WorldWideScience

Sample records for school environmental factors

  1. Predicting School Bullying Victimization: Focusing on Individual and School Environmental/Security Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokjin Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behavior continues to be a salient social and health-related issue of importance to educators, criminal justice practitioners, and academicians across the country. While discourse on school bullying is abundant, previous studies are limited in explaining the predictive effect of factors such as individual/demographic variables, school environmental variables, and school antibullying preventive measures. Using a nationally representative sample of 12,987 private and public school students in the United States, the current study examines school safety measures and students’ perceptions about school environments (or climate, especially school rules and punishment. Findings reveal that the variables of security guards, fairness and awareness of school rules, gangs and guns at school, students misbehaving, and teachers’ punishment of students were statistically significant predictors of bullying victimization. Implications of these findings for school anti-bullying programs as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Building of Environmental Literacy among Middle School Students: The Role of In-School, Out of School, and Psychological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    Solving environmental challenges will require an environmentally literate citizenry, equipped with ecological knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, problem-solving skills, and motivation toward environmentally responsible behaviors. This dissertation addresses three approaches to building environmental literacy (EL) among middle school students: through schools (Chapter 1), through activities outside of school (Chapter 2), and through understanding psychological factors that affect environmental perceptions (Chapter 3). Chapter 1. This study examined school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student demographics, and school attributes. Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered schoolwide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years) were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black) was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that though school-wide EE programs may vary in effectiveness, the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a promising strategy. Further, investments in both new and veteran teachers to build and maintain enthusiasm for EE may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially

  3. Indoor microclimate in a South African school: impact of indoor environmental factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Essah, EA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available levels in classroom occupancy periods. A preliminary study to investigate the impact of indoor environmental parameters has been performed in a secondary school classroom in Pretoria, South Africa. Factors monitored include temperature, relative humidity...

  4. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

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    Leen Haerens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  5. Internal dental school environmental factors promoting faculty survival and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Richard S

    2005-04-01

    A career in dental academics offers ample rewards and challenges. To promote successful careers in dental education, prospective and new dental faculty should possess a realistic view of the dental school work environment, akin to the informed consent so valuable to patients and doctors. Self-assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses provides helpful information in matching faculty applicants with appropriate dental schools. Essential prehiring information also includes a written job description detailing duties and responsibilities, professional development opportunities, and job performance evaluation protocol. Prehiring awareness of what constitutes excellence in job performance will aid new faculty in allotting time to productive venues. New faculty should not rely solely on professional expertise to advance careers. Research and regular peer-reviewed publications are necessary elements in academic career success, along with the ability to secure governmental, private foundation, and corporate grant support. Tactful self-promotion and self-definition to the dental school community are faculty responsibilities, along with substantial peer collaboration. The recruitment period is a singular opportunity to secure job benefits and privileges. It is also the time to gain knowledge of institutional culture and assess administrative and faculty willingness to collaborate on teaching, research, professional development, and attainment of change. Powerful people within dental schools and parent institutions may influence faculty careers and should be identified and carefully treated. The time may come to leave one's position for employment at a different dental school or to step down from full-time academics. Nonetheless, the world of dental and health professional education in 2005 is rapidly expanding and offers unlimited opportunities to dedicated, talented, and informed educators.

  6. Influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children

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    Jovanović Veljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this research was to study the influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children. Research participants were 149 children (52 Roma, 48 non-Roma children of average socioeconomic status and 49 children of low socioeconomic status, of the average age of 81 months. Data were collected during maturity evaluation for school in primary schools in Sabac and Sremska Mitrovica. Children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the School Maturity Test, and the data on socioeconomic status and educational climate were obtained from parents, by administering the Questionnaire for collecting data about the child and the family and Interview with the parent. Results of covariance analysis indicated that the quality of stimulation, parental ambitions and financial status of the family have the biggest effect on intellectual achievement of children. Poorer cognitive efficiency is demonstrated by children who grow up in poverty and non-stimulative environment, and whose parents have low ambitions regarding their child's education. When these variables are controlled, there are no differences between groups in either of cognitive functions. The abilities of visual and motor coordination and attention proved out to be the most sensitive to the influences of environmental factors. The results indicate that environmental factors have a pervasive effect, since, besides the influence on manipulative abilities, they also determine achievement on tests used to estimate verbal abilities.

  7. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents ...

  8. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara eDimitriou; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Patrick eMilton

    2015-01-01

    Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took pa...

  9. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

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    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  10. Exposure of Japanese school children to smoking-related environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, T

    2000-05-01

    Japan has no legal restrictions on cigarette advertising and vending machines. This lack of smoking control measures is a possible contributor to smoking initiation by adolescents. This study was conducted to provide primary data on environmental factors related to smoking, such as cigarette advertising and candy cigarettes, that influence elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire at two elementary schools in Kitakyushu City, Japan in 1995. Questionnaire sheets were anonymously filled out by 282 elementary school children at school. The effective response rate was 91.5% (128 boys and 130 girls). Over 90% of respondents had seen cigarette advertising on TV, candy cigarettes and cigarette vending machines. Over 75% had at least one smoker in their family. Fewer female children expressed an intent to smoke in the future despite the fact that there were no significant sex differences in smoking-related experiences. Children were higher exposed to cigarette advertising on TV, candy cigarettes, vending machines and family members' smoking. Control of such smoking-related factors in the environment would be crucial to keeping children from initiating smoking behavior.

  11. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents

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    Dagmara eDimitriou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results. An average of 7.08 hours of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behaviour problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.Conclusion. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may

  12. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in

  13. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective

  14. Modifiable environmental obesity risk factors among elementary school children in a Mexico-us border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrón, Rita Gabriela; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2015-05-01

    The increasing overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) prevalence in Mexican children warrant the assessment of the environmental risk factors. To assess whether there is an association between food availability in children's environments and their food consumption with BMI z-score and waist circumference (WC). Six hundred and eighty four children, 264 parents, 22 teachers and cafeteria staff in the schools and street vendors participated in the study. Weight, height, and WC of 5(th) grade children were assessed. Food frequency, physical activity (PA) and eating habits questionnaires were applied to parents, children and teachers. A food inventory questionnaire was applied to parents, cafeteria staff in the schools, street vendors and stores near the schools. The children's mean age was 10.5. Twenty eight per cent of the children were overweight, 26% obese and 25% had abdominal obesity. A positive correlation was found between energy-dense foods (EDF), fruit and vegetable availability at home and their weekly consumption. Also a correlation between consumption of soft drinks and other EDF was found. The largest contributors to food consumption were the availability at home and at school (R2 = 0.11, p = 0.0001). Children's TV viewing was positively correlated with parents TV viewing time. For each hour of increase (from cero to seven) in daily TV viewing children were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR=1.22 95% CI 1.02-1.45, p=0.026). EDF, fruit and vegetable availability in and near home and school along with hours of TV viewing were positively associated with obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Seeing Strengths in a Rural School: Educators' Conceptions of Individual and Environmental Resilience Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study of educators' understandings of resilience contributes to ongoing rural school research that examines educators' beliefs about, and attitudes toward, rural students whom are at-risk and factors that impact rural school success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers and administrators in one rural Florida…

  16. Personal, Social and Environmental Risk Factors of Problematic Gambling Among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Tariku A.; Robert A.C. Ruiter; Adal, Tamirie A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N?=?422) ranging from 12 to 21?years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), socia...

  17. Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Shreela V; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N...

  18. Role of free school lunch in the associations between family-environmental factors and children's fruit and vegetable intake in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, C.; Roos, E.; Brug, J.; Behrendt, I.; Ehrenblad, B.; Yngve, A.; te Velde, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an association exists between different clusters of fruit- and vegetable-specific family-environmental factors and children's daily fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these associations differ between countries with different school lunch policies. Design

  19. Girls' perception of physical environmental factors and transportation: reliability and association with physical activity and active transport to school

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    Ring Kimberly

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary evidence suggests that the physical environment and transportation are associated with youth physical activity levels. Only a few studies have examined the association of physical environmental factors on walking and bicycling to school. Therefore, the purpose of this study was (1 to examine the test-retest reliability of a survey designed for youth to assess perceptions of physical environmental factors (e.g. safety, aesthetics, facilities near the home and transportation, and (2 to describe the associations of these perceptions with both physical activity and active transport to school. Methods Test and retest surveys, administered a median of 12 days later, were conducted with 480 sixth- and eighth-grade girls in or near six U.S. communities. The instrument consisted of 24 questions on safety and aesthetics of the perceived environment and transportation and related facilities. Additionally, girls were asked if they were aware of 14 different recreational facilities offering structured and unstructured activities, and if so, whether they would visit these facilities and the ease with which they could access them. Test-retest reliability was determined using kappa coefficients, overall and separately by grade. Associations with physical activity and active transport to school were examined using mixed model logistic regression (n = 610, adjusting for grade, race/ethnicity, and site. Results Item-specific reliabilities for questions assessing perceived safety and aesthetics of the neighborhood ranged from 0.31 to 0.52. Reliabilities of items assessing awareness of and interest in going to the 14 recreational facilities ranged from 0.47 to 0.64. Reliabilities of items assessing transportation ranged from 0.34 to 0.58. Some items on girls' perceptions of perceived safety, aesthetics of the environment, facilities, and transportation were important correlates of physical activity and, in some cases, active transport

  20. Personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Tariku A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Adal, Tamirie A

    2015-03-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), social factors (e.g., peer influence, parental gambling), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of gambling venues, advertisements) were significant correlates of problematic gambling. The study also revealed that men were more at risk for severe problematic gambling than females. Among the identified types of gambling activities, the most prevalent ones were playing cards followed by flipping coin and pool gambling while internet gambling was among the least reported gambling activities. By identifying personal, social and environmental correlates of risky gambling activities this study provides evidence-based information for the systematic design and evaluation of educational interventions to prevent problematic gambling in young people.

  1. Investigating the relationship between environmental factors and respiratory health outcomes in school children using the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Jonathon; Callan, Anna C; Blake, David; Wheeler, Amanda J; Franklin, Peter; Hall, Graham L; Shackleton, Claire; Sly, Peter D; Hinwood, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The environmental factors which may affect children's respiratory health are complex, and the influence and significance of factors such as traffic, industry and presence of vegetation is still being determined. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 360 school children aged 5-12 years who lived on the outskirts of a heavy industrial area in Western Australia to investigate the effect of a range of environmental factors on respiratory health using the forced oscillation technique (FOT), a non-invasive method that allows for the assessment of the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system. Based on home address, proximity calculations were used to estimate children's exposure to air pollution from traffic and industry and to characterise surrounding green space. Indoor factors were determined using a housing questionnaire. Of the outdoor measures, the length of major roads within a 50m buffer was associated with increased airway resistance (Rrs8). There were no associations between distance to industry and FOT measures. For the indoor environment the presence of wood heating and gas heating in the first year of life was associated with better lung function. The significance of both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution and effect modifiers such as green space and heating require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between atopic dermatitis and indoor environmental factors: a cross-sectional study among Japanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukawa, Shigekazu; Araki, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine that home environmental factors were associated with atopic dermatitis in Japanese elementary school children. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 4,254 children in 12 public elementary schools in Sapporo city in Hokkaido, Japan were examined. Atopic dermatitis was defined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The questionnaires also contained 14 questions about the child's home environment. To obtain multivariate-adjusted ORs for atopic dermatitis in relation to the home environment, we controlled for possible confounders including gender, school grade, parental history of allergies, number of siblings, and whether the child was firstborn. The study participants were then divided into two groups according to gender, and a stratified analysis was performed to obtain adjusted ORs for atopic dermatitis in relation to the home environment. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in our sample was 16.7 %. Using fully adjusted models, the risk factors for atopic dermatitis were found to be the household use of a non-electric heating system without a ventilation duct to the outside (compared to the use of an electric heating system), having visible mould in the house, having a mouldy odour in the house, and condensation on the windowpanes in the house odds ratios (OR 1.25-1.54). In our stratified analysis, having visible mould and having a mouldy odour in the house were relevantly found to be risk factors for boys (OR 1.28-1.64). However, these associations were not found among girls. To improve children's health, further study is needed to corroborate the findings.

  3. Reading exposure: a (largely) environmental risk factor with environmentally-mediated effects on reading performance in the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2007-12-01

    It is widely believed that there are reciprocal links between reading achievement and reading exposure: children who read more do better at reading, and reading achievement itself promotes reading. We tested the hypotheses that these links arise because children's genetically influenced reading performance is correlated with their leisure-time reading exposure, and reading exposure, in turn, may have an environmentally mediated effect on later reading performance. The sample consisted of 3039 twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Reading exposure was assessed at age 10 using the Author Recognition Test (ART). Reading performance was assessed at ages 7 and 12 using the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE). ART scores were moderately correlated with TOWRE scores at ages 7 and 12. Shared environmental variance in 7-year TOWRE performance accounted for most of the contribution made by 7-year TOWRE scores to the prediction of 10-year ART scores. Genetic influences on ART scores were modest, but this genetic variance almost completely reflected genetic variance in 7-year TOWRE scores. After controlling for genetic and environmental influences that overlapped between 7-year TOWRE and 10-year ART scores, there was evidence for a separate link between 10-year ART and 12-year TOWRE that was due to shared environmental influences. Genetic influences on early reading achievement contribute to later propensities to seek out reading experiences that might, in turn, reciprocally influence reading achievement through shared environmental paths.

  4. Cigarette Smoking Experience and its related Socio-demographic and Environmental Risk Factors in High School Boy Students, Shiraz- Iran

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    Masoud Karimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several environmental and psychosocial risk factors are known for adolescent smoking as the single cause of preventable diseases and premature death. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking, socio-demographic factors associated with cigarette smoking (age, education level, parents’ job, and family’s socioeconomic statues, and the role of family and friends in cigarette smoking by high school students.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was conducted in Shiraz, Iran, 900 high school boy students (grades 9-11 were selected through multistage random cluster sampling. They responded a researcher designed anonymous questionnaire about smoking experiences of themselves- and their friends and family members. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test and Binary logistic regression analysis were used to analysis of the data, using the SPSS version 17.0.Results: The mean age of the participants was 16.11 (1.16 years and 19.7% of the students were ever smokers. Students’ higher educational grade (P=0.001, fathers’ lower education level (P=0.03, live with one parent or people other than parents (P=0.024, father’s, siblings’, and friends’ smoking, and family members’ cigarette smoking at home (P

  5. Relationship between Audio-Visual Materials and Environmental Factors on Students Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, S.; Goni, Umar

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine the relationship between audio-visual materials and environmental factors on students' academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State: Implications for Counselling. The study set two research objectives, and tested two research hypotheses. The population of this study is 1,987 students…

  6. [Environmental factors and vocal habits regarding pre-school teachers and functionaries suffering voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrreto-Munévar, Deisy P; Cháux-Ramos, Oriana M; Estrada-Rangel, Mónica A; Sánchez-Morales, Jenifer; Moreno-Angarita, Marisol; Camargo-Mendoza, Maryluz

    2011-06-01

    Determining the relationship between vocal habits and environmental/ occupational conditions with the presence of vocal disturbance (dysphonia) in teachers and functionaries working at community-based, initial childhood education centres (kindergartens). This was a descriptive study which adopted across-sectional approach using 198 participants which was developed in three phases. Phase 1: consisted of identifying participants having the highest risk of presenting vocal disturbance. Phase 2consisted of observation-analysis concerning the voice use and vocal habits of participants who had been identified in phase 1. Phase 3consisted of perceptual and computational assessment of participants' voices using Wilson's vocal profile and the multidimensional voice program. Individuals having pitch breaks, throat clearing, increased voice intensity, and gastro-oesophageal reflux were found to present below standard fundamental frequency (FF). Subjects having altered breathing and increased voice intensity were identified as having above standard shimmer and jitter acoustic values. A high rate of inability to work was found due to vocal disturbance. It is thus suggested that there is a correlation between vocal habits and vocal disorders presented by preschool teachers in kindergarten settings.

  7. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan

    2003-03-01

    This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.

  8. Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity mong Guidance-And High School Students And Its Relation To ModifiableEnvironmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klishadi R

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among guidance-and high school students and its relation to modifiable environmental factors."nMaterials and Methods: The subjects have been 1000 girls and 1000 boys aged between 11-18 years, selected by multi-stage random sampling, their parents (2000 subjects and their school staffs (500 subjects in urban and rural areas of two provinces in Iran. Data have been analyzed by SPSSV10/ Win software."nResults: The prevalence of 85th < BMI<95th percentile and BMI>95th percentile in girls was significantly higher than boys (10.67±1.1%, 2.9±0.1% VS. 7.37±0.9%, 1.87±0.1% respectively, p<0.05. The mean BMI value was significantly different between urban and rural area (25.38±5.2 VS. 23.25±7.1, P< 0.05. BMI > 85th percentile was more prevalent in those with lower educated mothers (9.2+2.1 vs. 11.5+2.4 years of mothers education respectively. The mean of the total energy intake was not different between overweight or obese and normal- weight subjects (1825±90Kcal VS. 1815±85Kcal, P>0.05 but the percent of energy derived from carbohydrates was significantly higher in former than the latter (69.4% VS. 63.2%, P<0.05. Regular out-school sport activities were significantly lower and the time spent on television watching was significantly higher in overweight or obese than non-obese subjects (300±20 VS. 240±30 minutes/day, P<0.05. Significant linear association was shown between the consumption frequency of rice, bread, pasta, fast foods and fat/salty snack and BMI (p=0.05-0.06, p<0.05. A significant correlation was shown between BMI percentiles with serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (Pearson r=0.38,-0.32 and 0.47 respectively.

  9. Influence of socioeconomic status and home environmental factors on oral health-related quality of life among school children in north Bengaluru, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Ahuja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increasing recognition that children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL is affected by social and environmental factors. Aim: To assess the influence of socioeconomic status and home environment factors on OHRQoL among 13–14-year-old schoolchildren in North Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 800 children aged 13–14 years from government and private schools in North Bengaluru. OHRQoL was assessed using a shorter version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14. Socioeconomic status of children was measured using Kuppuswamy's scale. Children were also asked to provide information on home environmental factors. Descriptive, Chi-square, and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to analyze data. Results: In both government and private schools, mean CPQ11-14 scores were highest for children belonging to upper lower class followed by the lower middle, upper middle, and upper class of socioeconomic status, showing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05. In government schools, children living with single parent/guardian, having two or more siblings, one or two rooms, staying with more than one person per room, family using alcohol/tobacco reported higher mean CPQ11-14 scores as compared to private schools. (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It is important to shift focus from the current biomedical and restricted paradigm on oral health and develop oral health policies and programs considering the socioeconomic status and home environmental factors in improving child OHRQoL outcomes.

  10. School Pharmacist/School Environmental Hygienic Activities at School Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The "School Health and Safety Act" was enforced in April 2009 in Japan, and "school environmental health standards" were established by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In Article 24 of the Enforcement Regulations, the duties of the school pharmacist have been clarified; school pharmacists have charged with promoting health activities in schools and carrying out complete and regular checks based on the "school environmental health standards" in order to protect the health of students and staff. In supported of this, the school pharmacist group of Japan Pharmaceutical Association has created and distributed digital video discs (DVDs) on "check methods of school environmental health standards" as support material. We use the DVD to ensure the basic issues that school pharmacists deal with, such as objectives, criteria, and methods for each item to be checked, advice, and post-measures. We conduct various workshops and classes, and set up Q&A committees so that inquiries from members are answered with the help of such activities. In addition, school pharmacists try to improve the knowledge of the school staff on environmental hygiene during their in-service training. They also conduct "drug abuse prevention classes" at school and seek to improve knowledge and recognition of drugs, including "dangerous drugs".

  11. Inquiry-Based Instruction: Does School Environmental Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Celestine H.

    2012-01-01

    In a larger study on teachers' beliefs about science teaching, one component looks at how school environmental context factors influence inquiry-based science instruction. Research shows that three broad categories of school environmental factors (human, sociocultural, design) impact inquiry-based teaching in some way. A mixed-method, sequential,…

  12. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  14. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-11

    May 11, 2010 ... Ghana Journal of Geography Vol. 3. 2011. Home Environmental Factors ... influence school progress and performance among learners in Windhoek,. Namibia. Although numerous studies .... percent in the upper primary phase and 23 percent in the junior secondary phase. A meager 6 percent survived to ...

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  16. Teaching Environmentally Sustainable Design in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelder, John

    1998-01-01

    Explores three ways students are taught environmentally-sustainable design within an eco-school system: the passive example of the present school premises; the use of architects-in-schools schemes, and student environmental assessments of the school premises. Examples are provided of how each method addresses sustainable design and how they may be…

  17. Broadly Trained but Narrowly Used? Factors That Predict the Performance of Environmental versus Individual Tasks by School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupper, David R.; Rocha, Cynthia; Jackson, Rebecca F.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    National and state surveys over the past several decades have concluded that school social workers, despite an awareness of and training in macro level practice strategies, are highly individualistic in their practice focus. Although clinical skills are necessary, they are insufficient for effective school social work practice in the 21st century.…

  18. Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444

  19. Association between environmental factors and current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province--Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, María Teresa; Patiño, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2013-11-05

    In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2340 children attending the fifth grade in 36 randomly selected elementary schools in Oropeza province. The prevalence of symptoms was determined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Environmental factors were assessed by the ISAAC environmental questionnaire including questions related to exposure to pets, farm animals, indoor and outdoor pollution, presence of disease vectors at home and precarious household conditions. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex and place of living. Thirty seven percent of children reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. Wood or coal was used as cooking fuel in 19% of the homes and 29% reported intense truck traffic on the street where they lived. With respect to hygiene conditions, 86% reported exposure to dogs, 59% exposure to cats and 36% regular contact to farm animals. More than one precarious household condition was reported by 8% of children. In the adjusted model exposure to dog (adjusted OR 1.4; CI 95% 1.0-1.9), cat (1.2; 1.0-1.5), farm animals (1.5; 1.2-1.8); intense truck traffic (1.3; 1.0-1.6), parents smoking at home (1.2; 1.0-1.5), presence of disease vectors at home (fourth quartile vs. first quartile: 1.6; 1.2-2.3) and two or more precarious household conditions (1.5; 1.0-2.2) were significantly associated with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. The associations were similar for asthma and eczema symptoms; however it did not reach the level of statistical

  20. Exploring Individual and School-Related Factors and Environmental Literacy: Comparing U.S. and Canada Using PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Emily; Shi, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    Questions remain about how to best prepare students to be environmentally literate. Although Canada and U.S. share similarities in education systems, diversity in student population, and historical roots in formalizing environmental education, Canada is one of the top performing countries in international science assessments while U.S. matches…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya C H; Mrs. Pankajam. R

    2017-01-01

    Environmental awareness is to understand the fragility of our environment and the importance of its protection. Promoting environmental awareness is an easy way to become an environmental steward and participate in creating a brighter future for our children. The study aimed to examine the environmental awareness among secondary school students. The investigator adopted survey method to study the environmental awareness among secondary school students. For this study a sample of 300 secondary...

  2. The impact of the environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Skiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of the study was to assess the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec, based on the questionnaire data. Materials and methods: The crosssectional epidemiological questionnaire study was performed in the years 2005–2006. Parents of 709 primary school children aged 7–12 years took part in the study. Questionnaire was completed by parents to collect information on children health status, particularly respiratory symptoms, chronic diseases of respiratory system, allergic diseases, use of medical services, children dietary habits and family socio-economic status. Results: In the study group the statistical significance was found for the incidence of respiratory symptoms in children and housing conditions, i.e.: the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Results of the study showed, that incidence of whizzing differed statistically significantly in the groups of different professional status of the parents. It is difficult to estimate if this is only the influence of socio-economic conditions or any other environmental factors as well. Conclusions: Results of the study demonstrated statistical significance between the status of respiratory system in children and housing occupancy rate (the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Relation between respiratory symptoms in children, parents education and professional status was analyzed, but findings of the conducted studies do not give explicit evidence of such a relation.

  3. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029

  4. The Relative Effects of Environmental, Internal and Contextual Factors on Organizational Learning: The Case of Hong Kong Schools under Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y. L. Jack; Pang, S. K. Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Path analyses of information from 780 Hong Kong elementary and 1,197 secondary teachers in the midst of national reforms indicated that internal school conditions (transformational leadership, supportive culture, flexible structure) promoted organizational learning and change. External and contextual conditions provided incentives and motivation…

  5. Environmental and contextual influences on school violence and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Conkling, Martha; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig; Gorman, Dennis

    2006-05-01

    School violence has received unprecedented attention in recent years, particularly since the infamous events unfolded in Littleton, Colorado at Columbine High School. For many Americans, such events were not imagined possible while for others, they confirmed the need for urgent and careful examination of the nature and scope of school violence. It appears, however, that school violence research has been relegated to the individual level of analysis. In this introduction to the special issue about the environmental and contextual factors related to school violence, the authors examine what we know about school violence, how school violence has been addressed, and argue that environmental factors must be part of research and intervention in this area. Finally, the contributions of the articles included in this special issue are discussed.

  6. Experiences and factors influencing a sample of teachers in New York state public elementary and middle schools to focus on environmental education in their teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Gail Patricia

    This study focuses on how fourteen elementary and middle level teachers in New York chose to teach environmental topics as part of their science curricula. Prior research suggested that factors influencing teachers to make curricular decisions are different from those that motivated them to become teachers in the first place (Espinet, et.al. 1992). This was supported by the results of this study, which found that most of these teachers made the decision to begin teaching environmental education (EE) well after deciding to become teachers and that the decision to teach EE was influenced by a variety of factors including participation in EE-oriented in-service programs, media coverage of environmental issues, encouragement from colleagues and school administrators to undertake EE, and personal experiences in childhood or early adulthood with the environment and/or with EE. Studies examining experiences that influence people to practice "environmentally responsible" behaviors (Chawla, 1995; McGarry, 1994; Tanner, 1994) suggested that positive childhood contacts with nature were important predictors for such behavior in adulthood. Findings of this study were largely consistent with these results, however, this sample of teachers viewed their childhood nature experiences as being mostly responsible for the development of their appreciation of the environment, while their actual decision to begin teaching EE was primarily influenced by other experiences, as discussed above. This study also examined how these teachers prepared themselves for teaching EE. The findings indicate that these teachers used a wide variety of preparation strategies. A minority reported becoming prepared for teaching EE through their pre-service teacher education programs. These results were in agreement with prior findings that most teacher education programs in this country do not include a focus on EE. Even where preparation for EE is included, it has been rated by the participants as

  7. Sustainable Environmental Management Indicators in South African Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza O. de Sousa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research explores sustainable environmental management indicators in South African primary schools. Of key interest is the comparison of a township, farm and urban primary school that identify indicators that promote education for sustainable development in schools that implement an environmental management system. Data are drawn from one-on-one interviews, focus group interviews, observations and document analysis from 35 participants in three schools. A comparison of the three schools was done by content and thematic analysis of a within-case analysis. Data from the township school revealed that socioeconomic factors and organisational structure promote education for sustainable development. The farm school data revealed that health promotion can be managed within an environmental management system within a hierarchical school structure. The urban school data revealed that an economic inducement brings a school to realise that it can reduce its carbon footprint, gain financially and utilize its resources with innovation. A case is made that the four pillars of sustainable development (environment, society, economy, and governance endorse education for sustainable development. Furthermore, the objectives of environmental education ought to remain nested in an environmental management system to ensure that the global goal of quality education is achieved.

  8. Environmental culture in High-School Students. Case study of Environmental Education at the High-School Level in Campeche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Isaac-Márquez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the situation presented by environmental education at the high-school level, by means of a case study done in the municipality of Campeche. There was performed exploratory research which combined quantitative and qualitative methods to diagnose high-school students’ level of environmental culture, as well as the type of environmental education they receive. The results indicate that students have a low level of environmental awareness, and lack the necessary knowledge and skills with which to make environmentally-friendly changes in their lifestyles. Although they show an interest in environmental issues, both their institutional context and their teachers’ low level of qualification operate as factors that discourage the students. The results allowed us to identify windows of opportunity for environmental education in the light of the students’ positive attitudes, their interest in learning sustainable practices, and the importance of the school as a source of information on the environment.

  9. Family environmental factors do not explain differences in the behavioral effect of a healthy diet promotion program in lower vocational schools among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; van Assema, P.; Knibbe, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program. Design. Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaires completed by adolescents in 10 schools

  10. Family environmental factors do not explain differences in the behavioral effect of a healthy diet promotion program in lower vocational schools among 12-to 14-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Assema, P.; Knibbe, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program. Design. Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaires completed by adolescents in 10 schools

  11. The importance of socio-environmental and personal factors related with smoking among high school seniors in western Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jinichi; Saruta, Kimiko

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify socio-environmental and personal variables associated with high school students smoking behavior by applying multilevel analyses. A cross-sectional survey of the first-year students of five public senior high schools in western Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan was conducted using multilevel logistic regression analyses with students at level 1 and schools at level 2. Self-administered questionnaires were returned by 517 out of 597 enrolled students, and information was collected regarding the prevalence of previous and current smoking and socio-environmental, educational and personal variables. The rates of past and current smoking were found to be 25.2% and 12.6% in males and 16.9% and 5.2% in females, respectively. Maternal smoking, having friends or older school-mates who smoked and lower probabilities of high school academic achievement potential were significantly associated with both past (adjusted ORs of 2.37, 4.28 and 2.98, respectively) and current (adjusted ORs 2.46, 5.57 and 3.02) smoking. It is recommended that health professionals in charge of school-based educational programs should tailor the teaching methods to fit the students' backgrounds and specific vulnerabilities. Educational programs for smoking prevention focusing on the students' mothers and classmates or students in high schools with reduced academic achievement potential should be developed.

  12. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. This article aims at evaluating the impact of environmental exposures (pesticides, phthalates, PCBs, air pollution......, trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...... motility but also the sperm counts, viability and morphology. In spite of their consistent results, most of the studies are rather small. Association between exposure to THMs and poor semen quality was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological studies suggest awareness of environmental factors which may...

  13. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  14. School Flooring Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  15. Evaluation of Factors that Influence School Readiness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preschool child is often confronted with adverse environmental influences that may affect his/her development and hence his readiness for schooling. The factors that affect school readiness were evaluated in 532 nursery school pupils using a proforma on perinatal problems and gross motor development of the pupils.

  16. Green School Checklist: Environmental Actions for Schools To Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This checklist offers tips and resources to help schools identify opportunities to "green" their buildings and operations, focusing on common-sense improvements that schools can make in their daily operations to minimize or stop potential health and environmental problems before they start. The first section discusses the benefits of a…

  17. Environmental factors and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michał; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. This article aims at evaluating the impact of environmental exposures (pesticides, phthalates, PCBs, air pollution, trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that some pesticides besides DBCP (e.g. DDT/Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE], ethylenedibromide, organophosphates) affects sperm count. PCBs are detrimental to sperm motility. In case of air pollution, studies suggest a link between ambient air pollutants and various semen characteristics. Additional research is needed to corroborate this association and to establish the causal agents. Results of few studies on subfertile men demonstrate associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (impact on sperm concentration, morphology, motility), but the findings have not been corroborated in studies of men from the general population. Mobile phones might adversely affect the quality of semen by decreasing mostly motility but also the sperm counts, viability and morphology. In spite of their consistent results, most of the studies are rather small. Association between exposure to THMs and poor semen quality was not observed. Epidemiological studies suggest awareness of environmental factors which may affect semen quality. In case both of well proven and disputable reproductive and developmental hazards, it is necessary to prevent parental exposure to the agents associated with those hazards.

  18. The School Curriculum and Environmental Education: A School Environmental Audit Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Maria del Carmen; Sanchez, J. Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen primary and pre-primary schools in Extremadura (Spain) were participants in an educational research project, "Ecocentros", based on school environmental audits (eco-audits). To understand the contribution these experiences can make to achieving the objectives of environmental education, it is essential to know what is actually…

  19. [Are there environmental protective factors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambou, J P

    1998-10-01

    Protective factors against atherosclerosis are a group of different elements which include the fatty acids, alcohol, antioxidant vitamins, dietary fibres and physical exercise. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenicacid have a beneficial effect on the coronary vessels. Alpha-linolenic acid is associated with low coronary mortality both in cohort studies (the Seven Countries Study) and in secondary prevention (Lyon Diet Heart Study). There is an inverse relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease with a reduction of risk of about 30% in all prospective studies. High dietary intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with a decreased coronary risk. On the other hand, dietary supplements of vitamin E in primary and secondary prevention were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Folates have a protective effect by their action on homocysteine metabolism. There is no formal proof at present in favour of the systematic introduction of the B vitamins in primary or secondary prevention. Fresh fruit and vegetables seem to be protective by their fibre and vitamin B content. Moderate endurance physical exercise is a protective factor in all studies. Its beneficial effects in function and rehabilitation are well documented. In primary prevention studies, exercise has a beneficial effect but criteria of duration and frequency remain vague. Therefore, there are environmental protective factors against atherosclerosis which allow physicians to introduce a positive note in these recommendations.

  20. Indoor environmental health in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Envirodesic Certification Program, Stouffville, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Indoor health is a concern today because unhealthy environments can cause adverse health effects, poor learning and teaching and increased costs. The holistic view of the environment and human health links sick kids, absenteeism, teacher illness, education costs and mouldy schools. An historical perspective is provided on the problem and its treatment referring to: 1962 and chemical susceptibility, 1975 and open systems theory, 1978 and high risk groups, 1985 and pollution and education in Toronto, 1987 and health environments for Canadians, 1995 and the National Education Association in the U.S., 1997 and a U.S. Executive Order, 1998 and the Texas Dept. of Health, 1998 and the U.S. EPS website 'IAQ Tools for Schools', and 1998 and 'The air children breathe.' It is known that pollutants adversely affect health, that children are highly susceptible, that the role in schools has being known for decades, and that information is now available worldwide through the Internet. The reasons why mould is a problem are listed, and the effects of an unhealthy indoor environment are referred to. The benefits of a healthy indoor environment are listed, and the various means of creating a healthy indoor environment are outlined. New developments are referred to including: fresh air, building envelope, building leakage, airtightness of buildings, tight envelope and air supply, low-emission materials, maintenance and cleaning, strategy and financing, collaboration, and the possibility of healthy schools.

  1. Environmental Education Curriculum Policy in Tanzanian Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This viewpoint paper examines environmental education policy in practice in Tanzania in the context of the primary school curriculum. This policy review stretches back to the mid-1960s, when major curricula changes were effected, to the present. The paper highlights efforts during this period to provide relevant education ...

  2. Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tanja Stenbaek; Jess, Tine; Vind, Ida

    2011-01-01

    The role of environmental factors in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to assess a number of formerly suggested environmental factors in a case-control study of an unselected and recently diagnosed group of patients with IBD...

  3. Environmental Factors that Interfere in the Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.

  4. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low educational outcome is a problem in Namibia. This might be explained as a function of several factors such as socioeconomic background, child input and school internal factors. These factors must all be taken into consideration to explain why children do not fulfil basic education and attain low learning outcomes.

  5. The Environmental Attitudes of Turkish Senior High School Students in the Context of Postmaterialism and the New Environmental Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Ozgur

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey, explains which determinant factors affect these EAs, and concludes with some suggestions for curricular reform. This study includes over nine hundred students from different school types, neighbourhoods, geographical regions, and socioeconomic…

  6. School-Based Management as a Factor in School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Haim

    1998-07-01

    Advocates of a policy of greater autonomy for schools in the public education system argue that such a policy makes for more effective schools. This article, based on a study carried out in Israel, examines how important the autonomy factor is in influencing school effectiveness as measured by such criteria as teachers' sense of motivation and commitment to the school. While welcoming the trend towards greater autonomy for schools, the author argues that further research is needed before we can formulate any theory concerning the relationship between school autonomy and school effectiveness.

  7. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  8. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN CANCER PATHOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Parihar

    2017-01-01

    With modern civilization cancer pathogenesis has become a very serious problem in our society. There have been many causes of cancer that includes person’s life style and environmental factors. Successful management of life style and environmental pollution can reduce risks of cancer in our society.

  9. Vandalism: Environmental and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2003-01-01

    To explore the relationship between vandalism, college residence hall size, and a number of social factors, 688 college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the University Residence Environment Scale (Moos, 1988), and answered questions about their television habits and athletic participation.…

  10. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  11. Genetic and environmental factors in alexithymia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Martini; Zachariae, Robert; Skytthe, Axel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of genetic and environmental factors for developing alexithymia is still unclear, and the aim of this study was to examine these factors in a large population-based sample of twins. METHODS: The Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) was included in a mail survey of 46...... by shared (12-20%) and nonshared environmental effects (50-56%). CONCLUSION: The results from this large population-based sample suggest that genetic factors have a noticeable and similar impact on all facets of alexithymia. While the results suggested a moderate influence of shared environmental factors......, our results are in concordance with the general finding that environmental influences on most psychological traits are primarily of the nonshared rather than the shared type....

  12. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  13. Can Eco-Schools Improve Elementary School Students' Environmental Literacy Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Sibel; Ertepinar, Hamide; Saglam, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eco-schools on elementary school students' environmental literacy levels. Data of the study were gathered from 316 students enrolled to two elementary schools. One of the schools was determined as experimental group (n = 156) and students attending this school received eco-school application.…

  14. A Study On The Environmental Education In The Metropolis Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policies on envisaging environmental education in schools have not gone beyond the blackboard. Ethiopia is not an exemption of such environmental problems and the intended goals of environmental education through schools have not produced the desired results. The paper draws on a research conducted by the ...

  15. Do Environmental Education School Coordinators Have a Mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimonová, Petra; Cincera, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Teachers who are specialized in environmental education (environmental education school coordinators) can play an important role in empowering students to shape a sustainable future. In this study, the authors examined a group of Czech environmental education school coordinators. The authors aimed to clarify how they interpret their role at their…

  16. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  17. Brockhill Park School: An Environmental Education Audit in a Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Dawn

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates Brockhill Park School's efforts to incorporate environmental education into the school's curriculum. Describes the integration of features of the school site into science, history, English, travel and tourism, and art courses. (MDH)

  18. STAR Healthy Schools: Environmental Factors, Children’s Health and Performance, and Sustainable Building Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR grantees will describe their planned research and hear from EPA programs and a regional schools coordinator about EPA’s programs and resources. A guest speaker will provide a lunchtime seminar.

  19. Climate Change and Schools: Environmental Hazards and Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E; Uijttewaal, Simone A M; Stewart, James; Galvez, Maida P

    2017-11-16

    The changing climate is creating additional challenges in maintaining a healthy school environment in the United States (U.S.) where over 50 million people, mostly children, spend approximately a third of their waking hours. Chronic low prioritization of funds and resources to support environmental health in schools and lack of clear regulatory oversight in the U.S. undergird the new risks from climate change. We illustrate the extent of risk and the variation in vulnerability by geographic region, in the context of sparse systematically collected and comparable data particularly about school infrastructure. Additionally, we frame different resilience building initiatives, focusing on interventions that target root causes, or social determinants of health. Disaster response and recovery are also framed as resilience building efforts. Examples from U.S. Federal Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and nationally are used to illustrate these concepts. We conclude that better surveillance, more research, and increased federal and state oversight of environmental factors in schools (specific to climate risks) is necessary, as exposures result in short- and long term negative health effects and climate change risks will increase over time.

  20. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  1. Environmental Science for All? Considering Environmental Science for Inclusion in the High School Core Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Daniel C.

    2007-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of environmental science as an elective in high schools over the last decade, educators have the opportunity to realistically consider the possibility of incorporating environmental science into the core high school curriculum. Environmental science has several characteristics that make it a candidate for the core…

  2. Determining Factors on Environmental Behaviour in Brasilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about the environment has been changing the people's behaviour, leading to questions about the origin of products and the damage they cause to the environment, resulting in a new type of consumer, known as "green consumer". The purpose is to identify the influence of socio-demographic and psychographic factors on the environmental behaviour of individuals in the city of Brasilia and to provide information for the planning of environmental marketing strategies. Data were collected through a questionnaire and by way of logistic regression as analytical tools.The results indicated that the environmentally conscious individuals are those with higher levels of education and, especially, those who perceive the effectiveness of their environmental actions, however small or isolated.

  3. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  4. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  5. Modifiable environmental factors in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential environmental modifiable factors involved in multiple sclerosis (MS include low adherence to treatment, smoking, obesity, low levels of liposoluble vitamins A and D, high consumption of salt, and a sedentary lifestyle. Chronic tobacco use, obesity, sedentarism and insufficient levels of these vitamins all contribute to maintenance of a proinflammatory state. It is unlikely that there will be noticeable improvement in the inflammatory condition of MS if stopping smoking, reducing weight, exercising, increasing vitamin levels are done in an isolated and erratic manner. Modification of each and every one of these environmental risk factors is likely to be an important approach in the management of MS. The present review presents the arguments for an association between these hazardous modifiable factors and the chronic inflammatory state observed in MS.

  6. Frequency of Truancy at High School: Evidence for Genetic and Twin Specific Shared Environmental Influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, N.; Rebollo-Mesa, I.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on variation in truancy during high school. We examined the significance of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental influences. In addition, we tested for the presence of

  7. A Multidimensional Study of School-Family-Community Partnership Involvement: School, School Counselor, and Training Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Julia A.; Griffin, Dana

    2010-01-01

    A multidimensional study examines both the dimensions of school counselors' involvement in school-family-community partnerships and the factors related to their involvement in partnerships. The School Counselor Involvement in Partnerships Survey was revised and its factor structure examined. Principal factor analyses revealed three dimensions of…

  8. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  9. Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makharia, Archita; Nagarajan, Abhishek; Mishra, Aakanksha; Peddisetty, Sandeep; Chahal, Deepak; Singh, Yashpal

    2016-01-01

    A child's intelligence quotient (IQ) is determined by both genetic and environmental factors that start from the prenatal period itself. There is a lack of data on the factors which influence IQ in Indian children; therefore, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire-based study to determine the environmental factors which influence IQ in Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, we recruited 1065 schoolchildren between the age of 12 and 16 years from 2 government and 13 private schools in 5 towns, 6 cities, and 2 villages across India. All the children were administered a questionnaire consisting of various environmental factors such as parents' education, occupation, income, and the physical activity of the students. IQ scores were assessed using Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices. An approximate IQ score was calculated using the score on the Ravens test. IQ scores were divided into three groups: below normal IQ (0-79), normal IQ (80-119), and high IQ (above 120). The data were analyzed using SPSS software. In this study, it was observed that the environmental factors such as place of residence, physical activity, family income, parental education, and occupation of the father had an impact on the IQ of the children. Children living in cities (P = 0.001), children having physical activity more than 5 h/weeks (P = 0.001), children with parents having a postgraduate or graduate level of education (P = 0.001), children whose father having a professional job (P = 0.001), and those with a higher family income (P = 0.001) were more likely to have high IQ. In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic potential.

  10. Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Makharia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A child's intelligence quotient (IQ is determined by both genetic and environmental factors that start from the prenatal period itself. There is a lack of data on the factors which influence IQ in Indian children; therefore, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire-based study to determine the environmental factors which influence IQ in Indian children. Participants and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, we recruited 1065 schoolchildren between the age of 12 and 16 years from 2 government and 13 private schools in 5 towns, 6 cities, and 2 villages across India. All the children were administered a questionnaire consisting of various environmental factors such as parents' education, occupation, income, and the physical activity of the students. IQ scores were assessed using Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices. An approximate IQ score was calculated using the score on the Ravens test. IQ scores were divided into three groups: below normal IQ (0–79, normal IQ (80–119, and high IQ (above 120. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In this study, it was observed that the environmental factors such as place of residence, physical activity, family income, parental education, and occupation of the father had an impact on the IQ of the children. Children living in cities (P = 0.001, children having physical activity more than 5 h/weeks (P = 0.001, children with parents having a postgraduate or graduate level of education (P = 0.001, children whose father having a professional job (P = 0.001, and those with a higher family income (P = 0.001 were more likely to have high IQ. Conclusions: In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic

  11. The genetic and environmental factors for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies.

  12. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200–300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgen erational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  13. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  14. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Gordon-Shaag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies.

  15. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-07-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development.

  16. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchison D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability

  17. Impact of environmental factors on lung defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivieri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The lungs are one of the most important organs exposed to environmental agents. The lungs have the ability to protect themselves by both immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms. An individual's susceptibility to the impact of environmental agents will determine their adverse effects. This article focuses on air pollution, in particular ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particulate matter (PM and sulphur dioxide (SO2. O3 inhalation first modifies the ciliary cells. O3 is an extremely strong oxidant, since it increases the permeability of epithelial cells and decreases mucociliary clearance. NO2 is a less potent and less reactive oxidant pollutant and impairs the function of epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. PM induces oxidative stress in macrophages and epithelial cells, and increases tumour necrosis factor-beta, interleukin (IL-6, interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta and nuclear factor-kappaB. Diesel exhaust particulate, contained in PM, increases IL-8 production. High concentrations of SO2 increase the production of reactive oxygen species in the lungs. In conclusion, air pollution certainly interferes with aspecific and specific lung defences, thus facilitating the development of pulmonary diseases, such as exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergies and asthma.

  18. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  19. Asthma and Environmental Factors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzadeh M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent atopic diseases in childhood. It is characterized by inflammation of conductive airways and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Environmental factors introduced to child in early years of life may have a protective or harmful role in developing atopic diseases. To evaluate the influence of some environmental factors such as cat or dog ownership, smoking of mother or father and environmental pollution on prevalence of wheezing in children. Subjects and methods: This was a cross sectional retrospective study. A questionnaire was designed based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC. Parents of the subjects were asked to fill in the questionnaires. Children’s wheezing association with keeping cats and dogs, smoking mother and father and frequency of truck passing in place of residence was investigated. 545 children were recruited in our study. Prevalence of wheezing was 9%. Keeping cats in first year of life and last year was associated with less wheezing. But the latter association was not statistically significant. Keeping dogs was so scarce in area of our study, so we could not perform a rightful analysis. Frequency of truck passing was significantly higher in those with wheezing. Keeping cats in first year of life was a significant protective factor, whereas residence in an area with frequent truck passing increased wheezing in children. Results of our study can emphasize the need to keep children away from polluted areas. Further studies are needed to investigate whether keeping a pet in household can benefit children regarding all possible concerns and benefits.

  20. The environmental literacy of urban middle school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Marcia Allen

    This dissertation study assessed the environmental literacy of 292 urban, middle school teachers using the Wisconsin Environmental Literacy Survey (WELS). Environmental literacy may be defined in terms of observable behaviors. Specifically, the study examined four dimensions of participants' environmental literacy: (a) attitudes toward the environment, (b) beliefs about their own power and responsibility to affect environmental change, (c) personal behaviors and actions toward the environment, and (d) knowledge regarding ecology and environmental issues. The WELS measures these components of environmental literacy through a Likert-type attitude survey, a self-reporting behavior instrument, and a multiple choice measure of cognitive learning outcomes or environmental knowledge. These scores were combined to derive a total environmental literacy score. In addition, the study explored differences between African American and European American female teachers' environmental literacy; interactions between demographic variables; and patterns of frequently missed questions, environmental attitudes, or environmental behaviors. Differences in teachers' environmental literacy were examined relative to gender, racial/ethnic background, number of preservice environmental courses taken, number of inservice environmental courses taken, years of teaching experience, and subject area taught. Overall, teachers in the present study demonstrated nominal environmental literacy. Significant differences in scores on various subscales were found among teachers according to racial/ethnic background, subject area taught, and years of teaching experience. Taking preservice and inservice environmental courses appears to have a positive impact on environmental behavior, environmental sensitivity, awareness and values, but not appear to impact environmental knowledge. This study underscores the need for further descriptive environmental literacy research on urban, minority, and poor students

  1. Genetic and environmental factors of atopy

    OpenAIRE

    Otsu, Akiko; Shirakawa, Taro

    2002-01-01

    Atopy is a common immune disorder characterized by raised IgE levels, which lead to clinical disorders (i.e. primarily bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjuctivitis). Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, derived from T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) subsets, are central in mediating IgE production and development of immediate hypersensitivity. Atopy is also characterized by Th1/Th2 skewing that derives from genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of atopy has increased in r...

  2. Attitudes of secondary school students towards environmental and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey has also introduced a new high school geography program that emphasizes environmental and sustainability education. At present, there is an urgent need to test the relationships between theory and practice to understand whether Turkish schools provide sufficient education on the environment and sustainable ...

  3. original article evaluation of environmental status in schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... Assessment of Keone'ula. Elementary School in Ewa Beach,. Oahu, Hawaii. RISE (Rewarding. Internships for Sustainable. Employment) Program at the. University of Hawaii, RISE. Sustainability Audit of K-6 DOE. School. Waste Audit: Wetlands. Environmental Education Centre. Compiled from resources.

  4. Genetic and environmental factors of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Otsu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopy is a common immune disorder characterized by raised IgE levels, which lead to clinical disorders (i.e. primarily bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjuctivitis. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, derived from T-helper cell type 2 (Th2 subsets, are central in mediating IgE production and development of immediate hypersensitivity. Atopy is also characterized by Th1/Th2 skewing that derives from genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of atopy has increased in recent decades, especially in developed countries among children and young adults. In the present review, we first discuss the relationship between the Th1/Th2 imbalance and the recent rise of allergy. Second, we present evidence that human genetic variation is also a key factor responsible for atopy.

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  6. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  7. Environmental Hazards in Your School: A Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this document provides information on many environmental hazards young children may be exposed to today in school buildings. Topics discussed include: (1) the definition, location, and health hazards of asbestos as well as responsible management practices, current legal requirements, and…

  8. School Indoor Environmental Quality Assessments and Interventions: Benefits of Effective Partnerships in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.; Kim, Janice; Smorodinsky, Svetlana

    2002-07-01

    Public, private, government, and university stakeholders have focused increasing attention on children's environmental health. Priority areas have been healthy school environments including indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ); susceptibilities of children to environmental factors and associated illness; and, understanding exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents. As multidisciplinary teams, studies and intervention demonstrations in California public schools were conducted. A common theme among them was a ''partnership,'' the collaboration between stakeholders from the aforementioned sectors. Federal funding and local bond measures for planning, maintenance, and modernization of school facilities have recently been authorized. Therefore, beneficial ''partnerships'' should be established to conduct needed IEQ, environmental health, and productivity research, development and demonstration. This commentary describes benefits for stakeholders and five strategies for future effective collaborations.

  9. Assessment of environmental awareness among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major finding of study reveals that teachers possessed positive attitudes towards both environmental issues and environmental education. We found that contrary to a number of findings from studies in other parts of the world, male respondents were the most concerned about the environment and more knowledgeable ...

  10. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  11. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  12. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  13. Predictive Influence of Factors Predisposing Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive Influence of Factors Predisposing Secondary School Adolescents Dropouts to Sexual Risk Behaviour in Ogun State. ... Parent/peer approval of condom use (r = .114; p> .05), , attitude about personal use of condoms (r = .638; p>.05), gender (r = .555; p>.05). However, there is negative correlation between ...

  14. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  15. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  16. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  18. The association between socio-ecological factors and having an after-school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Ragnar; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet

    2012-09-01

    After-school physical activity (PA) programs promote PA among youth. Few studies have used socio-ecological health models to identify barriers and facilitators of after-school PA programs. This study examined which socio-ecological factors are associated with having an after-school PA program. A questionnaire was administered to key representatives of 114 elementary and 129 secondary schools. The association between socio-ecological factors and having an after-school PA program was analyzed at school level. In both types of schools more knowledge about community schools was positively associated with having an after-school PA program (odds ratio [OR] = 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-3.27; OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.27-2.80, respectively). In elementary schools, environmental factors associated with having an after-school PA program included PA facilities (OR = 4.98; 95% CI = 1.08-23.05), a PA working group (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.02-11.10), agreements with the community (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.05-2.43), shortage of human resources (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37-0.89) and lack of support from teachers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.33-0.80). In secondary schools, environmental factors included the presence of a remunerated coordinator (OR = 5.12; 95% CI = 1.38-19.10) and partnerships with "sport and PA leaders" (OR = 3.54; 95% CI = 1.01-12.41). Having an after-school PA program was associated with personal and environmental factors, which supports the use of socio-ecological frameworks for explorative and intervention studies aiming to increase after-school PA programs. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  19. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ance by children with disabilities in two community based rehabilitation (CBR) centres in Rwanda. Method: A quantitative ... cation, strengthening existing measures to make a conducive physical environment would enhance school attendance among children ..... Oxford Journal, 2008; 22(1): 141-163. 5. Richler D. Quality ...

  20. Home and school environmental determinants of science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings reveal that both the school and home environments play important roles in students' science achievement, with the strongest associations exhibited with: speaking the language of ... Keywords: home resources; learning environment; predictors of performance; science performance; South Africa; TIMSS 2011 ...

  1. Personal, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Walking to School Behaviors: Case Study in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is an affordable and environmentally clean mode of transportation that can bring additional benefits as healthy physical activity. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence and correlates of walking to or from school in eight elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which have high percentages of low-income, Hispanic students. A survey of 1,281 parents was conducted, including questions about personal, social, and environmental factors that may influence their decisions on the children's school transportation. Binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds of choosing walking as the children's typical school travel mode. The results showed that walking was a typical mode for 28 and 34% of trips to and from school, respectively, and mostly accompanied by an adult. Parents' education level, family's car ownership, children's and parents' personal barriers, and having the school bus service reduced the likelihood of walking, while positive peer influences encouraged walking. Among the physical environmental factors, living close to school was the strongest positive predictor; safety concerns and the presence of highway or freeway en route were negative correlates. We concluded that the location of school is a key, as it determines the travel distance and the presence of highway or freeway en route. In addition to environmental improvements, educational and other assistance programs are needed for both parents and children to overcome their personal barriers and safety concerns. Health and disparity issues require further attention, as many underprivileged children have no other means of school transportation but walking in unsafe and poor environments.

  2. Predicting Dropout Using Student- and School-Level Factors: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C.; Leroux, Audrey J.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors…

  3. environmental education for port elizabeth schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education projects and whether teachers had any serious problems with projects. Results of th1s prelimina~y survey are reported. The Port Elizabeth Museum has had a long-standing involvement with nature conservation and the fostering of environmental awareness. Especially because of its collections and research in ...

  4. environmental education for port elizabeth schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gifted Child Education of the Teachers' Centre took care of the compilation of most of these projects. Each environmental study programme consists of the fol lowi ng components: e guidelines for the teacher on planning and arranging visits; e clearly defined educational aims and objectives; e suggested pre-visit activities to ...

  5. Family Environmental Factors Do Not Explain Differences in the Behavioral Effect of a Healthy Diet Promotion Program in Lower Vocational Schools Among 12-to 14-Year-Old Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Assema, P. van; Knibbe, R.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents Participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program Design - Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaries completed by adolescents in 10

  6. The Role of Environmental Education in Increasing the Awareness of Primary School Students and Reducing Environmental Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hesami Arani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Schools environmental management plays an important role in preparing students for environmental education that the results of this study showed a significant relationship between education and promotion of students' environmental awareness.

  7. [Environmental risk factors and epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, C; Limina, R M

    2002-01-01

    The problems regarding communication of risks in the environmental sector and the analysis of certain causes of pollution, together with their effects on human health are the subjects of this article. In an illustrative and concise manner results of the most important epidemiological studies concerning the effects of non-ionizing radiations, of radon and of air pollution have been analyzed. Throughout this analysis emphasis has been placed on the difficulty of obtaining clear and scientifically based results. Such results are needed in order to provide the population with satisfying information and thus meet the increasing demand for unambiguous answers. Among the risk factors for human health are the high frequency electromagnetic fields used for mobile phones (radiofrequency--RF) nd extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of power-lines. Even though these risk factors may be minimal the high number of persons exposed could make them an important impact on public health. Regarding the topic of air pollution, effects on particular segments of the population (children, elderly people and subjects with chronic diseases) have been found in various studies; for example, for an increase of PM(10) of 10 microg/m(3) an increase in daily mortality of 0.69% (CI 0.40-0.98) due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes has been estimated as well as an increase in general daily mortality of 0.54% (CI 0.33-0.76). Due to the populations' low risk perception (caused by unawareness of the problem) radon is undoubtedly the environmental pollutant which has the most impact on public health. This is true even in Italy where 4,000 cases of lung cancer attributable to radon (about 11% of total lung cancer) have been estimated per year; this risk is heightened by the combined effect with smoking. When dealing with health risks the tools of communication must be simple and correct; the mass-media are the most important mediators between the scientific community and the

  8. To What Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Majda

    2017-01-01

    School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff) will also do so. To…

  9. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç; Cem Oktay Güzeller

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school at...

  10. Body structure and maturation – the association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieczuja-Dwojacka Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physique, maturation and some environmental factors. The study was conducted in Warsaw, between 2012 and 2013 in randomly selected schools. The material included 171 girls, aged 12-20 years. Body height and weight, upper and lower extremity length, subcutaneous fat folds on arm, subscapular and abdominal, circumferences of arm, chest, waist and hip were measured. Body proportion indices were calculated. The questionnaire form provided information on parental education and profession, and the number of children in family. Girls were asked about age at menarche, number of daily meals, level of physical activity, participation is sport, and level of stress at home and at school. The principal component analysis was applied and 4 factors were extracted from the set of living condition characteristics (F1 - Parental education & father’s occupation, F2 - Mother’s occupation and the number of children, F3 - Stress, F4 - Physical activity and number of daily meals. Regression analysis allowed to evaluate the association of body build characteristics and age at menarche with the four factors. Factor 1 and 4 were the only ones which showed a statistically significant association with body build. The results showed that girls who were taller, with smaller arm and waist circumferences and less adiposity came from families with higher parental education and better father’s profession. Taller stature, longer legs and less adiposity characterized girls who were more physically active and consumed more than three meals a day.

  11. Environmental Assessment: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District complex`s existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. This Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality`s regulations; the Department`s Implementing Procedures and Guidelines Revocation; and the May 1993 ``Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements,`` by the Department`s Office of NEPA Oversight. Under the Institutional Conservation Programs, created by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (PL 95--619), the Department is authorized to encourage energy conservation-by providing funding for up to 50 percent of the costs of installation of qualified energy conservation measures by entities such as schools, hospitals, and other buildings owned by local governments. This proposed action to fund partially the installation of a new coal-fired heating system for the Winnett School District is part of this energy conservation program.

  12. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Kubota; Kazuki Mochizuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally i...

  13. Environmental, institutional, and demographic predictors of environmental literacy among middle school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T Stevenson

    Full Text Available Building environmental literacy (EL in children and adolescents is critical to meeting current and emerging environmental challenges worldwide. Although environmental education (EE efforts have begun to address this need, empirical research holistically evaluating drivers of EL is critical. This study begins to fill this gap with an examination of school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student attributes (age, gender, and ethnicity, and school attributes (socio-economic status, student-teacher ratio, and locale. Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered school-wide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that school-wide EE programs were not associated with improved EL, but the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a strategy that may improve all key components of student EL. Further, investments in teacher development and efforts to maintain enthusiasm for EE among teachers with more than 5 years of experience may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially among black and

  14. Environmental, institutional, and demographic predictors of environmental literacy among middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kathryn T; Peterson, M Nils; Bondell, Howard D; Mertig, Angela G; Moore, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Building environmental literacy (EL) in children and adolescents is critical to meeting current and emerging environmental challenges worldwide. Although environmental education (EE) efforts have begun to address this need, empirical research holistically evaluating drivers of EL is critical. This study begins to fill this gap with an examination of school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student attributes (age, gender, and ethnicity), and school attributes (socio-economic status, student-teacher ratio, and locale). Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered school-wide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years) were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black) was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that school-wide EE programs were not associated with improved EL, but the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a strategy that may improve all key components of student EL. Further, investments in teacher development and efforts to maintain enthusiasm for EE among teachers with more than 5 years of experience may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially among black and Hispanic

  15. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  16. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  17. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate that the

  18. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  19. Students Environmental Awareness of Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatiningsih Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA, put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13. A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.

  20. Environmental Literacy Comparison between Students Taught in Eco-Schools and Ordinary Schools in the Madeira Island Region of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, H.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of environmental education is to improve environmental literacy, including not just more knowledge but also a better attitude toward the environment and a higher prevalence of pro-environmental behaviours. The Eco-School Program is considered the world largest environmental education program for schools, but it keeps growing without…

  1. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  2. To what extent do school leaders in Slovenia understand physical school environments as a learning factor?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cencic, Majda

    2017-01-01

    .... It is generally believed that the staff model their behavior on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff...

  3. Factors Affecting Underweight and Obesity Among Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, GyuYoung; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors associated with underweight and obesity in elementary school children in Korea. Study participants included 4,895 children attending 59 elementary schools across Korea. Children were grouped into underweight [behavior of children, and environmental characteristics of schools. Twelve percent of the children were overweight or obese. The results showed that demographic (age and gender), health status (atopic dermatitis and poor subjective health), and the characteristics of diet and exercise (unbalanced diet and diet experiences) were associated with underweight (p behavioral characteristics (fast food consumption and diet experiences), and school environmental characteristics (rural area) were associated with overweight/obesity (p elementary schools must consider behavioral and environmental characteristics of children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions as predictors of active commuting behaviour in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, J R; Jones, A P; van Sluijs, E M F; Griffin, S J

    2010-01-01

    Environmental perceptions appear to play a role in determining behaviour in children, although their influence on active commuting remains unclear. This study examines whether attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions are associated with active commuting behaviour in school children and whether these associations are moderated by the distance to school. Data were collected as part of the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people), a cross-sectional study of 2064 children from schools in Norfolk, UK. Data regarding the usual mode of travel to school, attitudes towards and social support for active commuting, perceptions of the neighbourhood and route to school were assessed using questionnaires completed by 2012 children and their parents. Distance to school was estimated using a Geographic Information System and this was used to compare associations between personal and environmental factors and active travel, across different distance categories. Forty per cent of children reported usually walking to school, with 9% cycling and the remainder using motorised travel. Parental attitudes and safety concerns, the presence of social support from parents and friends and parent-reported neighbourhood walkability were all found to be predictors of active commuting, with children receiving peer and family support and living in supportive environments being more likely to walk or cycle. There was some evidence of a moderating effect of distance whereby attitudes were more important for short distances and safety concerns long. Both attitudinal and environmental perceptions are associated with children's active commuting behaviours. Given the difficulty in modifying attitudes directly, the effect on them of interventions to provide more supportive environments should be evaluated.

  5. Severe bullying risk factors in three Peruvian highland private schools

    OpenAIRE

    Amemiya, Isabel; Departamento Académico de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Oliveros, Miguel; Departamento Académico de Pediatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Barrientos, Armando; Ingeniero Estadístico. Unidad de Investigación, Instituto de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify severe bullying risk factors in three highland Peruvian zones private school students. Design: Survey type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Fifth elementary school to fifth high school private school students. Interventions: A survey validated in previous studies to identify school violence (bullying) was applied to 736 students from Ayacucho, Huancavelica and Cusco (Sicuani) private schools between...

  6. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  7. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  8. Environmental effects on school age child psychomotricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, A C; Mancini, S; Zuffellato, S; Bini, F; Polcaro, P; Conti, A A; Molino Lova, R; Macchi, C

    2008-06-01

    This study had the following aims: to verify whether children living in different environmental areas present a different development degree of the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity; to test whether a targeted psychomotricity education program could favourably modify the potential differences which may be observed; to investigate the relationship, if any, between the anthropometric differences and the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity. One hundred and sixty-five Italian children, 83 males and 82 females, 6-7 years old were enrolled in this study. Based on the provenance area, the children were subdivided into two groups: the urban one (N=85) and the rural one (N=80). Both groups underwent an initial psychomotor assessment including standardised psychomotor tests aimed at evidencing the general dynamic coordination ability and the static and dynamic balance capacity of every child. The findings of this research point out that children living in an urban setting selectively showed a lower degree of balance development, if compared to children living in rural areas; a targeted psychomotor education program favourably modified the differences in the balance development between the two examined groups, up to their disappearance. In the urban group the body mass index had a trend towards a negative relationship with balance development. Children grown up in an urban environment showed a delay in balance development, if compared to children of the same age grown up in rural areas. This study also clearly proves that such a delay may be regained by means of a targeted psychomotor education program.

  9. Environmental factors in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2014-08-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Environmental Factors in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tr...

  11. Environmental Considerations toward the Provision of Conducive Learning Environments in Nigerian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Adeyemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning, which is the expected outcome of any educational institution, can be influenced by many factors that include environmental factors. This study is aimed at comparing the learning environment of junior secondary schools, in a North-western state of Nigeria, with established standards in some other countries. Four government-owned and four private owned schools participated in the study. Environmental variables such as classroom temperature, noise level, lighting and classroom size were all evaluated using standard equipment. Using statistical analytical tools, such as descriptive and comparison of means, the result shows that classroom lighting, noise and temperature do not meet the established standards. The noise level in all the schools was above the recommended maximum comfort noise level of 40 dB(A but still below noise harmfulness level of 85dB. The lighting in the classes was also not sufficient based on international recommendations of 300 Lux. The temperature in the classrooms is significantly higher than the acceptable level of 18-28°C. Although public schools have significantly larger classrooms than private schools, they have a smaller space/pupil ratio because of larger population. There is need to improve the building design of schools so that they might aid learning among the children.

  12. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and Serono Symposia International was convened to examine the evidence of a secular trend, identify potential environmental factors of concern, and identify research needs regarding environmental factors and puberty timing at "The...

  13. Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off the Light House Beach, Lagos, Nigeria. ... hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton components reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic and oceanic environment. Keywords: Physico-chemistry, micro-algae, sea, Lighthouse Beach, Atlantic Ocean ...

  14. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...

  15. Local environment and social factors in primary school children's afterschool commute in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zacharias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid decline in young children's active commutes to and from school has prompted investigations into ways to raise activity levels. The period after school is recognized as very important in the daily activity regime of primary school children. In this study, we examine the relative effects of local environmental factors and socio-economic status on children's after-school commute mode choice. Environmental factors are pedestrian priority streets, street intersection density, motorways, shops, and play spaces. Property values are used as a proxy for income. Twenty-four school districts are selected using intersection density and motorway length as criteria. All children's exit behaviors were film-recorded on October weekdays and extracted as four choices–alone, in a group of children, on foot with a parent or guardian, on e-bike driven by an adult. A multinomial logistic regression reveals that gated communities, higher priced housing, motorways and bus stops are associated with children accompanied by adults. The presence of pedestrian streets is associated with children travelling alone and in groups. Greater travel distance is also associated with parents accompanying children on foot or on e-bike. The amount of play space is associated with children leaving school in groups. Overall, social and environmental factors are influential in the independent travel of primary school children after the school day ends in south China.

  16. Dietary Factors Associated To Obesity In Ahwaz Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.

  17. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  18. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenghu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  19. Assessing the Status of Environmental Education in Illinois Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Young

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One-thousand Illinois elementary teachers received a survey intended to assess the amount and manner in which they included environmental education in the classroom during the 2005 academic year. Over 91% of respondents (n = 234 said that they taught about the environment at least once during the school year, yet most students were only exposed to 22 to 100 minutes during that year. Of the teachers that included environmental education, 49% said they did so because of personal interest in the environment; 47% of the teachers that excluded it said the reason was because of a lack of class time.

  20. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  1. To what Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Cenčič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff will also do so. To discover how school leaders assess the school environment as a factor of learning, 150 school leaders in primary education in Slovenia were invited to complete an online questionnaire. They were asked about their views regarding to what extent their school as physical environment encouraged certain factors. Fourteen listed factors were assessed on five-point numeric scales. The results show that in their school environment, school leaders assessed ecology, movement, and respect the highest, and feelings, imagination, and space the lowest. Their estimates of the assessed factors differ depending on the type of school building (new, old, renovated only on the factors of movement, creativity, and logic and mathematics in favour of old schools. The results provide interesting information especially for school policy and everyone involved in the planning, building, or renewal of school premises.

  2. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public University Students in South-West, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2017) > ... The study specifically investigates the school organizational climate, curriculum ...

  3. Intrapersonal, Behavioral, and Environmental Factors Associated With Meeting Recommended Physical Activity Among Rural Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thompson, Beti

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 360 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level. PMID:22109778

  4. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria

    2010-01-01

    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  5. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  6. TCOPPE school environmental audit tool: assessing safety and walkability of school environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanam; Kim, Hyung Jin; Dowdy, Diane M; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-09-01

    Several environmental audit instruments have been developed for assessing streets, parks and trails, but none for schools. This paper introduces a school audit tool that includes 3 subcomponents: 1) street audit, 2) school site audit, and 3) map audit. It presents the conceptual basis and the development process of this instrument, and the methods and results of the reliability assessments. Reliability tests were conducted by 2 trained auditors on 12 study schools (high-low income and urban-suburban-rural settings). Kappa statistics (categorical, factual items) and ICC (Likert-scale, perceptual items) were used to assess a) interrater, b) test-retest, and c) peak vs. off-peak hour reliability tests. For the interrater reliability test, the average Kappa was 0.839 and the ICC was 0.602. For the test-retest reliability, the average Kappa was 0.903 and the ICC was 0.774. The peak-off peak reliability was 0.801. Rural schools showed the most consistent results in the peak-off peak and test-retest assessments. For interrater tests, urban schools showed the highest ICC, and rural schools showed the highest Kappa. Most items achieved moderate to high levels of reliabilities in all study schools. With proper training, this audit can be used to assess school environments reliably for research, outreach, and policy-support purposes.

  7. Investigating the Impact of Environmental Factors on Learning and Academic Achievement of Elementary Students: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The learning environment dramatically affects the learning outcomes of students. Schools' open space and noise, inappropriate temperature, insufficient light, overcrowded classes, misplaced boards and inappropriate classroom layout all make up factors that could be confounding variables distracting students in class. This study was conducted to examine the Investigating the impact of environmental factors(schools' open space, noise, lighting and painted in educational institutions on learning and academic achievement of elementary students. Survey of literature data from Iran Medex, Magiran, Iran Journal, SID, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge. Database without language restriction, since 2000 sources, with the MeSH term "Impact of schools' open space and Noise and Lighting and Painted Educational Institutions on Learning and Academic Achievement of Elementary Students". At first, 252 articles were found by searching thoroughly in the databases among which 39 articles were selected according to the medical education experts’ advices. Analysis of data extraction and quality evaluation of the Literature were performed independently by two investigators. The results showed that noise in educational institutions has a negative and appropriate coloring, lighting of educational environment and schools' open space has impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students. Our results suggest that educational managers of country must consider environmental factors in designing educational environments.

  8. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of the effects of the combined influences of environmental factors on cow productivity depended on the physiological stage of animal growth and reproduction. Environmental effects on production efficiency were buffered by maternal effects at birth, but became more significant after weaning (9%) to yearling age ...

  9. Contributions Of Environmental And Haematological Factors To The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contributions of environmental and haematological factors to the distributions of Eustrongylides africanus larvae in Clarias gariepinus and C. anguillaris from Bida floodplain of Nigeria were investigated. Five environmental (rainfall, soil pH, water conductivity, sunshine and silt-clay) and four haematological (mean ...

  10. Environmental, Technological and Socio-Cultural Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined various factors influencing appr opriateness of technological innovations among rural women for improved agricultural productivity in Nigeria.. The framework was formulated through a thorough literature search on the concept of agricultural technology, appropriate technology for rural women and ...

  11. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... Environmental factors significantly influenced all production traits measured for ... pH, phosphorus and soil organic carbon content. ..... intake (Collier et al., 2005), which may result in a negative energy balance (Bernabuccil.

  12. Influence of a Non-Formal Environmental Education Programme on Junior High-School Students; Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben Zvi; Shaharabani, Dina

    2013-01-01

    One of the solutions implemented by schools for conducting value-based environmental education (EE) is outsourcing: allocating external environmental organizations that develop and conduct EE programmes. This study addressed such a programme--the Green Council Programme (GCP)--developed and implemented in schools by the Israeli Society for…

  13. School and Community Factors Involved in Chilean Students' Perception of School Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Torres-Vallejos, Javier; Villalobos-Parada, Boris; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Ascorra, Paula; Bilbao, Marian; Morales, Macarena; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Identifying and understanding predictors of school safety perceptions is important due to its consequences for students. However, it is not clear what school-related factors most contribute to explaining students' perception of school safety, and how they relate to community-related factors such as neighborhood safety. The purpose of this study…

  14. Environmental education as part of compulsory education at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Boyanka

    2013-04-01

    Environmental education in schools is an element of civic education and skills, the students should learn in school. This is part of the state and public order in the school and as such lies in the mandatory training documentation for various objects from the natural and social sciences. With the idea to help teachers in this activity in recent years with teachers, students, and government and municipal authorities had organized a number of activities aimed at: 1. Targeted analysis of curricula for middle school and increase their knowledge and professional competence of teachers towards the standards set forth by the state educational requirements, analysis shows that knowledge is competencies aimed at environmental education of young people are out (to varying degrees) in significant part of the subjects taught in secondary schools - man and society, and man and nature (in early stages) Geography (including the risks associated with natural - causes and effects), Biology and Health Education, Chemistry and protection of the environment, physics and astronomy, history and civilization and interdisciplinary civic education field. 2. Seminar courses to acquire skills to conduct interactive activities with students and in conjunction with textbooks (Green Package, Natura 2000, WSP, Flupi for a better environment). 3. Visits interesting and protected areas and objects by exploring opportunities for outings with students. 4. Conducting workshops and classes using the provided tools, techniques and interesting games aimed at awareness of the need for care and attention to our surroundings. 5. Organizing and conducting competitions between students from schools in our city, usually associated with the most popular day - Earth Day, World Day for Environmental Protection, Day of Danube). 6. Participation in outdoor activities - studying the structure and features of parks hometown, Work shop for making objects from natural materials and waste materials; race making ikebana

  15. Review of environmental factors affecting hearing.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, J H; Going, J A

    1982-01-01

    The major nongenetic causes of sensorineural hearing loss are exposure to noise, aging, ototoxic drugs, viral and bacterial infections, and interactions between these factors. Regarding exposure to continuous noise, the data base from laboratory and field studies indicates that a risk of hearing loss is present when noise levels exceed 75-80 dBA. As noise level, duration and number of exposures increase so does risk. The data base for other forms of noise (intermittent, impact) is not as esta...

  16. Assessing High School Students’ Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, N.; Agustin, R. R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to reveal students’ pro-environmental behavior in a High School. Self-reported behavior assessment was administered in this study involving students with age range 15 to 18 years. Pro-environmental behavior in this study comprises six domains. Those are recycling, waste avoidance, consumerism, energy conservation, mobility and transportation, and vicarious conservation behavior. Pro-environmental behavior (PEB) of science class students was compared to behavior of non-science class students. Effect of students’ grade level and extracurricular activity on the behavior was evaluated. Study revealed that science could improve students’ PEB. It is because environmental topics are covered in science class. Student’s involvement in extracurricular activity may enhance PEB as well. In conclusion, students’ PEB is influenced by class program (science or non-science) but it is not influenced by time length in learning science. This finding could be consider by science educator in choosing strategy to enhance student’s pro-environmental behaviour.

  17. Rating of Stress Factors in Delta State Secondary Schools, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of school-community relations, schools should identify themselves of their host communities as may be within their reach. Keywords: Human Resources Development, Rating, Stress Factors, Secondary Schools, Nigeria International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 7 June ...

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Influence Physical Activity and Sport in Quebec Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Lebel, Alexandre; Robitaille, Éric; Bisset, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Background: School environments providing a wide selection of physical activities and sufficient facilities are both essential and formative to ensure young people adopt active lifestyles. We describe the association between school opportunities for physical activity and socioeconomic factors measured by low-income cutoff index, school size…

  19. Influential Factors on Students' Vocational Aspiration in Turkish Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentli, Fulya Damla

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the fifth grade elementary school students' vocational aspiration and the factors affecting it. The sample consisted of 115 students in 20 elementary public schools with whom face-to- face interviews were conducted. The findings showed that engineering, medical doctor, and school teachers were the most frequently mentioned…

  20. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  1. From sedentary to active school commute: Multi-level factors associated with travel mode shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanam; Yoon, Jeongjae; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has examined personal, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, but most were cross-sectional and mode choice studies. This exploratory case study utilized a retrospective natural experiment opportunity, where a group of students transferred to a new school, and therefore experienced changes in their home-to-school travel environments. It examined whether such changes led to mode shifts from sedentary (car or school bus) to active (walking and bicycling) and what factors were associated with those shifts. Retrospective parental survey data (n=165, response rate=46%) were collected in 2011 from a new elementary school that opened in 2010 in Austin, Texas. The survey asked about the child's school travel mode and parental perceptions of home-to-school travel environments before and after the transfer, as well as personal and social factors. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to predict the odds of shifting from sedentary to active modes, using personal, social, and physical environmental variables. Sixty-eight (41.2%) respondents reported a sedentary-to-active mode shift for school commuting. Such shifts were associated with changes in school travel environments (e.g., shorter travel distance, improved safety, and decreased availability of bike lanes/paths) and relevant programs/services (e.g., increase in walking-promotion programs, and decrease in school bus service due to shortened distances). Targeting the current sedentary mode users is important to bring health benefits through increased physical activity and environmental benefits from reduced automobile use. Sedentary-to-active mode shifts may be encouraged by providing walking-promotion programs and by reducing travel distances and safety threats en route to school. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Brook

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors in hypospadias.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, C; Alembik, Y; Roth, M P; Dott, B

    1990-01-01

    A case control study of hypospadias was performed from 1979 to 1987 in Alsace, north-eastern France. A total of 176 out of 60 847 male infants had hypospadias giving a prevalence at birth of 2.89 per 1000 male newborns; 15.3% of all infants with hypospadias also had other malformations. Renal and urinary tract malformations were present in 37.0% of the infants with hypospadias and other additional malformations. None of the numerous aetiological factors which were studied was correlated with ...

  4. Environmental Health in the School Setting: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…

  5. Joint en Environmental Promotion from the Triad: School, Family, Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Del Rosario Mejías Vetancourt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research has as main objective to generate a theoretical approach of the Joint Environmental Promotion from the Triad: School, Family, Community Primary School "Cinqueña III" town Barinas state of Barinas. The nature of this research is supported by the phenomenological qualitative approach critical partner paradigm. Key informants were considered five (05, which were chosen at the discretion of the investigator, according to the actors who are considered binding: a manager, a teacher, a representative, a member of the school board, a member of the community council. Among the techniques of information collection are: participant observation and qualitative depth interview. As techniques for analyzing information categorization, coding and triangulation, accompanied by descriptive and interpretative phase it is contemplated. Then, a comparative matrix is made to analyze the information collected and shall determine the findings as a result of addressing the issue of research in the Basic School Cinqueña III, municipality of Barinas Barinas state.

  6. Basic Information About School Siting Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's voluntary school siting guidelines provide recommendations for local school districts and community members on how to evaluate environmental factors to make the best possible school siting decisions.

  7. Students' Perceptions of Factors That Contribute to Risk and Success in Accelerated High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Roth, Rachel A.; Fefer, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we investigated 15 successful and 15 struggling high school students, perceived stressors, coping strategies, and intrapersonal and environmental factors that students perceive to influence their success in college-level courses. We found that students' primary sources of stress involved meeting numerous academic demands…

  8. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  9. Forest Schools and environmental attitudes: A case study of children aged 8–11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Turtle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a “pro-environmental” attitude. The study identified that there was a statistically significant difference in environmental attitude between groups of children that had participated in a Forest Schools programme and those that had not participated, with children who have taken part in Forest Schools demonstrating a more pro-environmental attitude. Whilst it is recognised that Forest Schools may not be the only factor influencing these attitudes, this is still an important finding that adds to the overall benefits of participation in Forest Schools programmes.

  10. Individual- and School-Level Factors Related to School-Based Salad Bar Use Among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruance, Lori Andersen; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Rose, Donald; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2017-02-01

    Consumption levels of fruits and vegetables (F/V) among children/adolescents are low. Programs like school-based salad bars (SB) provide children/adolescents increased F/V access. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SB use and individual and school-level factors among elementary and secondary school students in New Orleans public schools. Twelve schools receiving SB units from the Let's Move Salad Bars to Schools Campaign participated in this study. Self-reported data were collected from students ( n = 1,012), administrators ( n = 12), and food service staff ( n = 37). School environmental data were obtained through direct observation. Generalized estimating equation regression methods were used to develop a multilevel model including both school-level (e.g., length of lunchtime, SB marketing, vending machines) and individual-level (e.g., sex, food preferences, nutrition knowledge) effects. Female students had higher odds of using the SB compared to males. Students with healthier food preferences had higher odds of using the SB than those who reported less healthy food preferences. Within the multilevel model for all students, only sex and healthy food preferences remained significant. In a multilevel model assessing secondary students only, student encouragement toward others for healthy eating and school-based SB marketing were significantly related to SB use. Little research has examined factors related to school-based SB use. These findings suggest recommendations that may help improve student use of SBs. For example, increasing the promotion of SB, particularly in secondary schools, might encourage their use among students.

  11. Family history and environmental risk factors for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Esteve; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    We analyzed the joint effect of environmental risk factors and family history of colorectal cancer on colon cancer. We used data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1992 and 1996 including 1225 cases with colon cancer and 4154 controls. We created a weighed risk factor score for the main environmental risk factors in this population (positive family history, high education, low occupational physical activity, high daily meal frequency, low intake of fiber, low intake of calcium, and low intake of beta-carotene). Compared with the reference category (subjects with no family history of colorectal cancer and in the lowest tertile of the risk factor score), the odds ratios of colon cancer were 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.89-2.73] for subjects without family history and in the highest environmental risk factor score, 3.20 (95% CI = 2.05-5.01) for those with family history and low risk factor score, and 7.08 (95% CI = 4.68-10.71) for those with family history and high risk factor score. The pattern of risk was similar for men and women and no meaningful differences emerged according to subsite within the colon. Family history of colorectal cancer interacts with environmental risk factors of colon cancer.

  12. Environmental Factors in China's Financial Accounting Development since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zhang (Guohua)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and

  13. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  14. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Boopathi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins.

  15. The Integration of Pedagogical Aspects in Environmental Management Systems in Selected South African Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyimba, Alex; Richter, Barry; Raath, Schalk

    2015-01-01

    Environmental management systems implemented in schools are regarded by many as a mechanism for the integration of environmental matters in all the operational functions of the school. The links, however, between environmental management and curriculum practice have not been adequately addressed in the literature. This article reports on the…

  16. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  17. Permaculture: an alternative approach for environmental education in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Rangel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The term sustainability is important for the comprehension of how Environmental Education and practices of Permaculture can be used as tools of education. Permaculture is characterized as a system for planning and creation, in a harmonic manner, of productive, sustainable and ecologic environments. The goal of this paper is to evaluate permaculture’s practices efficiency as a tool of environmental education and mechanism of integration between the human being and the environment. The project was developed in a school of municipal education system located in the rural part of Ituiutaba, State of Minas Gerais, involving 40 people directly. Students and staff participated taking to school plants that are part of their everyday life, in other words, that have cultural value for their community. The integration between students, staff and the remaining residents was noticed mainly when everyone got involved in developing the vegetable garden, showing the aggregating potential through joint actions that such activities allow. The unity and estimation of one’s own living place bring the feeling of belonging and the improvement of ambiance, important aspects for the improvement of people’s, that live far from urban centers, life quality.

  18. Schools In Board - Bridging Arctic Research And Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. G.; Barber, L.

    2008-12-01

    Schools on Board (www.arcticnet.ulaval.ca) was created in 2002 to address the outreach objectives of a network of Canadian scientists conducting research in the High Arctic. The program was piloted with great success with the 2004 research program called the Canadian Arctic Shelf Study (CASES). Since then, the S/B program continues as an integral outreach program of the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) known as ArcticNet. The primary objective of the program is to bridge Arctic climate change research with science and environmental education in the public school system. It is a vehicle for scientists and graduate students to share their research program with high schools and the general public. The program encourages schools to include Arctic Sciences into their science programs by linking Arctic research to existing curriculum, providing resources and opportunities to send high school students and teachers into the Arctic to participate in a science expedition on board the Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. The field program is an adventure into Arctic research that exposes students and teachers to the objectives and methods of numerous science teams representing a number of research disciplines and institutions from across Canada and beyond. Face-to-face interactions with scientists of all levels (masters, PhD's, researchers, CRC chairs), hands-on experiences in the field and in the labs, and access to state-of-the-art scientific instrumentation, combine to create a powerful learning environment. In addition to hands-on research activities the program introduces participants to many aspects of Canada's North, including local knowledge related to climate change, culture, history, and politics - within the educational program on the ship and the planned visits to Northern communities. During International Polar Year (IPY) Schools on Board collaborated with international researchers and northern agencies from 11 countries to offer one

  19. Psychosocial Factors Predicting School Violence Tendencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that all the Psychological variables (Self efficacy, social competence and Socialization) showed significant joint prediction of school violence tendency among students of tertiary institution in 50% of the cases. Age groups, religion as well as sex were also found to have significant influence on school ...

  20. Aphid incidence and its correlation with different environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, M.R; Ahmad, M.; Rahman, M.H; Haque, M.A

    2009-01-01

    The aphid incidence and its correlation with environmental factors were studied. Mustard variety “Sampad” was used as test crop. Aphid incidence varied significantly at various parts of mustard plant and time of the day. The highest number of aphid was observed in the vegetative parts of the mustard plant in the morning. High cloudiness, relative humidity and dew point favoured the aphid population and slight rain fall quickly declined the aphid population. Among the different environmental f...

  1. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  2. Influence of the level of teachers' environmental awareness on the level of pupils' environmental awareness at the selected schools in the Žatec region

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Silvie

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is focused on an assessing the impact of the level of an environmental literacy of primary school teachers to the level of the environmental literacy of pupils in primary schools in the region Zatec. This work continues on a thesis Silvie Svobodové (2013) The influence of environmental education at the level of environmental literacy of pupils in primary schools Zatec region and complements the conclusions on the extent of influence of environmental education on environmental aware...

  3. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Correia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses the factors internal to the organization, which affect the activity of environmental scanning, understood here as the information seeking activity of managers, directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness". The main relationships among them are also analysed. These factors were identified in the course of research aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process (Correia & Wilson, 1996. The methodology used - a case-study approach coupled with the grounded theory method of qualitative analysis - was of major importance in obtaining information that is grounded largely on the personal experience of managers.

  4. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  5. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-05-14

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  6. School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and…

  7. Factors discouraging students from schooling: A case study at Junior Secondary School in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanthaboun Keoviphone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at exploring and describing the factors discouraging Laos students from schooling at a secondary school in various contexts such as  classroom and school, individual student, family, and community contexts. Descriptive qualitative approach was used, and the framework of the study was formulated around the aspects of school and classroom situation, principal’s management process, teachers’ teaching organization and performance, parents’ involvement and perception, and community’s involvement and perception. The data were collected through observation, document analysis, and interview from 10 students, six teachers, one principal, one vice principal at Phonsyneua Junior Secondary School, and seven parents whose children were studying at this school. The finding shows that among the factors involved in students’ schooling at secondary school, several factors discourage them. The teachers’ performances were not perfect yet and some students’ competency was not qualified enough. The students’ parents were not highly committed and involved in their children’s schooling. The community had little trust in schooling since they perceived that schooling costs a lot of money. To improve these discouraging factors, several actions should be taken into consideration. The principal should ask all the teachers to communicate the vision and missions to the students, or the vision and mission should be published and socialized in the school. The observations on teachers’ instruction should be done by both the principal and senior teachers.

  8. Targeting School Factors that Contribute to Youth Alienation: Focused School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores students at risk of academic non-completion. Schools and school counselors need to target the factors which put students at risk of academic non-completion to reduce the number of adolescents feeling a sense of alienation from school, from educators, and from learning. The construct of student alienation is examined based on…

  9. Plant Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Gratani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to heterogeneity in the environment where new stress factors (i.e., climate change, land use change, and invasiveness are introduced, and where inter- and intraspecies differences may reflect resource limitation and/or environmental stress factors. Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. Nevertheless, the extent to which phenotypic plasticity may facilitate survival under environmental condition changes still remains largely unknown because results are sometimes controversial. Thus, it is important to identify plant functional traits in which plasticity may play a determinant role in plant response to global change as well as on the ecological consequences at an ecosystem level for the competition between wild and invasive species, considering that species with a greater adaptive plasticity may be more likely to survive in novel environmental conditions. In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change. There is the necessity to analyze variations at phenotypic and genetic levels for the same species and, in particular, for endemic and rare species because these could have drastic effects at an ecosystem level.

  10. Effect of environmental stress factors on ectomycorrhizal fungi in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenborg, A.; Schmitz, D.; Lelley, J. (Research Inst. of Mushroom Cultivation, Krefeld (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    The reaction of various ectomycorrhizal fungi to environmental stress factors was examined in a screening program. Tolerance to acid and heavy metals, resistance to antagonists, and reactions to automobile exhaust fumes were tested. Differences in reaction between the several ectomycorrhizal species and strains were observed. These results confirm that the susceptibility of ectomycorrhizal fungi to environmental stress factors varies from species to species, but also from strain to strain within a species. Pure culture synthesis with Picea abies showed the symbiotic potential of the selected fungi. 45 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Student, Home, and School Socio-Demographic Factors: Links to School, Home, and Community Arts Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…

  12. Role of environmental and genetic factors in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Sultana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the environmental as well as genetic factors responsible for increasing the number of autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients in Bangladesh. A questionnaire was developed based on 12 environmental factors and genetic aspects. Sixty six patients of ASD and 66 non-ASD control were selected randomly. Among the environmental factors, the age of the mother, premature birth, air pollution, age of the father, hypoxia during childbirth and oral contraceptive came out as significant (p<0.05 factors for ASD incidence compared to the control. Association of multiple factors on an individual was found to be crucial to enhance the risk and exposure to five and six factors was statistically significant (p<0.05 for ASD development. Prospective parents should try to keep the number of risk factors as low as possible before 1-2 months of pregnancy, during pregnancy and 1-2 years after the child birth (for child only.

  13. Multivariate genetic analysis of lifetime exercise and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Riitta; Levälahti, Esko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Videman, Tapio; Battié, Michele C

    2004-09-01

    We investigated whether the association between exercise and individual-specific factors that correlate with exercise may be explained by genetic or common environmental factors. Lifetime exercise data were available from 147 MZ and 153 DZ adult male twin pairs with a mean age of 50 yr (SD = 8 yr). The best-fitting quantitative genetic model for adulthood exercise level consisted of additive genetic effects, genetic effects due to dominance and unique environment effects, with genetic effects explaining 51% (95% CI = 29-63%) of the variance. Factors associated with adulthood exercise level were adolescent exercise, participation in competitive sports, perceived health, smoking status, and percent body fat. In bivariate models, approximately half of the covariation between those factors and adulthood exercise level was accounted for by unique environmental effects (i.e., factors not shared by the co-twins). Additive genetic effects explained less (3-20%) than dominance genetic effects (23-53%) of the covariation between those factors and adulthood exercise. Shared environmental effects were present only in the bivariate model of adulthood and adolescent exercise, explaining 11% of the covariance. : The genetic component shared in common by exercise and factors associated with exercise suggests that there may be a complex pathway of genetic selection and predisposition for a physically active lifestyle.

  14. Outcomes of a National Environmental Edutainment Program in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present results of the first longitudinal evaluation of a nation-wide environmental edutainment program. There has recently been rapid growth in curricula on the environment and climate change, yet few reach large and diverse audiences, and fewer still are evaluated. These results are from high schools participating in the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) program. ACE is a 3 year-old program that has reached 1.2 million students with an edutainment presentation incorporating music, multi-media, animation, and documentary footage (www.acespace.org). A projected 850 schools across 23 states will see the presentation this year; 6% of schools (3 classes each) are randomly selected to be evaluated. The data described here were collected in Fall 2011 from 1,270 students in 21 schools; the full evaluation will be complete in May 2012. The sample is ethnically and socio-economically diverse — 29% are white, and 46% receive free/reduced lunches (a proxy for socio-economic status). Outcome measures included a test of climate knowledge and intentions to take (and to ask others to take) climate-related actions. The analyses examined direct effects of the ACE program on climate knowledge and intentions, as well as the moderating effects of student gender and age on learning. Before the ACE presentation, boys had significantly higher knowledge scores than girls (54% vs. 48% correct, respectively, p scores (64% and 63% correct, respectively) and no longer differed from each other in this respect. Before the presentation, girls expressed significantly greater intentions to take climate-related actions than did boys. Afterward, intentions increased significantly in both groups, but the gap between girls and boys remained. The gap-closing pattern was somewhat different for the moderating variable of age. Before the presentation, knowledge and intentions were significantly higher among older students (11th- and 12th-graders) than among younger students (9th- and 10th

  15. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  16. Factors Affecting Academic Resilience in Middle School Students: A Case Study (Factores que Afectan la Resiliencia Académica en Estudiantes de Bachillerato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Flórez, Luisa Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out with the purpose of identifying how and which risk and protective factors affect academic outcomes. The study explored how different family and individual environmental factors foster academic resilience. The exploratory study took place with a group of six students from a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. The school…

  17. Sociological Factors Affecting Career Aspiration Level of High School Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Carole J.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the significant factors that affected career aspirations for high school seniors in a suburban school. It also analyzed differences in females' and minorities' college plans, diploma type, and changes in career aspirations from 1986 to 1996. The research design was a causal comparative statistical analysis replicating a 1986 study at the same school. In-depth investigations into female and minority aspirations were also expanded in this 1996 study. ...

  18. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...

  19. Environmental Pollutants as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel eChin-Chan; Juliana eNavarro-Yepes; Betzabet eQuintanilla-Vega

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment, from diet to the new nanomaterials as putative risk factors has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metal...

  20. Environmental and genetic factors in pediatric inflammatory demyelinating diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waubant, Emmanuelle; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Pugliatti, Maura; Hanwell, Heather; Mowry, Ellen M; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2016-08-30

    The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in childhood in about 5% of all patients with MS. The disease in adults has a complex genetic and environmental inheritability. One of the main risk factors, also confirmed in pediatric MS, is HLA DRB1*1501 In addition to genetic factors, a large part of disease susceptibility in adults is conferred by environmental risk factors such as low vitamin D status, exposure to cigarette smoking, and remote Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In children, both exposure to cigarette smoking and prior EBV infection have been reported consistently as risk factors for MS. The role of vitamin D remains to be confirmed in this age category. Finally, although very likely critical in disease processes, few gene-environment interactions and epigenetic changes have been reported for adult and pediatric MS susceptibility. Of interest, some of the risk factors for MS have also been associated with disease course modification, such as low 25(OH) vitamin D serum levels in pediatric and adult MS. Age is also a clear disease modifier of clinical, CSF, and MRI phenotype in children with the disease. Finally, although much has yet to be unraveled regarding molecular processes at play in MS, there is a larger gap in our knowledge of genetic and environmental risk factors for pediatric neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and only collaborative studies will answer those questions. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  2. [The influencing factors on alienation in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Sook

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.

  3. Effect of environmental factors on distribution of stream macroalgae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of environmental factors on distribution of ... the distribution of stream is widespread, but the research of stream algae was very poor (Shi et al., 2003; ..... and distribution of epilithic diatoms, macroalgae and macrophytes in a spring-fed stream system in Ontario, Canada.

  4. Cultural Factor in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nugraheni, Siwi

    2000-01-01

    Analisis mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) atau Environmental impact Assessment (EIA) merupakan salah satu cara menganalisis proyek pembangunan sebelum dilaksanakan, untuk mengetahui apakah proyek tersebut berpotensi merusak lingkungan. Dalam pelaksanannya, studi AMDAL sering tereduksi artinya menjadi analisis dan sisi lingkungan secara fisik, sementara itu factor social dan budaya masyarakat di lokasi proyek acapkali terabaikan. Makalah ini akan menyoroti tentang perlunya studi AMDAL memasu...

  5. Influence of some environmental factors on maize productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...

  6. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of breed and environmental factors such as season, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed on litter parameters of rabbits raised in a semi-humid environment was investigated using two hundred and twenty four (224) litter records collected between 1991 and 1997. New Zealand White ...

  7. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By knowing the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content of dairy cows, the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization can be improved. The main objectives of this study were to identify and quantify environmental factors affecting MUN in South African Holstein cows. This will enable better interpretation of MUN results by accounting ...

  8. Influence of environmental factors and salinity on phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of environmental factors and salinity on phosphate solubilization by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger F7 from agricultural soil. ... Presence of soluble phosphates, in terms of different concentrations of KH2PO4 supplemented in PVK agar media, suppressed TCP solubilization activity by F7. F7 showed different ...

  9. Environmental Factors that Determine Visual Skill Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: During the early years of life, children get most of their information by relying on their visual observation. Knowledge of visual skill development and environmental risk factors influencing it provides useful guide for early identification of children who may develop some form of visual impairment. Aim: The aim of ...

  10. relative effect of environmental factors, information literacy, course of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative effect of environmental factors, information literacy, course of study and resources availability to Students use of University .... and it is gaining more prominence nowadays that the nature of information in the libraries is ... information and communication technology (ICT) facilities available in most university libraries ...

  11. parasitology contributions of environmental factors to the estimations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    clay (x8), soil pH (x9), water temperature (x10), conductivity (x11), turbidity (x12), total dissolved solids. (x13), water pH (x14), dissolved oxygen (x15) and total phosphate content (x16),]. Results and Discussion. The correlated coefficient ® for sixteen environmental factors with the occurrences of Eustrongylides africanus.

  12. Environmental Factors that Determine Visual Skill Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Introduction: During the early years of life, children get most of their information by relying on their visual observation. Knowledge of visual skill development and environmental risk factors influencing it provides useful guide for early identification of children who may develop some form of visual impairment.

  13. Responses of Lens esculenta Moench to controlled environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Clair, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Many experiments were undertaken to study the responses of the lentil cultivars 'Large blonde' and 'Anicia' to controlled environmental factors. They covered different aspects of the physiology and the ecology of the crop.

    The orientation experiments (2) involved germination and

  14. Contribution of environmental factors to tillering and yield of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest (FARO 44) and the lowest (NERICA 7) yielding varieties were used for the study. Tiller number and yield obtained from the response of the two varieties to the environmental factors were correlated and path coefficients were computed. The results showed that day and night soil temperatures with atmospheric ...

  15. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to study the effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at ...

  16. Psychometric properties of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory Short Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballert, C.; Post, MWM; Brinkhof, M.W.; Reinhardt, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychometric properties of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory Short Form using Rasch analysis; to determine its construct validity and internal consistency; and to develop a metric for scoring. Design: Cross-sectional psychometric study. Construct validity of the

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of smoking among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of smoking and investigate factors that may influence smoking behaviour in secondary school students in Nairobi. Design: Cross-sectional survey in which a self-administered questionnaire was issued to the students. Setting: Sampled public and private secondary schools in Nairobi ...

  18. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore determined whether differences in age, gender and school factors influenced Ghanaian senior secondary school students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers. The descriptive research design was adopted for this study. A total of 2,000 students were selected from Forms 3 and 4 for the study.

  19. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  20. Reducing school related factors hindering girl-child equality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem addressed in this paper is the school based factor such as curriculum bias, sex stereotyping in learning materials, teachers and student factors which hinder girl-child access to quality education. It is observed that these factors impede the girl-child equality of access to quality education. To solve this problem it ...

  1. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Chindamo, Sonia; Buja, Alessandra; Forza, Giovanni; Tognazzo, Federica; Galasso, Laura; Vinelli, Angela; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2011-07-05

    Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.

  2. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasso Laura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.

  3. Identification and description of environmental factors that influence participation of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Svetozar I; Jarvis, Stephen N; Colver, Allan F; Beresford, Bryony

    2004-05-01

    Physical, social, and attitudinal environment may restrict participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Here we discuss existing/possible approaches in order to identify and describe this environment. We used a critical review of evidence from the World Health Organization Literature Review on Environmental Factors; a search of electronic databases; and talked to specialists in order to find unpublished papers and 'grey' literature. Both children with disabilities and their parents identified a range of barrier and facilitator factors. These included psychosocial pressures (family, school), financial difficulties, and inadequate public services. Observational studies suggest that building structure, loss of income, and provision of specific equipment have a direct impact on levels of child participation. Some available instruments attempt to capture environmental factors by client survey or objective measurement; most relate to adult contexts, but there are a few child-specific instruments for surveying attitudes of children to peers with disabilities and for observation of the school environment. Defining and measuring potential environmental determinants of participation for children with CP needs further development; and here we propose how this might be done.

  4. Familial influences on conduct disorder reflect 2 genetic factors and 1 shared environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Population-based twin registry. Virginia. Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environmental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single nonshared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators.

  5. Effective Factors in Enhancing School Manager's Job Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Khorshidi, Abbas; Mirzamani, S. Mahmoud; Esfahani, Hamideh Darb

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school manager's job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. Method For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The quest...

  6. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that depression, academic stress, and grade (second grade influence aggression. To decrease aggressive behavior, it is necessary to provide systematic and political programs in schools and local communities that can ameliorate negative emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression.

  7. Molecular aspects of rheumatoid arthritis: role of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Momohara, Shigeki; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disease that affects 0.5-1% of the population. RA causes progressive joint destruction that leads to the restriction of activities of daily living and deterioration of quality of life. Although the pathogenesis of RA has not yet been fully elucidated, it is considered to be a complex, multifarious disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic influences that contribute to RA susceptibility have been demonstrated both in studies of twins and families, as well as in genome-wide linkage scans, and it is estimated that genetic factors are responsible for 50-60% of the risk of developing RA. Thus, environmental factors may explain the remaining risk of developing RA. A large variety of environmental factors such as infectious agents, smoking, sex hormones, pregnancy etc. have been extensively studied previously. Understanding of how these factors contribute to the development of RA may lead to the better understanding of pathogenesis of RA.

  8. Junior High School Students’ Perception about Simple Environmental Problem as an Impact of Problem based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    Environmental problem is a real problem that occur in student’s daily life. Junior high school students’ perception about environmental problem is interesting to be investigated. The major aim of this study is to explore junior high school students’ perception about environmental problems around them and ways to solve the problem. The subject of this study is 69 Junior High School Students from two Junior High School in Bandung. This study use two open ended question. The core of first question is environmental problem around them (near school or house). The core of second question is the way to prevent or to solve the problem. These two question are as an impact of problem based learning in science learning. There are two major findings in this study. The first finding, based on most students’ perception, plastic waste cause an environmental problem. The second finding, environmental awareness can be a solution to prevent environmental pollution. The third finding, most student can classify environmental pollution into land, water and air pollution. We can conclude that Junior High School Students see the environmental problem as a phenomenon and teacher can explore environmental problem to guide the way of preventing and resolving environmental problem.

  9. Bio-environmental factors associated with myopia: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2017-07-01

    Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  11. Genetic, Maternal, and Environmental Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia Spencer; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    interactions that predispose to cryptorchidism, in view of multiple small effect genetic susceptibility loci, ubiquitous exposure to mixtures of EDCs, and possible epigenetic effects. The present review provides an update of potential genetic and environmental risk factors for cryptorchidism, and future work......Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism is an isolated anomaly in the majority of cases, with evidence to date suggesting that it is a complex disorder resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Population, family, and limited genome-wide association data suggest moderate...... genetic risk, multiple susceptibility loci, and a role for the maternal environment. Epidemiologic studies have identified low birth weight or intrauterine growth retardation as factors most strongly associated with cryptorchidism, with additional evidence suggesting that maternal smoking and gestational...

  12. DETERMINING FACTORS OF ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dorina BOGDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the current state of knowledge with respect to the three directions, this paper aims to identify the determining factors of economic, social and environmental performance and the manner in which the indicators reflected by these factors influence the overall performance of the organization, in order to identify the most important factors and indicators that provide a durable and sustainable growth of global performance. The emergence of the sustainable development and sustainability concepts has forced companies to reassess their approach of measuring organizational performance. If sustainable development consists of three components: economic prosperity, social equity and environmental integrity, all of which being closely correlated, the performance of a component is influencing the performances of the other two. A business can be defined as sustainable, if it manages to meet stakeholders’ needs without compromising its future ability to meet its own needs.

  13. Investigating factors associated with functional constipation of primary school children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Chan, Yuk Ling

    2010-12-01

    To examine what factors were associated with functional constipation amongst primary school students. Constipation in school-age children has also been brought to the attention of health care researchers because this requires long-term therapy. The prognosis of functional constipation is vague because it has many causative factors. In fact, the focus on constipation in the health care system is always placed on medical management, rather than prevention. A descriptive survey. The survey was conducted on March 2008 at one primary school in Hong Kong; 383 children who are studying in primary 3-5 aged from 8-10 completed a questionnaire. Three main outcome variables were employed in the study: demographic, constipation assessment scale and dietary and environmental factors. There were 7.3% students with functional constipation. Students who were age ∼10 (pstudents and their parents to cope with functional constipation, greater familiarity with its prevalence and the characteristics of its contributory factors is needed. It is hoped that this could providing a better understanding and awareness of this issue and that it will encourage setting up strategies to decrease the morbidity and diminish the negative consequences of functional constipation for primary school students. Nurses can act as advocators for primary school students, parents and school teachers in understanding and preventing functional constipation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of school classrooms: Case study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Aziz, Zalena Abdul; Isa, Mohd Hafizal Mohd

    2017-10-01

    Thermal Comfort is one of the key criteria for occupants' comfort and productivity in a building. In schools, it is vital for a conduciveness for teaching and learning environment. Thermal comfort is dependent on air temperature, humidity, radiation, internal lighting, air movement, activities, clothing and climatic change and is part of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) components which have has significant effects on occupants. The main concern over energy and running cost has meant that most public schools in Malaysia are designed for natural ventilation and not air-conditioning. The building envelope plays a significant role in reducing the radiant heat and keeps the interior cooler than the outdoor temperature for acceptable thermal comfort level. The requirement of Industrial Building System (IBS) as the envelope system for school building in Malaysia could affect the role of envelope as a climate moderator. This paper is based on a research conducted on two schools in Malaysia of varied construction materials as the building envelopes to ascertain the thermal comfort level of the classrooms. Elements of IEQ such as air temperature, air movement, daylighting and noise level were taken of various classrooms to fulfill the required objectives of determining the level of quality. The data collected and analysed from the study shows that in terms of air temperature which range from 28°C to 34.5°C, the schools do not achieve the recommended comfort level for tropical climate. As for daylighting element, results also show that some classrooms suffered with too much glare whilst others had insufficient daylighting. The findings also show the unsatisfactory level of air movement in the classrooms as well as an unacceptable noise level exceeding the allowable threshold. This research also concluded that the use of materials and orientation in the school design are the major determinant factors towards good IEQ levels in school buildings.

  15. Does the nature of schools matter? An exploration of selected school ecology factors on adolescent perceptions of school connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stacey; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2010-09-01

    Connectedness to school is a significant predictor of adolescent health and academic outcomes. While individual predictors of connectedness have been well-described, little is known about school-level factors which may influence connectedness. A school's ecology, or its structural, functional, and built aspects, coupled with interpersonal interactions, may also help to enhance adolescent connectedness. This study aims to identify school ecological characteristics which predict enhanced connectedness in secondary school. Data from 5,159 Grade 8 students (12-13 years) from 39 randomly selected schools were tracked until the end of Grade 9 (13-14 years). Students' self-reported school, teacher, and family connectedness, mental health and peer relationships were measured at two time points. Accounting for school-level clustering, student- and school-level ecological characteristics were modelled on self-reported school connectedness in Grades 8 and 9. Students' higher school connectedness in Grades 8 and 9 was influenced by greater levels of family connectedness, fewer classroom and peer problems, less difficult secondary school transition, fewer emotional problems, and greater prosocial skills. Seven school-level ecological variables were significantly associated with school connectedness after controlling for student-level predictors. At the school-level, priority for pastoral care and students' aggregated writing skills scores significantly predicted concurrent and future enhanced connectedness. Interventions to improve students' school connectedness should address individual student characteristics and school functional features such as pastoral care strategies and helping students to achieve greater academic outcomes. Future studies should focus on the cumulative longitudinal influence of school ecological and student-level predictors of school connectedness.

  16. The Effect of Flemish Eco-Schools on Student Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Eco-schools aim to improve the environment through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects are those that result from the implementation of an environmental management system. Indirect effects are educational gains. The current study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning three student outcomes: (1) environmental knowledge, (2)…

  17. Assessment of Integrated Environmental Management in Public and Private Schools in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makisa, Kaponda

    2016-01-01

    Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…

  18. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  19. Associations between environmental characteristics and active commuting to school among children: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Mathijssen, J.J.J.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Active commuting to school can contribute to active living among children, and environmental characteristics might be related to transportation mode to school. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the association between physical and social environmental characteristics in

  20. Associations between environmental characteristics and active commuting to school among children : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school can contribute to active living among children, and environmental characteristics might be related to transportation mode to school. Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the association between physical and social environmental characteristics in the

  1. Making the Case for Sustainable K-12 School Environmental Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Kara; Utebay, Kudret; McArthur, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers resources to help a school or school district improve the environmental health and energy performance of its facilities, and in many cases, apply the savings generated through improved energy efficiency toward facility improvements, for the betterment of students, faculty, and staff. As an…

  2. Community-Based Environmental Monitoring Goes to School: Translations, Detours and Escapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Julianne; Eilam, Efrat; Fluker, Martin; Augar, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Community-school partnerships are an established practice within environmental science education, where a focus on how local phenomena articulate with broader environmental issues and concerns brings potential benefits for schools, community organisations and local communities. This paper contributes to our understanding of such educational…

  3. Intestinal microbiota is a plastic factor responding to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Maccaferri, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2012-08-01

    Traditionally regarded as stable through the entire lifespan, the intestinal microbiota has now emerged as an extremely plastic entity, capable of being reconfigured in response to different environmental factors. In a mutualistic context, these microbiome fluctuations allow the host to rapidly adjust its metabolic and immunologic performances in response to environmental changes. Several circumstances can disturb this homeostatic equilibrium, inducing the intestinal microbiota to shift from a mutualistic configuration to a disease-associated profile. A mechanistic comprehension of the dynamics involved in this process is needed to deal more rationally with the role of the human intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. School context protective factors against peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; You, Ji-In; Ma, Ting-Lan

    2012-03-01

    Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.

  5. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  6. Nurse burnout: personal and environmental factors as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Yanhui; Wang, Linlin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the level of burnout of clinical nurses and to examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on nurse burnout. A total of 717 full-time nurses from six hospitals in Tianjin, China, completed five questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Nurse Job Stressor Scale. The participants had moderate levels of emotional exhaustion (mean score 23.95 ± 11.11) and depersonalization (mean score 7.90 ± 6.58) and a high level of reduced personal accomplishment (mean score 27.51 ± 10.96). Both personal and environmental factors were correlated with nurse burnout; however, personal factors played bigger roles in predicting personal accomplishment, whereas environmental factors played bigger roles in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In order to reduce nurse job burnout effectively, administrators should pay more attention to the improvement of nurses' self-efficacy and professional nursing practice environment and the reduction of stressors. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Assessing Earth and Environmental Science Enrollment Trends in Texas Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan G.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study assesses the status of Earth and environmental sciences education in Texas Public High Schools by analyzing enrollment proportions of 11th and 12th grade students in 607 Independent School Districts (ISD) for the 2010-2011 academic school year using a quantitative, non-experimental alpha research design. This…

  8. New Life for An Old School: An Environmental Field Center Established in Perpetuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierloh, Jerry T.

    1982-01-01

    The New Jersey School of Conservation is a resident environmental field center located in Stokes State Forest in the Kittatinny Mountains of New Jersey. Discusses the school's history, philosophy, programs, and the passage of a 1981 state bill saving the school from closing and allowing it to continue "in perpetuity." (Author/JN)

  9. The Philosophies, Contents and Pedagogies of Environmental Education Programs in 10 Israeli Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Peled, Einat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to understand how environmental education has been implemented in Israeli elementary schools. We selected ten schools that had implemented Education for Sustainability programs and analyzed their mission statements and curriculum documents. We observed each school's activities and interviewed teachers. Our analysis shows…

  10. The Genetic-Environmental Etiology of Cognitive School Readiness and Later Academic Achievement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 840 60-month-old twins, this study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to (a) individual differences in four components of cognitive school readiness, (b) the general ability underlying these four components, and (c) the predictive association between school readiness and school achievement. Results…

  11. Environmental school aids to the energetic education; La escuela ambiental contribuye a la educacion energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, B. A. C.; Coto, C. J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Elementary school is a propitious space to contribute to knowledge and adoption of habits related to the use of environmentally friendly energies. This article refers to a methodological strategy used in education for renewable energies, specifically solar energy, within the framework of the environmental school. Its objective is to share a successful strategy to diffuse the thermal applications of solar energy for home and school. (Author)

  12. A survey of the environmental literacy of high school junior and senior science students from a southeast Texas school district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Audrey Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental literacy of upper-level high school science students from a southeast Texas school district. The Secondary School Environmental Literacy Instrument (SSELI), an instrument designed to ascertain environmental literacy among high school students, was used to address research questions concerning (1) students, knowledge of ecology and environmental science; (2) students' attitudes towards the environment; (3) students, beliefs about the most critical environmental problems; (4) students, abilities to apply a number of issue-related skills within a particular environmental issue-oriented scenario; (5) students' perceived knowledge of and skills in the use of action strategies, and (6) students' behaviors in environmental actions over a six month period. The subject population surveyed consisted of 125 high school junior and senior science students from a southeast Texas school district. These students had completed at least two years of high school science. Since the data reflected behaviors that were self-reported by students and not actually observed, the quality of students, responses may have been compromised and thus considered a limitation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Correlational statistics were applied to the data. On average, 58% of the items on the knowledge test on ecology and environmental science were answered correctly; more than 65% of the respondents answered more than half of the items correctly. Students possessed a slightly positive attitude toward environmental concerns and protection but exhibited limited awareness of environmental problems. Students demonstrated moderate issue-related skill development. Students exhibited a readiness for and engagement in action but tended to limit their participation to two action areas (ecomanagement and consumer action). Students exhibited: (a) limited knowledge of ecological principles and environmental science, (b) a slightly

  13. Impact of environmental factors on neglected emerging arboviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Camila; Azevedo, Thiago S; Virginio, Flávia; Aguiar, Breno S; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2017-09-01

    Brazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1) to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2) to describe the macroclimatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3) to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections. Our model assessed seven environmental factors (annual rainfall, annual temperature, elevation, seasonality of temperature, seasonality of precipitation, thermal amplitude, and daytime temperature variation) for their association with the occurrence of outbreaks in the last 50 years. Our results suggest that various environmental factors distinctly influence the distribution of each arbovirus, with temperature being the central determinant of disease distribution in all high-risk areas. These areas are subject to change, since the average temperature of some areas has increased significantly over the time. This is the first spatio-temporal study of the Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis, and Rocio arboviruses, and our results indicate that they may become increasingly important public health problems in Brazil. Thus, next studies and control programs should include these diseases and also take into consideration key environmental elements.

  14. Evaluation of Environmental Status in Schools of Punjab, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some schools were found highly efficient in conservation of land recovered and were not using pesticides in their schools. In energy audit, schools scored up to 99% and are making efforts to save energy. All schools showed proper waste management system having waste collection, recycling and disposal mechanism and ...

  15. Performance of newly implemented Environmental Management Systems in primary schools in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Luc; Wiedemann, Torsten; Raath, Schalk; Stone, Riana; Renders, Paul; Craenhals, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative results from Environmental Management Systems (EMS) at primary schools have rarely been examined in literature. This paper presents the monitoring results of environmental care in 39 primary schools in Northern South Africa. During 2 years, after the EMS was implemented in the curriculum and in the school's management, the progress of environmental performances of the participating schools has been measured, by means of detailed questionnaires, related to four environmental aspects: water, waste, energy and greening. At the beginning of the project, 50% of the schools performed well on water-related environmental actions. Two years later it was 76%. For waste-related activities the improvement was even stronger: from 50% to 100%. The environmental performances of the schools improved also for greening-related actions, from 50% at the start of the project to 64% two years later. Only energy-related activities did not improve significantly with only 24% of all schools performing well at the end of the survey period. In general, the introduction of an EMS succeeded in an improvement of the overall environmental performances of the schools, but cost-intensive activities were less successful than others. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  17. Environmental factors altering thyroid function and their assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsano, C P

    1981-04-01

    Chronic ingestion of modest doses of dietary iodine, radiation, and polyhalogenated biphenyls (PCB's and PBB's) are environmental factors with known or suspected adverse effects on the human thyroid. Iodine consumption in the United States is approaching 1 mg daily for a large segment of the population. Data are reviewed which support the need for concern regarding the long-term adverse effects of dietary iodine on thyroid function, particularly in certain susceptible individuals. Environmental sources of radiation pose a significant risk of thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism under certain circumstances which may be intentional, inadvertent, or accidental. Exposure to polyhalogenated biphenyls during manufacture or as industrial pollutants are hazardous to man and to wildlife in moderate or large quantities and perhaps also in small amounts. The need to investigate the potential harm posed by these factors in the quantities commonly encountered is emphasized.

  18. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  19. Factors related to school absenteeism in adolescents with recurrent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuner, Cora Collette; Smith, Mark Scott; Womack, William M

    2004-03-01

    To examine possible risk and protective factors for school absenteeism among adolescents referred to a hospital-based behavioral treatment program. Data obtained from intake interviews, screening questionnaires, and baseline headache diaries of 283 consecutive adolescents referred for behavioral treatment of recurrent headache were reviewed for demographics, length of headache history, headache type, current headache activity, symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived self-efficacy regarding headache control, school performance, participation in extracurricular activities, and school absenteeism. The study population was divided into 2 groups at the median number of days missed due to headache in the previous 6 months that school was in session. Adolescents who missed 2 or less days of school due to headache (low absenteeism) were compared with those who missed more than 2 days (high absenteeism). Compared with the low absenteeism group, the high absenteeism group had higher scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (8.7 +/- 6.5 versus 6.8 +/- 6.2, P academic performance (2.1 +/- 1.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.8, P extracurricular activities. In a referred population, students who missed more school due to headache had higher depression scores and lower academic performance than students who missed less school. A directional relationship, however, cannot be implied from these results. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between recurrent adolescent headache, potential risk or protective factors, and school absenteeism.

  20. Postmaterialism, new environmental paradigm and ecocentric approach: A qualitative and quantitative study of environmental attitudes of Turkish senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Ozgur

    The present study aims to elucidate the determinant factors that affect environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey and the origins of these EAs. Over nine hundred students from different school types, neighborhoods, geographical regions, social-economic backgrounds participated in the questionnaire based surveys which are called the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) and the General Attitudes and Perceptions (GAP), and twenty of those students were interviewed as well. Survey results show that EAs of students vary depending on school type, gender, parents' education levels and professions, and household income. Normal public high school students, females, lower-middle class students, students with well educated parents in white collar professions, and student with liberal parents have more pro-environmental attitudes than the others. With regard to school type, students from public technical high school (vocational school), almost all of which are based on single-sex education, have scored the lowest on both surveys which are the NEP and the GAP. The results from the qualitative portion are as follows: Students' perceptions about the environment and related issues are limited to their local habitat. Although the mean scores of students on both surveys do not differ to a statistically significant extent depending on geographical regions, interviews show that participants from different regions have distinct priorities, which range from poverty to sea pollution. Even though students' first priority in their lives is education, education is perceived as a mechanism to achieve a more prosperous life rather than an end in itself. Almost all interview participants agree on the importance of education in shaping EAs. Interestingly, some interviewees (four out of ten males) also comment that a man's sense of his own masculinity can be threatened when confronted by another man to change his attitude towards the environment.

  1. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cienciala, E.; Russ, R.; Šantrůčková, H.; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, I.; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, J.; Stähl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 573, dec (2016), s. 541-554 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Norway spruce * Environmental change * Drought * N-deposition * Managed forest * Tree increment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J); GK - Forestry (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  2. Environmental risk factors for oesophageal cancer in Malawi: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental risk factors for oesophageal cancer in Malawi: A case-control study. ... Results Firewood cooking, cigarette smoking, and use of white maize flour all had strong associations with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, with adjusted odds ratios of 12.6 (95% CI: 4.2-37.7), 5.4 (95% CI: 2.0-15.2) and 6.6 ...

  3. Environmental factors and cardiovascular risk in young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancaş, Silvia; Mihalaş, Georgeta; Gaită, D; Drăgan, Simona; Duda-Seiman, D M; Sarău, C A; Noveanu, Lavinia; Petcov, Bileana; Mancaş, Georgiana; Ionescu, V; Păcurar, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Normal endothelial function alters physiologically with aging. Intervention of environmental factors precipitates and accelerates endothelial dysfunction progression, correlated with cardiovascular risk. To study the impact of environmental factors (smoking, nutritional habits, stress, physical activity) on the imbalance of the endothelial commuting threshold. The questionnaire method was applied in order to identify and quantify the presence of environmental factors; an anthropometrical physical exam was performed; metabolic profile (insulin resistance HOMA-IR, lipid parameters) was assessed. Arterial elasticity was assessed with Complior (Artech Medical). The studied lot (n=80, 21.16 +/- 2.43 years) comprised young medicine students and showed a high incidence of: smoking (31.25%), unhealthy nutritional habits (60%), stress (60%), sedentary lifestyle (25%). The odds for endothelial function alteration were significant only in subjects who associated stress and smoking (OR=8.18, p=0.0006); in the same group, there was noticed the tendency for metabolic profile alteration, meaning insulin resistance (OR=1.19, p=ns). The association stress-smoking did not significantly influence the unhealthy nutritional habits (p=ns, OR=2.39), lipoprotein anomalies (TC > or = 190 mg/dL: p=ns, OR=0.98; LDL > or = 130 mg/dL: p=ns, OR=3.53), or the sedentary lifestyle (p=ns, OR=0.80). The main environmental factors which determine endothelial function imbalance in young ages are smoking and occupational stress. It is a positive stress which does not lead to significant metabolic anomalies or lifestyle changes. Though, this kind of stress leads to an unhealthy behavior: smoking. The association stress-smoking is essential in endothelial function alteration in young subjects. Primary cardiovascular prevention must focus drastically on unhealthy behaviors correction to reduce cardiovascular risk in young individuals.

  4. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i4.13. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size and reproduction of Bonsmara cows. E.C. Webb1#, P.C. Visagie1, J. van der Westhuizen2 & H.A. Snyman3. 1 Department of Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, ...

  5. Security culture as a factor of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of security culture on understanding and certainty of environmental protection. Showing the environment and in particular scheme and methods of endangering takes place in the context of security culture as a factor in conservation and needs of the people to ensure their safety, which occurs as a vital interest. In this way, security culture is shown through the role of person, society and the international community. Analyzing the concept of security culture and...

  6. Individual and contextual factors associated to smoking on school premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Mata, Nelva; Gandarillas, Ana; Cantero, José Luis; Durbán, María

    2012-04-01

    Despite regulations, tobacco consumption in schools is still very common. The objective was to evaluate the relationship of personal, family, and school-level contextual factors with smoking on school premises. A representative survey was undertaken of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region (Spain), including 79 schools and 3,622 individuals. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were type of school, perception of compliance with the law, smoking policy, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Analysis was carried out in the smoking population (n = 1,179) using multilevel logistic regression models. During the last 30 days, 50.6% of smokers had smoked on school premises. Having a father with a university education (in comparison with fathers who have not attained any educational level) reduces this probability (odds ratio [OR]: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.96), whereas smoking a larger number of cigarettes (p probability is reduced when there is no parental permission to smoke (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-1.01) and is lower both in nonsubsidized private schools (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67) and in state subsidized private schools (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09-0.34) than in public schools. A very low level of educational attainment by the father, smoking a higher number of cigarettes, as well as illicit drug consumption, low academic achievement, having parental permission to smoke, and attending public schools are all related to a higher probability of smoking on school premises.

  7. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-11-25

    Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Cross-sectional study. 32 Australian secondary schools. Grade 7-10 students (aged 11-17 years). Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures ('goals and aspirations', 'prosocial peers'); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures ('home support' (5 of 7), 'school support' (3 of 7), 'self-awareness' (2 of 7), 'community meaningful participation' (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use ('community support' (3 of 7), 'peer caring relationships' (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of such factors when considered collectively. Such results suggest that interventions seeking to reduce

  8. Physiological and environmental factors associated with central fat distribution in pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, A; Plonka, M; Jagielski, P; Piorecka, B; Glodzik, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the work was to determine a degree of explanation of the variation of central fat distribution described by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) by both environmental and biological factors, including hormonal ones. The authors also intended to define the factors which are connected with a risk of abdominal obesity in girls. The study material includes a cross-sectional sample of 297 girls aged 9–16 years, examined in sport and regular schools in Cracow, Poland. Direct anthropometric measurements were done, breast development was assessed (Tanner stage) and leptin and ghrelin concentration in blood serum was estimated (by RIA method). The girls’ lifestyles and socio-economic status were investigated through survey questionnaires. The stepwise descending regression method was applied to evaluate a degree of WC, WHtR and BMI variation explanation. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to indicate factors connected with a risk of abdominal obesity (WHtR ³ 0.50) by calculating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Variation of WC and WHtR was explained in, respectively, 53% and 44% by biological factors i.e. age, body height, the Tanner stage and blood serum leptin and ghrelin concentration as well as by environmental factors i.e. obesity prevalence in fathers and the girls’ high physical activity. Variation of BMI was explained in 56% by a similar set of variables, excluding the level of physical activity. The biological factors were the highest determinants of an adipose tissue distribution type in the girls. Besides biological factors a significant role was also played by the environmental ones: obesity prevalence in fathers and high level of physical activity. The waist to height ratio seemed to be a more sensitive identifier of environmental behaviours than the general adiposity index.

  9. Suicide risk and protective factors among youth experiencing school difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L

    2007-10-01

    Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed.

  10. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  11. Twin Specific Risk Factors in Primary School Achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, L.E.J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational

  12. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    retention of students in the Universities. Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student, ... factors and internal efficiency of students in public universities in South-West, Nigeria. Purpose of the Study ..... Indicators of efficiency. & effectiveness in elementary & secondary education spending.

  13. Perinatal complications, environmental factors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Maravić Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by qualitative impairment of social interactions, impairment of verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. ASD represent a group of complex psychiatric disorders, with both genetic and environmental factors implicated in their etiology. Recent neuroanatomical and epidemiological studies point out to prenatal and early postnatal genesis of ASD. Aim: In this review, we present recent studies that explored the effect of environmental, prenatal and perinatal risk factors on development of ASD. Also, we point out those factors that have been proven to have the strongest association with ASD, and emphasize a very complex interaction of individual factors that might eventually lead to manifestation of this group of disorders. Conclusion: A precise defining of risk factors might provide more insight not only into etiology of ASD, but might also give us a possibility for early recognition and possible prevention of autism spectrum disorders, especially in susceptible individuals. It is also a first step in defining the basis of the gene-environment interaction mechanism, which might enable the development of an individualized therapeutic approach for this group of disorders.

  14. Certain environmental factors affecting rhizobia and symbiotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Y A

    1977-01-01

    The interrelation between rhizobia and certain fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, nematodes, and seed-coat diffusates of Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated. The effect of pesticides, i.e. fungicides, herbicides, and nematocides on growth of rhizobia, and the symbiotic systems between rhizobia and their respective host is reported. Degradation of certain herbicides and insecticides is shown. The movement of rhizobia in soil as affected by water tension, tolerance of salts, and soil temperatures are discussed. Environmental factors may affect the successful establishment of an effective symbiosis between rhizobia and their hosts at any or all the three stages. They may 1) affect occurrence, growth, and survival of root nodule bacteria, 2) modify nodule formation, or 3) affect the function of the formed nodules (VINCENT 1962). The environmental aspect considered here include the antagonistic factors against rhizobia, the pesticides, and some ecological aspects of rhizobia in soil, e.g., the movement and salts and heat tolerance. These aspects were investigated by Egyptian workers over the period 1948-1972. Comprehensive reviews on the effect of environmental factors on rhizobia were reported by VINCENT (1962) and NUTMAN (1972).

  15. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  16. Validation and application of a measurement scale on environmental practices for high school teachers in Patos, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edevaldo Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to create, validate and apply a measurement scale on environmental practices for teachers of various educational areas (exact sciences, humanities, natural sciences and Portuguese, from six public high schools in the city of Patos, Paraíba. To that end, it was created a questionnaire related to the topic, consisting of 24 items in the Likert scale model, being statistically validated as its consistency and reliability by factor analysis and by the α-Cronbach’s test. The assessed measurement scale has been validated (n = 34 with the exclusion of five items, getting excellent α-Cronbach’s coefficient (0.95. In the application of the questionnaire (n = 68, most teachers had social and environmental practices little consistent with environmentally sustainable practices. The results suggest that the high school teachers of the surveyed public schools have inadequate knowledge and/or practices for teaching Environmental Education, revealing that, probably, the students are not receiving basic environmental knowledge for their critical and reflective thinking on the various environmental problems.

  17. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  18. Factors Influencing Migrant High School Students to Drop Out or Graduate from High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Ira; Gallo, Kathleen

    Factors influencing migrant students in decisions to drop out or graduate from high school were determined in interviews with 24 dropouts and potential dropouts and 22 students who had graduated. Profiles were compiled on each group. Data were collected from twelfth grade migrant students in northern California. The main appeal of school to the…

  19. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  20. Greek primary school teachers' understanding of current environmental issues: An exploration of their environmental knowledge and images of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-03-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena. Using the media as major environmental information sources, in which environmental issues are constructed as environmental risks, teachers are being environmentally educated in lay and not in scientific terms. Moreover, the image of nature emerging from their ideas about the three environmental issues is that of the romantic archetype, which prevails in postindustrial societies. Such a view, though, gives a conceptualization of nature as balance, under which the greenhouse effect and acid rain are seen as exclusively human-induced disturbances.

  1. Influence of a Non-formal Environmental Education Programme on Junior High-School Students' Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shaharabani, Dina

    2013-02-01

    One of the solutions implemented by schools for conducting value-based environmental education (EE) is outsourcing: allocating external environmental organizations that develop and conduct EE programmes. This study addressed such a programme-the Green Council Programme (GCP)-developed and implemented in schools by the Israeli Society for Protection of Nature. A pre-test/post-test design was used to investigate the influence of participation in the GCP on components of junior high-school students' environmental literacy. Conceptualizations of 'environment', environmental attitudes and sense of ability to act on environmental issues were studied employing quantitative and qualitative tools. Contribution of the programme to the cognitive domain, in developing a systemic understanding of the environment, was limited. On the other hand, participating in this programme heightened students' sensitivity to human-environment interrelationships and developed a more ecological worldview. After the programme, students demonstrated greater perception of humans as part of the environment, an increased sensitivity to human impact on the environment and their value for non-human nature moved from an anthropocentric to a more ecocentric orientation. While students' internal locus-of-control increased, when environmental protection entailed personal economic trade-offs, their support was limited and remained unchanged. The article concludes with recommendations, based on the findings, regarding supplementing the school (science) curriculum with external EE enrichment programmes.

  2. Factors affecting fruit and vegetable school lunch waste in Wisconsin elementary schools participating in Farm to School programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B; Foecke, Leah L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-10-01

    To examine characteristics potentially associated with school lunch fruit and vegetable waste, both overall and pre/post implementation of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act. Multi-year (2010-2013) cross-sectional study using pre- and post-meal digital photographs of students' school lunch trays to estimate fruit and vegetable availability and consumption. Fruit and vegetable items were categorized for factors suspected to impact waste: prior farm to school years, placement (main menu, salad bar), procurement (local, conventional), preparation (cooked, raw) and meal component (entrée, side, topping). Analyses to assess within-category differences in waste volume were performed using a Tobit model. Wisconsin elementary schools participating in farm to school programmes, USA. Children in third to fifth grade. Many within-factor differences were detected overall and/or across time. Cooked fruits were wasted less than raw, while cooked vegetables were wasted more than raw. Where identified, locally sourced items were wasted more than conventionally sourced (+0·1 cups, Pschool years decreased waste (-0·02 cups, Pschool lunch meal pattern requirement implementation did not uniformly impact fruit and vegetable waste across all categories and there was no change in waste for seven of fifteen assessed categories. Many factors impact elementary students' school lunch waste. These factors may be helpful for school food-service authorities to consider when planning school menus.

  3. [Prevalence and associated factors of school physical violence behaviors among middle school students in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yi-juan; Xing, Yi; Duan, Jia-li; Bai, Cheng-xu; Pan, Yong-ping; Cui, Yong-qiang; Kong, Jun-hua

    2010-05-01

    To described the prevalence of school physical violence behaviors and to explore its associated factors among middle school students in Beijing. In 2009, a randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted among 5718 students in grades 7 to 12 in Beijing. A self-report anonymous questionnaire involving physical violence at school and socio-demographic variables, such as sex, grades, family economic status and family structure, peer relationships, and communication with their parents etc. were completed by students themselves. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between physical violence and socio-demographic variables. Among the students, 14.3% reported that they had had physical violence behavior in school during the past 12 months. Male students had been more likely to have physical violence behaviors than female students (Male 25.2%, Female 5.1%). For both male and female students, poor school cohesion were the risk factors of physical violence behaviors (Male OR = 1.060, Female OR = 1.065). For male students, factors as father's lower education level (OR = 1.653), remarried/single-parent families (OR = 1.834), low-grade (grade 7 OR = 5.291; grade 11 OR = 1.526), poor school performance (OR = 1.470) etc were the risk factors of physical violence behaviors; while better-off family economic status (OR = 0.546), good peer relationships (OR = 0.618), and easy to communicate with the father (OR = 0.756) were the protective factors of physical violence behaviors. For female students, easy to communicate with her mother (OR = 0.358) were the protective factors of physical violence behaviors. For male and female students, the prevalence of school physical violence and its related factors were different. Actions on prevention against physical violence behaviors should be fully considered, including factors as gender, personal characteristics, family, school and peers etc.

  4. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  5. School-Level Factors Associated with Increased Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Students in California Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. Methods: This cross-sectional study…

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on early literacy skills across school grade contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2017-09-01

    Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. 'A', 'B') often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school grades. Participants included twins drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading (n = 1313 pairs) aged 4 to 10 years during the 2006-07 school year. Early literacy skills were assessed with DIBELS subtests: Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF). School grade data were retrieved from the Florida Department of Education. Multi-group analyses were conducted separately for subsamples defined by 'A' or 'non-A' schools, controlling for school-level socioeconomic status. Results indicated significant etiological differences on pre-reading skills (ISF, LNF, and PSF), but not word-level reading skills (ORF and NWF). There was a consistent trend of greater environmental influences on pre-reading skills in non-A schools, arguably representing 'poorer' environmental contexts than the A schools. Importantly, this is the case outside of resources linked with school-level SES, indicating that something about the direct environment on pre-reading skills in the non-A school context is more variable than for A schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hapiness and Environmental Awareness – Factors of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Frajman Jakšić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth was long perceived as the key goal of economic development. But as the capitalist economies got richer and as negative consequences of the growth spurt became more obvious, the development paradigm began to change course towards sustainability, which encompasses economic, environmental and social dimensions. The purpose of the article is to link the value system in the society and the possibility of the society to embrace the sustainable development model. We first provide the theoretical framework, followed by an empirical analysis of Croatia. The stress is on the environmental component of sustainability. The article builds from the popular stream of economic theory, i.e. economic analysis of happiness, which claims that happiness results not solely from economic factors, but also personal and broader social elements. These can also include environmental variables. In economic analysis of happiness, the consumer is not a standard utility maximizing consumer, who directly links utility and consumption of goods. His happiness is largely determined also by environmental elements. The existence of such consumers is consequently a prerequisite for the establishment of the sustainable economy. Empirical results show that: (1 consumers in general are at the moment not well educated about ecological problems, but (2 those that are give a lot of attention to environmental aspects. It is also important to note that future sustainability depends primarily on the attitude of current young cohorts (15 to 24 years, which, unfortunately, are least environmentally conscious. The role of the government and public institutions in preparing broader educational campaigns can therefore be significant.

  8. SCHOOL CLIMATE AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON CLIMATE FACTORS:

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan GÜNBAYI

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the schoolclimate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses,and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. The data collected from a sample of 204 teachersfrom 9 urban schools serving general high school education in the centre of Afyon and Usak cities in Turkey bymeans of the questionnaire developed by the researcher in the academic year o...

  9. Etiologic factors of ice hockey injuries in Korean high school players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Young; Lee, Chang-Hyung; Lee, Sun Myung; Kim, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Ice hockey is a competitive sport and ice hockey injuries can be influenced by many physical and psychological factors. Young ice hockey players are especially vulnerable to injury due to their relative lack of experience and rapid physical growth during their juvenile years. Up to now there has been no survey of the physical, psychological, and environmental etiological factors based on the Korean high school ice hockey players population. The purpose of our study was to evaluate, through a comprehensive survey, the incidence of ice hockey injuries according to age and the relationship between etiological factors and injuries in high school students. A cross-sectional study. One hundred nineteen ice hockey players in Korean high schools were recruited for this study. The study was conducted by a self-administered questionnaire survey. The researcher explained the purpose of the survey and how to fill it out. Individual questionnaires were distributed to participants. Chi-squared tests were used to evaluate the relationship between the independent and dependent values. There was a significant difference between a player's age and injury incidence (P = .018). The injury level of each position showed a significant tendency (P = .055). Age was highly correlated with the number of total injuries (P = .019). The average demographic characteristics of those surveyed were age (16.7 years), play line (2.2), height (174.8 cm), weight (69.6 kg), and body mass index (23.4). The shoulder was the most frequent injury area and the knee was the most common cause of hospital visits. There was a higher injury incidence in older groups; however, there was no correlation with body mass index, position, and play line. The causative factors were divided into physical factors, psychological factors, and environmental factors. Generally, 3 factors were not closely regarded as etiologic factors of ice hockey injury. However, deficiency of fitness in the physical factor, aggressiveness in

  10. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  11. EPA Lauds Bethlehem Area School District for Environmental Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (April 23, 2015) In celebration of Earth Week 2015, EPA Regional Administrator Shawn M. Garvin today visited Spring Garden Elementary School in Bethlehem, Pa., to praise Bethlehem Area School District administrators, faculty and students for t

  12. Informational factors in identifying environmental sounds in natural auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Robert; Gygi, Brian; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic

    2009-12-01

    In a non-linguistic analog of the "cocktail-party" scenario, informational and contextual factors were found to affect the recognition of everyday environmental sounds embedded in naturalistic auditory scenes. Short environmental sound targets were presented in a dichotic background scene composed of either a single stereo background scene or a composite background scene created by playing different background scenes to the different ears. The side of presentation, time of onset, and number of target sounds were varied across trials to increase the uncertainty for the participant. Half the sounds were contextually congruent with the background sound (i.e., consistent with the meaningful real-world sound environment represented in the auditory scene) and half were incongruent. The presence of a single competing background scene decreased identification accuracy, suggesting an informational masking effect. In tandem, there was a contextual pop-out effect, with contextually incongruent sounds identified more accurately. However, when targets were incongruent with the real-world context of the background scene, informational masking was reduced. Acoustic analyses suggested that this contextual pop-out effect was driven by a mixture of perceptual differences between the target and background, as well as by higher-level cognitive factors. These findings indicate that identification of environmental sounds in naturalistic backgrounds is an active process that requires integrating perceptual, attentional, and cognitive resources.

  13. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  14. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  15. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. © FEMS 2017.

  16. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Pollutants as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Disorders

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    Miguel eChin-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD and Parkinson (PD have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment, from diet to the new nanomaterials as putative risk factors has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau, causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn, which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies, a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzymes such as neprilysin or insulin degrading enzyme. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action.

  18. Factors affecting the school placement of children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, C M; Bannister, C M; Ward, G S

    1992-12-01

    Integrating children with disabilities into mainstream schools has been an active policy in Britain since the 1981 Education Act. 26 children with spina bifida, 13 of whom were educated in mainstream schools, and 13 in special schools were assessed to clarify the relative importance of the following factors 1) IQ, 2) Mobility, 3) Hand function, 4) Bladder and bowel function, and 5) Behaviour. A marked difference was found between those attending mainstream and special schools. 11/13 of the former attained scores within the normal range as compared to only 2/13 of the latter. Neither mobility nor hand function alone were found to influence school placement and a marked correlation was found between the two. Whilst those educated in special schools had more marked problems, all children functioned poorly compared with the norms for able-bodied peers. Neither bladder nor bowel incontinence hindered attendance at mainstream school, but faecal soiling was considered the more serious problem. The frequency of behavioural problems showed a similar distribution amongst the two groups. Comments from parents highlighted their reservations about both special and mainstream schooling which indicates the policy for integration needs considerably more commitment from Government and Education Authorities in order to succeed.

  19. Bone cell autophagy is regulated by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahm, Adam M; Bohensky, Jolene; Adams, Christopher S; Shapiro, Irving M; Srinivas, Vickram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to ascertain whether bone cells undergo autophagy and to determine if this process is regulated by environmental factors. We showed that osteocytes in both murine and human cortical bone display a punctuate distribution of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, indicative of autophagy. In addition, we noted a basal level of autophagy in preosteocyte-like murine long bone-derived osteocytic (MLO)-A5 cells. Autophagy was upregulated following nutrient deprivation and hypoxic culture, stress conditions that osteocytes encounter in vivo. Furthermore, in response to calcium stress, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 regulated MLO-A5 autophagy. Finally, we showed that the more differentiated MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells exhibited a significant basal autophagic flux. Based on these findings, we suggest that raising the level of autophagic flux is a mechanism by which differentiated bone cells survive in a stressful environment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  1. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of ‘never’ and ‘always’ cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducheyne Fabian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. Methods 850 parents completed a questionnaire to assess personal, family, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical environmental factors related to the cycling behavior of their children. Parents indicated on a question matrix how many days a week their child (1 walked, (2 cycled, was (3 driven by car or (4 public transport to and from school during fall, winter and spring. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlates. Results Overall, 39.3% of children never cycled to school and 16.5% of children always cycled to school. Children with high levels of independent mobility and good cycling skills perceived by their parents were more likely to always cycle to school (resp. OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.15 and OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16 and less likely to never cycle to school (resp. OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.91 and OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.7-0.84. Children with friends who encourage them to cycle to school were more likely to always cycle to school (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15 and less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.83-1.0. In addition, children with parents who encourage them to cycle to school were less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.7-0.87. Regarding the physical environmental factors, only neighborhood traffic safety was significantly associated with

  2. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of ‘never’ and ‘always’ cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. Methods 850 parents completed a questionnaire to assess personal, family, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical environmental factors related to the cycling behavior of their children. Parents indicated on a question matrix how many days a week their child (1) walked, (2) cycled, was (3) driven by car or (4) public transport to and from school during fall, winter and spring. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlates. Results Overall, 39.3% of children never cycled to school and 16.5% of children always cycled to school. Children with high levels of independent mobility and good cycling skills perceived by their parents were more likely to always cycle to school (resp. OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.15 and OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16) and less likely to never cycle to school (resp. OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.91 and OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.7-0.84). Children with friends who encourage them to cycle to school were more likely to always cycle to school (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.83-1.0). In addition, children with parents who encourage them to cycle to school were less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.7-0.87). Regarding the physical environmental factors, only neighborhood traffic safety was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., children

  3. Environmental and Personal Factors Related to Asthma Severity among Children: Hospital Based Study, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaima Ibrahim AboElkheir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood asthma is a complex disorder in which many environmental and personal factors play a role. However, the contribution of these factors to asthma severity is poorly understood. This study aims to determine the relationship between environmental exposures, personal factors and asthma severity among asthmatic children. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted on 180 asthmatic children; they were divided into mild, moderate and severe asthma according to forced expiratory volume in first second. Environmental factors (indoor and outdoor, food allergy, history of other allergic diseases, family history of allergic disorders, time trend of attacks as well as asthma outcome were reported. Results: Children with severe asthma were younger than those with mild or moderate asthma. Severe asthma was significantly linked to family history of allergy, presence of co-morbid allergic diseases, fish, egg and milk allergy, as well as exposure to passive smoking (73.7% and poor housing conditions. Also, it was significantly linked to presence of unauthorized factories in residential area (31.6 %, p=0.001. As well as, contact with pets (42.1%. Children with severe asthma had more limitations of physical activities (73.7%, missed school days (81.5%, with poor school performance (p=0.04 than those with mild moderate or asthma. Conclusion: Severe asthma was linked to female gender and younger age, co-morbid allergic diseases, family history of atopy and food allergy. It was higher among children residing in places with unauthorized factories and living in substandard housing condition. Children with severe asthma had poor asthma outcome.

  4. Anthropogenic and environmental risk factors for rabies occurrence in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin; Dhand, Navneet K; Ward, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic and environmental factors were assessed as predictors of sub-districts in Bhutan that reported rabies in domestic animals during the period 1996-2009. Rabies surveillance data were retrieved from the Veterinary Information System database. Anthropogenic and environmental information were obtained from public data sources. Using the total number of rabies cases reported in domestic animals, the 205 sub-districts of Bhutan were categorized as those sub-districts that reported rabies and those that did not report rabies (n=146). Logistic regression models were fit to the data and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Sub-districts that share a border with India (OR 10.43; 95% CI: 4.42-24.64; PBhutan during 1996-2009. Results suggest that human population characteristics play an important role in rabies occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tooth quality in dental fluorosis genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A P G F; Hanocock, R; Eggertsson, H; Everett, E T; Grynpas, M D

    2005-01-01

    Dental fluorosis (DF) affects the appearance and structure of tooth enamel and can occur following ingestion of excess fluoride during critical periods of amelogenesis. This tooth malformation may, depending on its severity, influence enamel and dentin microhardness and dentin mineralization. Poor correlation between tooth fluoride (F) concentration and DF severity was shown in some studies, but even when a correlation was present, tooth fluoride concentration explained very little of DF severity. This fact calls into question the generally accepted hypothesis that the main factor responsible for DF severity is tooth fluoride concentration. It has been shown previously that genetic factors (susceptibility to DF) play an important role in DF severity although DF severity relates to individual susceptibility to fluoride exposure (genetics), tooth fluoride concentration relates to fluoride ingestion (environmental). The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between tooth fluoride concentration, DF severity, and tooth mechanical and materials properties. Three strains of mice (previously shown to have different susceptibility to DF) at weaning were treated with four different levels of F in their water (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) for 6 weeks. Mice teeth were tested for fluoride by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), DF severity determined by quantitative light-induced fluorescence [QLF], and tooth quality (enamel and dentin microhardness and dentin mineralization). Tooth fluoride concentration (environment factor) correlated positively with DF severity (QLF) (rs=0.608), fluoride treatment group (rs=0.952). However, tooth fluoride concentration correlated negatively with enamel microhardness (rs=-0.587), dentin microhardness (rs=-0.268) and dentin mineralization (rs=-0.245). Dental fluorosis (genetic factor) severity (QLF) correlated positively with fluoride treatment (rs=0.608) and tooth fluoride concentration (rs=0.583). DF severity

  6. Environmental factors and health information technology management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Shin, Dong Yeong; Ford, Eric W; Yu, Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    : Previous studies have provided theoretical and empirical evidence that environmental forces influence hospital strategy. : Rooted in resource dependence theory and the information uncertainty perspective, this study examined the relationship between environmental market characteristics and hospitals' selection of a health information technology (HIT) management strategy. : A cross-sectional design is used to analyze secondary data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics Database, and the Area Resource File. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses are used. : Overall, 3,221 hospitals were studied, of which 60.9% pursed a single-vendor HIT management strategy, 28.9% pursued a best-of-suite strategy, and 10.2% used a best-of-breed strategy. Multivariate analyses controlling for hospital characteristics found that measures of environmental factors representing munificence, dynamism, and/or complexity were systematically associated with various hospital HIT management strategy use. Specifically, the number of generalist physicians per capita was positively associated with the single-vendor strategy (B = -5.64, p = .10). Hospitals in urban markets were more likely to pursue the best-of-suite strategy (B = 0.622, p < .001). Dynamism, measured as the number of managed care contracts for a given hospital, was negatively associated with the single-vendor strategy (B = 0.004, p = .049). Lastly, complexity, measured as market competition, was positively associated with the best-of-breed strategy (B = 0.623, p = .042). : By and large, environmental factors are associated with hospital HIT management strategies in mostly theoretically supported ways. Hospital leaders and policy makers interested in influencing the adoption of hospital HIT should consider how market conditions influence HIT management decisions as part of programs to promote meaningful use.

  7. Husband and wife with sarcoidosis: possible environmental factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Ilaria; Salimbene, Ivano; Varone, Francesco; Fuso, Leonello; Valente, Salvatore

    2013-01-25

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystem disorder of unclear etiology that involves any organ, most commonly the lung and the lymph nodes. It is hypothesized that the disease derives from the interaction between single or multiple environmental factors and genetically determined host factors. Multiple potential etiologic agents for sarcoidosis have been proposed without any definitive demonstration of causality.We report the case of two patients, husband (57 years old) and wife (55 years old), both suffering from sarcoidosis. They underwent a lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy which showed a "granulomatous epithelioid giant cell non-necrotising chronic lymphadenitis". They had lived up to 3 years ago in the country in a farm, in contact with organic dusts, animals such as dogs, chickens, rabbits, pigeons; now they have lived since about 3 years in an urban area where there are numerous chemical industries and stone quarries. The aim of this case report was to focus on environmental factors that might be related to the pathogenesis of the sarcoidosis.

  8. Husband and wife with sarcoidosis: possible environmental factors involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leli Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystem disorder of unclear etiology that involves any organ, most commonly the lung and the lymph nodes. It is hypothesized that the disease derives from the interaction between single or multiple environmental factors and genetically determined host factors. Multiple potential etiologic agents for sarcoidosis have been proposed without any definitive demonstration of causality. We report the case of two patients, husband (57 years old and wife (55 years old, both suffering from sarcoidosis. They underwent a lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy which showed a “granulomatous epithelioid giant cell non-necrotising chronic lymphadenitis”. They had lived up to 3 years ago in the country in a farm, in contact with organic dusts, animals such as dogs, chickens, rabbits, pigeons; now they have lived since about 3 years in an urban area where there are numerous chemical industries and stone quarries. The aim of this case report was to focus on environmental factors that might be related to the pathogenesis of the sarcoidosis.

  9. The Role of Environmental Factors in Digestive Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Lambert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of digestive cancer in each country is analyzed in cancer registries for Incidence and Mortality. Survival is estimated from registries with a correct follow-up. Estimated values of Incidence and Mortality, expressed as an age standardized rate (ASR for 100 000 persons, for all the population of a country are also found in the WHO-IARC database Globocan, recently edited for the year 2008. At each site of digestive tumors, the variations between countries, in cancer incidence, mortality and survival, depend on the resources and the global health status of the country. Indeed environmental causal factors linked to lifestyle may have an increasing or decreasing impact on the risk of cancer. Such factors are classified on 3 categories: 1- nutrition plays a determinant role in colorectal cancer with a higher risk in countries with more resources and more calories in the diet. 2- Toxic agents like alcohol and tobacco increase the risk at all sites of digestive cancer; their role is preponderant in esophageal cancer. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant in tropical, less developed countries, increases the risk of liver cancer. 3 – Infectious agents play a major role with the Bacteria H.pylori for stomach cancer over the world, and the Hepatitis virus B and C for liver cancer in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. The control of carcinogenic causal environmental factors is included in the primary prevention of digestive cancer.

  10. Potential self-selection bias in a nested case-control study on indoor environmental factors and their association with asthma and allergic symptoms among pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Sigsgaard, T.

    2006-01-01

    the baseline questionnaire. Results show that there are several possible biases due to self-selection involved in an extensive study on the impact of the home environment on asthma and allergy among children. Factors associated with participating were high socioeconomic status of the family, more health......, including health, building characteristics of the home, and socioeconomic factors between participating and non-participating families in a nested case-control study on asthma and allergy among children. Information was collected in a baseline questionnaire to the parents of 14,077 children aged 1-6 years...... in a first step. In a second step 2,156 of the children were invited to participate in a case-control study. Of these, 198 cases and 202 controls were finally selected. For identifying potential selection bias, information concerning all invited families in the case-control study was obtained from...

  11. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia.Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9% and Uyghur (7.0% children (P < 0.05, and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68 and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11.The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.

  12. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang; Zuo, Pengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11). The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.

  13. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  14. Environmental Factors and Myopia: Paradoxes and Prospects for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kathryn Ailsa; French, Amanda Nicole; Morgan, Ian George

    The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors. The rise in prevalence of high myopia has an unusual pattern of development, with increases in prevalence first appearing at approximately age 11. This pattern suggests that the increasing prevalence of high myopia is because of progression of myopia in children who became myopic at approximately age 6 or 7 because age-specific progression rates typical of East Asia will take these children to the threshold for high myopia in 5 to 6 years. This high myopia seems to be acquired, having an association with educational parameters, whereas high myopia in previous generations tended to be genetic in origin. Increased time outdoors can counter the effects of increased nearwork and reduce the impact of parental myopia, reducing the onset of myopia, and this approach has been validated in 3 randomized controlled trials. Other proposed risk factors need further work to demonstrate that they are independent and can be modified to reduce the onset of myopia.

  15. A model for evaluating the environmental benefits of elementary school facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Leigh, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a model that is capable of evaluating the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility was developed. The model is composed of three steps: (i) retrieval of elementary school facilities having similar characteristics as the new elementary school facility using case-based reasoning; (ii) creation of energy consumption and material data for the benchmark elementary school facility using the retrieved similar elementary school facilities; and (iii) evaluation of the environmental benefits of the new elementary school facility by assessing and comparing the environmental impact of the new and created benchmark elementary school facility using life cycle assessment. The developed model can present the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility in terms of monetary values using Environmental Priority Strategy 2000, a damage-oriented life cycle impact assessment method. The developed model can be used for the following: (i) as criteria for a green-building rating system; (ii) as criteria for setting the support plan and size, such as the government's incentives for promoting green-building projects; and (iii) as criteria for determining the feasibility of green building projects in key business sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE EFFECT OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO FACIAL SHAPE IN DOWN’S SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Suharsini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome is caused by chromosomal aberration, namely 21 trisomy. Skeletal and neurological disorders are found in Down’s syndrome patients. Skeletal disorder may cause craniofacial growth abnormalities whereas neurological disorder may cause brain growth defects, which result in mental retardation, as well as neuromuscular disorder, which results in muscular hypotonia. The aim of this study was to prove that facial shape in Down’s syndrome patient was not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors such as cognitive capability, oral muscular exercises and oral muscular tone. The population consisted of Down’s syndrome children aged 14 to 18 years from Sekolah Luar Biasa (Special School in Jakarta. Samples used in the study consisted of 25 Down’s syndrome patients. Clinical and cytogenic test were conducted to ensure a diagnosis. Lateral cephalograms were made to analyze facial shape by Fourier analysis on gonion angle. Intelligence Quotient (IQ and Social Quotient (SQ tests, electromyography examination of the masseter and temporal muscles, oral function examination and speech therapy questionnaires to the respondents were performed. The data were analyzed using path analysis. Based on the results of the study, it could be concluded that the genetic factor is the main factor causing Down’s syndrome facial shape abnormalities. The environmental factors such as oral muscular tone, cognitive capability, and oral muscular exercises may also play a role in Down’s syndrome facial shape.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  18. School and Local Environmental Knowledge, What Are the Links? A Case Study among Indigenous Adolescents in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Understanding environmental learning is the first step to constructing successful environmental education programs. Little research has addressed the relation between the environmental knowledge learned inside and outside schools. Environmental educators and ethnobiologists have worked independently, without assessing how school and local…

  19. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  20. Prevalence and social-environmental correlates of sports team participation among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J

    2011-07-01

    Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

  1. Factors contributing to school failure among school children in very fast developing Arabian Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Madeeha; Bener, Abdulbari

    2009-07-01

    Education is one of the main foundations for the child's development and also for national human resource development. Failure at school and grade retention is a serious concern among children, and their parents. The characteristics of school failure in Qatar have not been studied earlier. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of social, psychological, health and school related factors that cause school failure. All students who had failed their grades and had to be retained and repeat the year from 35 randomly selected schools of all grades elementary, intermediate and high school were included in this study for academic years from 2003 to 2008. Each student was individually interviewed by a well-trained school social worker. The study was performed on a total 699 children who were classified as school failures. Social reasons include living with one parent 26.9%, parental divorce (27%) parents showing no interest in their child's education and school system (41.6%), low income (19.3%), and smoking (19.6%). Frequent absence from school was a result in 33.3%; incomplete homework (45.9%) and teachers identified 63.7% of students to be hyperactive, inattentive and disruptive in classroom. Most frequent psychological disorders include examination phobia (68.8%), anxiety (49.4%), anger (32.5%), fear (43.2%) and learning disability (37.9%). The most prevalent health disorders included visual disorders (23.5%), asthma (14.9%), anemia (15.2%), and hearing deficiency (8.2%). Psychological and health related factors were found to be more prevalent in students who failed a grade in school. The primary care pediatrician can play a key role by identifying students at high risk and providing early intervention.

  2. School environments and social risk factors for child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Richmond, Sarah A; Macpherson, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) have decreased in Canada in the past 20 years. Many believe this trend is explained by the rise in automobile use for all travel. Initiatives to increase walking to school need to consider PMVC risk. Potential risk factors related to walking to school, the built environment and social factors were examined for schools with historically high child PMVC rates. Child PMVCs (age 4-12 years) from 2000 to 2013 and built environment features were mapped within school attendance boundaries in the City of Toronto, Canada. Case and control schools were in the highest and lowest PMVC quartiles respectively. Observational counts of travel mode to school were conducted. Logistic regression evaluated walking to school, built environment and social risk factors for higher PMVC rates, stratified by geographic location (downtown vs. inner suburbs). The mean PMVC rates were 18.8/10,000/year (cases) and 2.5/10,000/year (controls). One-way street density (OR=4.00), school crossing guard presence (OR=3.65) and higher social disadvantage (OR=1.37) were associated with higher PMVCs. Higher residential land use density had a protective effect (OR=0.56). More walking was not a risk factor. While several built environment risk factors were identified for the inner suburbs; only social disadvantage was a risk factor within older urban neighbourhoods. Several modifiable environmental risk factors were identified for child PMVCs. More walking to school was not associated with increased PMVCs after controlling for the environment. School social disadvantage was associated with higher PMVCs with differences by geographic location. These results have important implications for the design of roadways around schools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  4. Clinical, Molecular, and Environmental Risk Factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Maggioncalda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.

  5. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  6. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  7. Environmental factors related to multiple sclerosis in Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Malli

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence.To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori, diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS.139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01.In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p < 0.007, vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p < 0.0001 and urban living (p < 0.0001. An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p < 0.001. Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21-34.668, p < 0.029 and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212-7.872, p < 0.018 were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p < 0.005.Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence.

  8. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  9. Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campdelacreu, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update and summarise available evidence on environmental risk factors that have been associated with risk of Parkinson disease (PD) or Alzheimer disease (AD) and discuss their potential mechanisms. Evidence consistently suggests that a higher risk of PD is associated with pesticides and that a higher risk of AD is associated with pesticides, hypertension and high cholesterol levels in middle age, hyperhomocysteinaemia, smoking, traumatic brain injury and depression. There is weak evidence suggesting that higher risk of PD is associated with high milk consumption in men, high iron intake, chronic anaemia and traumatic brain injury. Weak evidence also suggests that a higher risk of AD is associated with high aluminium intake through drinking water, excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical grids, DM and hyperinsulinaemia, obesity in middle age, excessive alcohol consumption and chronic anaemia. Evidence consistently suggests that a lower risk of PD is associated with hyperuricaemia, tobacco and coffee use, while a lower risk of AD is associated with moderate alcohol consumption, physical exercise, perimenopausal hormone replacement therapy and good cognitive reserve. Weak evidence suggests that lower risk of PD is associated with increased vitamin E intake, alcohol, tea, NSAIDs, and vigorous physical exercise, and that lower risk of AD is associated with the Mediterranean diet, coffee and habitual NSAID consumption. Several environmental factors contribute significantly to risk of PD and AD. Some may already be active in the early stages of life, and some may interact with other genetic factors. Population-based strategies to modify such factors could potentially result in fewer cases of PD or AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    MARAVIĆ, Milutin; IVKOVIĆ, Sonja; SEGEDINAC, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology above all), and to the subject of Ecology in some profiles of secondary vocational education. There is no equal distribution of the environ...

  11. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  12. Factors influencing smoking among secondary school pupils in Ilala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data coding was done during data entry & quantitative data analysis was done through SPSS Version 12.0, a computer package programme, whereas qualitative ... The factors that were found to contribute for their experiment to smoke include peer influence, family influence and the school environment, advertisement and ...

  13. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Abstract. The paper examined gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress. The sample for the study consists of 250 workers (male and female) randomly selected from 2 Nigeria Universities - Private (Babcock University) and Public. (Olabisi Onanbanjo University). The instrument for the study was ...

  14. Cyberbullying and Its Risk Factors among Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…

  15. Determining Factors in Secondary School Students' Choice of Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using survey research approach, the predictive power of certain characteristics of physics curriculum, social factors, as well as some students‟ characteristics (11 predictor variables) on choice of physics were assessed. The study involved 384 students randomly selected from 14 public senior secondary schools in Ibadan ...

  16. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  17. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  18. Intrapersonal and Organizational Factors Associated with Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Kevin; Bellini, James

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the demographic, intrapersonal, and organizational factors associated with burnout among a population of school counselors in the northeastern United States (n = 78). Three hierarchical regression analyses were completed to determine the amount of variance that each cluster contributed to the 3 subscales on the Maslach…

  19. Aboriginal Students' Perspectives on the Factors Influencing High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…

  20. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established lear- ners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  1. Overweight and obesity and associated factors among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing physical activity participation should be the focus of strategies aimed at preventing and treating overweight and obesity in male youth. Keywords: Overweight, obesity, global school-based health survey, dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychosocial factors, Thailand.

  2. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  3. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  4. Effect of social and environmental determinants on overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescent school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a public health concern. Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with social and environmental determinants among the adolescent school children of Tirupati town of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by interviewer-administered method from school children aged between 12 to 16 years. The sample consisted of 2258 subjects (1097 boys and 1161 girls. Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI based on the current method recommended by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2000. Data on social and environmental determinants were collected by using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Results: In the present sample, 11.2 percent and 4.8 percent of boys and 10.3 percent and 4.8 percent of girls were overweight and obese. The literacy level of parents, family income and child sleep duration significantly associated with overweight. Parental level of education was a risk factor for overweight (Mother: 1.570; 95% CI: 1.048-2.354. Similarly increase in family income (OR = 1.529; 95% CI: 1.089-2.148 and child sleep duration <7 hrs per day (OR = 2.006; 95% CI: 1.194-3.371 raised children′s association in gaining weight. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the burgeoning prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adolescents. Interventional measures taken should consider family, school and physical environment to check the problem of overweight/obesity.

  5. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A

    2013-10-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I

    2014-04-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm x n (S) and 22 cm x n (L), Pcontext. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, prothrombin time, and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  8. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence.

  9. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  10. Environmental factors associated with physician's engagement in communication activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R

    2015-01-01

    Communication between patients and providers is a crucial component of effective care coordination and is associated with a number of desired patient and provider outcomes. Despite these benefits, physician-patient and physician-physician communication occurs infrequently. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a medical practice's external environment and physician engagement in communication activities. This was a cross-sectional examination of 4,299 U.S. physicians' self-reported engagement in communication activities. Communication was operationalized as physician's time spent on communication with patients and other providers during a typical work day. The explanatory variables were measures of environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence. Data sources were the Health Tracking Physician Survey, the Area Resource File database, and the Dartmouth Atlas. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the environmental factors and physician engagement in communication activities. Several environmental factors, including per capita income (odds ratio range, 1.17-1.38), urban location (odds ratio range, 1.08-1.45), fluctuations in Health Maintenance Organization penetration (odds ratio range, 3.47-13.22), poverty (odds ratio range, 0.80-0.97) and population rates (odds ratio range, 1.01-1.02), and the presence of a malpractice crisis (odds ratio range, 0.22-0.43), were significantly associated with communication. Certain aspects of a physician's external environment are associated with different modes of communication with different recipients (patients and providers). This knowledge can be used by health care managers and policy makers who strive to improve communication between different stakeholders within the health care system (e.g., patient and providers).

  11. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  12. Community environmental quality knowledge and awareness among nurses: developing and piloting an assessment survey in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Alexander, Melannie S; Huang, Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    About one in five Americans spends a considerable number of hours in school each week, and thus, is exposed to a variety of environmental agents. Community health nursing professionals require resources and specific training to acquire the environmental knowledge needed to raise personal and community awareness as an enhancement of their practice. Given limited resources for schools and local public health education initiatives, identifying and prioritizing environmental concerns comes before actions to prevent or reduce exposures. With the rise in prevalence of childhood asthma, of special concern are those agents within the school environment that may serve as asthma triggers. This pilot project, within a larger study in a large school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, developed and piloted an environmental health priorities survey with school nurses and other school staff about indoor and outdoor microenvironments relevant to school-aged children. Findings indicate that participants (N = 34) could prioritize environmental issues to inform future intervention activities (such as continuing education training), and distinguish predominantly indoor from typical outdoor exposure agents and their major sources.

  13. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small.

  14. [Study on environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen; Liu, Wei-na; Zhao, Qing-xia; Han, Miao-miao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of female infertility. In a hospital-based case-control study, a self-designed questionnaire was used to survey the cases and controls (1:1) with nation and age (± 2 years) as matching variables. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the datasets. The univariate analysis showed that female infertility was related to the following factors: eating fried foods, alcohol consumption, smoking, staying up late, perm, housing decoration, contact with heavy metals, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, working in hot environment, mental stress, uneasiness, helplessness, and despair. The multivariate analysis showed that staying up late (OR = 2.937), housing decoration (OR = 2.963), exposure to radiation (OR = 2.506), contact with pesticides (OR = 2.908), and mental stress (OR = 4.101) were the main risk factors for female infertility. Furthermore, there was an interaction between staying up late and mental stress. Female infertility is caused by multiple factors including staying up late, housing decoration, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, and mental stress, and there is an interaction between staying up late and mental stress.

  15. Environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Elisa; Corrado, Alda; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive diseases. Only 10 % of all PC cases are thought to be due to genetic factors. Here, we analyzed the most recently published case-control association studies, meta-analyses, and cohort studies with the aim to summarize the main environmental factors that could have a role in PC. Among the most dangerous agents involved in the initiation phase, there are the inhalation of cigarette smoke, and the exposure to mutagenic nitrosamines, organ-chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, and ionizing radiations. Moreover, pancreatitis, high doses of alcohol drinking, the body microbial infections, obesity, diabetes, gallstones and/or cholecystectomy, and the accumulation of asbestos fibers seem to play a crucial role in the progression of the disease. However, some of these agents act both as initiators and promoters in pancreatic acinar cells. Protective agents include dietary flavonoids, marine omega-3, vitamin D, fruit, vegetables, and the habit of regular physical activity. The identification of the factors involved in PC initiation and progression could be of help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches by targeting the molecular signaling pathways responsive to these stimuli. Moreover, the identification of these factors could facilitate the development of strategies for an early diagnosis or measures of risk reduction for high-risk people.

  16. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  17. Meta-analysis Number of Plants Drugs Used by Characteristics Socioeconomic Factors, Environmental and Geographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febiola Diah Pratiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany is the study of public relations with the use of plants. Use of plants by people influenced by several factors, such as social, cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic. Most of the ethnicities in Indonesia has a high dependence on plants medicine for survival. However, the factors that influence the use of medicinal plants by people in Indonesia have not been studied, so that research is needed to optimize the use of medicinal plants to sustainability benefits. The purpose of this study is to analyze the number of species of plants medicine used by the influence of socio-economic, environmental, and geographic factors using principal component analysis and analyzing patterns of use of plants medicine. The results showed that the economy and infrastructure components (access to electricity, means of education, income level, health facilities, distance from the highway, remoteness, and the fastest time toward the road and the number of people graduating from elementary school affect the number of medicinal plant species used. Based on the results of the study of literature and field observations, the pattern of use of plants medicine in addition to be used as medicine, the plant is used for food, building materials, plant ornamental, ceremonial, wood, wicker and crafts, coloring agents, animal feed, ingredients aromatic, and pesticide. The usage patterns in each region or village has the distinction of which is influenced by the remoteness factor due to the differences in the social, economic, environmental, and geographic.  Keywords: ethnobotany, plants medicine, principal component analysis

  18. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  19. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Early Literacy Skills across School Grade Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. "A," "B") often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school…

  1. Enhancing Botswana Children's Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices through the School Civic Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi

    2008-01-01

    An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…

  2. Greenhouse Affect: The Relationship between the Sustainable Design of Schools and Children's Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanahi, Parisa; Elkadi, Hisham; Tucker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine if primary school children's environmental attitudes can be predicted by whether their school had been designed or adapted for sustainability. A New Ecological Paradigm ("NEP") scale for children was adopted to measure attitudes, with supplementary questions added to align this scale to the Australian context…

  3. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  4. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  5. Perception of built environmental factors and physical activity among adolescents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Ishaku, Cornelius M; Deforche, Benedicte; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2014-04-27

    Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents' physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents' physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental variables and adolescents' physical activity (active transportation to school and leisure-time moderate-to- vigorous physical activity), and the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income on association between environmental variables and physical activity among Nigerian boys and girls. Participants were 1006 adolescents (12-19 years, 50.4% girls) randomly selected from 11 secondary schools in Maiduguri city, Nigeria. Physical activity and perceptions of environmental characteristics were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Separate gender-based, hierarchical multiple moderated linear regression analyses were used to examine the direct associations between the environmental perceptions and physical activity variables (active transportation and leisure-time MVPA; dependent variables), as well as the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income. Only in boys were direct associations and interaction effect of neighborhood-level income found. Access to destinations was positively associated with active transportation to school (β = 0.18; CI = 0.67, 2.24); while residential density (β = 0.10; CI = 0.01, 1.74) and availability/quality of infrastructures (β = 0.14; CI = 0.49, 2.68) were positively associated with leisure-time MVPA. Also, neighborhood-level income moderated the association between perceived safety and leisure-time MVPA, with more perceived safety related to less MVPA (β = -0.16; CI = -0.01, -0.70) in boys living in high SES neighborhood but marginally related to more MVPA (β = 0.11; CI = -0.04, 2.88, p = 0.06) in boys living in low SES

  6. The environmental influence of ecological security factors of forest enterprises export activities

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    Yurkiv Nadiia Mukolaivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It was established a system of environmental safety factors of the production process of exports wood products that was based on the concept of environmental security of forest enterprises. The classification of these factors at various stages of the production process was made. An analysis of environmental safety factors on the environment in the course of forest enterprises export was done.

  7. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p infants in the prone position, and parental smoking is still a SIDS risk concern in Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.

  8. Influences of environmental factors on leaf morphology of Chinese jujubes.

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    Xiaopeng Li

    Full Text Available Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.. Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations.

  9. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  10. Effective Factors in Enhancing School Managers' Job Motivation

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    S. Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school managers' job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. "nMethod: For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity and its load factor was 0.4 which was high. "nResults: The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing managers' job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51% including 28 indices; social factor (7/9% including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2% including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2% including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8% including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6% including 4 indices. "nConclusions: The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of managers' motivation.

  11. Effective Factors in Enhancing School Manager's Job Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Abbas; Mirzamani, S Mahmoud; Esfahani, Hamideh Darb

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school manager's job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity) and its load factor was 0.4 which was high. The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing manager's job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51%) including 28 indices; social factor (7/9%) including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2%) including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2%) including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8%) including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6%) including 4 indices. The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of manager's motivation.

  12. Environmental Lead Exposure among Primary School Children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt

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    GM Abdel Rasoul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. Objective: To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ, hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. Methods: 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL, hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. Results: The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3 in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Conclusion: Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  13. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

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    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  14. Higher School Marketing Strategy Formation: Classifying the Factors

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    N. K. Shemetova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main trends of higher school management strategy formation. The author specifies the educational changes in the modern information society determining the strategy options. For each professional training level the author denotes the set of strategic factors affecting the educational service consumers and, therefore, the effectiveness of the higher school marketing. The given factors are classified from the stand-points of the providers and consumers of educational service (enrollees, students, graduates and postgraduates. The research methods include the statistic analysis and general methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison, and classification. The author is convinced that the university management should develop the necessary prerequisites for raising the graduates’ competitiveness in the labor market, and stimulate the active marketing policies of the relating subdivisions and departments. In author’s opinion, the above classification of marketing strategy factors can be used as the system of values for educational service providers. 

  15. Combining Technical Competence and Stakeholder Impact in Environmental Education: The Gambia All Schools Nursery Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulete, Francisca E.; Orr, Blair

    2010-01-01

    Under the guidance of the Department of Forestry, the Regional Education Directorate, and Peace Corps/The Gambia, the Gambia All Schools Tree Nursery Competition, an environmental education program, was developed to introduce practical environmental education in The Gambia. Data for this report were collected using a rapid appraisal approach.…

  16. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square

  17. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

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    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  18. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria

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    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding environmental factors related to obesity can inform interventions for the world wide obesity epidemic, yet no study has been conducted in this context in Africa. This study examined associations between neighbourhood environment variables and overweight in Nigerian adults. Methods A total of 1818 randomly selected residents (age: 20-65 years, 40% female, 31% overweight and 61.2% response living in high and low socioeconomic (SES neighbourhoods in Metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria, participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight and an interview-assisted self-reported measure of 16 items of perceived neighborhood environments were conducted. The primary outcome was overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25 kg/m2 vs. normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, overweight was associated with distant access to commercial facilities (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02- 2.18, poor neighbourhood aesthetics (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.09, perceiving garbage and offensive odours in the neighbourhood (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.89 and feeling unsafe from crime at night (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13- 1.91 and unsafe from traffic (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.07 in the total sample. Significant interactions regarding overweight were found between gender and four environmental variables, with low residential density (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.93 and poorly maintained pedestrian pathways (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.17 associated with overweight in men only, and absence of beautiful things (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.42-3.50 and high traffic making it unsafe to walk (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.49-3.83 associated with overweight in women only. There were few significant interactions between environmental factors and neighborhood SES regarding overweight. Conclusion Neighbourhood environment factors were associated with being overweight among

  19. Foraminifera From Atarctic Glaciers: its Distribution Related to Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A. R.; Eichler, P. B.; Eichler, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    The present investigation is an attempt to understand which abiotic parameters of the bottom water (depth, salinity, temperature, conductivity and density) might be the controlling factor to describe recent foraminifera fauna associated to glaciers environments from two antarctic islands (King George and Elephant islands). The principal component analyses (PCA) of the environmental data reveals a marked environmental gradient, with 90.1% of the cumulative percentage variation explained by the first two principal components. The coefficients of the linear combinations of environmental variables show temperature and conductivity factors as the largest positive loadings on PC1, and high negative for density, salinity and depth. The PC2 axis is characterized by positive loadings for all variables, showing the strongest positive loading for conductivity on this axis. A plot of PC1 versus PC2 scores reveals 4 distinct groups: Group I includes G5, G6, G7, G8, and G11 stations with negative scores on both principal components, suggest lower temperature and conductivity with high values salinity, density from deeper sites. Group II includes G10 and G12 stations that have negative scores on PC1 and positive scores on PC2, reflecting deeper environments with low temperature and conductivity and intermediate salinity. Group III includes G2 and G9 stations which have positive scores on PC1 and negative scores on PC2 and they have high temperature and conductivity in shallow environments with low salinity and density values. Group IV includes G13, G14 and G15 stations with positive scores on both principal components reflecting environments with intermediate depths and lower salinities. The most ecologically meaningful pattern obtained in the Multi-Dimentional Scaling (MDS) ordination of the data by foraminiferal species reveals three facies (A, B and C). The assemblage associated with MDS A is dominated by Hemisphaerammina bradyi (3.16%, average relative abundance) and

  20. Coping patterns in special school staff: demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Dudenhöffer, S; Claus, M; Kimbel, R; Letzel, S; Rose, D-M

    2016-03-01

    Teachers' mental health is commonly discussed in organizational health studies, but studies in special schools are rare. Work-related coping and experience patterns (WCEPs) have been shown to be associated with mental health and intentions to leave. The influence of organizational factors on coping patterns has not been examined. To assess the distribution of WCEPs in special school staff and to identify potential influencing factors. We surveyed a sample of teachers and educational staff in 13 German special schools using the WCEP questionnaire and COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Of 245 teachers and 417 educational staff contacted, 114 teachers (47%) and 252 educational staff (60%) responded, an overall response rate of 55% (366/662). Coping patterns of special school staff were classified as unambitious (30%), excessively ambitious (7%), resigned (17%), healthy-ambitious (12%) or unclassifiable (34%). Furthermore we found several significant relations with demographic and organizational factors. For example, the resigned pattern is associated with age [Exp(B) 1.12; 95% CI 1.05-1.19], emotional demands [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.12], work-family conflict [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10] and bullying [Exp(B) 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08]. Since emotional and social factors are associated with risky (excessively ambitious or resigned) and unambitious coping patterns in special school teachers and educational staff, interventions should focus on them. Further research could explore causal relations and observe the development of coping styles over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Improving classroom practices: the impact of leadership, school organizational conditions, and teacher factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, E.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are challenged to improve classroom practices as they are expected to enhance students’ motivation. While leadership, school organizational conditions and teacher factors are considered essential for improving classroom practices, more should be known about the interplay between school

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  3. Influence of environmental factors on college alcohol drinking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Ridouan; Hameed, Rasheed; Szymanowski, Steve; Greenwood, Priscilla; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major problem, especially among students on and around college campuses. We use the mathematical framework of [16] and study the role of environmental factors on the long term dynamics of an alcohol drinking population. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are carried out on the relevant functions (for example, on the drinking reproduction number and the extinction time of moderate and heavy drinking because of interventions) to understand the impact of environmental interventions on the distributions of drinkers. The reproduction number helps determine whether or not the high-risk alcohol drinking behavior will spread and become persistent in the population, whereas extinction time of high-risk drinking measures the effectiveness of control programs. We found that the reproduction number is most sensitive to social interactions, while the time to extinction of high-risk drinkers is significantly sensitive to the intervention programs that reduce initiation, and the college drop-out rate. The results also suggest that in a population, higher rates of intervention programs in low-risk environments (more than intervention rates in high-risk environments) are needed to reduce heavy drinking in the population.

  4. School environment factors were associated with BMI among adolescents in Xi'an City, China

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    Dibley Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.

  5. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

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    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  6. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p self esteem (r = -.25, p happiness (r = -.21, p self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Environmental Factor Contributed to The Onset of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuleni Yuleni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder that needs a long term treatment and social support. This condition may results in burden and disturbance in the family and society A number of studies have investigated some environmental factors that may potentially lead to schizophrenia. One of many suspected environmental factors is place of born or grew up. This study was conducted to investigate association between place of born or grew up and age of onset of schizophrenia. Methods: This analytical study using cross-sectional method was conducted by retrieving data from 72 medical records of hospitalized schizophrenic patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from October‒November 2013.  The variables in this study were age of onset and place (urban or rural where the patients born or grew-up.The collected data were analyzed using Chi-Square statistical test. Results: This study discovered that 75% of subjects were born or grew up in urban area, 68% of subjects had age of onset at 20‒40 years and there was no association between place of born or grew up and age of onset of schizophrenia (p-value was 0.108. Conclusions: More than half subjects were born and grew up in urban, who had age of onset of schizophrenia at 20‒40 years and there is no significant association between place of born or grew up and age of onset of schizophrenia.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1080

  9. Environmental Factors and Multiple Sclerosis Severity: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mandia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role in the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS. This study was conducted to examine whether environmental factors may also be associated with the evolution of the disease. We collected data on smoking habits, sunlight exposure and diet (particularly consumption of vitamin D-rich foods from a sample of 131 MS patients. We also measured their serum vitamin D concentration. The clinical impact of MS was quantified using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS; MS was considered “severe” in patients with MSSS ≥ 6, and “mild” in patients with MSSS ≤ 1. The results showed a strong association between serum vitamin D concentration and both sunlight exposure (26.4 ± 11.9 ng/mL vs. 16.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.0004 and a fish-rich diet (23.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL vs. 16.1 ± 12.4 ng/mL, p = 0.005. Patients reporting frequent sunlight exposure had a lower MSSS (2.6 ± 2.4 h vs. 4.6 ± 2.6 h, p < 0.001. The mild MS patients reported much more frequent sunlight exposure (75% mild MS vs. 25% severe MS p = 0.004, Chi square test. A higher serum vitamin D concentration determined a lower risk of developing severe MS, adjusted for sunlight exposure (OR = 0.92 for one unit increase in vitamin D, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97, p = 0.005. A stronger inverse association emerged between frequent sunlight exposure and the risk of severe MS (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.09–0.71, p = 0.009. Our data show that an appropriate diet and adequate expose to sunlight are associated with less aggressive MS.

  10. Environmental Factors and Multiple Sclerosis Severity: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, Daniele; Ferraro, Ottavia E.; Nosari, Guido; Montomoli, Cristina; Zardini, Elisabetta; Bergamaschi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role in the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted to examine whether environmental factors may also be associated with the evolution of the disease. We collected data on smoking habits, sunlight exposure and diet (particularly consumption of vitamin D-rich foods) from a sample of 131 MS patients. We also measured their serum vitamin D concentration. The clinical impact of MS was quantified using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS); MS was considered “severe” in patients with MSSS ≥ 6, and “mild” in patients with MSSS ≤ 1. The results showed a strong association between serum vitamin D concentration and both sunlight exposure (26.4 ± 11.9 ng/mL vs. 16.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.0004) and a fish-rich diet (23.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL vs. 16.1 ± 12.4 ng/mL, p = 0.005). Patients reporting frequent sunlight exposure had a lower MSSS (2.6 ± 2.4 h vs. 4.6 ± 2.6 h, p < 0.001). The mild MS patients reported much more frequent sunlight exposure (75% mild MS vs. 25% severe MS p = 0.004, Chi square test). A higher serum vitamin D concentration determined a lower risk of developing severe MS, adjusted for sunlight exposure (OR = 0.92 for one unit increase in vitamin D, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97, p = 0.005). A stronger inverse association emerged between frequent sunlight exposure and the risk of severe MS (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.09–0.71, p = 0.009). Our data show that an appropriate diet and adequate expose to sunlight are associated with less aggressive MS. PMID:24950063

  11. Factors influencing career choice among high school students in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugonzibwa, E A; Kikwilu, E N; Rugarabamu, P N; Ntabaye, M K

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influenced career choice among high school students in Tanzania. The information obtained would be used to formulate effective recruitment strategies and counseling students on their career expectations in dentistry. All 352 high school students who were studying in five randomly selected high schools completed a pre-tested questionnaire containing twenty-four items addressing five factors. Image of a profession (good experiences from the work of professionals, professionals who are attractive to respondents, and professionals who command high respect in the community) was perceived as an important factor in career choice by the majority of respondents (over 88 percent). Work/profession characteristics (knowledge about work to be done, treating patients, giving medicines to patients, helping relatives, etc.) was ranked as the second most important factor, and course characteristics (availability of postgraduate studies, size of annual intake, pass rate, geographic location, etc.) was ranked third. Direct gains and advice from important persons were perceived as least important in career choice.

  12. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in urban, African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, JoEllen; Chandler, Peggy; Dancy, Barbara; Choi, JiWon; Plonczynski, Donna

    2002-01-01

    This study was part of a multi-site project carried out with seven universities throughout the United States to identify cultural, environmental, and policy determinants of physical activity in ethnic minority women aged 20 to 50 years. Following an extensive literature review, nine core research questions were created to examine potential barriers to physical activity as well as enabling factors. Methods and findings presented are from six focus groups of low-income, urban African American women. These focus groups were held at each of two health centers serving communities in Chicago, Illinois, that are predominantly African American and low income and have households usually headed by women. Forty-eight women participated, with 5 to 11 in each group. Most (85%) were unmarried, 40% had less than a high school education, and 33% were neither employed nor attending school. Findings reflected the influence of a culture of poverty and the importance of environmental safety and community support. The findings will be used to inform the development of community-based exercise interventions and policies that are culturally and socially sensitive to the needs of low-income, urban African American women.

  13. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Environmental interventions for eating and physical activity: a randomized controlled trial in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Conway, Terry L; Elder, John P; Prochaska, Judith J; Brown, Marianne; Zive, Michelle M; Marshall, Simon J; Alcaraz, John E

    2003-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of environmental, policy, and social marketing interventions on physical activity and fat intake of middle school students on campus. Twenty-four middle schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Baseline measures were collected in spring 1997, and interventions were conducted during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 school years SETTING/PARTICIPATION: The schools had mean enrollments of 1109, with 44.5% nonwhite students. Over 2 years, physical activity interventions were designed to increase physical activity in physical education classes and throughout the school day. Nutrition interventions were designed to provide and market low-fat foods at all school food sources, including cafeteria breakfasts and lunches, a la carte sources, school stores, and bag lunches. School staff and students were engaged in policy change efforts, but there was no classroom health education. Primary outcomes were measured by direct observation and existing records. Randomized regression models (N =24 schools) revealed a significant intervention effect for physical activity for the total group (p <0.009) and boys (p <0.001), but not girls (p <0.40). The intervention was not effective for total fat (p <0.91) or saturated fat (p <0.79). Survey data indicated that the interventions reduced reported body mass index for boys (p <0.05). Environmental and policy interventions were effective in increasing physical activity at school among boys but not girls. The interventions were not effective in reducing fat intake at school. School environmental and policy interventions have the potential to improve health behavior of the student population, but barriers to full implementation need to be better understood and overcome.

  15. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    moderate the effect of facilities on recess physical activity. Conclusion The findings support the use of an ecological approach and multilevel analyses in the investigation of correlates of physical activity that allows for a broader understanding of the influence of and interaction between factors at multiple levels on physical activity behaviour. In the promotion of physical activity in lower secondary schools, the study suggests that programmes should include a focus on environmental facilitation and incorporate strategies to increase students' interests for school physical activity.

  16. Physical environmental factors as determinants of learning abilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling ... This study focused on peculiarities of physical environments as determinants of learning abilities of the disabled children in schools. Physical environment of the school incorporates the school environment, all buildings and other structures therein. The disabled pupils have ...

  17. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  18. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  19. Nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.

    1983-01-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, a basic study of the nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation was carried out to provide fundamental and practical bases for design of fermentation media and culture conditions. The requirements for all active medium components need to be determined in order to establish balanced media, which are important to reduce raw materials costs and to minimize inhibition from build-up of excess feed components in recycle processes with selective ethanol removal. The effect of feed concentration of individual nutrients was determined and allowed formulation of media optimal with respect to the major fermentation parameters. Biotin, pantothenate, myoinositol, potassium, and phosphates appeared to stimulate growth preferentially to ethanol production. Thiamine and pyridoxine appeared to have the opposite effect. A conceptual model was proposed to relate the effects of these nutrients to biochemical pathways and functions. The minimum cost combination of raw materials to achieve a medium of well defined components can be determined with a linear program. The effect of dissolved oxygen was studied from essentially zero to 346 mm Hg oxygen tension, showing a continuous decline in specific ethanol productivity with increasing oxygen over this range. Long term continuous cultures resulted in decreased media requirements for growth factors and increased tolerance for ethanol inhibition, most probably through adaptation. An ethanol productivity of 5.6 g/l-hr in continuous culture was achieved with a completely synthetic medium with the improved culture.

  20. SCHOOL CLIMATE AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON CLIMATE FACTORS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan GÜNBAYI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the schoolclimate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses,and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. The data collected from a sample of 204 teachersfrom 9 urban schools serving general high school education in the centre of Afyon and Usak cities in Turkey bymeans of the questionnaire developed by the researcher in the academic year of 2001-2002. The questionnaireasked the participants to report the perceived school climate levels of the variables related to the organizationalclimate factors - organizational clarity and standards, team commitment, autonomy, intimacy and support,member conflict, rewards, and risk - on the open-to-closed continuum. The data collected were analyzed by t-testfor Equality of Means and Analysis of Variance and Tukey post hoc tests. As a result of the analyzes, all theteachers reported open climate in relation to the factors of team commitment, organizational clarity andstandards, intimacy and support , autonomy, member conflict, medium climate in relation to the factors of riskand in reward. Additionally, the teachers teaching art, music and physical education reported higher open schoolclimate than others, man than women, single teachers than married ones, the teachers with more degree ofeducation than the ones with a lower degree of education, older teachers than younger ones, and the teacherswith less seniority than the ones with more seniority. Finally, some ideas were suggested about what should bedone in helping teachers to work in a more desirable open school climate

  1. Estimation of long-term environmental inventory factors associated with land application of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    techniques. Subsequently, 100 year model simulations were used to provide emission factors as well as harvest and carbon sequestration factors (collectively called environmental inventory factors) under a variety of environmental conditions. Environmental inventory factors were calculated under both high.......18 to 0.55. The average carbon sequestration factor across the different environmental conditions ranged from 0.03 to 0.05 for the different sludge types. In conclusion, the approach using an agro-ecosystem model to estimate inventory factors associated with land application of sludge under varying...

  2. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  3. An Environmental Management Experience Within the Project: Improvement of Educational Opportunities in Rural Environmental Management in Sarapiqui and Guapiles’ Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle León-León

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A very important aspect of worldwide education and, particularly for Costa Rican education, is the environmental management as an educational strategy. For this reason, this article describes the experience of the project Mejora de la Oferta Educativa en Gestión Ambiental Rural (MOE-GAR during its first stage in 2009. The population was comprised by teachers from different areas of the rural school districts of Guapiles and Sarapiquí. As a part of this project, we worked with teachers, different government and nongovernment institutions, throughout the 2009 school year; obtaining as a result, a process of knowledge development in environmental management. Based on this, several proposals were developed in different educational institutions.

  4. Factors Associated With Unhealthy Snacks Consumption Among Adolescents in Iran's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-29

    Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (P<.06). In case of environmental factors, high socio-economic status (SES) level (PRR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.26-1.67), single-parent family (PRR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30), more social norms pressure (PRR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17), pocket money allowance (PRR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), easy accessibility (PRR=1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11), and less perceived parental control (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) all had a role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors relating to poor parenting practices, high

  5. Factors Associated With Unhealthy Snacks Consumption Among Adolescents in Iran’s Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (P<.06). In case of environmental factors, high socio-economic status (SES) level (PRR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.26-1.67), single-parent family (PRR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30), more social norms pressure (PRR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17), pocket money allowance (PRR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), easy accessibility (PRR=1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11), and less perceived parental control (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) all had a role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Conclusion: Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors

  6. Sarcoidosis in an Italian province. Prevalence and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghè, Deborah; Dall’Asta, Luca; Garavelli, Claudia; Pastorelli, Augusto Alberto; Muscarella, Marilena; Saccani, Gloria; Aiello, Marina; Corradi, Massimo; Stacchini, Paolo; Chetta, Alfredo; Bertorelli, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease whose causes are still unknown and for which epidemiological data are often discordant. The aim of our study is to investigate prevalence and spatial distribution of cases, and identify environmental exposures associated with sarcoidosis in an Italian province. Methods After georeferentiation of cases, the area under study was subdivided with respect to Municipality and Health Districts and to the altitude in order to identify zonal differences in prevalence. The bioaccumulation levels of 12 metals in lichen tissues were analyzed, in order to determine sources of air pollution. Finally, the analysis of the correlation between metals and between pickup stations was performed. Results 223 patients were identified (58.3% female and 41.7% male of total) and the mean age was 50.6±15.4 years (53.5±15.5 years for the females and 46.5±14.4 for the males). The mean prevalence was 49 per 100.000 individuals. However, we observed very heterogeneous prevalence in the area under study. The correlations among metals revealed different deposition patterns in lowland area respect to hilly and mountain areas. Conclusions The study highlights a high prevalence of sarcoidosis cases, characterized by a very inhomogeneous and patchy distribution with phenomena of local aggregation. Moreover, the bioaccumulation analysis was an effective method to identify the mineral particles that mostly contribute to air pollution in the different areas, but it was not sufficient to establish a clear correlation between the onset of sarcoidosis and environmental risk factors. PMID:28475583

  7. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO2e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  8. Family and school environmental predictors of sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Debora; Manfredini, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. A total of 65 primary school children (55.4% males, mean age 9.3 ± 1.9 years) were administered a 10-item questionnaire investigating the prevalence of self-reported SB as well as nine family and school-related potential bruxism predictors. Regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the potential predictors and SB. A positive answer to the self-reported SB item was endorsed by 18.8% of subjects, with no sex differences. Multiple variable regression analysis identified a final model showing that having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were the only two weak predictors of self-reported SB. The percentage of explained variance for SB by the final multiple regression model was 13.3% (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.133). While having a high specificity and a good negative predictive value, the model showed unacceptable sensitivity and positive predictive values. The resulting accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported SB was 73.8%. The present investigation suggested that, among family and school-related matters, having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were two predictors, even if weak, of a child's self-report of SB.

  9. The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Kentucky's Public School Accountability System:Does Poverty Impact School Effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lyons

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, Kentucky's public schools have been assigned individualized baseline and improvement goal indices based upon past school performance in relation to the 2014 statewide index goal of 100. Each school's CATS Accountability Index, a measure of school performance based upon both cognitive and non-cognitive measures, has then been compared to these individualized improvement goals for the purpose of designating schools as Meet Goal, Progressing, and Assistance Level (Kentucky Department of Education (KDE, 2000. Considered an interim target model, the design of CATS has been intended to negate the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors on school performance on accountability tests through the individualization of school goals (Ladd. 2001. Results of this study showed that 39.9% to 55.5% of the variance of the CATS indices was shared by school socioeconomic factors. Analysis of this interim target model for the 2000-2002 biennium showed that for elementary and middle schools this model negated the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors, but not for high schools. Moreover, analysis of the progress of schools toward their Improvement Goals in 2001 showed that both elementary and high schools from higher poverty backgrounds lagged significantly behind their more affluent peers, indicating inequitable capacity to meet improvement goals between the poorest and most wealthy schools. Adaptations to the present accountability systems were suggested for the purpose of providing more accurate information to the public regarding the effectiveness of public schools in Kentucky.

  10. Environmental literacy of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuth, Amber M.

    With the global crises facing the planet that bring major implications, (Hart & Nolan, 1999; Hungerford & Simmons, 2003) it is imperative that there be an environmentally literate citizenry who can identify, solve, and prevent environmental issues. Since middle school students are evolving into participating citizens and are developing the ability to think in abstract terms, they are a critical group to study regarding levels of environmental literacy. Additionally, with the increased resource needs and decreased air and water quality in highly populated urban areas, focusing on the environmental literacy of students living and attending school in urban areas is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of environmental literacy of a group of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who attend a charter school in Houston, Texas were given, the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey (MSELS). This survey has been developed to measure components of environmental literacy as related to domains identified critical to environmental literacy (McBeth et al., 2008). The four domains include ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior. Data collected from the survey was used to determine levels of environmental literacy in the following variables: ecological knowledge, verbal commitment, actual commitment, environmental sensitivity, general environmental feelings, and environmental issue and action skills. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed for each grade level and as an entire sample for each variable in order to generate a profile of the group. Composite scores were calculated in the four domains (ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior) and were compared to high, moderate, and low levels of environmental literacy set forth by top environmental education researchers (McBeth et al., 2008). Additionally, two

  11. Recess physical activity and school-related social factors in Finnish primary and lower secondary schools: cross-sectional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Henna L; Hirvensalo, Mirja H; Laine, Kaarlo; Laakso, Lauri; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Lintunen, Taru; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2014-10-28

    Participation in physical activities provides students with opportunities for social interaction and social skills development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of students' recess physical activity with school-related social factors. Data were collected in 19 schools countrywide in autumn 2010, and 1463 students from grades 4 and 5 (primary school) and from grades 7 and 8 (lower secondary school) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate whether self-reported physical activity at recess was associated with peer relationships at school, relatedness to school and school climate. Analyses were adjusted for self-reported overall physical activity and conducted for primary and lower secondary schools. Multi-group analysis was used to test sex differences among the associations. In primary school, physical activity at recess was positively associated with peer relationships at school (boys: b = 0.17, p = 0.007 and girls: b = 0.21, p school (boys: b = 0.18, p = 0.002 and girls: b = 0.24, p school climate (girls: b = 0.17, p = 0.001), after adjusting for overall physical activity. In lower secondary school, physical activity at recess was positively associated with peer relationships at school (boys: b = 0.09, p = 0.006 and girls: b = 0.12, p = 0.010) but not with other school-related social factors. No sex differences were observed in these associations. Our results suggest that students' participation in physical activities during school recess is positively associated with students' school-related social factors. In the future, it would be worthwhile to study how physical activity at recess should be organised in order to support the development of school-related social factors.

  12. Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools

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    Joshua V. Garn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils’ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils’ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils’ use at specific facilities. We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01. Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01, facility type (p < 0.01, and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01. We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06, but not boys (p = 0.98. Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.

  13. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

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    Trapp Georgina SA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active school transport (AST has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197 attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls, school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96 and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99. Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05, parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82; and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17. Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.

  14. 78. Environmental air pollution: A new emerging factor for coronary artery disease

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    S.A. Meo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Environmental pollution exert detrimental effects on the heart. The researchers and physicians must consider the environmental pollution as an emerging factor in the development of coronary artery disease.

  15. Cellular monitoring systems for the assessment of space environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Meier, Matthias M.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    Detrimental environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to affect future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostics group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of responding to DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassays will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic toxic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems. The biological end-point under investigation in this work is the gene activation by radiation in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated reflects the activity of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. The NF-κB family of proteins plays a major role in the inflammatory and immune response, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. After exposure to X-rays, an increase in NF-κB activation was seen only with high doses. Experiments using accelerated argon ions (95 MeV/u, LET ˜230 keV/μm) produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have shown activation of the NF-κB pathway with doses greater than 1 × 10 6 particles cm -2 (P cm -2), reaching its maximal activation at 2 × 10 7 P cm -2. These results suggest that the exceptional radiation field in space may activate the NF-κB pathway in human cells.

  16. First, Do No Harm: Children's Environmental Health in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin M.; Mann, Mana; Schwartz, Andrea Wershof; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past century, the threats to children's health have shifted radically. Life-threatening infectious diseases--smallpox, polio, and cholera--have been largely conquered. But children are growing up in a world in which environmental toxins are ubiquitous. Measurable levels of hundreds of man-made chemicals are routinely found in the bodies of…

  17. [The microbiological safety of food products, and environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, S A

    2006-01-01

    The author of the review analyzes the mechanisms of changes of biological properties of microorganisms causing alimentary infections and intoxications. A complex of environmental factors, such as anthropogenic, technogenic, social, ecological, and climatic ones, are considered to be the main cause of these changes. Food contamination by microorganisms and their toxins is facilitated by climatic warming. The exposure of consumers to food toxins grows, and alimentary infections become more frequent. New classes of alimentary infections have appeared; clinical manifestations and complications of food-related infections have become more serious. Besides, the quality and value of food products may be reduced by lactic acid microorganisms and moulds, whose content in food chains increases due to warming, especially in regions with a high anthropogenic load. From the economic perspective, the behavior of microbial food contaminants under the conditions of climatic warming increase direct losses of agricultural products due to their lesion by microscopic fungi, mycotoxins etc., as well as spoilage microflora. This may result in food shortage and famine in distant regions. The article covers control measures and the management of microbiological risks under the condition of climatic warming.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment: Replace Hanscom AFB Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    by Hanscom AFB on “reduce, reuse, recycle ”, it is expected that the new Middle School will operate more efficiently and use fewer resources than...Also, all hazardous materials used during construction would be handled and disposed of in accordance with Hanscom AFB policies and protocols and all...areas, specialist rooms, a music room, an art room, a learning impaired room, teacher work rooms, counseling areas, storage offices, administrative

  19. Teachers' beliefs about science teaching and context factors: Implications for teaching and learning science at the middle school level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Celeste H.

    Current research shows that teachers' beliefs have been virtually ignored in science education reform efforts spearheaded by the development of national, state, and local standards. Since the aim of science education reform is to improve scientific literacy for all students, increasingly, researchers are questioning the lack of attention to teachers' beliefs and are calling for more research to examine teachers' beliefs and the influence of school environmental factors on their classroom practices. The purpose of this study was to explore, investigate, and analyze data that might reveal middle school science teachers' beliefs about science teaching and how school environmental factors influence their classroom behavior. The mixed methods study was conducted in a large urban/suburban county in an eastern state in the United States. Data were collected through a Likert-style survey and interview and observation sessions. Ninety-one middle school science teachers completed the survey. Three teachers from the survey sample also participated in the interview and observation sessions. The findings from the quantitative and qualitative data indicated that most of the middle school science teachers in this study believed that science teaching should be student-centered, and science instruction should be based on an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning. They also believed that the state and county standards were the most important factors in helping teachers to use inquiry-based instructional strategies to teach science. In addition to the science standards, the middle school science teachers believed that peer and principal support were critical to their success as teachers, and that instructional materials and supplies were readily available to help them teach science. The findings from the study indicated that few school environmental factors affected the middle school teachers' classroom practices. However, time (to participate in more professional activities

  20. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedín; Bentham, Graham; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between Fat Mass Index (FMI, calculated as fat mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and objectively computed environmental indicators describing access to food outlets and physical activity facilities, the safety and connectivity of the road network, and the mix of land uses present were investigated. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were fitted with log-transformed FMI as the outcome, and stratification by gender and mode of travel to school. Among girls, better access to healthy food outlets (supermarkets and greengrocers) in the home environment was associated with lower FMI while better access to unhealthy outlets (takeaways and convenience stores) around homes and schools was associated with higher FMI. Also in girls, a higher proportion of accessible open land and a lower mix of land uses around the school were associated with higher FMI. Among boys the presence of major roads in the home neighbourhood was associated with higher FMI among non-active travellers, while major roads in the school neighbourhood were associated with lower FMI among active travellers. No significant associations were seen between FMI and any of the route characteristics. While the relative paucity of associations provides few indicators for the design of effective interventions, there was some evidence that environmental characteristics may be more important among active travellers than non-active travellers, and among girls than boys, suggesting that future interventions should be sensitive to such differences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Promoting Student Academic Success: Paying Attention to Learning Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Achievement gaps become greater for schools with high-poverty and high-minority school population in the United States in recent years (Dillon, 2005; Lee & Slaughter-Defoe, 2004). The academic success of minority students is important because the nation cannot successfully compete in a global market when a considerable portion of its school…

  2. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-12-01

    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem.

  3. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

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    D'Haese Sara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696 were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y. Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3% of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school

  4. SCHOOL WEBSITE AS A FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL INFORMATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

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    Olga P. Pinchuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current state of school openness and presents an experience of creating a school website as a mean to resolve the contradiction between the appearance of various forms of information and limited ways to use these forms in educational systems. Website is regarded as a component of a common information educational space in Ukraine and an important factor in its development as a tool to develop cooperation of all members of the educational process (students, teachers, psychologists, principals and parents. The article considers the following elements as operative informing of parents open exchange of teaching experience and reporting monitoring results. Perspective course of research, among others, information security of school operation is defined.

  5. Drug use and risk factors among school adolescents

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    Bárbara de Oliveira Prado Sousa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the association between risk factors and severity of problems related to drug use in secondary school adolescents. This study had the participation of 1192 students from 6th to 9th year of a city in the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data collection occurred through a questionnaire containing: socio-demographic data and the Drug Use Screening Inventory. Drug use was prevalent in adolescents aged 14 and 15 years, atheist, with good family relationships, living with friends/institutions, attended parties once a month, one or two times a week and three and four times a week. There was main damage in the areas of psychiatric disorders, family system and social competence among those who made use of drugs (except alcohol and tobacco. The results point to the need for implementation of preventive strategies of drug use and health promotion in the school context, whereas consumption was associated with significant damage.

  6. Physical Activity Promotion in Schools: Which Strategies Do Schools (Not) Implement and Which Socioecological Factors Are Associated with Implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; Van Acker, Ragnar; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Haerens, Leen L.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the implementation and associated factors of strategies (e.g. sports after school and during lunch break, active schoolyards, active school commuting) and organizational principles (e.g. safe bike racks, pupil involvement) that facilitate the physical activity (PA)-promoting role of schools. Key representatives of 111 elementary and 125…

  7. Understanding the Factors that Characterise School-Community Partnerships: The Case of the Logan Healthy Schools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melinda; Rowe, Fiona; Harris, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that characterise effective school-community partnerships that support the sustainability of school health initiatives applied within a health-promoting schools approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study used an explanatory case study approach of five secondary schools…

  8. Smoking stage relations to peer, school and parental factors among secondary school students in Kinta, Perak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Premila Devi; Hairi, Noran N; Al Sadat, Nabilla; Chinna, Karuthan

    2013-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of different stages of smoking and differences in associated risk factors. Thos longitudinal study started in February 2011 and the subjects were 2552 form one students aged between twelve to thirteen years of from 15 government secondary schools of Kinta, Perak. Data on demographic, parental, school and peer factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We examined the effects of peer, school and parental factors on the five stages of smoking; never smokers, susceptible never smokers, experimenters, current smokers and ex-smokers, at baseline. In the sample, 19.3% were susceptible never smokers, 5.5% were current smokers 6% were experimenters and 3.1% were ex-smokers. Gender, ethnicity, best friends' smoking status, high peer pressure, higher number of relatives who smoked and parental monitoring were found to be associated with smoking stages. Presence of parent-teen conflict was only associated with susceptible never smokers and experimenters whereas absence of home discussion on smoking hazards was associated with susceptible never smokers and current smokers. We identified variations in the factors associated with the different stages of smoking. Our results highlight that anti-smoking strategies should be tailored according to the different smoking stages.

  9. The impact of selected environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors on schoolchildren's somatic and mental health.

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    Vondrova, Diana; Kapsdorfer, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica; Hirosova, Katarina; Samohyl, Martin; Sevcikova, Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava. To assess values of selected factors we used a questionnaire form and personality characteristics were estimated by standardized psycho-diagnostic and IQ tests [range of classic fear, social-situation anxiety and jitters [skala Klasickeho strachu a Socialno-situacnej (in Slovak)] (KSAT), Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire for children (EPQ), Raven's IQ test]. Self-reported perception of mental load was assessed by questionnaire of subjective feelings and states (SFS). Children's body parameters were assessed using anthropometric measurements [height, weight, chest, abdominal and hip girth, Rohrer's index (RI), body mass index (BMI)] and a body fat measurement method (skinfold thickness). The results confirmed a significant relationship between higher parameters of overweight and obesity and irregular breakfast eating (pmental effort and cognitive load associated with the educational process. We note a close relationship between the higher mental load and the score of neuroticism (pphysical and mental health of schoolchildren is significantly affected by exogenous factors. Therefore, in terms of protection and promotion of children's health, it is important to evaluate and monitor environmental risk factors and to form their healthy habits.

  10. The Empowerment Of Role Of The Family In Developing Character Of Environmental Awareness In Elementary School-Age Children

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    Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.

  11. Educator Preparedness to Teach Environmental Science in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Linus Joseph, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental proficiency of Texas life science educators certified from 2003 to 2011 by analyzing their TExES 138 8-12 exam results in domains V and VI. The sample consisted of all the individuals that took and passed the TExES 138 life science 8-12 exam. During this period, approximately 41% of the individuals who took…

  12. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  13. THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE THEATRICAL APPRECIATION-CREATION WORKSHOPS OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

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    Gladys M. Pina Betancourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the methodological and theoretical basis concerning the Theatrical Appreciation- Creation Workshops of the Elementary School and their possibilities for the attention to the Environmental Education. It is remarked, as a result of the systematization of the theory and the practice, and a system didactic recommendations that contribute to the attention of the Environmental Education in the teaching and learning process of theses workshops.

  14. Interaction between IL13 genotype and environmental factors in the risk for allergic rhinitis in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Kyung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Kim, Kyung Won; Kang, Mi-Jin; Shin, Yee-Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) is increasing worldwide. Allergic diseases develop in susceptible subjects when they are exposed to specific environmental factors. We analyzed changes in the prevalence of AR and identified genetic and environmental factors in early childhood that affect risk. We used the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire to collect data on AR, allergies, and environmental exposures from 4554 elementary school students from 5 areas of Seoul, Korea, in 2008. We also obtained DNA from 1050 subjects from 1 area of Seoul for genotype analysis of IL13. We identified genetic and environmental factors during infancy and early childhood that increased the risk for current AR (resulting in a diagnosis of AR and AR symptoms in the past 12 months) in elementary school-aged children. These included allergic disease in parents and antibiotic use in infants, allergic disease in parents and exposure of infants to mold, and allergic disease in parents and moving an infant to a newly built house. The risk of current AR also increased in subjects with GA or AA at nucleotide 2044 in IL13 who had been exposed to mold in the home during infancy (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.75-6.11) compared with subjects who had GG at this position and had not been exposed to mold (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.75-6.11). The prevalence of AR is increasing in Korean children. Children with a family history of allergic disease and exposure to specific environmental risk factors during infancy are more likely to have AR. Children with GA or AA at IL13(+2044) are at increased risk for AR when exposed to mold in the home during the first year of life. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with physical activity among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Carly; Irwin, Melinda; Griffith, Jane; Xue, Lin; Fradette, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged.

  16. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

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    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  17. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  18. Factors Associated With Unhealthy Snacks Consumption Among Adolescents in Iran’s Schools

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    Vahid Yazdi Feyzabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Amongother aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS program that was launched in 2011, has an important aimof promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affectingunhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using aproportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ wasused to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors wereobtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was usedto analyze the data. Results Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27, being a male (PRR = 1.20;95% CI: 1.05-1.38 and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99 were associated with higher weeklyunhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00 negatively influenced the frequency ofunhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (P< .06. In case of environmental factors, high socio-economicstatus (SES level (PRR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26-1.67, single-parent family (PRR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30, more socialnorms pressure (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17, pocket money allowance (PRR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34, easyaccessibility (PRR = 1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11, and less perceived parental control (PRR= 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99 all hada role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthysnacking (PRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92. Conclusion Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmentalinfluences, namely by

  19. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Fleece Traits in Raeini Cashmere Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salehi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate some environmental factors (sex, age and management system on fibrecharacteristics of Raeini Cashmere goats in Baft stations (BS and of Raeini Cashmere goats raised in nomadic conditions (NC as commercial flocks. Fiber samples including cashmere and hair were taken from 150 and 120 Raeini Cashmere goats (aged 1-8 years old from BS and NC, respectively. The Fleece traits measured included staple length (SL, percentage of cashmere in fleece (C, percentage of guard hair in fleece (H, cashmere's mean fiber diameter (CMFD and the coefficient of variation of cashmere's fiber diameter (CVFD. Mean SL, C, H, CMFD and CVFD in BS were 6.35 ±0.1 cm, 66.51± 0.72 %, 33.5 ± 0.72 %, 20.19 ±0.11 micron and 19.57± 0.21% and thosein NC were 5.62 ± 0.1 cm, 69.06 ± 0.74 %, 30.94 ±0.74 %, 19.53±0.15 micron and 17.88 ± 0.19 %, respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05 between the two production management systems for all traits investigated. The value for C was significantly higher in males than females (P<0.05. The results showed that the fleece traits were affected by age. However, the effect of age on these traits was not the same. Significant phenotypic correlations were found between SL and CMFD (0.16 and between SL and CVFD (0.13. The results of this study indicated that the fixed effects of age, sex and management systems as well as the relationship between fleece traits should  be considered in the Raeini Cashmere goat breeding programs.

  1. Factors at medical school and work related to exhaustion among physicians in their first postgraduate year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Marie; Fjell, Jenny; Runeson, Bo

    2010-12-01

    Burnout and stress is frequently reported in young physicians but longitudinal studies are sparse. Exhaustion is a core facet of burnout. To study individual and environmental medical school predictors and associated working conditions of postgraduate exhaustion, with a reference to gender. Two cohorts of junior doctors (n=253, 58% women) graduated from Karolinska Institutet were assessed in medical school (2002 and 2005) and in their first postgraduate year (2003 and 2006). Baseline measures were: Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), study conditions (Higher Education Stress Inventory, HESI) and exhaustion, and at follow-up exhaustion (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, OLBI) and Learning climate in the clinic. Regression analyses on postgraduate exhaustion (OLBI) were performed in four steps. First PBSE gender and age was entered, second study conditions (HESI), third working conditions (Learning climate in the clinic), and finally we controlled for exhaustion at final year of medical school. Response rate was 73%. Worries about future endurance/capacity (WFEC; HESI) predicted postgraduate exhaustion, but not PBSE, when baseline exhaustion was controlled for. Women's higher exhaustion scores were explained by their higher WFEC. A positive Learning climate was negatively associated with exhaustion. High WFEC was a risk factor of exhaustion to which women were more subjected. Students with high doubts of themselves may benefit from specific programmes in medical school, addressing this risk. A positive Learning climate at follow-up seemed protective, although no conclusions on direction of causality can be made. The effect of PBSE needs further study.

  2. Environmental factors affecting malaria parasite prevalence in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    and the lack of adequate vector control measures [3]. Reduction in man-vector contact may be achieved by the use of protective clothing, insect repellents, bed nets, insecticides or environmental management. In. Zambia, multiple control interventions, including environmental management against. Anopheles larval stages ...

  3. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  4. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  5. Teen Dating Violence Victimization among High School Students: A Multilevel Analysis of School-Level Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth M.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Debnam, Katrina J.; Milam, Adam J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical…

  6. Peer victimization in Dutch school classes of four- to five-year-olds: Contributing factors at the school level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnet, M.; Goossens, F.A.; Willemen, A.M.; Schuengel, C.

    2009-01-01

    This research was designed to examine how factors within young children's environment (e.g., school factors, neighborhood) contribute to explaining peer victimization. The sample comprised 2,003 children (between 4 and 5 years of age) from 98 classrooms in 23 elementary schools in the Netherlands.

  7. Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

  8. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  9. Environmental and school influences on physical activity in South Asian children from low socio-economic backgrounds: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L; Cox, Val

    2015-09-01

    South Asian (SA) children are less active but have enhanced metabolic risk factors. Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Evidence suggests that environmental factors and socio-economic status influence PA behaviour. The purpose of this study was to understand PA environments, barriers and facilitators of PA in deprived environments for children from SA backgrounds. Focus groups were conducted with 5 groups of children aged 7-9 years (n = 33; male = 16, female = 17; SA = 17, White = 8 and Black = 8) from two schools in deprived wards of Coventry, England. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes and subthemes across all transcripts. From the results, emergent themes included school and home environment, outdoor activity, equipment, weather, parental constraints and safety. Ethnic differences were apparent for sources of beliefs and knowledge and religious practice as constraints for PA. The findings suggest that school provides a good foundation for PA attitude, knowledge and behaviour, especially for SA children. To increase PA, multi-component interventions are needed, which focus on changing the home environment (i.e. junk food and media time), encouraging outdoors activity, changing perceptions of safety and weather conditions, which provide parental constraints for children. Interventions also need to be considerate to religious practices that might constrain time. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. [Predictive factors of smoking behaviour in secondary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Cruz, G; Barrueco Ferrero, M; Maderuelo Fernández, A; Aparicio Coca, I; Torrecilla García, M

    2008-05-01

    Many factors have been reported as being responsible for starting smoking during school age, but it is still not well known which cognitive determinants may be used as predictive factors of tobacco use. A prospective, longitudinal, study, including 417 pupils from 12 to 17 years, was carried out over three years in two rural Secondary Education Institutes in Castilla y León. The ESFA questionnaire was used, which included scales on attitudes and beliefs, social influences, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in the future and smoker behaviour. Of the 417 pupils studied, 36.7 % were smokers (38.6 % females and 34.4 % males). The mean of starting smoking was 12 years (11.83-12.15). In the initial analysis there was a clear relationship between cognitive determinants and smoker behaviour. The advertising and peer pressure lost predictive value after 3 years. The multivariate analysis showed that the determining factors of tobacco use are, besides age (OR = 3.85; 95 % CI, 1.27-11.64), to have a favourable attitude to smoking, (OR = 4.47; 95 % CI, 2.15-9.32), and the conduct perceived among peers (OR = 5.05; 95 % CI, 2.50-10.19). The determining factors that demonstrates a clear relationship with smoker behaviour are, age, favourable attitude of pupils towards smoking, and the perceived behaviour by smoker friends. Smoking prevention programs should take these factors into accounts when designing their activities.

  11. Inquiry Learning of High School Students through a Problem-Based Environmental Health Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Smith, Grant

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which high school students improved their inquiry capabilities in relation to scientific literacy through their experience of a problem-based environmental health science curriculum. The two inquiry capabilities studied were scientific questioning and approaches to inquiry into their own…

  12. Integrating ICTs into the Environmental Science Primary School Classroom in Chegutu District, Zimbabwe: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadreck, Mandina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated primary school teachers' perceptions of the barriers and challenges preventing them from integrating ICTs in the environmental science classroom. The study adopted a qualitative research approach that is in line with the phenomenological perspective as it sought to acquire knowledge through understanding the direct…

  13. Forest Schools and Environmental Attitudes: A Case Study of Children Aged 8-11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Christina; Convery, Ian; Convery, Katie

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a "pro-environmental" attitude. The study identified that…

  14. Environmental Education in Serbian Primary Schools: Challenges and Changes in Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišic, Jelena; Maksic, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    The protection of human health and the preservation of the environment are topics that form an integral part of the primary school curriculum in Serbia. However, research studies have shown that students do not have enough knowledge to contribute to the development of a healthy lifestyle and environmental awareness. The latest changes in school…

  15. Environmental Health at School: Ignored Too Long. Panel and Facilitated Workshop. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Dana; Rustem, Kim

    2015-01-01

    On November 9-11, 2015, Healthy Schools Network, with funding support from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Education Facilities Clearinghouse, California Endowment, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, convened the first national facilitated workshop on environmental…

  16. Environmental Health at School: Ignored Too Long. Panel and Facilitated Workshop. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Dana; Rustem, Kim

    2015-01-01

    On November 9-11, 2015, Healthy Schools Network, with funding support from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Education Facilities Clearinghouse, The California Endowment, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, convened the first national facilitated workshop on…

  17. Spatializing Environmental Education: Critical Territorial Consciousness and Radical Place-Making in Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In this case study of an environmental education (EE) program run in public schools of Rio de Janeiro, I use a constructivist spatial analytic to interrogate notions of space, place, and territory in critical EE practices. I examine the connections between socioenvironmental relations, counter-hegemonic political activity, and education by delving…

  18. Turkish Chemistry Teachers' Views about Secondary School Chemistry Curriculum: A Perspective from Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icoz, Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' views about environmental education (EE) have been regarded as one of the most important concerns in education for sustainability. In secondary school chemistry curriculum, there are several subjects about EE embedded in the chemistry subjects in Turkey. This study explores three chemistry teachers' views about to what extent the…

  19. Environmental Awareness and School Sanitation in Calabar Metropolis of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…

  20. Factors related to surgery worries among iranian high school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z.S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery operations are the fearful events among all other medical procedures. This fear causes anxiety and stress which affects the outcome of treatments, recovery from surgery and some maladaptive behaviors. To cope with surgery worries and minimize the fear, it is important to study these fears and its associated factors. This study attempts to explore the surgery worries and the associated factors among Iranian high school adolescents.Methods: To measure surgery worries, high school adolescents of age 11-15 completed the Child Worries Questionnaire (CPCI adolescent form, and also answered the questions about the 14 independent variables (sex, age, parents education and occupation, previous hospitalization experience of child and immediate family and friends, number of hospitalization during Child's life long, previous surgery experience of child and her or his immediate families, death of close friends in hospital. Multivariate regression method was used for statistical analysis to determine the effective factors.Results: The results of this study showed that the Iranian Adolescents have most worries about the "Not being able to do the same things as before" and least worries about "What I will feel during the anesthesia". The factors associated with Surgery worries are; parent's education (P=.021 for father and 0.049 for mother, adolescent previous experience and number of hospitalizations (P=0.025 and P=0.008, respectively, the number of previous hospitalizations (P=.003, previous experience of hospitalization of immediate family and friends (P=0.035. The findings of this study have implications for parents, family, hospitals' staff and care given.Conclusions: It seems, according to the findings of this study, there should be a special educational program for children who are going to be operated in a hospital ward to reduce their worriships.

  1. Investigating Impacts of Environmental Factors on the Cycling Behavior of Bicycle-Sharing Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS. It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the cycling behavior of users of bicycle-sharing systems, as users of bicycle-sharing systems tend to be different from regular cyclists. Although earlier studies have examined effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of regular riders, they rarely explored effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of BSS riders. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate how road safety, convenience, and public safety affect the cycling behavior of BSS riders by controlling for other environmental factors. Specifically, in this study, we investigated the impacts of environmental characteristics, including population density, employment density, land use mix, accessibility to point-of-interests (schools, shops, parks and gyms, road infrastructure, public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety on the usage of BSS. Additionally, for a more accurate measure of public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety, we used spatiotemporally varying measurements instead of spatially varying measurements, which have been widely used in earlier studies. We conducted an empirical investigation in Chicago with cycling data from a BSS called Divvy. In this study, we particularly attempted to answer the following questions: (1 how traffic accidents and congestion influence the usage of BSS; (2 how violent crime influences the usage of BSS; and (3 how public transit accessibility influences the usage of BSS. Moreover, we tried to offer implications for policies aiming to increase the usage of BSS or for the site selection of new docking stations. Empirical results demonstrate that density of

  2. Factors Influencing Academic Performance Of Standard Eight Girls In National Examinations In Public Primary Schools A Case Of Matungu Division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.

  3. Myopization factors affecting urban elementary school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Ying; Huang, Walter; Su, Kuo-Chen; Peng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Han-Ying; Cheng, Hong-Ming

    2013-04-01

    To investigate factors that may contribute to the myopization of urban elementary school students in Taiwan. Grades 1 to 6 students of the same racial background (n = 1894; mean age, 6.3-11.3 years) in three schools, located in Tamsui, Taichung, and Tainan, were refracted to obtain the best corrected visual acuity. The refractive power needed for best corrected visual acuity was used for subsequent statistical analysis. On behalf of their children, parents also completed a questionnaire on six categories of potential myopization variables. Correlation between these variables and the increase or decrease in the refractive error was assessed. The predictive value of each variable was also calculated based on linear regression analysis. The overall mean refractive error in grades 1 to 6 was -0.37, -0.68, -1.33, -1.60, -1.90, and -2.51 D, respectively. The prevalence of myopia (-1.00 D or more minus) showed a significant difference between grades 2 and 3 and, again, between grades 5 and 6. In addition, 20 potential modulating factors were evaluated; 65.9% of the change in the refractive error could be explained by four: (1) lag in optimal correction, defined as a -1.00-D deficit between new refractive error and current optical correction; (2) outdoor spectacle wear; (3) spectacles for different working distances; and (4) hours spent on reading and writing on weekdays. In contrast, outdoor time and the intake frequency of 36 food items both held very low predictive values of 0.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Each variable associated with the refractive error has a different predictive value, either positive or negative. Ultimately, the interplay of these variables decides the outcome of the pattern and the degree of school myopia.

  4. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR PUBLIC GOODS: A HEDONIC DEMAND MODEL FOR NEIGHBORHOOD SAFETY, SCHOOL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Gandhi Raj; Pandit, Ram; Hite, Diane

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage hedonic price and demand model was developed to estimate the willingness to pay for school quality, neighborhood safety and environmental quality in six Ohio metropolitan areas. Environmental quality and public safety were complements while school quality and house size were substitutes for them.

  5. Factors Related to Overweight in Kindergarten School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helwiah Umniyati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a significant public health problem of the twenty first century. An increasing number of preschool children are becoming overweight. Although many risk factors have been identified for school-age children, less is known about this young age group. This study was aimed to determine factors associated with overweight among preschool children. Study design was a cross sectional survey. Sample in this study was 90 children aged 3–6 years old in Bina Putik Kindergarten School in Cempaka Putih District (total sampling. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample were 24.4% and 13.3% respectively. There were significant relationships between overweight and some variables using chi-square test such as: age of the children, having overweight parents, nutritional knowledge of the mother, duration of breast feeding, frequency of fast food consumption (p5 years old. It could be concluded that mother’s knowledge on nutrition played an important role in preventing overweight children. Suggested recommendation in order to prevent overweight since childhood was by increasing mother’s knowledge through optimizing relevant programs in the Puskesmas.

  6. Factors related to cognitive function among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fidaa; Josman, Naomi; Al-Momani, Murad O; Malkawi, Somayah H; Nazzal, Mohammad; Almahdawi, Khader A; Almomani, Faten

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning among elementary school children in Jordan. A total of 468 children aged 6-12 years were recruited to participate in this study. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the LOTCA battery (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment; Itzkovich et al., 2000). Information obtained from the parents included demographics, work and income data and child's daily behavior and school achievement. The results of this study showed that the cognitive functioning increased by 3.8 points for each increase in the child's GPA and increased by 2.35 points when the child ate breakfast regularly. By contrast, living in rural areas and smoking by a parent decreased cognitive functioning. Understanding of the child's cognitive abilities is critical to establishing intervention goals and to planning therapeutic activities. Screening of cognitive abilities and associated factors is essential for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the child's abilities and limitations. Further research is recommended to investigate other factors in different populations.

  7. Fatores ambientais e endometriose Environmental factors and endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bellelis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A endometriose representa uma afecção ginecológica comum, atingindo de 5%-15% das mulheres no período reprodutivo e até 3%-5% na fase pós-menopausa. Essa doença é definida pelo implante de estroma e/ou epitélio glandular endometrial em localização extrauterina, podendo comprometer diversos locais. Humanos e animais são expostos diariamente a poluentes químicos que têm a capacidade de influenciar negativamente processos fisiológicos e, potencialmente, causar doenças, dentre elas a endometriose. Com esta revisão tivemos por objetivo relacionar a influência dos fatores ambientais e dietéticos na gênese da endometriose. O mecanismo pelo qual a dioxina e seus símiles (TCDD/PCBs atuam na alteração da fisiologia endometrial permanence incerta e é especulativa devido à dificuldade em se avaliar a exposição na vida intraútero, infância e vida adulta e suas reais consequências, além das limitações de sua reprodução in vitro. Devemos entender melhor o mecanismo de ação desses poluentes amibentais não só na saúde reprodutiva, mas na saúde em geral do indivíduo, para se promover estratégias de prevenção que devem incluir não só a educação populacional, mas o estabelecimento de limites de exposição, técnicas menos poluentes e melhor aproveitamento dos nossos recursos naturais.Endometriosis represents a common gynecological condition affecting 5%-15% of childbearing age women and up to 3% 5% of post-menopausal women. This disease is defined by the presence of stromal and/or endometrial glandular epithelium implants in extra-uterine locations possibly compromising several sites. Humans and animals are daily exposed to chemical pollutants that could adversely influence physiological processes and potentially cause diseases, including endometriosis. In this review, the authors aimed at settling the influence of environmental and dietary factors on endometriosis pathogenesis. The mechanism by which dioxin and its

  8. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  9. A Discriminant Analysis of Teacher Retention Factor Importance as Reported in Evangelical Christian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher retention is a problem in today's schools. The question addressed in this blended quantitative and qualitative study conducted in evangelical Christian schools was, what factors most significantly predict the retention of Christian school teachers on linear combinations of 40 predictor retention factor variables? A questionnaire…

  10. Understanding Ecological Factors Associated With Bullying Across the Elementary to Middle School Transition in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A; Thornberg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sociodemographic characteristics and social-environmental factors associated with bullying during the elementary to middle school transition from a sample of 5th-grade students (n = 300) in 3 elementary schools at Time 1. Of these, 237 participated at Time 2 as 6th-grade students. Using cluster analyses, we found groups of students who reported no increase in bullying, some decrease in bullying, and some increase in bullying. Students who reported increases in bullying also reported decreases in school belongingness and teacher affiliation and increases in teacher dissatisfaction. Students who reported decreases in bullying also reported decreases in victimization. These findings suggest that changes across the transition in students' relations to school and their teachers are predictive of changes in bullying.

  11. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  12. Environmental and nutrition impact of achieving new School Food Plan recommendations in the primary school meals sector in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael; Townsend, Nick; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-04-05

    The aim of this modelling study was to estimate the expected changes in the nutritional quality and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) of primary school meals due to the adoption of new mandatory food-based standards for school meals. Nationally representative random sample of 136 primary schools in England was selected for the Primary School Food Survey (PSFS) with 50% response rate. A sample of 6690 primary students from PSFS who consumed school meals. Primary School Food Plan (SFP) nutritional impact was assessed using both macronutrient and micronutrient quality. The environmental impact was measured by GHGEs. The scenario tested was one in which every meal served in schools met more than half of the food-based standards mentioned in the SFP (SFP scenario). We used findings from a systematic review to assign GHGE values for each food item in the data set. The GHGE value and nutritional quality of SFP scenario meals was compared with the average primary school meal in the total PSFS data set (pre-SFP scenario). Prior to introduction of the SFP (pre-SFP scenario), the primary school meals had mandatory nutrient-based guidelines. The percentage of meals that met the protein standard increased in the SFP scenario and the proportion of meals that met the standards for important micronutrients (eg, iron, calcium, vitamin A and C) also increased. However, the SFP scenario did not improve the salt, saturated fat and free sugar levels. The mean GHGE value of meals which met the SFP standards was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.81) kgCO 2 e compared with a mean value of 0.72 (0.71 to 0.74) kgCO 2 e for all meals. Adopting the SFP would increase the total emissions associated with primary school meals by 22 000 000 kgCO 2 e per year. The universal adoption of the new food-based standards, without reformulation would result in an increase in the GHGEs of school meals and improve some aspects of the nutritional quality, but it would not improve the average salt, sugar and

  13. [Influence of environmental factors on human health status in Kazan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, A I

    2002-01-01

    The authors studied the impact of ambient air pollution with hazardous substances on preschoolchildren's heath status and physical development in Kazan. The health status and physical development were ascertained to be determined by environmental pollution with harmful impurities, as confirmed by a great difference in the findings in control and polluted areas. The findings may be used to develop measures for lowering environmental pollution and for protecting children's health.

  14. The impact of environmental factors on marine turtle stranding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J.; Paul C. Mills

    2017-01-01

    Globally, tropical and subtropical regions have experienced an increased frequency and intensity in extreme weather events, ranging from severe drought to protracted rain depressions and cyclones, these coincided with an increased number of marine turtles subsequently reported stranded. This study investigated the relationship between environmental variables and marine turtle stranding. The environmental variables examined in this study, in descending order of importance, were freshwater disc...

  15. Operation of the Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  17. Challenges and benefits of conducting environmental justice research in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Virginia T; Lowman, Amy; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Wing, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students' academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants' immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health.

  18. Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors affecting the quality of life of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu; Simeonsson, Rune J

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate comprehensively the determinants of the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). A total of 167 children with CP (mean age 9.06 years, SD 2.61 years) and their caregivers (mean age 40.24 years, SD 5.43 years) participated in this study. The QOL of caregivers was measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF-Taiwan version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW). The potential determinants of QOL were collected, including child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors from all dimensions of the ICF-CY and analysed using multiple regression models. Four multiple regression models revealed that determinants of the QOL of caregivers of children with CP was multidimensional, encompassing child characteristics (age, type of CP, fine motor impairment, other diseases, behaviour and emotions, visual impairment, hearing impairment), caregiver characteristics (general mental health, parenting stress, marital status, family coping patterns, and socio-economic status), and environmental factors (child's medication, school setting, and current rehabilitation service, caregiver's spouse's age, family life impacts, and domestic helper). Knowledge of the determinants of QOL could serve as a guide in a holistic approach to evaluation and intervention and help plan interventions targeted at these determinants to improve the QOL of caregivers of children with CP. Implications for Rehabilitation Caregivers of children with CP had lower QOL, except the environment QOL. The QOL determinants of caregivers of children with CP are multidimensional, including child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors. In addition to child characteristics of severity of fine motor impairments and emotional and behavioural problems, caregiver characteristics of general mental

  19. An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Goldammer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia.Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006 administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311. We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation.Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene.Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:324–328.

  20. [Factors related to breakfast eating behavior among elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Toshi; Kawabata, Tetsuro

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify factors related to eating breakfast among elementary school children. The subjects were 196 fifth-grade pupils from two elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture. The main survey items were as follows: Number of eating breakfast days in the last week, appetite for breakfast, sleeping habits, knowledge on food, attitude related to eating breakfast, self-esteem, social skills, and eating behavior of family members. The Rosenberg Scale was used to measure global self-esteem and the Pope Scale for estimation of family-related self-esteem. Social skills were assessed using the scale developed by Shimada et al., which consists of subscales for pro-social skills, withdrawal behavior, and aggressive behavior. The main results were as follows: (1) The percentages of children who ate breakfast everyday in the last week were 78.3% for boys and 70.2% for girls, who no significant difference between the sexes. (2) The children who ate breakfast everyday in the last week (everyday-eating group) had more appetite for breakfast and went to bed earlier than the children who one or more days without eating (lack-of-eating group). (3) Compared with the lack-of-eating group, the everyday-eating group showed higher scores in family-related self-esteem and pro-social skills, and lower scores for aggressive behavior. (4) Regarding knowledge on food except influence of sugar for health, there were no differences between the everyday-eating and lack-of-eating groups. However, the former included more children who thought that eating every breakfast was very important, compared with the latter. (5) Children who expressed the following answers were more abundant in the everyday-eating group than in the lack-of-eating group: (1) Family members prepare breakfast every day; (2) They ate breakfast with family members everyday in the last week; (3) They often talk with family members during meals and snacks. From the above results, the following are suggested