pre- and in-service training, the teachers' attitudes toward and competencies in teaching EE, and the barrier "EE not relevant to what I teach" were significant in the full model. This model accounted for 63% of the variance in the teachers' implementation of EE. The teachers' attitudes toward EE had the greatest effect on the teachers' EE implementation when compared to the other significant predictors in the model. The net effects of the extent of the teachers' pre-service and in
Full Text Available The need for imparting environmental education in school students has been well understood in Delhi, India and efforts have been made to incorporate environmental education (EE in the curriculum. At the same time, increasing interest in the protection and conservation of environment, nature and natural resources has led to the initiation and adoption of several campaigns, programmes and projects by various schools. Consequently, the integration of EE in the curriculum as well as through extra-curricular activities is exposing the school students to contemporary environmental challenges and their solutions. This research work is an attempt at exploring the various measures being taken to promote environmental awareness and create better attitude towards the environment in the schools in Delhi, India.
Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.
This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.
Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.
Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.
Schools are challenged to improve classroom practices as they are expected to enhance students’ motivation. While leadership, school organizational conditions and teacher factors are considered essential for improving classroom practices, more should be known about the interplay between school
... of factors related to prior schooling on student persistence in higher education. ... Once reliable profiles of these students have been established and related to ... school counsellors, teachers in both schooling and higher education, and for ...
Dibley Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.
The purpose of this review is to update and summarise available evidence on environmental risk factors that have been associated with risk of Parkinson disease (PD) or Alzheimer disease (AD) and discuss their potential mechanisms. Evidence consistently suggests that a higher risk of PD is associated with pesticides and that a higher risk of AD is associated with pesticides, hypertension and high cholesterol levels in middle age, hyperhomocysteinaemia, smoking, traumatic brain injury and depression. There is weak evidence suggesting that higher risk of PD is associated with high milk consumption in men, high iron intake, chronic anaemia and traumatic brain injury. Weak evidence also suggests that a higher risk of AD is associated with high aluminium intake through drinking water, excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical grids, DM and hyperinsulinaemia, obesity in middle age, excessive alcohol consumption and chronic anaemia. Evidence consistently suggests that a lower risk of PD is associated with hyperuricaemia, tobacco and coffee use, while a lower risk of AD is associated with moderate alcohol consumption, physical exercise, perimenopausal hormone replacement therapy and good cognitive reserve. Weak evidence suggests that lower risk of PD is associated with increased vitamin E intake, alcohol, tea, NSAIDs, and vigorous physical exercise, and that lower risk of AD is associated with the Mediterranean diet, coffee and habitual NSAID consumption. Several environmental factors contribute significantly to risk of PD and AD. Some may already be active in the early stages of life, and some may interact with other genetic factors. Population-based strategies to modify such factors could potentially result in fewer cases of PD or AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A
Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Mao, Huan; Feng, Lei; Yang, Wan-Xi
We investigated whether human semen parameters present circannual rhythm or not, and whether environmental factors exert on semen quality. This retrospective study used data of patients mainly from Reproductive Medicine Center and Urology and Andrology Clinic of a general hospital in China. Sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored based on the strict criteria (WHO, 2010). The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to investigate the relationship between semen parameters and season/month. Partial correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationship between semen parameters and environmental factors. In this study, we found that sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate were significantly lower in summer and higher in winter. But, sperm progressive motility and motility were significantly higher in spring and summer (from March to June), lower in autumn and winter (September and October). Unexpectedly, normal sperm morphology and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) positive rate didn't vary along with season or month. Furthermore, temperature was negatively related to sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate. Precipitation was positively associated with progressive motility and normal sperm morphology, but negatively related to sperm head defect percentage. The length of sunlight was positively related to progressive motility. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was positively associated with semen volume and sperm total amount per ejaculate. These suggest seasonal and monthly variation underlying some semen parameters.
Oliva, A; Spira, A; Multigner, L
An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.
Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli
The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632
Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R
Communication between patients and providers is a crucial component of effective care coordination and is associated with a number of desired patient and provider outcomes. Despite these benefits, physician-patient and physician-physician communication occurs infrequently. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a medical practice's external environment and physician engagement in communication activities. This was a cross-sectional examination of 4,299 U.S. physicians' self-reported engagement in communication activities. Communication was operationalized as physician's time spent on communication with patients and other providers during a typical work day. The explanatory variables were measures of environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence. Data sources were the Health Tracking Physician Survey, the Area Resource File database, and the Dartmouth Atlas. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the environmental factors and physician engagement in communication activities. Several environmental factors, including per capita income (odds ratio range, 1.17-1.38), urban location (odds ratio range, 1.08-1.45), fluctuations in Health Maintenance Organization penetration (odds ratio range, 3.47-13.22), poverty (odds ratio range, 0.80-0.97) and population rates (odds ratio range, 1.01-1.02), and the presence of a malpractice crisis (odds ratio range, 0.22-0.43), were significantly associated with communication. Certain aspects of a physician's external environment are associated with different modes of communication with different recipients (patients and providers). This knowledge can be used by health care managers and policy makers who strive to improve communication between different stakeholders within the health care system (e.g., patient and providers).
Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa
. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have......Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent...
Rivers Patrick A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.
Cole, Laura B.
The "Teaching Green School Building" is an emergent type of school building that attempts to engage building users with environmental issues in buildings. Architectural interventions in these buildings range from signage to interactive touch screens to gardens and demonstration kitchens that foster educational programmes about…
Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) 101 applies to both new and existing schools and is built on three simple concepts: natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality. If a school's layout seems unsafe, adopting a few CPTED fundamentals may help make it significantly safer. This paper offers some tips for making…
Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion
While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…
Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.
Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…
Izadpanahi, Parisa; Elkadi, Hisham; Tucker, Richard
This study aims to determine if primary school children's environmental attitudes can be predicted by whether their school had been designed or adapted for sustainability. A New Ecological Paradigm ("NEP") scale for children was adopted to measure attitudes, with supplementary questions added to align this scale to the Australian context…
Febiola Diah Pratiwi
Full Text Available Ethnobotany is the study of public relations with the use of plants. Use of plants by people influenced by several factors, such as social, cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic. Most of the ethnicities in Indonesia has a high dependence on plants medicine for survival. However, the factors that influence the use of medicinal plants by people in Indonesia have not been studied, so that research is needed to optimize the use of medicinal plants to sustainability benefits. The purpose of this study is to analyze the number of species of plants medicine used by the influence of socio-economic, environmental, and geographic factors using principal component analysis and analyzing patterns of use of plants medicine. The results showed that the economy and infrastructure components (access to electricity, means of education, income level, health facilities, distance from the highway, remoteness, and the fastest time toward the road and the number of people graduating from elementary school affect the number of medicinal plant species used. Based on the results of the study of literature and field observations, the pattern of use of plants medicine in addition to be used as medicine, the plant is used for food, building materials, plant ornamental, ceremonial, wood, wicker and crafts, coloring agents, animal feed, ingredients aromatic, and pesticide. The usage patterns in each region or village has the distinction of which is influenced by the remoteness factor due to the differences in the social, economic, environmental, and geographic. Keywords: ethnobotany, plants medicine, principal component analysis
Vondrova, Diana; Kapsdorfer, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica; Hirosova, Katarina; Samohyl, Martin; Sevcikova, Ludmila
Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava. To assess values of selected factors we used a questionnaire form and personality characteristics were estimated by standardized psycho-diagnostic and IQ tests [range of classic fear, social-situation anxiety and jitters [skala Klasickeho strachu a Socialno-situacnej (in Slovak)] (KSAT), Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire for children (EPQ), Raven's IQ test]. Self-reported perception of mental load was assessed by questionnaire of subjective feelings and states (SFS). Children's body parameters were assessed using anthropometric measurements [height, weight, chest, abdominal and hip girth, Rohrer's index (RI), body mass index (BMI)] and a body fat measurement method (skinfold thickness). The results confirmed a significant relationship between higher parameters of overweight and obesity and irregular breakfast eating (pmental effort and cognitive load associated with the educational process. We note a close relationship between the higher mental load and the score of neuroticism (pmental health of schoolchildren is significantly affected by exogenous factors. Therefore, in terms of protection and promotion of children's health, it is important to evaluate and monitor environmental risk factors and to form their healthy habits.
Background Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents’ physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents’ physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental variables and adolescents’ physical activity (active transportation to school and leisure-time moderate-to- vigorous physical activity), and the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income on association between environmental variables and physical activity among Nigerian boys and girls. Methods Participants were 1006 adolescents (12–19 years, 50.4% girls) randomly selected from 11 secondary schools in Maiduguri city, Nigeria. Physical activity and perceptions of environmental characteristics were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Separate gender-based, hierarchical multiple moderated linear regression analyses were used to examine the direct associations between the environmental perceptions and physical activity variables (active transportation and leisure-time MVPA; dependent variables), as well as the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income. Results Only in boys were direct associations and interaction effect of neighborhood-level income found. Access to destinations was positively associated with active transportation to school (β = 0.18; CI = 0.67, 2.24); while residential density (β = 0.10; CI = 0.01, 1.74) and availability/quality of infrastructures (β = 0.14; CI = 0.49, 2.68) were positively associated with leisure-time MVPA. Also, neighborhood-level income moderated the association between perceived safety and leisure-time MVPA, with more perceived safety related to less MVPA (β = -0.16; CI = -0.01, -0.70) in boys living in high SES neighborhood but marginally related to more MVPA (β = 0.11; CI = -0.04, 2.88, p = 0
Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces at six schoolsApply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schoolsEvaluate which routes of exposure are likely to be the most importantProvide information relevant for developing manage...
Alice Stenzel de Pina Ferreira
Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the biological and environmental risk facotrs of children exposed or not to environmental tobacco pollution (ETP. A cross-sectional study with 670 children of both sexes, aged between eight and 12 years, from schools located in Anápolis (GO. We used an adapted questionnaire directed to parents/guardians. The parents of children of the non-exposed to ETP group (NETP were more educated. The group of children exposed to ETP (EETP had a higher history of respiratory disease. The EETP resides with a smoker, commonly fathers, who smoke up to 20 cigarretes a day. The EETP lived in houses with fewer windows, less air circulation and more registries of mold. The EETP presents more respiratory diseases and unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, there is a need for more care for the exposure and the environment where they live. Health professionals and educators should promote protection, education and stimulate the abandonment of parent smoking.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline
Full Text Available This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the schoolclimate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses,and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. The data collected from a sample of 204 teachersfrom 9 urban schools serving general high school education in the centre of Afyon and Usak cities in Turkey bymeans of the questionnaire developed by the researcher in the academic year of 2001-2002. The questionnaireasked the participants to report the perceived school climate levels of the variables related to the organizationalclimate factors - organizational clarity and standards, team commitment, autonomy, intimacy and support,member conflict, rewards, and risk - on the open-to-closed continuum. The data collected were analyzed by t-testfor Equality of Means and Analysis of Variance and Tukey post hoc tests. As a result of the analyzes, all theteachers reported open climate in relation to the factors of team commitment, organizational clarity andstandards, intimacy and support , autonomy, member conflict, medium climate in relation to the factors of riskand in reward. Additionally, the teachers teaching art, music and physical education reported higher open schoolclimate than others, man than women, single teachers than married ones, the teachers with more degree ofeducation than the ones with a lower degree of education, older teachers than younger ones, and the teacherswith less seniority than the ones with more seniority. Finally, some ideas were suggested about what should bedone in helping teachers to work in a more desirable open school climate
Abdel Rasoul, G M; Al-Batanony, M A; Mahrous, O A; Abo-Salem, M E; Gabr, H M
Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ), hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL), hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3) in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.
Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami
While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.
Alexander, Peter G; Clark, Karen L; Tuan, Rocky S
Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact. This is limited by the insufficiencies of currently available models. Specifically, in vivo approaches using guideline animal models have inherently deficient predictive power due to genomic and anatomic differences that complicate mechanistic comparisons. On the other hand, in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, while accessible for cellular and molecular experimentation, do not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenetic events in vivo nor systemic influences. More robust and accessible models based on human cells that accurately replicate specific processes of embryonic limb development are needed to enhance limb teratogenesis prediction and to permit mechanistic analysis of the adverse outcome pathways. Recent advances in elucidating mechanisms of normal development will aid in the development of process-specific 3D cell cultures within specialized bioreactors to support multicellular microtissues or organoid constructs that will lead to increased understanding of cell functions, cell-to-cell signaling, pathway networks, and mechanisms of toxicity. The promise is prompting researchers to look to such 3D microphysiological systems to help sort out complex and often subtle interactions relevant to developmental malformations that would not be evident by standard 2D cell culture testing. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:243-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.
This study investigated the contribution of school contextual factors and intrapersonal factors to school satisfaction among a sample of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. A total of 760 children completed the School Satisfaction Subscale of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children along with self-report measures of…
Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel
Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.
Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and
This research is based on Kollmuss and Agyeman's mode, and aims to determine if the prerequisites for pro-environmental behaviour, such as the collection of used batteries at school, are ethical, cognitive and environmental. A questionnaire/opinionnaire was given to 102, 14-17-year-olds to gather data on: (1) their current recycling habits, (2)…
Paulete, Francisca E.; Orr, Blair
Under the guidance of the Department of Forestry, the Regional Education Directorate, and Peace Corps/The Gambia, the Gambia All Schools Tree Nursery Competition, an environmental education program, was developed to introduce practical environmental education in The Gambia. Data for this report were collected using a rapid appraisal approach.…
Huffaker, Michelle; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Home-based environmental interventions have demonstrated clinical benefit for children with asthma. Although much is known about school-based exposures, few studies have comprehensively examined the role the school environment plays in asthma and how effectively changing the environment might reduce morbidity when adjusting for exposures in the home. This review summarizes the importance and common challenges of school-based environmental assessment and intervention studies linked to health effects. We focus on the key components of study development and the challenges and benefits to implementation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.
AnvariFar, Hossein; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Ouraji, Hossein; Jalali, M Ali; Üçüncü, Sema İşisağ
Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical component in maintaining homeostasis and growth in all tissues and plays a significant role in immunity and cytotoxicity. In contrast to necrosis or traumatic cell death, apoptosis is a well-controlled and vital process characterized mainly by cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. Our understanding of apoptosis is partly based on observations in invertebrates but mainly in mammals. Despite the great advantages of fish models in studying vertebrate development and diseases and the tremendous interest observed in recent years, reports on apoptosis in fish are still limited. Although apoptotic machinery is well conserved between aquatic and terrestrial organisms throughout the history of evolution, some differences exist in key components of apoptotic pathways. Core parts of apoptotic machinery in fish are virtually expressed as equivalent to the mammalian models. Some differences are, however, evident, such as the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis including lack of a C-terminal region in the Fas-associated protein with a death domain in fish. Aquatic species inhabit a complex and highly fluctuating environment, making these species good examples to reveal features of apoptosis that may not be easily investigated in mammals. Therefore, in order to gain a wider view on programmed cell death in fish, interactions between the main environmental factors, chemicals and apoptosis are discussed in this review. It is indicated that apoptosis can be induced in fish by exposure to environmental stressors during different stages of the fish life cycle.
Feb 15, 2011 ... schools of Punjab with respect of water, air, land, energy and waste. Under this program ... Punjab State Council for Science & Technology, Chandigarh-160019, India ...... materials like plastic bottles, plastic bags, cans, CDs ...
moderate the effect of facilities on recess physical activity. Conclusion The findings support the use of an ecological approach and multilevel analyses in the investigation of correlates of physical activity that allows for a broader understanding of the influence of and interaction between factors at multiple levels on physical activity behaviour. In the promotion of physical activity in lower secondary schools, the study suggests that programmes should include a focus on environmental facilitation and incorporate strategies to increase students' interests for school physical activity.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively
Full Text Available Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy.
This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.
The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical
Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.
Murphy, F; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L
Previous studies have explored differences in psychosocial and familial factors between women who develop anorexia nervosa and those who do not. However, these studies have generally used between-group comparisons. This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not. A paired design was used to compare anorexic women with an unaffected sister on a number of background variables, including sibling interaction, parental care, peer group characteristics and other events unique to the individual. The Sibling Inventory of Differential Experience (SIDE) was used to determine non-shared environment. Out of an initial sample of 148 women with past or current anorexia nervosa, 28 were identified who had sisters with no reported history of eating disorders and who also consented to complete the questionnaire. Anorexic sisters perceived more maternal control and reported more antagonism towards and jealousy of their sisters than did unaffected sisters. In addition, anorexic women reported having had fewer friends and boyfriends than their sisters. These results confirm the perceived differences in background environment between women with and women without anorexia nervosa. These issues are discussed in relation to behavioural genetics, family dynamics and psychosexual development.
Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers
Thomas, Melinda; Rowe, Fiona; Harris, Neil
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that characterise effective school-community partnerships that support the sustainability of school health initiatives applied within a health-promoting schools approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study used an explanatory case study approach of five secondary schools…
Parker, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Debnam, Katrina J; Milam, Adam J; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical disorder around schools and TDV victimization among adolescents. Data come from high school students participating in the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Initiative. Alcohol outlet density was calculated using walking distance buffers around schools. An observational tool was used to assess indicators of physical disorder on school property (eg, alcohol and drug paraphernalia). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to identify student- and school-level predictors associated with TDV victimization. Overall, 11% of students reported experiencing physical TDV and 11% reported experiencing psychological TDV over the past year. Recent alcohol use was a risk factor for TDV victimization for both sexes, whereas feeling safe at school was protective against TDV victimization for both sexes. Greater alcohol outlet density was associated with decreased TDV victimization for males, however, it was nonsignificant for females. Physical disorder around schools was not associated with TDV victimization for either sex. Although the school-level predictors were not associated with TDV victimization, alcohol use and perceptions of safety at school were significantly associated with TDV victimization. Prevention efforts to address alcohol use may affect TDV victimization. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.
Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.
The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.
Bowen, Natasha K; Lee, Jung-Sook; Weller, Bridget E
Social environmental assessments can play a critical role in prevention planning in schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of conducting social environmental assessments, demonstrate that complex social environmental data can be simplified into a useful and valid typology, and illustrate how the typology can guide prevention planning in schools. Data collected from 532 3(rd) through 5(th) graders using the Elementary School Success Profile were analyzed in the study. A latent profile analysis based on eight child-report social environmental dimensions identified five patterns of social environmental risk and protection. The classes were labeled High Protection, Moderate Protection, Moderate Protection/Peer Risk, Little Protection/Family Risk, and No Protection//School Risk. Class membership was significantly associated with measures of well-being, social behavior and academic performance. The article illustrates how the typology can be used to guide decisions about who to target in school-based preventions, which features of the social environment to target, and how much change to seek. Information is provided about online resources for selecting prevention strategies once these decisions are made.
de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I
The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational achievement was compared between twins and their nontwin siblings in a within-family design. Data were obtained from parents and teachers of approximately 10,000 twins and their nontwin siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Teachers rated the proficiency of the children on arithmetic, language, reading, and physical education, and reported a national educational achievement test score (CITO). Structural equation modeling showed that gestational age, birth weight, and sex were significant predictors of educational achievement, even after correction for socioeconomic status. Mode of delivery and zygosity did not have an effect, while parental age only influenced arithmetic. Mode of conception, incubator time, and birth complications negatively affected achievement in physical education. The comparison of educational achievement of twins and singletons showed significantly lower ratings on arithmetic, reading, and language in twins, compared to their older siblings, but not compared to their younger siblings. Low gestational age and low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school. It seems that the differences observed between twins and their nontwin siblings in educational achievement can largely be explained by birth order within the family.
Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad
Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).
Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D
To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO 2 e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.
Carlini, Claudia; Andreoni, Solange; Sanchez, Zila M
The purpose of this study was to identify environmental factors associated with patterns of psychotropic drug use in nightclubs. Mixed methods were used to investigate psychotropic drugs consumption among patrons of 31 nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1822 patrons at the entrance and exit of the venues and 30 staff members of the nightclubs were interviewed. The observational data were collected through 307 h of observational research using a structured guide to register environmental measures. Psychotropic drug use in nightclubs was classified into three categories (1: no drugs; 2: legal drugs [e.g., alcohol and tobacco]; or 3: illicit drugs regardless of alcohol and tobacco use). Illicit drugs used were self-reported by patrons, and alcohol use was measured using a breathalyzer. The data were analyzed in clusters using correlated multinomial logistic regression models. The following environmental variables were associated with illicit drug use in nightclubs: all-you-can-drink service (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 11.84, 95%CI [4.06;34.57]) and light effects, such as laser and "disco lights" (aOR = 24.49, 95%CI [8.48;70.77]). The number of bouncers per capita × 100 and the presence of two or more dance floors were inversely associated with the use of illicit drugs (aOR = 0.26, 95%CI [0.11;0.65], and aOR = 0.13, 95%CI [0.06;0.29], respectively). Legal drug use was associated with all-you-can-drink service (aOR = 2.17, 95%CI [1.43;5.04]), the presence of two or more dance floors (aOR = 2.06, 95%CI [1.40;3.05]), and the number of bouncers per capita × 100 (aOR = 1.39, 95%CI [1.22;1.59]). These findings suggest that this is a multivariate phenomenon that would require an integrated approach involving the venue owners, staff members, patrons, local governments, and law enforcement agencies.
In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…
Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.
Full Text Available Placental Growth Factor (PGF is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871 and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812. A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614 were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.
Trapp Georgina SA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Active school transport (AST has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197 attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls, school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96 and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99. Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05, parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82; and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17. Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.
Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin
To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Vahid Yazdi Feyzabadi
Full Text Available Background Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Amongother aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS program that was launched in 2011, has an important aimof promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affectingunhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using aproportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ wasused to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors wereobtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was usedto analyze the data. Results Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27, being a male (PRR = 1.20;95% CI: 1.05-1.38 and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99 were associated with higher weeklyunhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00 negatively influenced the frequency ofunhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (P< .06. In case of environmental factors, high socio-economicstatus (SES level (PRR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26-1.67, single-parent family (PRR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30, more socialnorms pressure (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17, pocket money allowance (PRR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34, easyaccessibility (PRR = 1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11, and less perceived parental control (PRR= 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99 all hada role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthysnacking (PRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92. Conclusion Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmentalinfluences, namely by
Meuth, Amber M.
With the global crises facing the planet that bring major implications, (Hart & Nolan, 1999; Hungerford & Simmons, 2003) it is imperative that there be an environmentally literate citizenry who can identify, solve, and prevent environmental issues. Since middle school students are evolving into participating citizens and are developing the ability to think in abstract terms, they are a critical group to study regarding levels of environmental literacy. Additionally, with the increased resource needs and decreased air and water quality in highly populated urban areas, focusing on the environmental literacy of students living and attending school in urban areas is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of environmental literacy of a group of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who attend a charter school in Houston, Texas were given, the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey (MSELS). This survey has been developed to measure components of environmental literacy as related to domains identified critical to environmental literacy (McBeth et al., 2008). The four domains include ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior. Data collected from the survey was used to determine levels of environmental literacy in the following variables: ecological knowledge, verbal commitment, actual commitment, environmental sensitivity, general environmental feelings, and environmental issue and action skills. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed for each grade level and as an entire sample for each variable in order to generate a profile of the group. Composite scores were calculated in the four domains (ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior) and were compared to high, moderate, and low levels of environmental literacy set forth by top environmental education researchers (McBeth et al., 2008). Additionally, two
Gwinn, Diane G.
Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…
Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang
The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…
Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael
The current study explores some of the factors associated with children's mental health difficulties in primary school. Multilevel modeling with data from 628 children from 36 schools was used to determine how much variation in mental health difficulties exists between and within schools, and to identify characteristics at the school and…
Parker, Elizabeth M.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Debnam, Katrina J.; Milam, Adam J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Background: Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical…
Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.
Mazurenko, Olena; Menachemi, Nir
Previous research has found that physician career satisfaction is declining, but no study has examined the relationship between market factors and physician career satisfaction. Using a theoretical framework, we examined how various aspects of the market environment (e.g., munificence, dynamism, complexity) are related to overall career satisfaction. Nationally representative data from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey were combined with environmental market variables from the 2008 Area Resource File. After controlling for physician and practice characteristics, at least one variable each representing munificence, dynamism, and complexity was associated with satisfaction. An increase in the market number of primary care physicians per capita was positively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.9) whereas an increase in the number of specialists per capita was negatively associated with physician satisfaction (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.97). Moreover, an increase in poverty rates was negatively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.01). Lastly, physicians practicing in states with a malpractice crisis (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.96) and/or those who perceived high competition in their markets (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.95) had lower odds of being satisfied. A better understanding of an organization's environment could assist healthcare managers in shaping their policies and strategies to increase physician satisfaction.
Elisa Junqueira Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical mastitis (CM, in high production Holstein cows, as well as the environmental factors that favoring its incidence. The average milk production of 305 days, according to the class of mastitis was estimated by the method of least squares. The frequencies of clinical mastitis (CM events were analyzed according to the calving sequences (1-6, year of calving, season and stage of lactation, and infected quarter (right anterior, left anterior, right posterior, left posterior. The frequency of CM ranged from 11.39% in the first calving to 21.18% in the third. 58.56% of mastitis cases occurred in the wet season, and 41.44% occurred in the dry season. The final lactation stage (200 to 300 days was the period with the highest occurrence of CM (45.33%. The quarter posterior had a higher frequency CM (54.25%. Animals with higher levels of milk production of 305 days showed highest occurrence of CM. We must find a balance between milk production and mastitis in order to increase profitability. The study of the periods of greatest frequency clinical mastitis events is essential for dairy farming, to direct a program to control this disease.
Environmental restoration (ER) and facility decontamination/decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations can be grouped into two general categories. ''Nonstationary cleanup'' or simply ''cleanup'' activities are where the operation must relocate to the site of new contaminated material at the completion of each task (i.e., the operation moves to the contaminated material). ''Stationary production'' or simply ''production'' activities are where the contaminated material is moved to a centralized location (i.e., the contaminated material is moved to the operation) for analysis, sorting, treatment, storage, and disposal. This paper addresses the issue of nonstationary cleanup design. The following are the specific assigned action items: Collect and compile a list of special safety-related ER/D ampersand D design factors, especially ones that don't follow DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. Develop proposal of what makes sense to recommend to designers; especially consider recommendations for short-term projects. Present proposal at the January meeting. To achieve the action items, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) design requirements, and cleanup operations and differences from production activities are reviewed and summarized; basic safety requirements influencing design are summarized; and finally, approaches, considerations, and methods for safe, cost-effective design of cleanup activities are discussed
Elif Özlem Arslan-Aydoğdu
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nine Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from cooling towers and a standard strain (L. pneumophila serogroup 1, ATCC 33152, Philadelphia 1 were analyzed and compared in terms of motility, flagella structure, ability to form biofilms, enzymatic activities (hemolysin, nucleases, protease, phospholipase A, phospholipase C, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase, hemagglutination capabilities, and pathogenicity in various host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234, mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral monocytes. All the isolates of bacteria appeared to be motile and polar-flagellated and possessed the type-IV fimbria. Upon the evaluation of virulence factors, isolate 4 was found to be the most pathogenic strain, while 6 out of the 9 isolates (the isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 were more virulent than the ATCC 33152 strain. The different bacterial strains exhibited differences in properties such as adhesion, penetration and reproduction in the hosts, and preferred host type. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the virulence of environmental L. pneumophila strains isolated in Turkey, and it provides important information relevant for understanding the epidemiology of L. pneumophila.
Conclusion: Environmental pollution exert detrimental effects on the heart. The researchers and physicians must consider the environmental pollution as an emerging factor in the development of coronary artery disease.
Miczajka, Victoria L.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Pufal, Gesine
Research benefits increasingly from valuable contributions by citizen scientists. Mostly, participating adults investigate specific species, ecosystems or phenology to address conservation issues, but ecosystem functions supporting ecosystem health are rarely addressed and other demographic groups rarely involved. As part of a project investigating seed predation and dispersal as ecosystem functions along an urban-rural gradient, we tested whether elementary school children can contribute to ...
Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh
Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.
Full Text Available Obesity has become a significant public health problem of the twenty first century. An increasing number of preschool children are becoming overweight. Although many risk factors have been identified for school-age children, less is known about this young age group. This study was aimed to determine factors associated with overweight among preschool children. Study design was a cross sectional survey. Sample in this study was 90 children aged 3–6 years old in Bina Putik Kindergarten School in Cempaka Putih District (total sampling. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample were 24.4% and 13.3% respectively. There were significant relationships between overweight and some variables using chi-square test such as: age of the children, having overweight parents, nutritional knowledge of the mother, duration of breast feeding, frequency of fast food consumption (p5 years old. It could be concluded that mother’s knowledge on nutrition played an important role in preventing overweight children. Suggested recommendation in order to prevent overweight since childhood was by increasing mother’s knowledge through optimizing relevant programs in the Puskesmas.
Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick
Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.
In this article, I draw on interviews with graduates from an Outdoor and Environmental Education course to explore the ways in which their environmental ethics changed since leaving university. I do this in relation to the graduates' personal and professional experiences, particularly in the context of teaching Outdoor Education and Physical…
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...
Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF
Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.
Kamnev, Alexander A.
Modern spectroscopic techniques are highly useful in studying diverse processes in microbial cells related to or incited by environmental factors. Spectroscopic data for whole cells, supramolecular structures or isolated cellular constituents can reflect structural and/or compositional changes occurring in the course of cellular metabolic responses to the effects of pollutants, environmental conditions (stress factors); nutrients, signalling molecules (communication factors), etc. This inform...
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A; Thornberg, Robert
This study examines sociodemographic characteristics and social-environmental factors associated with bullying during the elementary to middle school transition from a sample of 5th-grade students (n = 300) in 3 elementary schools at Time 1. Of these, 237 participated at Time 2 as 6th-grade students. Using cluster analyses, we found groups of students who reported no increase in bullying, some decrease in bullying, and some increase in bullying. Students who reported increases in bullying also reported decreases in school belongingness and teacher affiliation and increases in teacher dissatisfaction. Students who reported decreases in bullying also reported decreases in victimization. These findings suggest that changes across the transition in students' relations to school and their teachers are predictive of changes in bullying.
Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash
Background: Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (Ppocket money allowance (PRR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), easy accessibility (PRR=1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11), and less perceived parental control (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) all had a role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Conclusion: Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors relating to poor parenting practices, high SES level, family characteristics, improper social norms pressure, and less knowledge and self-efficacy of students. This evidence can be used to inform a more evidencebased IHPS
Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash
Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (Ppocket money allowance (PRR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), easy accessibility (PRR=1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11), and less perceived parental control (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) all had a role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors relating to poor parenting practices, high SES level, family characteristics, improper social norms pressure, and less knowledge and self-efficacy of students. This evidence can be used to inform a more evidencebased IHPS program through focusing on supportive
Forero M, German; Mahecha G, Ana Maria
With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved
2012 iv RFTA Reserve Forces Training Area SAPS Satellite Accumulation Points SF Square feet SIP State Implementation Plan SO2 Sulfur dioxide...Restoration Program (IRP), now called the Environmental Restoration Program ( ERP ). Subsequent discoveries increased the number of sites to 22. Each...EPA under CERCLA or by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. No sites listed in the ERP for Hanscom AFB are located on or near the existing Middle
Guillory, Linus Joseph, Jr.
This study assesses the environmental proficiency of Texas life science educators certified from 2003 to 2011 by analyzing their TExES 138 8-12 exam results in domains V and VI. The sample consisted of all the individuals that took and passed the TExES 138 life science 8-12 exam. During this period, approximately 41% of the individuals who took…
Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.
Lili Ma; Chaoxing He; Zhixin Wang
To guide the greenhouse precision irrigation, influenced by the environmental factors, based on the definite plant, the greenhouse water evaporation characteristics are studied. The qualitative and the quantitative relationships between the environmental factors and the greenhouse water evaporation are probed into which will provide the theoretical basis for the water management of the facilities horticulture. Establishing the quantitative relations between the environmental factors and the w...
Shaw, R P
This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on
Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire
In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…
Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.
The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…
Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.
This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…
Gabriel Moreira Campos
Full Text Available This article aims to explain the relationship of the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of companies operating in Brazil, in its economic, social and environmental, and test the strength of this relationship. Accordingly, we performed an extensive literature review in works for national and international basis, the procedures adopted in order to answer the research question posed. Among the aspects that form the sustainable development and sustainability issues, there is the demand by developing metrics that allow accurate measurement of the degree of sustainable development and sustainability of the planet, nations and other organizations, such as companies. Were cited works that address issues related to the companies’ continuous state, studies that dealt with corporate sustainability and empirical research on key factors of sustainability of the sample companies. Also, quantified the strength of the relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of a sample of 49 companies operating in Brazil, by employing the technique of Canonical Correlation for the period 2006 to 2010. The results confirmed the existence of a relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of businesses as well as the intensity of this relationship.
Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette
OBJECTIVE: To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were es...
Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M.; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda
Background Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Methods Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls? only boarding school; and, boys? onl...
Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia
As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.
Woo, G W; Soon, R; Thomas, J M; Kaneshiro, B
To describe the current status of school based sex education and to determine predictors of providing a comprehensive sex education curriculum. Cross-sectional mailed survey Hawaii Seventh and eighth grade health teachers Participants were surveyed regarding the content, quality, and influences on sex education for the 2007 to 2008 academic year. Measures of association (chi-square, ANOVA) and multiple logistic regression were used to determine predictors for teaching comprehensive sex education topics including sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention. Approximately 80% of teachers incorporated some form of sex education into their curriculum and 54.4% of teachers incorporated a comprehensive education. Teachers indicated that personal values and the availability of curriculum had the greatest influence on the content of the curriculum. Specific factors which were associated with an increased likelihood of providing a comprehensive curriculum included teaching in a public school (public 66.7% versus private 34.6%, P = 0.01), receiving formal training in sex education (received training 77.8% versus did not receive training 50.0%, P = 0.03) and having contact with a student who became pregnant (contact 72.7% versus no contact 46.7%, P = 0.04). Although most teachers incorporate some form of sex education, only half incorporate a comprehensive curriculum. Personal values as well as teacher resources play an important role in the content of the curriculum. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crocker, Robert K.; Banfield, Helen
This article describes a study designed to explore sources of influence on the judgments made by science teachers on school characteristics, classroom features, and properties of a science curriculum. The study had its theoretical basis in the concept that members of a social organization operate under certain functional paradigms, which govern their approach to events within the organization, and particularly to the implementation of innovations. Empirically, the study formed part of the Canadian contribution to the Second International Science Study, and was based on a survey of some 2000 Canadian teachers. The survey used an adaptation of policy capturing methodology, in which teachers were presented with variations in a hypothetical scenario designed to simulate a decision-making situation. Results suggest that teachers' judgments center around a number of factors, the primary ones being concern for student ability and interest, teaching methods, and school spirit and morale. On the other hand, variations in the scientific basis of a curriculum appear to exert little influence. The results are interpreted as indicators of the major elements of teacher functional paradigms.
Ji, Eun Sun; Jang, Mi Heui
This study was done to explore the relationship between aggression and internet over-use, depression-anxiety, self-esteem, all of which are known to be behavior and psychological characteristics linked to "at-risk" children for aggression. Korean-Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL), Korean-Internet Addiction Self-Test Scale, and Self-Esteem Scale by Rosenberg (1965) were used as measurement tools with a sample of 743, 5th-6th grade students from 3 elementary schools in Jecheon city. Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS/Win 13.0 version were used to analyze the collected data. Aggression for the elementary school students was positively correlated with internet over-use and depression-anxiety, whereas self-esteem was negatively correlated with aggression. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that 68.4% of the variance for aggression was significantly accounted for by internet over-use, depression-anxiety, and self-esteem. The most significant factor influencing aggression was depression-anxiety. These results suggest that earlier screening and intervention programs for depression-anxiety and internet over-use for elementary student will be helpful in preventing aggression.
Valentim, Emanuele de Araujo; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega de; Taconeli, César Augusto; Osório, Mônica Maria; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of adherence to school meals and associated factors among adolescent schoolchildren (N = 1,569). The adolescents completed an on-line questionnaire on adherence to school meals, and their parents answered another questionnaire on socioeconomic data. The chi-square test was used to assess the association between adherence to school meals and gender, nutritional status, per capita family income, maternal schooling, adolescents' opinions on the dining hall layout, whether they considered school meals healthy, and consumption of other foods. Variables with statistical significance for adherence to school meals were included in the multilevel proportional odds logistic regression model. The covariates for comprising the final model were defined by backward selection methods. The results of the adjusted model were presented as odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Prevalence of adherence to school meals was low, especially effective adherence (19.8%). Adherence was associated with per capita family income less than one minimum wage, lower consumption of foods outside of school meals, the fact that adolescents considered the dining hall space adequate, and believing that school meals are healthy. Adherence to school meals in this study falls short of universal coverage for the program. Different factors contribute to incomplete program implementation, which may hinder achieving the food and nutritional security policy under the Brazilian National School Feeding Program (PNAE).
Gibson, Jakeisha Jamice
This mixed-methods case study examined two out-of-school (OST) Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) programs at a science-oriented high school on students' Self-Efficacy. Because STEM is a key for future innovation and economic growth, Americans have been developing a variety of approaches to increase student interest in science within the school curriculum and in OST programs. Nationwide, many OST programs are offered for students but few have engaged in an in-depth assessment. This study included an assessment of two different types of OST programs and direct observations by the researcher. This study involved two advisors (one male, one female), 111 students, and their parents during 2016. Student participants completed two standardized surveys, one to determine their Science Self-Efficacy and another to assess their engagement in science during their OST programs. Parents described their parental involvement and their child's interest in the OST program(s). The OST program advisors participated in lengthy interviews. Additionally, the advisors rated their perceived interest level of the enrolled students and recorded attendance data. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1997a) provided the theoretical framework. This theory describes the multidirectional influence of behavioral factors, personal factors, and environmental factors have on a student's Self-Efficacy. Compiled data from the teachers, students, and parents were used to determine the relationship of selected variables on Science Self-Efficacy of students. A correlational analysis revealed that students who participated in these OST programs possessed a high Mindset for the Enjoyment of science and that teacher ratings were also positively correlated to Mindset and Enjoyment of Science. Descriptive analyses showed that (a) girls who chose to participate in these OST programs possessed higher school grades in their in-school coursework than boys, (b) that parents of girls participated in more
In this case study of an environmental education (EE) program run in public schools of Rio de Janeiro, I use a constructivist spatial analytic to interrogate notions of space, place, and territory in critical EE practices. I examine the connections between socioenvironmental relations, counter-hegemonic political activity, and education by delving…
Stanišic, Jelena; Maksic, Slavica
The protection of human health and the preservation of the environment are topics that form an integral part of the primary school curriculum in Serbia. However, research studies have shown that students do not have enough knowledge to contribute to the development of a healthy lifestyle and environmental awareness. The latest changes in school…
Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N
This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…
Icoz, Omer Faruk
Teachers' views about environmental education (EE) have been regarded as one of the most important concerns in education for sustainability. In secondary school chemistry curriculum, there are several subjects about EE embedded in the chemistry subjects in Turkey. This study explores three chemistry teachers' views about to what extent the…
Warner, Alan; Eames, Chris; Irving, Robyn
Environmental experiences often engage learners and create an intention to act, which is then not followed through once the learner is removed from the environment. This study utilized an exploratory, interpretive framework with younger primary school classes to investigate if transfer of learning from field trip experiences "in" and…
This study investigated primary school teachers' perceptions of the barriers and challenges preventing them from integrating ICTs in the environmental science classroom. The study adopted a qualitative research approach that is in line with the phenomenological perspective as it sought to acquire knowledge through understanding the direct…
Tesfai, Mehreteab; Nagothu, Udaya Sekhar; Šimek, Josef; Fucíkc, Petr
A total of 967 students (males and females) from four secondary schools in Vysocina region of Czechia were interviewed via 24-question Likert-type questionnaire to assess student's environmental awareness and perceptions. The generalized linear models were used to test if (and to what extent) student perceptions related to environment are/or not…
Turtle, Christina; Convery, Ian; Convery, Katie
There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a "pro-environmental" attitude. The study identified that…
Full Text Available We present the results of an international research that intends to identify key factors associated with school and classroom socio-emotional achievement of Primary Education Students in Latin America countries. This Multilevel Study has been conducted with 4 analysis levels; we studied 5,603 students from 248 classrooms from 98 schools in 9 countries. We worked with 4 product socio-affective variables (self-concept, academic behaviour, social interaction and satisfaction with the school. The results showed a series of classroom and school factors that explain the socio-emotional development, consistent with those found in research on school effectiveness to cognitive factors.
Zanello, Susana B.
the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.
Full Text Available A endometriose representa uma afecção ginecológica comum, atingindo de 5%-15% das mulheres no período reprodutivo e até 3%-5% na fase pós-menopausa. Essa doença é definida pelo implante de estroma e/ou epitélio glandular endometrial em localização extrauterina, podendo comprometer diversos locais. Humanos e animais são expostos diariamente a poluentes químicos que têm a capacidade de influenciar negativamente processos fisiológicos e, potencialmente, causar doenças, dentre elas a endometriose. Com esta revisão tivemos por objetivo relacionar a influência dos fatores ambientais e dietéticos na gênese da endometriose. O mecanismo pelo qual a dioxina e seus símiles (TCDD/PCBs atuam na alteração da fisiologia endometrial permanence incerta e é especulativa devido à dificuldade em se avaliar a exposição na vida intraútero, infância e vida adulta e suas reais consequências, além das limitações de sua reprodução in vitro. Devemos entender melhor o mecanismo de ação desses poluentes amibentais não só na saúde reprodutiva, mas na saúde em geral do indivíduo, para se promover estratégias de prevenção que devem incluir não só a educação populacional, mas o estabelecimento de limites de exposição, técnicas menos poluentes e melhor aproveitamento dos nossos recursos naturais.Endometriosis represents a common gynecological condition affecting 5%-15% of childbearing age women and up to 3% 5% of post-menopausal women. This disease is defined by the presence of stromal and/or endometrial glandular epithelium implants in extra-uterine locations possibly compromising several sites. Humans and animals are daily exposed to chemical pollutants that could adversely influence physiological processes and potentially cause diseases, including endometriosis. In this review, the authors aimed at settling the influence of environmental and dietary factors on endometriosis pathogenesis. The mechanism by which dioxin and its
Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate
To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age. Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week. Edmonton region, Canada. Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007. Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice. Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.
Liliana Haydé Gutiérrez Sabogal
Full Text Available This article exposes the background and conclusions of an Environmental Education purpose —EE— supported by theoretical models able to frame processes of teaching and learning applied to EE in the high school. All of this come from strict revision and analysis of complemented educational didactics, through the professional teaching experience. To reveal this conceptual framework, the activities are posed and developed within the Environmental School Project —ESP— of the District Education Institute —DEI— Ignacio Pescador as a mode to put into practice the analyzed theory. Thus, the results obtained validate the referential framework proposed to produce knowledge about the instructive theory — which is aimed to professional teachers who will be added to the teaching process of EE into the high school institutes— and the process of knowledge creation in the student body.
Dobrowolski, Jan W
Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of
A. V. Kozachek
The aim is to consider the features of impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity in the future.Methods. We suggest an approach, according to which nanotechnologies are viewed as key technologies of the sixth technological order. It is assumed that nanotechnology may be a potential source of environmental problems of the future, and the basis for the creation of new advanced types of environmental engineering and technology. Since all of the above is important both within the actual environment...
Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan
It is generally agreed that environmental factors trigger the onset and cause flares of inflammatory bowel disease. Although we have learned much about genetic susceptibility factors of inflammatory bowel disease in recent years, our knowledge on these environmental factors is limited. The sum of all environmental factors a human is exposed to during lifetime has been termed the exposome. The challenge of investigating the exposome is discussed in this overview. The environmental exposure of a subject causes changes in the intestinal microbiota and subsequently changes the epigenetic imprinting of the mucosa and the associated immune system. Some relevant environmental factors have been investigated in recent years in inflammatory bowel disease and other (auto)inflammatory disease. These factors can be categorized in air pollution, diet, drugs, stress, infections, water pollution, food additives, and lifestyle. Examples from those categories and their potential pathophysiological mechanism are discussed.
Jain, S.; Baker, T.; Crofton-Macdonald, J.; Scott, M.
Teaching environmental topics, such as sustainability and ecosystem management, to students through the lens of computational thinking provides unique educational opportunities. Environmental topics are an excellent source for multidisciplinary learning, as questions concerning human well-being, environmental policy, science, and mathematics can naturally be incorporated into educational discussions and activities. The use of computational modeling allows students to critically reason about and explore environmental concepts by envisioning complexity, and asking and investigating a series of "what if" questions. Students can furthermore reflect on their own relationship with their local ecology. For the past five years, we have tested and developed activities for middle school students. Through in-class activities, workshop, and summer clubs, we have explored these ideas. We plan to present examples from our work and a tentative framework for a new approach to environmental education, one reinforced by computational thinking and creative learning.
El Hioui, M; Ahami, A O T; Aboussaleh, Y; Rusinek, S; Dik, K; Soualem, A; Azzaoui, F-Z; Loutfi, H; Elqaj, M
To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was determined by ferritin level in serum, and anaemia was defined when haemoglobin educational status of the parents. The mean haemoglobin concentration was 12.4 g/dl in boys and 12.5 g/dl in girls, whereas the mean ferritin level was 26.7 microg/l in boys and 27.9 microg/l in girls. The overall prevalence of anaemia in the studied population was 12.2% and iron deficiency was 20.4%. There was a significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p= 0.01). Serum ferritin (SF), serum iron concentrations and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly correlated with haemoglobin by multiple regression analysis. However, using logistic regression analysis, the results showed that anaemia was not significantly associated with gender, parents' employment and monthly family income. Anaemia remains a common problem in the young children particularly the primary education school boys of the households of low income. The results suggest also, that iron deficiency is an important determinant of anaemia in this population; however, whole anaemia cannot be solely explained by iron deficiency. Further studies are needed to consider micronutrients status and exposure to environmental pollutants.
Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J.
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions: These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended. PMID:28082934
Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions : These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended.
Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H
The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.
Sulku, Seher Nur; Abdioglu, Zehra
This study investigates the factors influencing the success of students in primary schools in Turkey. TIMSS 2011 data for Turkey, measuring the success of eighth-grade students in the field of mathematics, were used in an econometric analysis, performed using classical linear regression models. Two hundred thirty-nine schools participated in the…
Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.
Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on
Aguirre-Gamboa, Raul; Joosten, Irma; Urbano, Paulo C. M.; van der Molen, Renate G.; van Rijssen, Esther; van Cranenbroek, Bram; Oosting, Marije; Smeekens, Sanne; Jaeger, Martin; Zorro, Maria; Withoff, Sebo; van Herwaarden, Antonius E.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Netea, Romana T.; Swertz, Morris A.; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Netea, Mihai G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kumar, Vinod; Li, Yang; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.
Effective immunity requires a complex network of cellular and humoral components that interact with each other and are influenced by different environmental and host factors. We used a systems biology approach to comprehensively assess the impact of environmental and genetic factors on immune cell
Juliana Farias de Novaes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores ambientais intra-uterinos, perinatais e familiares associados ao sobrepeso infantil, ainda controversos na literatura. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 627 crianças, de 6 a 10 anos, matriculadas em escolas urbanas públicas e privadas do município de Viçosa (MG. O estado nutricional das crianças foi classificado pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo a preconização do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foram aferidas as medidas de peso, estatura, pregas cutâneas tricipital e subescapular, circunferências da cintura e do quadril e pressão arterial das crianças, sendo os fatores ambientais obtidos por meio de questionário, segundo informações maternas. Classificou-se o estado nutricional das mães segundo a recomendação do World Health Organization. RESULTADOS: Do total de crianças, 87,9% eram eutróficas e 12,1% apresentavam sobrepeso. De acordo com a análise de regressão logística múltipla, os fatores associados ao sobrepeso infantil foram apresentar mãe obesa (OR: 6,92; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess intrauterine, perinatal and family factors associated with childhood overweight, which are still controversial in the literature. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a total of 627 children aged 6 to 10 years, who were enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. The nutritional status of the children was classified according to their body mass index, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The following data were collected: weight, height, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, circumferences of the waist and hip, and blood pressure. The environmental factors were determined by means of a questionnaire, answered by the mother. The nutritional status of the mothers was classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Out of 627 children, 551 were
The main task of the immune system is to protect the body against invading pathogens. To be able to do so, immune cells must be able to recognize and combat exogenous challenges and at the same time tolerate body-borne structures. A complex regulatory network controls the sensitive balance between defense and tolerance. Perturbation of this network ultimately leads to the development of chronic inflammation, such as allergies, autoimmune reactions, and infections, because the immune system is no longer able to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens. Environmental pollutants can cause such perturbations by affecting the function of immune cells in such a way that they would react hypersensitively against allergens and the body's own structures, respectively, or that they would be no longer able to adequately combat pathogens. This indirect effect is also known as adjuvant effect. For pesticides, heavy metals, wood preservatives, or volatile organic compounds such adjuvant effects are well known. Examples of the mechanism by which environmental toxins contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases are manifold and will be discussed along asthma and allergies.While the immune system of healthy adults is typically well able to distinguish between foreign and endogenous substances even under adverse environmental conditions, that of children would react much more sensible upon comparable environmental challenges. To prevent priming for diseases by environmental cues during that highly sensitive period of early childhood children are to be particularly protected.
Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Ferrante, Margherita
A wide body of evidence indicates that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with the development of pathological disorders. The pathogenic role of many environmental pollutants or occupational contaminants is already known and has been extensively investigated. However, the molecular mechanisms of action and the pathogenic effects of many substances remain unknown. Therefore, there is a need to better investigate the role of new environmental and occupational risk factors that may cause the development of several diseases.
Chan, Kara K. W.
Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…
Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A
Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.
White, Marie M.; Grimes, Lee Edmondson
Multiracial students represent a growing population in school systems today. This diverse group of students and their families may encounter many challenges and race-specific issues in the school setting. School counselors are in a unique position to assist these students and their families to become successful in meeting these challenges. The…
Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston
Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…
Mendola, Pauline; Selevan, Sherry G; Gutter, Suzanne; Rice, Deborah
A number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively unique in that different parts are responsible for different functional domains, and these develop at different times (e.g., motor control, sensory, intelligence and attention). In addition, the many cell types in the brain have different windows of vulnerability with varying sensitivities to environmental agents. This review focuses on two environmental agents, lead and methylmercury, to illustrate the neurobehavioral and cognitive effects that can result from early life exposures. Special attention is paid to distinguishing between the effects detected following episodes of poisoning and those detected following lower dose exposures. Perinatal and childhood exposure to high doses of lead results in encephalopathy and convulsions. Lower-dose lead exposures have been associated with impairment in intellectual function and attention. At high levels of prenatal exposure, methylmercury produces mental retardation, cerebral palsy and visual and auditory deficits in children of exposed mothers. At lower levels of methylmercury exposure, the effects in children have been more subtle. Other environmental neurotoxicants that have been shown to produce developmental neurotoxicity include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, pesticides, ionizing radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, and maternal use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine. Exposure to environmental agents with neurotoxic effects can result in a spectrum of adverse outcomes from severe mental retardation and disability to more subtle changes in function depending on the timing and dose of the chemical agent. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.
Rogers, M.; Kennedy, T.; Finnell, J.; Hoelscher, J.
This paper presents a continuum of approaches to considering environmental externalities in the utility resource selection process. While photovoltaic (PV) technologies can play a role in reducing emissions, they are generally not cost-competitive with conventional technologies, even when cost estimates for environmental damages are introduced. Several approaches are explored to determine whether PV becomes more competitive when emission reduction strategies are considered on a regional basis. Finally, preliminary analysis was performed with the Midas utility planning model to develop emission credits based on PV's ability to displace emissions on a net system basis
Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung
The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…
Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim
Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…
McHugh, S M
Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.
Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The…
Ekanem, Imaobong Columba
The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…
Nayr Del Valle Rivas Silva
Full Text Available This research was designed as a purpose to establish the school garden as a pedagogical strategy of sustainability in environmental education with the students of the National Basic School "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" of the Pedraza Municipality Barinas State; The nature of research is qualitative, the method is Research Action. For the purposes of the present study, three (03 teachers and three (03 students who belong to the institution will participate as informers and enjoy recognized responsibility and commitment at the "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" National Basic School. The technique used is the semistructured interview, And the instrument the interview guide. The analysis of the information will be done through the codification, categorization, triangulation and structuring of theories. After implementing the activities with the school garden, it is hoped to conclude that children contribute to the care of the environment and maintain in harmony the ecological balance that should reign in any space where human beings live and coexist. In this way the educational institution will present an environmental aspect in accordance with the ecological principles of environmental education immersed in the National Basic Curriculum.
Woods, John D.; Sewell, Edward H., Jr.
Environment may be regarded as a form of communication, with environmental linguistics becoming a new discipline that will have to be explored. Its goal is to demystify some of the constructs that contribute to the built environment as a communication tool. Treating the built environment as a language requires a recognition of its dynamic nature.…
M.Sc. (Environmental Management) This study explores the school-commuting phenomenon that occurs across the city of Johannesburg, with specific reference to inner city private schools. It was hypothesized that the school commute, much of which has its origins in spatial apartheid, is financially and socially unsustainable. As spatial apartheid continues to dominate the urban landscape in Johannesburg, it is posited that overall, the school commute hinders the City of Johannesburg’s progres...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST commonly emphasize the built environment (BE as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school, and trip-end (home or school. Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP], the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future
Full Text Available This study explores relationships between upper secondary school students’ understanding of prices and environmental impacts. The study uses responses from 110 students to problems in which they were asked to explain differences in prices and also to express and justify opinions on what should be the difference in prices. Very few students expressed an environmental dimension in their understanding of price. A few students suggested that environmental impact influenced price by raising demand for “Environmentally friendly products”. A few students suggested that ‘environmentally friendly products’ had higher prices because they were more costly to produce. We found no examples of students combining both lines of explanation. However, nearly half of the students believed that prices should reflect environmental effects, and this reasoning was divided between cases where the point was justified by a broad environmental motivation and cases where the point was justified in relation to incentives–to get consumers to act in a more environmentally friendly way.
Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.
The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (Mage = 12.48; 41.0% male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents’ susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23673971
Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato
Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...
La Salle, Tamika P.; Zabek, Faith; Meyers, Joel
School climate has increasingly been recognized as an essential component of school improvement owing to the established associations between a positive school climate and academic outcomes for students. Our study examines associations among a brief measure of school climate assessing elementary student perceptions and the College and Career Ready…
Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.
Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be translated to the office market. The PhD research presented in this thesis focussed on finding solutions effectively contributing to factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation. In order to ...
Klaus, Tim; Changchit, Chuleeporn
The widespread use of the Internet has opened new avenues for learning in higher education. Distance education through the Internet has had a large increase over the last decade. This study focuses on examining factors of the online course environment that affect student satisfaction. The results identify factors that affect students' satisfaction…
Graham, Rondell P; Craig, John R; Jin, Long; Oliveira, Andre M; Bergquist, John R; Truty, Mark J; Mounajjed, Taofic; Greipp, Patricia T; Torbenson, Michael S
Fibrolamellar carcinoma was first described in 1956. Subsequent large studies failed to identify cases before 1939 (the start of the World War II). This finding, combined with the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptors on the tumor cells, have suggested that fibrolamellar carcinomas may be caused by environmental exposures that are new since World War II. To investigate this possibility, the surgical pathology files before 1939 were reviewed for hepatocellular carcinomas resected in young individuals. Two cases of fibrolamellar carcinoma were identified, from 1915 to 1924. The diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma was confirmed at the histologic, ultrastructural and proteomic levels. These two fibrolamellar carcinoma cases clarify a key aspect of fibrolamellar carcinoma biology, reducing the likelihood that these tumors result exclusively from post World War II environmental exposures.
Mihalik, Jason P; Sumrall, Adam Z; Yeargin, Susan W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; King, Kevin B; Trulock, Scott C; Shields, Edgar W
Recent anecdotal trends suggest a disproportionate number of head injuries in collegiate football players occur during preseason football camp. In warmer climates, this season also represents the highest risk for heat-related illness among collegiate football players. Because concussion and heat illnesses share many common symptoms, we need 1) to understand if environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status affect head impact biomechanics; and 2) to determine if an in-helmet thermistor could provide a valid measure of gastrointestinal temperature. A prospective cohort of 18 Division I college football players (age, 21.1 ± 1.4 yr; height, 187.7 ± 6.6 cm; mass, 114.5 ± 23.4 kg). Data were collected during one control and three experimental sessions. During each session, the Head Impact Telemetry System recorded head impact biomechanics (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and severity profile) and in-helmet temperature. A wet bulb globe device recorded environmental conditions, and CorTemp™ Ingestible Core Body Temperature Sensors recorded gastrointestinal temperature. Our findings suggest that linear acceleration (P = 0.57), rotational acceleration (P = 0.16), and Head Impact Technology severity profile (P = 0.33) are not influenced by environmental or physiological conditions. We did not find any single or combination of predictors for impact severity. Rotational acceleration was approaching significance between our early experimental sessions when compared with our control session. More research should be conducted to better understand if rotational accelerations are a component of impact magnitudes that are affected due to changes in environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status.
Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.
Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…
Hastie, P A
The purpose of this study was to gauge the extent to which students believed that the accountability strategies employed by their coaches had significant effects on their involvement in sports training sessions. Questionnaire data from 235 secondary school athletes were analyzed using linear structural relations to test a model of accountability hypothesized as operating in these coaching settings. The accountability strategy of active instruction was found to be a variable that significantly affected the students' valuing of their coaches as well as their task involvement. However, the rewards/consequences variable was not found to be a predictor of valuing or task involvement, suggesting that these athletes seemed more task oriented than reliant on external sanctions. The results of this study can only be generalized to team sport settings. Detailed examination needs to be made of the processes through which accountability factors operate for other contexts, including individual sports and competitive levels. Further research could also be undertaken into gender differences, especially in relation to the gender of coaches.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the associations of selected demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of children and adolescents. Methods MVPA was assessed among youth (n = 294 10-17-years-old using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Youth completed measures of demographic and individual variables related to physical activity (PA, perceived social support by parents and peers, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Parents completed the long-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Physical Activity and Media Inventory was used to measure the home environment and Geographical Information Systems software was used to measure the physical neighborhood environment. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted stratified by gender. Results Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls. In hierarchical analyses, peer support, home PA equipment, and temperature were significantly associated with MVPA among boys whereas distance to the school they attended was associated with MVPA among girls. The final models accounted for 25% and 15% of the variance in MVPA among boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Important differences exist among the individual, social, and environmental factors related to MVPA between boys and girls. Boys' levels of activity appear to be influenced by factors closely linked to unstructured and social types of activities whereas girls' activities relate to internal and external barriers as well as their proximity to their schools. The prospective contribution of these important individual, social, and environmental factors to changes in MVPA among children and adolescents remains to be determined.
Ackerman, Brian P; Brown, Eleanor D
relationship instability), which either have not been described by many researchers or have been described in a way that does not fit the ecology of disadvantage (e.g., marital status). We found that income poverty, key contextual co-factors, and endogenous child attributes tend to show independent and selective associations with child academic competence and externalizing behavior, and that co-factor effects tend to be direct rather than mediated by harsh parenting, tend to have effects that are episodic and concurrent, and are easily- and well-represented by multiple risk indexes that bear powerful relations to child problem behaviors. A second core goal has been to better understand the developmental construction of poor outcomes for disadvantaged children, which requires consideration of dynamic aspects of the ecology and the potential importance of the timing of risk experiences. We found that family instability and change in environmental circumstances predict increases in problem behaviors, and that dose of adversity seems to matter for some variables if it is recent, and not for other variables. Through person-centered research, we also are beginning to understand some factors that seem to underlie the convergence of adjustment problems over grade in school. Many of our co-factor findings and many of our developmental findings seem both complex and double-edged. One edge is that they encourage a certain pessimism in showing how environmental adversity progressively constructs poor outcomes for disadvantaged children in school. Overall, for instance, we saw more problems and more multi-dimensional problems in fifth grade than in first grade, and the impact of environmental change was mostly negative. The other edge, however, is more positive in reflecting the possibility of discontinuity in child adjustment problems associated with positive changes in family circumstances. Findings for minimal persistence and for the strength of recent and concurrent effects argue that
Full Text Available According to Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model, school is an essential microsystem of the developing child. Schools provide important developmental contexts for children and adolescents, as they constitute environments that might either foster or evoke students’ emotional instability. In particular, less is known about the precise and dynamic interplay of students’ socio-environmental aspects in school (i.e., sense of school belonging, social relationships with teachers and peers and emotional instability (i.e., depressive symptoms, perceived stress, feelings of loneliness during adolescence. To close this gap, this study examined within- and over-time cross-lagged associations based on data from a quantitative questionnaire-based survey of adolescent students (T1: N= 1088; Mage = 13.70, SD = 0.53 from 23 secondary schools in Brandenburg, Germany. Results of latent cross-lagged panel design supports the mutual relations for within-time associations, which is in line with Bronfenbrenner’s model. However, only the over-time association between school belonging and teacher-student relationship was found to be reciprocal.
Saultz, Andrew; Fitzpatrick, Dan; Jacobsen, Rebecca
School choice policies have led to a proliferation of new schools opening. While economic theory suggests that new charters would open in high demand locations, limited work examines whether this is, indeed, occurring. Framing our study in geography, we explore both space factors and place factors as contrasting explanations for where new charters…
Ra, Jin Suk; Cho, Yoon Hee
This study examined psychosocial factors influencing smoking intention in Korean male middle school students. We used a descriptive cross-sectional design, based on the biopsychosocial model, to analyze data from 309 male adolescents aged 14-16 years in middle school. Of the psychological factors examined, stress and risk-taking tendency were…
Alexander, Nicola A.; Choi, Wonseok
We provide an expanded environmental scan to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) faced by education communities. Grounded in the literature, we identified 48 indicators and grouped them into 6 broad categories: (1) budget levels, (2) funding patterns, (3) community needs, (4) external economic conditions, (5)…
Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing
The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0–20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. - Causation between the
Full Text Available This study aims to compare efficacy of self-learning, audiovisual, and fun activity instructional approaches among school students of Patna, the capital city of Bihar state of India, to develop environmental awareness. The study participants include 144 randomly selected students (72 girls and 72 boys from eight different schools of Patna. During a weeklong environmental awareness program, students were instructed using above three approaches of instruction. Data have been analyzed by using linear regression. Regression was carried out to eliminate the effect of general mental ability (GMA scores. The results suggest about overall superiority of fun activity approach over other approaches tested in the present study. However, awareness gain has been significant among the students with high GMA when instructed through audiovisual approach.
Barthold, Julia Spencer; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen
genetic risk, multiple susceptibility loci, and a role for the maternal environment. Epidemiologic studies have identified low birth weight or intrauterine growth retardation as factors most strongly associated with cryptorchidism, with additional evidence suggesting that maternal smoking and gestational...
Conclusions: Contact factors play an important role in facial dermatitis. Aggravation by sunlight exposure, ingestion of spicy food, or alcohol are more reported in facial dermatitis compared with nonfacial dermatitis.
Zaiton Samdin; Kasimu Abdu Bakori; Hamimah Hassan
This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and...
Full Text Available Unhappiness at school is one of the main reasons for truancy among adolescents. In order to assess this problem more thoroughly in the context of Japanese adolescents, the present study examined the associations between feelings of unhappiness at school and lifestyle habits, school life realities, and mental health status.This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We calculated the percentages of both junior and senior high school students who felt unhappy at school based on factors related to school life, lifestyle habits, and mental health status. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in order to examine the associations between those factors and students' feelings of unhappiness at school.A total of 98,867 valid responses were analysed, 7.9% (Boys: 8.4%, Girls: 7.4% of which came from students who responded that they felt unhappy at school. For both junior and senior high school students, the percentages of those who felt unhappy at school were significantly higher among those who had not yet decided on their future life course, who did not participate in extracurricular activities, did not eat breakfast every day, went to bed late, had used tobacco or alcohol in the previous 30 days, and had poor mental health compared with others. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the adjusted odds ratios for feeling unhappy at school with regard to the above-mentioned factors were significantly high for both junior and senior high school students.The present results suggest that school employees and administrators must provide health guidance to students, considering that irregular lifestyle habits, lower school engagement, smoking, drinking alcohol, and poor mental health status are all associated with maladaptation to school among adolescents.
Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Iwasa, Hajime; Ikeda, Maki; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Ohida, Takashi
Unhappiness at school is one of the main reasons for truancy among adolescents. In order to assess this problem more thoroughly in the context of Japanese adolescents, the present study examined the associations between feelings of unhappiness at school and lifestyle habits, school life realities, and mental health status. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We calculated the percentages of both junior and senior high school students who felt unhappy at school based on factors related to school life, lifestyle habits, and mental health status. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in order to examine the associations between those factors and students' feelings of unhappiness at school. A total of 98,867 valid responses were analysed, 7.9% (Boys: 8.4%, Girls: 7.4%) of which came from students who responded that they felt unhappy at school. For both junior and senior high school students, the percentages of those who felt unhappy at school were significantly higher among those who had not yet decided on their future life course, who did not participate in extracurricular activities, did not eat breakfast every day, went to bed late, had used tobacco or alcohol in the previous 30 days, and had poor mental health compared with others. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the adjusted odds ratios for feeling unhappy at school with regard to the above-mentioned factors were significantly high for both junior and senior high school students. The present results suggest that school employees and administrators must provide health guidance to students, considering that irregular lifestyle habits, lower school engagement, smoking, drinking alcohol, and poor mental health status are all associated with maladaptation to school among adolescents.
Huang, D N; Jin, Y T
Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social interaction and communication impairments, accompanied by repetitive behaviors. Little is known about the causes and contributing factors for autism. It is difficult to prevent and cure, and has become a globe public health problem. With the development in the prevalence of autism, the idea how the environmental factors cause the autism, gains all attentions. Summarizing latest epidemiological studies and experimental evidence, this review is focused on the effect of environmental factors, including air pollutant, heavy metal and pesticides, and discussed the relation between environmental risk factors and autism. The results showed that risks of autism in children may increase following in prenatal exposure to air pollutants, heavy metal and pesticides. It is needed to do the research on the mechanism of environmental risk factor and autism for more prevention, treatment and control suggestions.
Hicks, Brian M.; DiRago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Background Newer behavior genetic methods can better elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). However, no study to date has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risks with the purpose of delineating how general G-E mechanisms influence the development of INT disorders. Methods The sample consisted of 1315 male and female twin pairs participating in the age 17 assessment of the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Quantitative G-E interplay models were used to examine how genetic and environmental risk for INT disorders changes as a function of environmental context. Multiple measures and informants were employed to construct composite measures of INT disorders and 6 environmental risk factors including: stressful life events, mother-child and father-child relationship problems, antisocial and prosocial peer affiliation, and academic achievement and engagement. Results Significant moderation effects were detected between each environmental risk factor and INT such that in the context of greater environmental adversity, nonshared environmental factors became more important in the etiology of INT symptoms. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the interpretation that environmental stressors have a causative effect on the emergence of INT disorders. The consistency of our results suggests a general mechanism of environmental influence on INT disorders regardless of the specific form of environmental risk. PMID:19594836
WU Hao; CHEN Xiaoling; HE Ying; HE Xiaorong; CAI Xiaobin; XU Keyan
Indicator systems of environmental sustainable development in the Poyang Lake Basin are established from 51 elementary indexes by factor analysis, which is composed of four steps such as the factor model, the parameter estimation, the factor rotation and the factor score. Under the condition that the cumulative proportion is greater than 85%, 5 explicit factors of environmental sustainable development as well as its factor score by region are carried out. The result indicates some impact factors to the basin environmental in descending sort order are volume of water, volume of waste gas discharge, volume of solid wastes, the degree to comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes, the emission volume of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes. It is helpful and important to provide decision support for constituting sustainable development strategies and evaluate the sustainable development status of each city.
Zendarski, Nardia; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Hiscock, Harriet
Examine academic achievement of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the early high school period and identify potentially modifiable risk factors for low achievement. Data were collected through surveys (adolescent, parent, and teacher) and direct assessment of Australian adolescents (12-15 yr; n = 130) with ADHD in early high school (i.e., US middle and high school grades). Academic achievement outcomes were measured by linking to individual performance on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests, direct assessment of reading and math, and teacher report of academic competence. Linear regression models examined associations between adolescent, parent/family, and school factors and NAPLAN domain scores. Students with ADHD had lower NAPLAN scores on all domains and fewer met minimum academic standards in comparison with state benchmarks. The poorest results were for persuasive writing. Poor achievement was associated with lower intelligence quotient across all academic domains. Adolescent inattention, bullying, poor family management, male sex, and attending a low socioeconomic status school were associated with lower achievement on specific domains. Students with ADHD are at increased academic risk during the middle school and early high school period. In addition to academic support, interventions targeting modifiable factors including inattention, bullying, and poor family management may improve academic achievement across this critical period.
Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.
initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...
Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.
Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena
Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of
Rn-222(radon) air concentration depends on several factors. Some of the factors are source related and other factors are environmentally related. Because high levels of radon concentrations in air have potential health effects, it is important to study the impact of the various factors affecting radon air concentration. Laboratory scale investigations of the various factors affecting radon air concentration were carried out under controlled conditions that allow variation of the various variables
Elizabeth Bozoti Pasin
Full Text Available Despite current Brazilian educational legislation highlights Environmental Education (EE, schools usually address this issue in a fragmented manner, poorly consolidated. The initial and continuing training of teachers have much to do with this situation. Our aim was to reveal the meanings about Environmental Education, about teacher training for EE and about the actions in EE in schools in the discourses of teachers who acted on basic education institutions where Science and Biology pre-service teachers made internship. We applied semi-structured questionnaires and we adopted the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. As a result, we found little diversity of meanings in relation to EE, with a pronounced hegemony of those related to change habits to conserve resources, EE for conservation and EE restricted to biological aspects. Some participants also showed a hybridization between EE and teaching Ecology. In their discourses, actions and discussions related to the subject in schools are punctual and unsystematic, lacking interdisciplinary approaches, as occurred in the initial and continuing education of the majority. We propose the establishment of an organic relationship between schools and universities with more interactions, including collective reflections and research to foster the comprehension of elaboration and mobilization of meanings about EE and its influences on teacher actions.
Egana, John Joseph
This study of the Field Trip Specialist Program (FTS) described how a professional development plan fostered change in the traditional roles of third and fourth grade teachers. Teachers that volunteered were prepared to become interpretive guides for their class on environmental field trips, integrate their basic subject areas lessons into an environmental science context, and develop their self-perception as professional educators. This qualitative study made use of quantitative data and drew on information collected over four years from surveys, interviews, classroom observations, field trip and workshop observations, focus groups, journals and assessments performed in Florida. The FTS Program attracted teachers who thought it was important for all students to understand environmental issues, and these teachers believed in integrated instruction. These beliefs were inconsistent with many aspects of school culture. FTS invited the participation of these teachers and encouraged them to take control of the program by serving as instructors and program developers. Teachers described themselves as prepared to deliver the FTS Program with a high level of motivation and relevance. They also credited the program as beneficial in preparation for the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). Teachers reported that their responsibility as field trip leaders was the primary factor motivating them to provide conscientious presentation of pre- and post-field trip lessons and thorough integration of environmental topics in basic subject area instruction. Despite the impact of the field trip leadership factor, I could not find another program in the State of Florida that required teachers to lead their own field trips. Other influential factors specific to this program were: Voluntary participation, on-site field instruction, peer instructors and program developers, high quality and task specific materials, and pre- and post-assessments for students. Factors were identified
Goelzer, J.; Varner, R. K.; Levergood, R.; Sullivan, F.; Palace, M. W.; Haney, J. F.; Rock, B. N.; Smith, C. W.
The month long residential Marine and Environmental Science research program for high school students at the University of New Hampshire connects students with university researchers. This educational program provides upper level high school students who are considering majors in the earth and environmental sciences with the opportunity to perform field work and conduct authentic research. This year's program introduced students to four modules exploring topics ranging from forest ecology to island ecosystems. The unifying theme between modules was the use of spectroscopy and remote sensing as a method of assessing the characteristics of ecosystems. Students constructed their own photometers utilizing eight specific Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) spanning a wavelength range from 400 to 1200 nm. An Ultra Violet (UV) LED, four visible LEDs, and three different infrared LEDs were selected to detect light reflected by plant pigments and tissues. Students collected data using their photometers and compared results to an actual Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) reflectance data, mounted eight photometers on an unmanned aerial system (UAS) to collect forest canopy data and collected data from island rock pools. The students compared their photometer readings to data collected using a fluorometer to identify the presence of phycocyanin produced by cyanobacteria and chlorophyll produced by algae in the rock pools. Students found that the photometer data were comparable to the ASD data for several wavelengths, but recommended several changes. It was determined that to be useful for forest health assessment, two of the three infrared LEDs had the incorrect gain settings, and that for rock pool studies, the infrared LEDs were not necessary. Based on the student findings, we will refine the photometers for next year's program. The photometers constructed this summer will be utilized in high schools classes during the 2017-2018 school year. This low cost project will bring what is
Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.
de Guzman, Allan B.; de Castro, Belinda V.; Aquino, Kieshia Albert B.; Buenaventura, Melinda Anne R.; Duque, Anna Celina C.; Enriquez, Mark Lawrence D. R.
This quantitative study aims to ascertain the significant relationship existing between parents' profile, and their school choice and school loyalty. Data were gathered using the researcher's two-part made instrument. Respondents were first asked to fill in a "robotfoto" for purpose of profiling their baseline characteristics and were…
Cimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet
This study aims to determine the variables that predict high school students' recycling behaviors. The study was designed as survey model. The study's sample consists of 203 students at a high school in Ankara. A recycling behavior scale developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The scale has 3 dimensions: recycling…
Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M
A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.
Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude
The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…
Introduction: Environmental exposures during early- life increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but it remains unclear how early life events can have such persistent later life consequences. DNA methylation is the addition of a methyl group to a DNA base and is part of a group of
Huang, Francis L; Cornell, Dewey G; Konold, Timothy; Meyer, Joseph P; Lacey, Anna; Nekvasil, Erin K; Heilbrun, Anna; Shukla, Kathan D
School climate is well recognized as an important influence on student behavior and adjustment to school, but there is a need for theory-guided measures that make use of teacher perspectives. Authoritative school climate theory hypothesizes that a positive school climate is characterized by high levels of disciplinary structure and student support. A teacher version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey (ASCS) was administered to a statewide sample of 9099 7th- and 8th-grade teachers from 366 schools. The study used exploratory and multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) that accounted for the nested data structure and allowed for the modeling of the factor structures at 2 levels. Multilevel confirmatory factor analyses conducted on both an exploratory (N = 4422) and a confirmatory sample (N = 4677) showed good support for the factor structures investigated. Factor correlations at 2 levels indicated that schools with greater levels of disciplinary structure and student support had higher student engagement, less teasing and bullying, and lower student aggression toward teachers. The teacher version of the ASCS can be used to assess 2 key domains of school climate and associated measures of student engagement and aggression toward peers and teachers. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S. Fami; Ali Asadi; H. M. Mohammadi
Environmental problems such as air and water pollution, urban garbage and climate changes in urban areas are the results of human behavior. Only change in human behavior can reduce these environmental problems. Thus studying attitude and behavior of people is a precondition to change this situation. So the main objective of this study was to find out individual and social factors affecting environmental behavior of urban citizens. To achieve this objective a conceptual framework derived out f...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify associations between suicidal ideation and indicators of psychosocial distress and social-environmental factors in Thai adolescents. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS 2008, we assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation and its associated factors among adolescents (N = 2,758. Overall the prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months was 8.8% (9.9% males and 7.7% females. Variables influenced the suicidal ideation in multivariable analysis were sadness (Odds Ratio = OR: 6.03; 95% Confidence Interval = CI (3.00–12.14, lack of parental attachment (OR = 2.26, CI = 1.09–4.67, current alcohol use (OR = 2.32, 1.21–4.44, and ever having had sexual intercourse (OR = 4.16, CI = 3.40–7.68. Psychosocial, health-risk behaviours and lack of protective factors appear to effect suicidal ideation in this youth population.
Kaplan, Deborah L.
Every year approximately 17,000 adolescents ages 15-19 become pregnant in New York City. Most of these pregnancies are unintended and only a small percent of adolescents use effective contraception, with wide disparities by race/ethnicity and poverty level. While many studies have identified factors associated with contraceptive use, most research has focused on individual level factors, with little attention to the contribution of the school environment to sexual risk behavior and contraceptive use. This study investigates the effect of school-level factors on contraceptive use among adolescents in NYC public high schools before and after controlling for individual-level factors, and whether this effect varies with race/ethnicity. Using a cross-sectional design, the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) individual-level datasets for 2007, 2009 and 2011 were linked to a school-level dataset. Variables were selected based on empirical findings on factors associated with sexual behaviors, including contraceptive use, by adolescents. The analytic sample included all YRBS respondents aged 14 or older who reported having sexual intercourse in the past three months and had complete responses to the YRBS questions on contraceptive use at last sex (N=8,054). The chi square test of significance was used to evaluate significant associations between independent variables and contraceptive use in bivariate analyses; variables with a p value < 0.1 were included in the multivariable analyses. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the strength of the associations of school-level factors with contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Findings included that use of any contraception and/or hormonal contraception at last sexual intercourse was associated with attending schools with a higher six-year graduation rate, higher percent of students strongly agreeing they were safe in their classrooms, higher percent of teachers at the
Jun 28, 2017 ... factors on the productivity of beef cows is vital in the pursuit of improving ..... by bioregion differed from 10% for early life traits such as BW and ... et al., 2005), which may result in a negative energy balance (Bernabuccil ..... The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with regard to this work.
Herrera R, Juan Francisco; Reyes S, Lucia; Amaya, Hector Oswaldo T .Gerena Oscar Arturo
It was investigated the current state of de School Environment Projects in the public educational institutions of de Town 18 Rafael Uribe Uribe in Bogota (Colombia). The participation grade was measured in the design o execution and evaluation of the environmental projects, the registration and systematising of experiences, the generation of reflection spaces and the structuring to the Institutional Educational Project. By means of the test pilot the variables were determined for the sample design and the validation of the mensuration instrument. Three populations study object were determined and for each was designed a for through which the information of the variable was gathered by means of the method of direct interview. The results show that the overwhelming majority of the considered population didn't participated in the design in the execution of the environmental projects. The registration and systematizing of experiences are minimum, as well as the reflection spaces and conceptualization. There is not articulation from the environmental project to the Institutional Educational Project. The little participation, systematizing of experiences and lack of reflection spaces and conceptualization limit the impact of the School Environmental Projects in the formation of favorable attitudes to the environment
Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.
Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future research priorities. An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine-disrupting chemicals......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research......, and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture...
Florin Razvan BĂLĂȘESCU
Full Text Available As it is known, sustainable development reveals economic, social and ecologic aspects circumscribed to the sustainability of the stock of natural capital and to the energy matter entropic flows which affects the relation environment-economy-society in terms of externalities and of the socio-industrial metabolism. Thus, taking into account the principles of the technical-economic rationality and integrative socio-ecologic complexity, dematerialization is a concept, an instrument and a vector carrying socio-economic values based on the natural and social sciences. In this framework environmental dematerialization reveals the issue of socio- economic energetic centres - a result of relationship between nature and human rational sensible free will determinism.
Schnabel, Stephanie L.
Collaboration between school libraries and classroom teachers can have a powerful impact on student learning. School librarians routinely collaborate with English language arts and social studies curriculum and less frequently with areas in STEM education. This research examines middle school mathematics teachers' extent of or willingness to…