Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.
South African Journal of Education, Volume 34, Number 4, November 2014. 1. Editorial, 6 pages, http://www.sajournalofeducation.co.za. Editorial: Schools as enabling environments. Guest Editors: Mahlapahlapana Themane and David Osher. Children and youth need safe and supportive schools if they are to succeed in ...
Evaluation of the school environment of public and private schools in Enugu to ensure child health promotion. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between ...
Finkelstein, Daniel M; Hill, Elaine L; Whitaker, Robert C
The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data included school reports of foods and beverages offered in the National School Lunch Program and on-site observations, in a subsample of schools, of competitive foods and beverages (those sold in vending machines and a la carte and that are not part of the National School Lunch Program). Seventeen factors were used to characterize school lunches, competitive foods, and other food-related policies and practices. These factors were used to compute the food environment summary score (0 [least healthy] to 17 [most healthy]) of each school. There were vending machines in 17%, 82%, and 97% of elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, and a la carte items were sold in 71%, 92%, and 93% of schools, respectively. Among secondary schools with vending and a la carte sales, these sources were free of low-nutrient energy-dense foods or beverages in 15% and 21% of middle and high schools, respectively. The food environment summary score was significantly higher (healthier) in the lower grade levels. The summary score was not associated with the percentage of students that was certified for free or reduced-price lunches or the percentage of students that was a racial/ethnic minority. As children move to higher grade levels, their school food environments become less healthy. The great majority of US secondary schools sell items a la carte in the cafeteria and through vending machines, and these 2 sources often contain low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, commonly referred to as junk food.
Huang, Shwu-yong L.
This study examined public high school teachers' perceptions of school environment, focusing on satisfaction, collegiality, teacher-student relationships, discipline, principal leadership, equity, and teacher influence. It also investigated differences in attitudes by gender. Participating teachers from 8 schools in the Southern United States…
In conclusion, therefore health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment (particularly unrealistic scholastic expectations from teachers and parents) on health behaviours of school-aged children. Die hoofdoelwit van die studie ";Health Behaviour among School-aged Children"; ...
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas
Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...
J P Majra
Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.
Schools are too relevant in that they resemble and reflect the patterns of values of society. New school environments are needed which should make the school less relevant to society; use cool" rather than hot" media, in the McLuhan sense; and re-examine the use of the time and space as communication media. (DE)
Story Mary; Hannan Peter J; French Simone A; Neumark-Sztainer Dianne; Fulkerson Jayne A
Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained resear...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014
Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…
...-being, their education, their transportation from place to place, their food and shelter, and their health care. These adults need to be advocates for children. This book is the first to address the school setting utilizing the principles of environmental health. Written by leading experts in topics from noise to crowding, from indoor air quality to saf...
Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian
This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.
Dodendorf, Diane M.
Recorded observations, camera work, conversations with 19 children in grades K-4 in a Nebraska 2-room school house, and interviews with the teacher were techniques used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the small rural school environment and its impact on children. Five attributes were found to be significant and unique small school…
Teachers can be powerful advocates for creating healthy indoor environments, including improving school indoor air quality (IAQ). As they are on the front lines, teachers can perceive when IAQ changes affect students and themselves.
Results indicated that learners who had positive perceptions regarding their school environments were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours. The healthy food score was associated with supportive teachers but not with supportive peers and supportive parents and socioeconomic status.
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A
This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p off during lunch time, students purchased soft drinks from vending machines 1.4 +/- 1.6 days/week as compared to 1.9 +/- 1.8 days/week in schools in which soft drink machines were turned on during lunch (p = .040). School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.
Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
In vocational education and training the school and the workplace are two different learning environments. But how should we conceive of a learning environment, and what characterizes the school and the workplace respectively as learning environments? And how can the two environ-ments be linked...... the linking of the two learning environments in a learning perspective.......? These questions are treated in this paper. School and workplace are assessed us-ing the same analytical approach. Thereby it is pointed out how different forms of learning are en-couraged in each of them and how different forms of knowledge are valued. On this basis sugges-tions are made about how to understand...
Using the stratified random sampling technique, ten secondary schools including 5 government (public) owned secondary schools, 2 communities owned and 3 private secondary schools were selected for the study. Two hundred (200) respondents were further selected as respondents. Students from schools with adequate ...
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.
Scholtens, Salome; Middelbeek, Lideke; Rutz, Suzanne I; Buijs, Goof; Bemelmans, Wanda J E
Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years). Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (co)responsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.
Taylor, Anne P.; Vlastos, George
Architectural solutions to some educational problems are explored and a systematic method is presented for designing schools as learning environments for children. Classroom environments and outdoor play areas are considered as functional art forms and seen as three-dimensional textbooks. The book demonstrates a way of using curriculum as a design…
Salo, Päivi M.; Sever, Michelle L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.
Most studies that have examined exposure to indoor allergens have focused on home environments. However, allergen exposures can be encountered in environments other than the home. For example, many children spend a large part of their time in schools and daycare facilities. Over the past two decades, a large number of studies have been conducted in school and daycare environments. However, the role of indoor exposures in allergy and asthma development or morbidity in these settings is not well characterized. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the importance of indoor allergen exposures in school and daycare settings. We summarize the key findings from recent scientific literature, describe exposure characteristics, discuss the role of these exposures in relation to asthma and allergy symptoms, and provide information on the effectiveness of published interventions. PMID:19577284
.... It is generally believed that the staff model their behavior on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff...
Feb 23, 2018 ... materials. Nuisance/health hazard. There was an industrial population (mechanic and welding workshop) adjacent to a private school. Six schools (two private and four public) had animals within the compound, six public schools usually meet feces in the classrooms. There were neither open drainages nor.
School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff) will also do so. To…
Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian
The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.
Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...
Parents\\' influence, self–efficacy, and school environment were also found to be statistically significant. Results are discussed in terms of counseling implications. Keywords: parental influence, academic performance, police children, Nigeria African Journal of Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol. 8(1) 2005: 42-57 ...
chocolates were sold at eight schools, and sweets, crisps and fast food at all of the schools. Conclusion: The nutrition environment at Bloemfontein secondary schools does not support healthy eating habits. Nutrition policies need to be introduced to improve the nutritional environment at schools as the available food for ...
Valentin Gavídia Catalan; Nathalia Parente De Sousa; Ana Paula de Vasconcellos Abdon; Cristina de Santiago Viana Falcão; Ana Maria Fontenelle Catrib
Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and desire f...
Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa
An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.
Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho
Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67-2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25-4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. The inequalities among the country's regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. Avaliar os ambientes escolares aos quais estão expostos estudantes do nono ano no Brasil e nas cinco regiões do país segundo diretrizes de promoção da saúde. Estudo transversal, de 2012, com amostra representativa do Brasil e suas macrorregiões. Escolares do nono ano e gestores de escolas públicas e privadas foram entrevistados. Foi proposto o Escore de Promoção de Saúde no Ambiente Escolar (EPSAE) e foi estimada a distribuição dos escolares segundo esse escore e segundo odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas, por regressão ordinal, para exposição dos escolares a escolas com escores mais elevados, segundo as variáveis independentes. Um escolar tem mais probabilidade de frequentar escola com EPSAE elevado na região Sul (OR = 2,80; IC95% 2,67-2,93) se a escola for privada privada (OR = 4,52; IC95% 4,25-4,81) e estiver localizada em capital de estado e se o
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…
Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A
Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.
Natalya Petrovna Shatalova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study the key components of the development of constructive thinking of students on the basis of model building constructive educational environment school-University. It was conducted from a position of constructive approach in education, as a process of systemic-structural methodology of cognitive and creative activity of the student, promotes development and formation of various constructive qualities of the individual. The functions of constructive educational environment school-University aimed at developing constructive thinking of students, defined by its structural components and connections, shows the consistency of self-development of constructive thinking and job satisfaction the development of constructive skills. The findings reveal innovative possibilities of cooperation of schools and universities in the design and functioning model of constructive educatio-nal space that contributes to the development of constructive thinking of all its stakeholders.Purpose: measuring the effectiveness of the model constructive educational environment school-University aimed at the development of students.Methodology: the Programme of research included: (1 diagnosis of the development level of constructive thinking on the questionnaire developed in the context of the constructive theory of education, (2 augmented and revised by the author the diagnosis of satisfaction and importance model of constructive educational environment school-University by the method of G.A. Gagarin, as well as theoretical modeling, method of involved observation, formal teaching method.Results. The article introduces the concept of «constructive learning environments», which are considered in relation to the organization and conduct of joint activities of teachers, teachers and students. The authors give a theoretical comparative analysis of scientific works of colleagues in the context of the problem. Offer a brief
Full Text Available School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff will also do so. To discover how school leaders assess the school environment as a factor of learning, 150 school leaders in primary education in Slovenia were invited to complete an online questionnaire. They were asked about their views regarding to what extent their school as physical environment encouraged certain factors. Fourteen listed factors were assessed on five-point numeric scales. The results show that in their school environment, school leaders assessed ecology, movement, and respect the highest, and feelings, imagination, and space the lowest. Their estimates of the assessed factors differ depending on the type of school building (new, old, renovated only on the factors of movement, creativity, and logic and mathematics in favour of old schools. The results provide interesting information especially for school policy and everyone involved in the planning, building, or renewal of school premises.
Valentin Gavídia Catalan
Full Text Available Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and desire for change. Results: For the students, the idea of good posture would be a person who had good education and to be straightwhen walking and sitting. We perceived dissatisfaction and important misunderstanding in relation to their body and posture, and there was unanimity concerning the desire of achieving changes. Conclusion: There are mixed feelings related to the body, by teenage students, when you inquire about their image and desire to change. If, on one hand, they refer to perceive themselves with proper and correct posture, on the other hand, they are eager for change, easily identified with present standard body reported in the media and worshiped as “ideal body”. It is urgent and necessary to consolidate the culture of health promotion in schools as well as build healthy educational environment.
Briefel, Ronette R; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M
Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (Pchildren (Pchildren. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (Pchildren (Pchildren's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack
Dzyatkovskaya Elena N.
Full Text Available The information as an important ecological factor, which defines the security, development and health of children is considered. The article raises the problem of distortion of the information environment of childhood in the post-industrial era. The aim is to ensure information security educational environment for all participants in the educational process. It is proved that the hygienic approach to solving problems is insufficient. Adaptive-developing strategy for information security of the educational environments for children was theoretically justified and proved by the practical results of medical, physiological and neuropsychological research. It provides the school work on the compensation of violations of the information environment of childhood; development resources of students’ resistance to information stress; expanding the sphere of their adaptation to the information load (adaptive norm; the principles and structure of management of educational process on the basis of system-wide control of complex, self-regulating systems.
Edgar-Smith, Susan; Palmer, Ruth Baugher
This article reports findings from a study of an alternative educational program for at-risk secondary students, comparing student perceptions of their public school environment, measured upon intake in the alternative school, with their perceptions of the alternative school environment after four and eight months of attendance in the program.…
too good environment. The poor work environment is the types we have in most school today were teachers' offices are either non-existent or very poorly equipped. Many schools lack chairs for teachers and students. Some school is in such dilapidated condition that teachers feel ashamed of being associated with them.
The purpose of this study was to examine the safety environment under which school sports programme is organized in Nigeria schools. The paper noted that poor environment under which PES is administered militated against smooth attainment of physical education and sports in schools. In this regard the paper explored ...
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E
School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.
Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven
Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the
Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João
Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z
Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school
Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.
Kann, D.H.H. van; Kremers, S.P.J.; Gubbels, J.S.; Bartelink, N.H.M.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Jansen, M.W.J.
This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function,
Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F
The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.
This guide focuses on the architecture of the primary and pre-school sector in the United Kingdom and broadly considers the subtle spatial and psychological requirements of growing children up to, and beyond, the age of sixteen. Chapter 1 examines the history, origins, and significant historical developments of school architecture, along with an…
Yigit, Nevzat; Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Cinemre, Yasin; Balcin, Bilal
This study aims to examine the middle school students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment in the science course in Turkey in terms of school location and class size. In the study the Assessing of Constructivist Learning Environment (ACLE) questionnaire was utilized to map students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment.…
Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon
Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…
Jun 19, 2014 ... chocolates were sold at eight schools, and sweets, crisps and fast food at all of the schools. Conclusion: The nutrition environment at Bloemfontein secondary schools does not support healthy eating habits. Nutrition policies need to ... are more effective in changing learners' food choices. Young people.
MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN
Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.
Story, Mary; Nanney, Marilyn S; Schwartz, Marlene B
Research consistently shows that the majority of American children do not consume diets that meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, nor do they achieve adequate levels of daily physical activity. As a result, more children are overweight today than at any other time in U.S. history. Schools offer many opportunities to develop strategies to prevent obesity by creating environments in which children eat healthfully and engage regularly in physical activity. This article discusses the role of schools in obesity prevention efforts. Current issues in schools' food and physical activity environments are examined, as well as federal, state, and local policies related to food and physical activity standards in schools. The article is organized around four key areas: (1) school food environments and policies, (2) school physical activity environments and policies, (3) school body mass index measurements, and (4) school wellness policies. Recommendations for accelerating change also are addressed. The article found that (1) competitive foods (foods sold outside of federally reimbursed school meals) are widely available in schools, especially secondary schools. Studies have related the availability of snacks and drinks sold in schools to students' high intake of total calories, soft drinks, total fat and saturated fat, and lower intake of fruits and vegetables; (2) physical activity can be added to the school curriculum without academic consequences and also can offer physical, emotional, and social benefits. Policy leadership has come predominantly from the districts, then the states, and, to a much lesser extent, the federal government; (3) few studies have examined the effectiveness or impact of school-based BMI measurement programs; and (4) early comparative analyses of local school wellness policies suggest that the strongest policies are found in larger school districts and districts with a greater number of students eligible for a free or
Mitchell, Jeff; Owen, Sarah
Describes some of the aspects of the environmental education program at a K-12 school located in the Coast Range of Oregon. Discusses activities relating to wildlife biology, forestry, beekeeping, pesticides, and land use. (TW)
van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan
Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess the associ......Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess...... the associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements......, building inspections, and a questionnaire survey on pupils' health and domestic exposure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric tests were performed to assess relationships. None of the schools complied with all indoor environmental quality standards. The importance of both the school...
Rhee, Hyekyun; McQuillan, Brenda; Chen, Ding-Geng; Atis, Shannska
To examine interpersonal relationships involving peers and teachers and perceptions about school environment among middle school students with asthma in comparison to their healthy counterparts. The study also assesses asthma prevalence in a large sample of middle school students representing different geographic locations. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1059 middle school students in grades 6-8 enrolled in schools in a northeastern region of the United States. Students reported their chronic health conditions including asthma and completed questionnaires measuring perceptions about their relationships with peers and teachers as well as school environment. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to compare students with asthma and their healthy counterparts in the study variables. Asthma was reported by 16.5% of the sample (n = 169). The rate was higher among minority students (23%) than their white counterparts (15%). Greater proportion of urban students (28%) reported asthma than rural (18%) and suburban (14%) students. Students with asthma reported significantly poorer relationships with peers (B = -1.74, p environment (B = -1.30, p =.009) were also lower than their healthy counterparts. Race showed no significant effects on school factors. Overall asthma prevalence was substantially higher than the national average of adolescent asthma, particularly those residing in the urban area. Poor perceptions of interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers among students with asthma may indicate compromised quality of life. Suboptimal interpersonal relationships and school environment need to be identified and adequately addressed, given their implications for asthma management at the school setting among middle school students.
Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid
The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy...
Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony
School food policies and services have the potential to influence the food practices and eating behaviours of adolescents which in turn may affect their lifestyles and health in adulthood. The aim of this qualitative investigation was to describe the opinions of adolescents, their parents, nutrition educators and school principals about the prevailing food environment and canteen policies in Indian schools. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private schools in Kolkata, India participated in semi-structured interviews. The interview questions were primarily based on the existing literature related to school food environments and policies. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and assessed thematically. Throughout the 52 interviews, a number of inadequacies of the school food environment and policies were revealed. These included the absence of written food policies, the widespread supply of unhealthy foods, inadequate provision of healthy foods, misleading messages about food communicated by school authorities, lack of cleanliness in the school canteen and the high cost of canteen food. Current school food environments do not appear to promote healthy eating among adolescents. Therefore, it is important to upgrade the quality of food services in Indian schools through adoption of healthy eating policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…
Kiriktas, Halit; Eslek, Sinan
This study aimed to investigate out-of-school learning environments within the borders of the province of Izmir in terms of various parameters. With this purpose, the researchers developed the "Out-Of-School Learning Environments Assessment Survey." The study used the screening model, which is a descriptive research method. In the scope…
Jose Cazuza Farias Junior
Full Text Available Available studies show that environmental factors may influence how parentes choose to commute their children from home to school. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the physical and social environment near school and active commuting to school among preschool children. A school-based cross-sectional study with a sample of children aged 3to 5 years (n=914 was undertaken. Participants were selected by a single-stage cluster sampling process. To obtain data on commuting to school and demographicand socioeconomic variables, a previously validated questionnaire was used while an audit tool was used to assess the environment near school. Binarylogistic regression was used to analyze the association and results were presented as Odds Ratio values. Results showed that 28.3% (95%CI 25.5-31.3 ofthe children were active commuters from home to school. A positive association was found between public transportation (p=0.002 and social environment(p=0.004 domains and active commuting. However, this association was foundonly among children from families that did not have a car. The likelihood of achild being an active commuter was higher among those who are enrolled in schools with better environmental surroundings (OR=1.88; 95%CI 1.31-2.70. It was concluded that there was a positive association between some of the environmental factors near school and active commuting to school among children from families that did not have a car.
Maria Assunta Busato
Full Text Available Brazilian Food Guide reiterates that food should be safe from harvesting, transportation and even storage, preparation and distribution in the school environment. From this perspective, this study aimed to identify aspects of the environment, physical spaces and the surrounding area where school meals are produced and distributed, as well as food handling conditions and environmental education. Ten public schools in a city in Western Santa Catarina were analyzed. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to a representative from each school and to those responsible for the handling and distribution of school meals. It is an adapted instrument, based on the Collegiate Board Resolution of the National Health Surveillance Agency No. 216/2004 and No 275/2002. It was observed that there are environmental education actions in all schools; 90% (n=9 presented selective system of garbage collection and 20% (n=2 designed organic waste for composting. In 90% (n=9 of the schools, water comes from the public system and in 10% (n=1 from artesian water wells. None of the schools fully complies with the standards on the condition and adequacy of physical facilities in the areas of production and distribution of school meals. In all of them, partial adjustments were observed about legislation on physical spaces and environment besides the lack of guidance to handlers. This demonstrates that corrective and preventive actions are necessary to address the inadequacies found in schools.
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A
.... Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p < .001...
Full Text Available The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals. Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.
Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid
The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.
Pâmela Ferreira Todendi
Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
The federal school nutrition programs are the keystones to the diets of millions of American children. Schools have the opportunity to support healthy nutrition habits early in life by creating environments that encourage the consumption of healthy foods and beverages. This paper provides resources which offer general information about the…
Zdzinski, Stephen; Dell, Charlene; Gumm, Alan; Rinnert, Nathan; Orzolek, Douglas; Yap, Ching Ching; Cooper, Shelly; Keith, Timothy; Russell, Brian
The purpose of this study was to examine influences of parental involvement-home music environment, family background, and parenting style factors on success in school music and in school. Participants (N = 1114) were music students in grades 4-12 from six regions of the United States. Data were gathered about parental involvement-home environment…
Full Text Available Schools provide viable settings for mental health promotion initiatives, such as programs to develop students' social and emotional capabilities (SEC. Complexity in the school environments into which initiatives are introduced, such as diverse student capabilities, school structures, and teachers' knowledge and confidence, will play an integral role in the success of those initiatives. This paper investigates the environments of schools about to receive the KidsMatter mental heath promotion, prevention and early intervention initiative in Australia, using information sourced from questionnaires about 2598 students and their teachers in 50 Australian primary schools. The focus of the report is on the status of the schools' work in one of the key focus areas for the intervention, namely students' SEC. Analysis showed relatively high levels of students' SEC across the whole sample. Teachers' attitudes towards SEC learning were highly positive. Teachers' self-rated knowledge and approaches in dealing with SEC were moderate, and point to requirements for additional pre-service and professional development. The extent of regular and sustained delivery of SEC programs and mental health initiatives in general showed variability, suggesting the need to attend to school systems and structural supports. Implications of these areas of diversity in school environments on the selection and methods of delivery of mental health promotion programs in schools are discussed.
The results show that students' primary school experiences and peer group exert negative influence on their reading effectiveness. There was ... among other things that attention be given to public primary schools in the state and nation to provide students with rich and enabling environment for their future academic growth.
environment of Tutors in public secondary schools (TPSS) in the case of this study are limited to their information needs, sources, seeking ... interest, occupation, and geographical location. Information needs and ... particular reference to public secondary schools in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Understanding information ...
Faber, Mieke; Laurie, Sunette; Maduna, Mamokhele; Magudulela, Thokozile; Muehlhoff, Ellen
To assess the school food environment in terms of breakfast consumption, school meals, learners' lunch box, school vending and classroom activities related to nutrition. Cross-sectional survey. Ninety purposively selected poorly resourced schools in South Africa. Questionnaires were completed by school principals (n 85), school feeding coordinators (n 77), food handlers (n 84), educators (n 687), randomly selected grade 5 to 7 learners (n 2547) and a convenience sample of parents (n 731). The school menu (n 75), meal served on the survey day, and foods at tuck shops and food vendors (n 74) were recorded. Twenty-two per cent of learners had not eaten breakfast; 24 % brought a lunch box, mostly with bread. Vegetables (61 %) were more often on the school menu than fruit (28 %) and were served in 41 % of schools on the survey day compared with 4 % serving fruit. Fifty-seven per cent of learners brought money to school. Parents advised learners to buy fruit (37 %) and healthy foods (23 %). Tuck shops and vendors sold mostly unhealthy foods. Lack of money/poverty (74 %) and high food prices (68 %) were major challenges for healthy eating. Most (83 %) educators showed interest in nutrition, but only 15 % had received training in nutrition. Eighty-one per cent of educators taught nutrition as part of school subjects. The school food environment has large scope for improvement towards promoting healthy eating. This includes increasing access to vegetables and fruit, encouraging learners to carry a healthy lunch box, and regulating foods sold through tuck shops and food vendors.
Yoong, Sze Lin; Nathan, Nicole K; Wyse, Rebecca J; Preece, Sarah J; Williams, Christopher M; Sutherland, Rachel L; Wiggers, John H; Delaney, Tessa M; Wolfenden, Luke
Schools represent a valuable setting for interventions to improve children's diets, as they offer structured opportunities for ongoing intervention. Modifications to the school food environment can increase purchasing of healthier foods and improve children's diets. This study examines the availability of healthy food and drinks, implementation of pricing and promotion strategies in Australian primary school canteens, and whether these varied by school characteristics. In 2012 and 2013, canteen managers of primary schools in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales reported via telephone interview the pricing and promotion strategies implemented in their canteens to encourage healthier food and drink purchases. A standardized audit of canteen menus was performed to assess the availability of healthy options. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, 203 (79%) canteen managers completed the telephone interview and 170 provided menus. Twenty-nine percent of schools had menus that primarily consisted of healthier food and drinks, and 11% did not sell unhealthy foods. Less than half reported including only healthy foods in meal deals (25%), labeling menus (43%), and having a comprehensive canteen policy (22%). A significantly larger proportion of schools in high socioeconomic areas (OR=3.0) and large schools (OR=4.4) had primarily healthy options on their menus. School size and being a Government school were significantly associated with implementation of some pricing and promotion strategies. There is a need to monitor canteen environments to inform policy development and research. Future implementation research to improve the food environments of disadvantaged schools in particular is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Chanam; Kim, Hyung Jin; Dowdy, Diane M; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ory, Marcia G
Several environmental audit instruments have been developed for assessing streets, parks and trails, but none for schools. This paper introduces a school audit tool that includes 3 subcomponents: 1) street audit, 2) school site audit, and 3) map audit. It presents the conceptual basis and the development process of this instrument, and the methods and results of the reliability assessments. Reliability tests were conducted by 2 trained auditors on 12 study schools (high-low income and urban-suburban-rural settings). Kappa statistics (categorical, factual items) and ICC (Likert-scale, perceptual items) were used to assess a) interrater, b) test-retest, and c) peak vs. off-peak hour reliability tests. For the interrater reliability test, the average Kappa was 0.839 and the ICC was 0.602. For the test-retest reliability, the average Kappa was 0.903 and the ICC was 0.774. The peak-off peak reliability was 0.801. Rural schools showed the most consistent results in the peak-off peak and test-retest assessments. For interrater tests, urban schools showed the highest ICC, and rural schools showed the highest Kappa. Most items achieved moderate to high levels of reliabilities in all study schools. With proper training, this audit can be used to assess school environments reliably for research, outreach, and policy-support purposes.
Tester, June M; Yen, Irene H; Laraia, Barbara
Low-income and minority children have higher rates of obesity and overweight. Greater understanding of their food access is important. Because of higher rates of walking to school in these populations, these children likely have greater exposure to the food environment immediately around their schools. Mobile food vendors are an understudied aspect of the food environment in U.S. urban areas. This study aims to observe the after-school food environment in an urban area where mobile vending is known to occur in order to study the range of vendors encountered near schools and the items sold in the after-school period. In the spring of 2008, the presence of mobile food vendors after school within (1/4) mile of nine public schools was assessed in a predominantly Latino district of Oakland CA. At six schools with regular presence of vendors, observations were made at mobile vendors documenting characteristics of transactions, consumers, and items. During 37 observation-hours across 23 days, there were 1355 items sold to 1195 individuals. Fifty-six percent of the transactions involved children with no adults present. There was a wide range in foods sold, and although there were vendors selling low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, there were also vendors selling whole and processed (precut and bagged) fresh fruits and vegetables. Roughly 40% of these whole fruits and processed fruits and vegetables were consumed by children. On average, children each consumed $1.54 of foods per transaction. Mobile food vendors in urban areas contribute to after-school snacking among children, and should be considered as a component of the school food environment. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.
Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.
Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G.; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Chriqui, Jamie F.
Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain…
Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Sato, Mai; Oka, Koichiro
Differences in recess physical activity (PA) according to perceived school environment among elementary school children were examined. Participants were 103 children from two schools in Japan. PA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days. Time spent in sedentary or PA (light, moderate, or vigorous) during their morning recess (25 min) and lunch recess (15 min) was determined. The School Physical Activity Environment Scale (three factors: equipment, facility, and safety) was used to investigate perceived school environment. Environmental factor scores were assigned to low or high groups for each factor by median. An analysis of covariance, with grade as the covariate, was conducted separately by gender to examine differences in PA between two groups. During lunch recess, boys in the high-equipment group spent significantly more time in moderate PA (high: 1.5; low: 0.8 min) whereas girls in this group spent less time in light PA (9.3, 11.0). Boys in the high-facility group spent significantly less time in sedentary (2.3, 3.9) and more time in vigorous PA (2.4, 1.4) during lunch recess, and girls spent more time in moderate (2.1, 1.2) and vigorous PA (1.9, 1.3) during morning recess. Differences were observed in recess PA according to school environment perceptions. The present study may be useful for further intervention studies for the promotion of PA during recess.
Full Text Available Differences in recess physical activity (PA according to perceived school environment among elementary school children were examined. Participants were 103 children from two schools in Japan. PA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days. Time spent in sedentary or PA (light, moderate, or vigorous during their morning recess (25 min and lunch recess (15 min was determined. The School Physical Activity Environment Scale (three factors: equipment, facility, and safety was used to investigate perceived school environment. Environmental factor scores were assigned to low or high groups for each factor by median. An analysis of covariance, with grade as the covariate, was conducted separately by gender to examine differences in PA between two groups. During lunch recess, boys in the high-equipment group spent significantly more time in moderate PA (high: 1.5; low: 0.8 min whereas girls in this group spent less time in light PA (9.3, 11.0. Boys in the high-facility group spent significantly less time in sedentary (2.3, 3.9 and more time in vigorous PA (2.4, 1.4 during lunch recess, and girls spent more time in moderate (2.1, 1.2 and vigorous PA (1.9, 1.3 during morning recess. Differences were observed in recess PA according to school environment perceptions. The present study may be useful for further intervention studies for the promotion of PA during recess.
Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd
Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed.
Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…
Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J
Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pfood environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Stephen; Kyle, Ken
This paper explores perspectives about certain individual and social characteristics that may contribute to school shootings by students. It begins with perspectives on individual/environment fit, arguing first that persons marginalized by their caregivers during their upbringing, and by their peers, are lacking in the social interactions that help develop ethical behavior. Our argument contends that lacking such interactions may result in the failure to develop a sound moral philosophy. Further, we argue that when such persons enter the highly competitive environment found in some suburban and rural schools, some will be continually and consistently marginalized, finding their means of self-expression and sense of significance subdued. Their need for self-expression and a sense of significance as persons will surface, but without the benefit of a moral philosophy to guide that expression, this may result in deviant means of expression, such as violence--even extraordinary violence. We do not attempt to identify a list of specific traits of school shooters, which might lead to the development of a profile of school shooters. Rather, we are concerned with the characteristics of the environment in which shootings might occur, and how students not fully prepared for that environment might react. Thus, this paper is an overview of how seeds of the neglect of the basic needs of personhood, when sown early in life, and nurtured by peers, might come to fruition in the fertile field of the competitive school environment.
Darla M. Castelli
Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to conceptualize physical literacy in the school environment within the United States educational system. Evolution of physical literacy from both a general education and disciplinary focus is overviewed. The challenges of transitioning from a physically educated to a physically literate person as the primary learning outcome of physical education may inhibit progress. Five prioritized recommendations are made to assist teachers in overcoming such barriers: (a whole of school approach, (b effective, differentiated pedagogy, (c integration of technology for individualized tracking of progress, (d supportive school climate, and (e alignment of local efforts with national initiatives.
Monix, Demetria Dianna
Research shows the effectiveness of encouraging safe and supportive learning environments for all students. Unfortunately, many of today's classrooms fail to positively implement these learning environments, especially within middle schools. The assumption for students struggling with reading has often been associated with low teacher…
Ip, Patrick; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Louie, Lobo Hung-Tak; Chung, Thomas Wai-Hung; Cheung, Yiu-Fai; Lee, So-Lun; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Ho, Walter King-Yan; Ho, Daniel Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Jiang, Fan
Childhood obesity may be related to school environment, but previous studies often focused on food environment only. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school physical activity environment and childhood obesity. This is a cross-sectional study with multilevel data collected on school physical activity environment using teacher questionnaires, students' growth, and obesity status from electronic health records, and neighborhood socioeconomic status from census data. This study included 208 280 students (6-18 years of age) from 438 schools (45% of Hong Kong). Prevalence of obesity was 5.0%. After controlling for socioeconomic status and intraschool correlation, robust Poisson regression revealed a reduced obesity risk associated with higher teachers' perceived physical activity benefits (risk ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = .02), physical activity teaching experience (0.93, 0.91-0.96, P obesity (0.68, 0.62-0.75, P obesity. School physical activity environment should be considered in future epidemiologic and intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The present study examined empirical models of variables posited to predict students' homework environment management at the secondary school level. The participants were 866 8th graders from 61 classes and 745 11th graders from 46 classes. Most of the variance in homework environment management occurred at the student level, with classmates'…
Fraser, Barry J.; Lee, Sunny S. U.
In order to investigate the learning environment of senior high school science laboratory classrooms in Korea, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was translated into Korean and administered to 439 students (99 science-independent stream students, 195 science-oriented stream students and 145 humanities stream students). Data…
Dibley Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.
Scott P. Kissau
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school environment and effectiveness in French immersion. The two settings investigated were the immersion-centre school, where all students were involved in the French immersion program, and the dual-track school, inwhich the French immersion and regular English program co-existed. Questionnaires were developed to gather relevant information from students in Grade 7 and from teachers in both school settings. The investigation determined that immersioncentre students were perceived, by both teachers and students, to be exposed to more French and less peer pressure than their dual-track counterparts. It was also determined that there were no significant differences between the two groups in regards to student use of French or student and teacher satisfaction with the program. In conclusion, it is suggested that teachers and administrators at dual-track schools attempt to recreate the perceived advantageous conditions at immersion-centre schools in order to maximize student exposure to French and to improve school atmosphere.
Aline Tecchio Borsoi
Full Text Available The Food and Nutrition Education is a strategy to promote health and healthy eating habits. The school environment rises as a suitable place to develop these actions. Through Integrative Literature Review, we could identify the characteristics of scientific production on the Food and Nutrition Education at school from 2002 to 2013. The sample of this review consisted of 17 articles. It was observed that it has been giving more emphasis to this issue from 2009. Nine of the selected studies opted for intervention methodologies, and eight of them have proposed to consolidate the practice of educators, administrators and school cafeteria owners, the understanding of Food and Nutrition Education. The actions accomplished were characterized as slightly critical and participatory strategies based on the transmission of information. It concludes the need for approaches to treating eating disorders broadly at school, through problem-solving methodologies that go beyond the mere transmission of information.
Park, Sohyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kweon, Soon Ju; Wang, Youfa; Gittelsohn, Joel
The role of a school's nutrition environment in explaining students' eating behaviors and weight status has not been examined in an Asian setting. The purpose of this study was to create a school nutrition environment index and to pilot test the index in elementary and middle schools in urban South Korea. This study used a mixed-methods approach. Environment assessment tools were developed based on formative research, which comprised literature reviews, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Key elements from the formative research were included in the assessment tool, which consisted of a structured survey questionnaire for school dietitians. Fifteen school dietitians from 7 elementary and 8 middle schools in Seoul completed the questionnaire. The formative research revealed four main sections that guided a summary index to assess a school's nutrition environment: resource availability, education and programs, dietitians' perceptions and characteristics, and school lunch menu. Based on the literature reviews and interviews, an index scoring system was developed. The total possible score from the combined four index sections was 40 points. From the 15 schools participating in the pilot survey, the mean school nutrition-environment index was 22.5 (standard deviation ± 3.2; range 17-28). The majority of the schools did not offer classroom-based nutrition education or nutrition counseling for students and parents. The popular modes of nutrition education were school websites, posters, and newsletters. This paper illustrates the process used to develop an instrument to assess a school's nutrition environment. Moreover, it presents the steps used to develop a scoring system for creation of a school nutrition environment index. As pilot testing indicated the total index score has some variation across schools, we suggest applying this instrument in future studies involving a larger number of schools. Future studies with larger samples will allow investigation
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
The aim of this paper is to present an analytical model to study school and workplace as different learning environments and discuss some findings from the application of the model on a case study. First the paper tries to answer the question: what is a learning environment? In most other studies...... schools and workplaces are not only considered to be different learning environment, but are also analysed using different approaches. In this paper I will propose a common model to analyse and compare the two learning environments, drawing on sociology of work (Kern & Schumann 1984; Braverman 1976......) and theories of workplace learning (Lave & Wenger 1991; Engeström 2001; Billett 2001; Evans, Hodkinson & Unwin 2002). A basic distinction is made between the technical-organisational and the socio-cultural learning environment. The first, the technical-organisa¬tional learning environment, consists...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate experimentation with smoking among primary school students in China. Data were acquired from a recent survey of 4,073 students in grades 4 to 6 (ages 9-12 in 11 primary schools of Ningbo City. The questions were adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. Results suggest that although the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE encourages smoke-free schools, experimentation with cigarettes remains a serious problem among primary school students in China. Peers, family members, and the school environment play important roles in influencing smoking experimentation among students. Having a friend who smoked, seeing a family member smoke, and observing a teacher smoking on campus predicted a higher risk of experimentation with smoking; the exposure to anti-tobacco materials at school predicted a lower risk of experimentation with smoking. The evidence suggests that public health practitioners and policymakers should seek to ensure the implementation of smoke-free policies and that intervention should target young people, families, and communities to curb the commencement of smoking among children and adolescents in China.
Nollen, Nicole L; Befort, Christie A; Snow, Patricia; Daley, Christine Makosky; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
To examine high school personnel's perceptions of the school environment, its impact on obesity, and the potential impact of legislation regulating schools' food/beverage offerings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the principal (n = 8) and dietitian/food service manager (n = 7) at 8 schools (4 rural, 4 suburban) participating in a larger study examining the relationship between the school environment and adolescent health behavior patterns. Principal themes included: 1) Obesity is a problem in general, but not at their school, 2) Schools have been unfairly targeted above more salient factors (e.g., community and home environment), 3) Attempts at change should start before high school, 4) Student health is one priority area among multiple competing demands; academic achievement is the top priority, 5) Legislation should be informed by educators and better incorporate the school's perspective. Food service themes included: 1) Obesity is not a problem at their school; school food service is not the cause, 2) Food offerings are based largely on the importance of preparing students for the real world by providing choice and the need to maintain high participation rates; both healthy and unhealthy options are available, 3) A la carte keeps lunch participation high and prices low but should be used as a supplement, not a replacement, to the main meal, 4) Vending provides school's additional revenue; vending is not part of food service and is appropriate if it does not interfere with the lunch program. Discrepancies exist between government/public health officials and school personnel that may inhibit collaborative efforts to address obesity through modifications to the school environment. Future policy initiatives may be enhanced by seeking the input of school personnel, providing recommendations firmly grounded in evidence-based practice, framing initiatives in terms of their potential impact on the issues of most concern to schools (e.g., academic
In this study, we analyse the predictive power of home and school environment-related factors for determining pupils' aggression. The multiple regression analyses are performed for fourth- and eighth-grade pupils based on the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 (N = 8394) and TIMSS 2011 (N = 9415) databases for Slovenia. At the…
Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.
Understanding the developmental responsiveness of secondary school environments may be an important factor in supporting students as they make the transition from one school to the next. Students' needs may or may not be met depending on the nature of the fit between their basic and developmental needs and secondary school structures at the middle…
Bonell, C.; Farah, Jamal; Harden, Angela; Wells, H.; Parry, W.; Fletcher, A.; Petticrew, M; Thomas, J.; M. Whitehead; Campbell, R.; Murphy, S; Moore, L
Background: In contrast to curriculum-based health education interventions in schools, the school environment approach promotes health by modifying schools’ physical/social environment. This systematic review reports on the health effects of the school environment and processes by which these might occur. It includes theories, intervention outcome and process evaluations, quantitative studies and qualitative studies.\\ud Research questions\\ud \\ud Research question (RQ)1: What theories are used...
Adamski, Aurora; Fraser, Barry J.; Peiro, Maria M.
We investigated relationships between students' perceptions of parental involvement in schooling, their Spanish classroom environment and student outcomes (attitudes and achievement). Modified Spanish versions of the What Is Happening In this Class?, Test of Spanish-Related Attitudes-L[subscript 1], a parental involvement questionnaire and a…
Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012
Important facts about asthma and the environment include: (1) Asthma has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, affecting about 25 million people of all ages and races, including about 7 million children; (2) Nearly one in 10 school-aged children has asthma, and the percentage of children with asthma is rising more rapidly in…
Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...
Their age ranged between 12 and 19 years with mean age of 15.4 years and the standard deviation of 4.56. The participants were administered four valid and reliable instruments to assess the predictors of learning outcomes among the students (learning styles, school environment and test anxiety). Pearson's Product ...
Ricketts, Todd A.; Picou, Erin M.; Galster, Jason
Purpose: The hearing aid microphone setting (omnidirectional or directional) can be selected manually or automatically. This study examined the percentage of time the microphone setting selected using each method was judged to provide the best signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for the talkers of interest in school environments. Method: A total of 26…
available for level of motivation is terribly low, such that a typical primary school teacher .... self esteem and prestige in carrying out their duties. .... lack motivation. Salaries and allowance are not as important as good job environment and job satisfaction with regard to job performance. Several teachers level the teaching ...
Jun 19, 2014 ... lead to the development of obesity in children and adolescents need to be understood. Limited data exist on the availability of nutrition policies and the quality of food sold in and around secondary schools in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the nutrition environment at selected secondary ...
Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle
This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and
Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng
Addressing youth mental health in secondary schools has received greater attention globally in the past decade. It is essential that educators, mental health experts, researchers, and other related service providers understand the most current research findings to inform policy making, and identify priority areas for the development of future interventions and research strategies. This review describes literature during the past year on school-based mental health programs addressing mental health promotion, prevention, early identification and intervention/treatment. In contrast to the abundance of school-based mental health programs, the evidence of program effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness in this area is somewhat insufficient, mostly due to the lack of rigorous research designs, the heterogeneity of school environments, and the complexities of interventions that require multisector collaboration. Although the opportunity in school mental health is substantial, much yet needs to be done to develop and evaluate interventions that can be proven to be effective, safe and cost-effective. Mental health literacy may be an appropriate start that will help to set the foundation for mental health promotion, prevention and intervention.
Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah
As the demographic make-up of public schools (and neighborhoods) shift and schools become increasingly segregated, the role of school boards becomes critically important in maintaining policies designed to remedy segregation and promote equal opportunity, policies which may challenge the status quo. Specifically, in school districts and…
Henzi, David; Davis, Elaine; Jasinevicius, Roma; Hendricson, William; Cintron, Laura; Isaacs, Marcia
The majority of studies examining dental school curriculum have addressed organization, structure, and content issues from the perspectives of administrators, faculty, practitioners/alumni, and professional organizations. However, few studies have focused on students' opinions of dental school. The purpose of this study was to determine students' perceptions of the learning environment, intellectual climate, and teacher-student relationships in dental school. This report describes how the "dental version" of the Medical Student Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) was used to identify students' perceptions of their dental education. Freshman and junior dental students' perceptions were measured with the Dental Student Learning Environment Survey (DSLES), which evaluates learning environment, intellectual climate, and relationships among students and teachers in seven areas: flexibility, student-to-student interaction, emotional climate, supportiveness, meaningful experience, organization, and breadth of interest. The DSLES was mailed to twenty-three dental schools in North America with eighteen of the schools distributing the inventory. A total of 619 dental students responded. Results were differentiated between freshman and junior dental students. Both freshman and junior students provided the highest (most positive) ratings for the DSLES subscales of "breadth of interest" (interest in dentistry and outside interests are encouraged) and "meaningful learning experience" (significance of courses to dentistry). Freshman students provided the lowest (least positive) ratings for "emotional climate" (students' responses to the way their courses were conducted and stress levels), and junior students provided the least positive ratings for "faculty supportiveness" (extent of faculty support and encouragement provided to students). The DSLES identified students' perceptions of their educational experience and localized areas for improvement. By addressing these areas of
Sara Crosatti Barbosa
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%, followed by light (4.6–7.6%, moderate (1.3–3.0% and vigorous (0.5–2.3% physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83 and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80 protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93 in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77, the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96 and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77 are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children.
Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de
To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
The paper presents a media ecological understanding of media education and reports from an empirical study on the use of digital media at Ørestad Gymnasium in Copenhagen. An ecological model for e-learning is formed which serves as a guide for understanding how digital media elicit a new...... educational environment. The model highlights four environmental aspects influenced by media: teachers, students, didactical methods and curriculum. Media ecology also implies studying media as species that are competing for our attention and usage. The paper uses this perspective to ask how the students...... choose between and combine different media in their learning activities. These questions are the focus of the empirical study....
Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Robitaille, Éric; Lebel, Alexandre; Bisset, Sherri
A school environment that encourages students to opt for food with sound nutritional value is both essential and formative in ensuring that young people adopt healthy eating habits. The present study explored the associations between the socio-economic characteristics of the school environment and the school food environment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2008-2009. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed on data from public primary and secondary schools. Quebec, Canada. The school food offering was observed directly and systematically by trained research assistants. Interviews were conducted to fully describe food offerings in the schools and schools' child-care services. A two-stage stratified sampling was used to build a representative sample of 143 French-speaking public schools. The response rate was 66.2%. The primary and secondary schools in low-density areas were more likely to be located near diners (primary: P=0.018; secondary: P=0.007). The secondary schools in deprived areas were less likely to have a regular food committee (P=0.004), to seek student input on menu choices (P=0.001) or to have a long lunch period (P=0.010). The primary schools in deprived areas were less likely to have a food service (P=0.025) and their meal periods were shorter (P=0.033). The schools in areas with lower socio-economic status provided an environment less favourable for a healthy diet. From a public health perspective, the results of this analysis could assist policy makers and managers to identify actions to support the creation of favourable school environments.
Nonaka, Daisuke; Gunawardena, Nalika S; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nanri, Akiko; Rajapakse, Lalini; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between students' perception of physical and psychosocial school environment and satisfaction with life among secondary school students in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Data were collected from 20 Sinhala-medium secondary schools between January and February in 2010. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with students in grade seven (n = 342) and grade ten (n = 446). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to assess the associations between students'satisfaction with life measured by Cantril ladders, and scores of perceived physical and psychosocial school environment that focused on school cleanliness and attractiveness, relations with teachers and peers, satisfaction with school and bullying. Students in the highest quartile of school environment score were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction, compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio 2.32; 95% confidence interval 1.35-3.99). Odds ratio of high life satisfaction increased with increasing school environment scores (p for trendenvironment were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction. Positive changes in the focused areas of school environment have the potential to lead to improved life satisfaction of students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC (Manipal Campus and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM inventory was used. DREEM was originally developed at Dundee and has been validated as a universal diagnostic inventory for assessing the quality of educational environment. In the present study, DREEM was administered to undergraduate medical students of first year (n = 118 and clinical phase (n = 108 and the scores were compared using a nonparametric test. Results Among the two batches, first year students were found to be more satisfied with the learning environment at MMMC (as indicated by their higher DREEM score compared to the clinical batch students. Gender wise, there was not much difference in the students' perceptions. Conclusion The present study revealed that both groups of students perceived the learning environment positively. Nevertheless, the study also revealed problematic areas of learning environment in our medical school which enabled us to adopt some remedial measures.
Wirussawa, Seatuch; Tesaputa, Kowat; Duangpaeng, Amporn
This study aimed at 1) investigating the element of the learning environment management system in the secondary schools, 2) exploring the current states and problems of the system on the learning environment management in the secondary schools, 3) designing the learning environment management system for the secondary schools, and 4) identifying…
Full Text Available The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI, bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump. Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed
Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang
The relationship between students' school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents' physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in
Rachel C. F. Sun
Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.
Lee Andy H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide, may increase the risk of snoring for children. The aim of this study was to investigate domestic environmental factors associated with snoring in children. Methods A school-based respiratory survey was administered during March and April of 2002. Nine hundred and ninety six children from four primary schools within the Perth metropolitan area were recruited for the study. A sub-group of 88 children aged 4–6 years were further selected from this sample for domestic air pollutant assessment. Results The prevalences of infrequent snoring and habitual snoring in primary school children were 24.9% and 15.2% respectively. Passive smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for habitual snoring (odds ratio (OR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20–2.61, while having pets at home appeared to be protective against habitual snoring (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37–0.92. Domestic pollutant assessments showed that the prevalence of snoring was significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide during winter. Relative to the low exposure category (3, the adjusted ORs of snoring by children with medium (30 – 60 μg/m3 and high exposures (> 60 μg/m3 to NO2 were 2.5 (95% CI: 0.7–8.7 and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.4–14.3 respectively. The corresponding linear dose-response trend was also significant (P = 0.011. Conclusion Snoring is common in primary school children. Domestic environments may play a significant role in the increased prevalence of snoring. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide in domestic environment is associated with snoring in children.
Kontak, Julia C H; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Penney, Tarra L; Kuhle, Stefan; Kirk, Sara F L
Health-promoting schools (HPS) is an effective approach to enhance the health and well-being of children and youth, but its measurement remains a challenge considering contextual differences across school environments. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the physical features of the school environment through photographs of schools that had implemented an HPS approach compared with schools that had not. This study used a descriptive approach, wherein physical features of the school environment were distilled through visual images and qualitatively analyzed. School environment data were collected from 18 elementary schools (10 HPS, 8 comparison schools) from a school board in rural Nova Scotia (Canada). Evaluation assistants captured photographs of the physical school environment as part of a broader environment audit. Overarching themes included the promotion, access and availability of opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity, healthy school climate and safety and accessibility of the school. The photographs characterized diverse aspects of the school environment and revealed differences between schools that had implemented an HPS approach compared with schools that had not. There were increased visual cues to support healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being, and indications of a holistic approach to health among schools that implemented an HPS approach. This research adds to understanding the environmental elements of HPS. The use of photographic data to understand school environments provided an innovative method to explore the physical features of schools that had implemented an HPS approach. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony
This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…
Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette
Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…
Smokowski, Paul R.; Cotter, Katie L.; Caroline Robertson; Shenyang Guo
Little is known about bullying in rural areas. The participants in this study included 3,610 racially diverse youth (average age = 12.8) from 28 rural schools who completed the School Success Profile-Plus. Binary logistic regression models were created to predict bullying victimization in the past 12 months, and ordered logistic regression was used to predict school hassles in the past 12 months. Overall, 22.71% of the sample experienced bullying victimization and school victimization rates r...
The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools has been largely explored in relation to how students' use ICT at school. In addition students' lives and experiences with technology beyond school have also begun to be explored. However, the nexus between the two is still an underdeveloped research area. Anecdotally…
Van Dyke, Miriam E; Cheung, Patricia C; Franks, Padra; Gazmararian, Julie A
This study aimed to characterize physical activity (PA) environments in Georgia public elementary schools and to identify socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic disparities in PA environments. A school setting PA survey was launched in 2013 to 2014 as a cross-sectional online survey assessing PA environment factors, including facility access and school PA practices, staff PA opportunities, parental involvement in school PA, and out-of-school PA opportunities. All 1333 Georgia public elementary schools were recruited. A total of 1083 schools (81.2%) responded. Survey respondents included school administrators, physical education (PE) teachers, and grade-level chairs. Physical activity environment factors were assessed via an online questionnaire adapted from school PA surveys and articles. The chi-square and Fisher exact analyses were conducted to examine the reporting of PA environment factors overall and by school SES, as measured by free/reduced lunch rate, and/or racial/ethnic composition. Overall, many PA environment factors were widely prevalent (ie, gym [99%] or field [79%] access), although some factors such as some PA-related programs (ie, a structured walk/bike program [11%]) were less widely reported. Disparities in school PA environment factors were largely patterned by SES, though they varied for some factors by racial/ethnic composition and across SES within racial/ethnic composition categories. For example, lower SES schools were less likely to report access to blacktops and tracks ( p-value racial/ethnic disparities in PA environments in Georgia public elementary schools.
Full Text Available In the past few years, excessive efforts have been made to increase the city’s attractiveness and its international positioning. Also studies on the so-called city destination branding are on the rise. Theorists, as Ramirez (2001, Marzano and Scott (2009, among many others, are discussing different aspects of this complex process. Many approaches and strategies are dealing with the positioning of urban environments and city destinations, trying to provide at least some partial answers about achieving this objective. With proper marketing and branding, cities can do a lot to attract tourists and visitors. For successful city marketing and branding and for the successful long-term positioning of the destination in general, it is necessary to involve the key stakeholders and collaborate with as many as possible despite the fact that the branding of a city destination (or any destination for that matter is a complex process. It is significant that all the stakeholders, who are always carriers of different interests, are invited to collaborate in the planning of the tourism development and tourism development strategies, from the government, the private sector, schools etc. It is also important to involve the citizens, who can provide a valuable opinion about the environment they live in – what they like about their environment, what suggestion would they give to tourists about gastronomy, attractions, shops, events, etc. It is significant that citizens are proud of their urban environment, that they know their own environment, and that they have the motivation for the involvement in the process of improvement of their home environment (through projects, discussions, etc.. It is impossible to create attractive urban environments or cities if residents do not have a positive opinion about the place they live in. That is why it is essential for the education institutions at all levels, but especially for the institutions at the primary levels to
Many schools in South Africa are dysfunctional, or at least do not function optimally. This statement could be substantiated by just citing statistics about failure rates, school dropout rates, school violence, matric pass rates, learner absenteeism, educator absenteeism or the incidence of discipline problems and the effect ...
Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael
Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products.
Tang, Xuyang; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Abbott, Joshua K; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J
Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (pschools was associated with a lower probability of being overweight/obese (pschools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students.
John-Akinola, Yetunde O; Nic-Gabhainn, Saoirse
Schools are a key setting for health promotion and improvement activities and the psycho-social environment of the school is an important dimension for promoting the health and well-being of children. The development of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) draws on the settings-based approach to health promotion and includes child participation as one of its basic values. This paper investigates the relationships between child participation, the school environment and child outcomes. Study participants were recruited from nine primary schools, three of which were designated as Health Promoting Schools (HPS). Each HPS was matched with two non-HPS (NHPS) with similar characteristics. Two hundred and thirty-one pupils in the 4th-6th class groups completed self-report questionnaires to document their perspectives on the school socio-ecological environment, how they take part in school life, school processes and their health and well-being. School participation was measured with four scales: participation in school decisions and rules, school activities, school events and positive perception of school participation. The differences in the reported mean score for three of the four scales were marginal and not statistically significant. However, the mean score for reported positive perception of school participation was significantly lower (χ2 = 5.13, df =1, p well-being outcomes for all pupils. Logistic regression analyses indicated positive associations between school participation and school socio-ecological environment. These findings suggest that school participation is important for children in schools and is relevant for improved school environment, relationships and positive health and well-being outcomes. The positive associations between school participation and school socio-ecological environment and health and well-being outcomes suggests that pupil health and well-being and school relationships could be improved or sustained by providing or supporting an
de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Torres, Gilson Vasconcelos
This qualitative research aims to analyze how sexual orientation has been incorporated into pedagogic practices through the point of view of educators from public schools of fundamental teaching. Twenty three educators from Cajazeiras, Paralba, Brazil participated in the study. The focus group was elected as technique of investigation, and the empirical data obtained were organized according to the technique of analysis of content. It was realized that there is an effort of the actors to privilege contents related to sexual orientation in the school environment though they demand that a level of informative and subjective character about the "sexuality" be encouraged providing the educators with a space for re-significations of its internality of values. The information directed to self-care must transcend the limits of prevention and hygienisation, incorporating extensive, inclusive and reflective methodologies, which recognize human and social rights and promote the ethical construction of citizenship.
Ellerbeck Edward F
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine high school personnel's perceptions of the school environment, its impact on obesity, and the potential impact of legislation regulating schools' food/beverage offerings. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the principal (n = 8 and dietitian/food service manager (n = 7 at 8 schools (4 rural, 4 suburban participating in a larger study examining the relationship between the school environment and adolescent health behavior patterns. Results Principal themes included: 1 Obesity is a problem in general, but not at their school, 2 Schools have been unfairly targeted above more salient factors (e.g., community and home environment, 3 Attempts at change should start before high school, 4 Student health is one priority area among multiple competing demands; academic achievement is the top priority, 5 Legislation should be informed by educators and better incorporate the school's perspective. Food service themes included: 1 Obesity is not a problem at their school; school food service is not the cause, 2 Food offerings are based largely on the importance of preparing students for the real world by providing choice and the need to maintain high participation rates; both healthy and unhealthy options are available, 3 A la carte keeps lunch participation high and prices low but should be used as a supplement, not a replacement, to the main meal, 4 Vending provides school's additional revenue; vending is not part of food service and is appropriate if it does not interfere with the lunch program. Conclusion Discrepancies exist between government/public health officials and school personnel that may inhibit collaborative efforts to address obesity through modifications to the school environment. Future policy initiatives may be enhanced by seeking the input of school personnel, providing recommendations firmly grounded in evidence-based practice, framing initiatives in terms of their potential impact on the
Fredland, Nina M
Although school violence directly affects the overall health and well-being of children and adolescents, clear priorities have not been identified for dealing with the problem. Horrific events such as the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colo, and recent shootings at Virginia Tech have focused the nation on high-profile, media-worthy school violence to the detriment of addressing everyday forms of violence in schools. Policies that have been developed to reduce school violence have mixed reviews. To raise the consciousness of healthcare professionals, educators, legislators, and the general public, the most salient issues are discussed.
A survey of several hundred German students led to two theses on school environment and learning. First, students find school buildings attractive only if they conform to certain features of the human sensory system such as balance. Second, students consider school buildings attractive and inviting only if their architectural message meets such…
Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson
Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tran, Van Dat
This study investigates how teachers' perceptions of school environment factors, teaching efficacy, teacher stress and job satisfaction, and to determine whether gender was a differentiating factor. A total of 387 Vietnamese junior high school teachers completed one questionnaire for four sections about school-level environment, teaching efficacy,…
Al-Safran, Eissa; Brown, David; Wiseman, Alexander
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of principal's leadership style on school outcome. This study focused on the indirect relationship between the leadership style and the school environment. An additional objective was to investigate the impact of culture on leadership style as related to school environment and outcome.…
Background: The provision of a Healthful School Environment is a prerequisite for the protection and promotion of the health of learners and attainment of Millennium Development Goal 2. This study sought to evaluate the availability of components of a healthful school environment in public primary schools in Bonny Local ...
Frazier, Nicole Denise
The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…
Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated to answer the research questions and independent samples t-tests were used for testing the hypotheses. Major findings revealed that insecurity of school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while students’ gangsterism, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted insecurity of the school environment which eventually cause boys to leave school and join trading while leading girls to drop out and settle for marriage. Based on the findings, it was recommended that owners of schools and other stakeholders in education should take bold steps to fence and protect school environments from intruders to ensure safety of the students.
Ojukwu, M. O.
The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two…
Paul R. Smokowski
Full Text Available Little is known about bullying in rural areas. The participants in this study included 3,610 racially diverse youth (average age = 12.8 from 28 rural schools who completed the School Success Profile-Plus. Binary logistic regression models were created to predict bullying victimization in the past 12 months, and ordered logistic regression was used to predict school hassles in the past 12 months. Overall, 22.71% of the sample experienced bullying victimization and school victimization rates ranged from 11% to 38%. Risk factors for bullying victimization included younger students and students experiencing depression and anxiety. Being female, Hispanic/Latino or African American, was associated with lower bullying victimization. Thirty-nine percent of the sample reported a high level of school hassles. Younger students and students with higher levels of anxiety and depression were at increased risk for school hassles. Students from larger schools reported high levels of school hassles, while students from schools with more teachers with advanced degrees reported fewer school hassles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple
van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke
Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption...
Adler, Corey; Chung-Do, Jane; Ongalibang, Ophelia
The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) focuses its youth violence prevention efforts on community mobilization by partnering with Kailua High School and other local community groups. This paper describes the development and activities of the Safe School Task Force (SSTF) and the lessons learned. In response to concerns of school, community members, and students, the SSTF was organized to promote student leadership in raising awareness about problems related to violence. Collaboration among the school, community, and the university places students in leadership roles to reduce school violence and enhances their self-efficacy to improve their school environment. To increase SSTF effectiveness, more attention must be paid to student recruitment, consistent community partnerships, and gaining teacher buy-in. This partnership may be useful in multicultural communities to provide students the opportunities to learn about violence prevention strategies, community mobilization, and leadership skills.
Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E.; O'Rourke, Karen A.
Introduction We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. Methods We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre–Chapter 51 and post–Chapter 51 of soda, ot...
Padrón, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan
The lack of achievement of students from high-risk and high-poverty environments necessitates changes in today's middle school environments to create a caring, supportive environment where all middle school students can succeed. This study investigated the classroom learning environments of resilient, average, and nonresilient minority students in…
Brännström, Karl Jonas; Johansson, Erika; Vigertsson, Daniel; Morris, David J; Sahlén, Birgitta; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka
Children's own ratings and opinions on their schools sound environments add important information on noise sources. They can also provide information on how to further improve and optimize children's learning situation in their classrooms. This study reports on the Swedish translation and application of an evidence-based questionnaire that measures how children perceive the acoustic environment of their school. The Swedish version was made using a back-to-back translation. Responses on the questionnaire along with demographic data were collected for 149 children aged 9-13 years of age. The Swedish translation of the questionnaire can be reduced from 93 to 27 items. The 27 items were distributed over five separate factors measuring different underlying constructs with high internal consistency and high inter-item correlations. The responses demonstrated that the dining hall/canteen and the corridors are the school spaces with the poorest listening conditions. The highest annoyance was reported for tests and reading; next, student-generated sounds occur more frequently within the classroom than any sudden unexpected sounds, and finally, road traffic noise and teachers in adjoining classrooms are the most frequently occurring sounds from outside the classroom. Several demographic characteristics could be used to predict the outcome on these factors. The findings suggest that crowded spaces are most challenging; the children themselves generate most of the noise inside the classroom, but it is also common to hear road traffic noise and teachers in adjoining classrooms. The extent of annoyance that noise causes depends on the task but seems most detrimental in tasks, wherein the demands of verbal processing are higher. Finally, children with special support seem to report that they are more susceptible to noise than the typical child.
Karl Jonas Brännström
Full Text Available Objective: Children’s own ratings and opinions on their schools sound environments add important information on noise sources. They can also provide information on how to further improve and optimize children’s learning situation in their classrooms. This study reports on the Swedish translation and application of an evidence-based questionnaire that measures how children perceive the acoustic environment of their school. Study Design: The Swedish version was made using a back-to-back translation. Responses on the questionnaire along with demographic data were collected for 149 children aged 9–13 years of age. Results: The Swedish translation of the questionnaire can be reduced from 93 to 27 items. The 27 items were distributed over five separate factors measuring different underlying constructs with high internal consistency and high inter-item correlations. The responses demonstrated that the dining hall/canteen and the corridors are the school spaces with the poorest listening conditions. The highest annoyance was reported for tests and reading; next, student-generated sounds occur more frequently within the classroom than any sudden unexpected sounds, and finally, road traffic noise and teachers in adjoining classrooms are the most frequently occurring sounds from outside the classroom. Several demographic characteristics could be used to predict the outcome on these factors. Conclusion: The findings suggest that crowded spaces are most challenging; the children themselves generate most of the noise inside the classroom, but it is also common to hear road traffic noise and teachers in adjoining classrooms. The extent of annoyance that noise causes depends on the task but seems most detrimental in tasks, wherein the demands of verbal processing are higher. Finally, children with special support seem to report that they are more susceptible to noise than the typical child.
Svitlana G. Lytvynova
Full Text Available The article deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of cloud oriented learning environment (COLE of secondary school. It is examined the concept of "cloud oriented learning environment", "mobility training", the requirements for COLE, the goal of creating, the structural components, model deployment, maintenance. Four cloud storages are compared; the subjects and objects of COLE are described; the meaning of spatial and semantic, content and methodical, communication and organizational components are clarified; the benefits and features of cloud computing are defined. It is found that COLE creates conditions for active cooperation, provides mobility of learning process participants, and objects’ virtualization. It is available anywhere and at any time, ensures the development of creativity and innovation, critical thinking, ability to solve problems, to develop communicative, cooperative, life and career skills, to work with data, media, to develop ICT competence either of students and teachers.
Cullen, Karen W; Hartstein, Jill; Reynolds, Kim D; Vu, Maihan; Resnicow, Ken; Greene, Natasha; White, Mamie A
Our objective for this study was to examine the feasibility of instituting environmental changes during a 6-week pilot in school foodservice programs, with long-term goals of improving dietary quality and preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Participants included students and staff from six middle schools in three states. Formative assessment with students and school staff was conducted in the spring of 2003 to inform the development of school foodservice policy changes. Thirteen potential policy goals were delineated. These formed the basis for the environmental change pilot intervention implemented during the winter/spring of 2004. Questionnaires were used to assess the extent to which the 13 foodservice goals were achieved. Success was defined as achieving 75% of goals not met at baseline. Daily data were collected on goal achievement using the schools' daily food production and sales records. Qualitative data were also collected after the pilot study to obtain feedback from students and staff. Formative research with staff and students identified potential environmental changes. Most schools made substantial changes in the National School Lunch Program meal and snack bar/a la carte offerings. Vending goals were least likely to be achieved. Only one school did not meet the 75% goal achievement objective. Based on the objective data as well as qualitative feedback from student focus groups and interviews with students and school staff, healthful school foodservice changes in the cafeteria and snack bar can be implemented and were acceptable to the staff and students. Implementing longer-term and more ambitious changes and assessing cost issues and the potential enduring impact of these changes on student dietary change and disease risk reduction merits investigation.
Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen
Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.
Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.
DAVIDSON, HELEN H.; AND OTHERS
THE FOCUS IS ON PERSONALITY TRAITS OF YOUNG CHILDREN WHO ACHIEVE IN SCHOOL DESPITE ENVIRONMENTAL HANDICAPS. THE SUBJECTS WERE TEN "GOOD" AND TEN "POOR" ACHIEVERS FROM THE FOURTH GRADE IN A SCHOOL LOCATED IN A SEVERELY DEPRESSED URBAN AREA. THE CHILDREN WERE CHOSEN ON THE BASIS OF ACHIEVEMENT SCORES AND TEACHER RECOMMENDATIONS.…
Africa, extracts from the email conversations which took place between August and September. 2003 following Schnack's ... Schnack's first email and the start of our Eco-School conversation. Schnack (20 August 2003): ... not actually doing much to develop skills of environmental activism at schools, as we are so focused on ...
In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of ...
He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E
The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P schools. The Finnish schools were most likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P school policy according to WHO principles (P canteen (P schools were most likely to involve the food and nutrition policy in pedagogical activities (P = 0·004), to serve nutritional school meals (P schools were less likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P canteen (P = 0·017) than the organic schools. The study suggests that there is a gap in the effects of public organic food procurement policy on building a healthier school food environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children’s physical activity in Delhi, India. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1 access to the school; (2 surrounding area; (3 school grounds; (4 aesthetics; (5 usage; and (6 overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Results Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together, and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13 and were well maintained (n = 10. One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. Conclusions The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as
Tarun, Samiksha; Arora, Monika; Rawal, Tina; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E
Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1) access to the school; (2) surrounding area; (3) school grounds; (4) aesthetics; (5) usage; and (6) overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together), and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard) for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13) and were well maintained (n = 10). One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as school warning signs. However, most had playground equipment
Grobler, B. R.; Moloi, K. C.; Loock, C. F.; Bisschoff, T. C.; Mestry, R. J.
This article examines the factors which impact upon the creation of a school environment for the effective management of cultural diversity as legislated for in the directive principles of the South African Schools Act of 1996 and the Schools Education Act of 1995. The two Acts determine that every person shall have the right to basic education…
Fairclough, Stuart J.; Hilland, Toni A.; Vinson, Don; Stratton, Gareth
The study purpose was to assess preliminary validity and reliability of the Physical Education and School Sport Environment Inventory (PESSEI), which was designed to audit physical education (PE) and school sport spaces and resources. PE teachers from eight English secondary schools completed the PESSEI. Criterion validity was assessed by…
In Nigeria, the high level of helminthic infestations among school children has been blamed on indiscriminate. An Evaluation of the Health Status of the School Environment in Public. Primary Schools in bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State. The Nigerian Health Journal, Vol. 11, No 3, July - Sepetember 2011 ...
Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students.
O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M
To explore whether characteristics of the U.S. secondary school physical activity environment are associated with student body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. This report uses data from two studies: Monitoring the Future (MTF; an annual nationally representative survey of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade public and private school students) and Youth, Education, and Society (a survey of administrators in schools that have completed their 2-year participation in the MTF study). School policies and programs related to various health issues, including physical education (PE) and sports activity, were examined for relationships with student self-reported height, weight, being active in sports, exercising vigorously, and participating in school athletics. The results show that in 2004-2007, the percentage of students who attended schools that required PE in their grade differed sharply by grade level: 88% of 8th graders, 48% of 10th graders, and 20% of 12th graders. There were few statistically significant associations between school PE requirements and student BMI. The average percentage of students who participated in interscholastic or varsity sports was associated at the bivariate level with a lower percentage of students being overweight in all three grades. Other measures of PE and sports activity showed varying associations with BMI and physical activity measures. Relationships between the school physical activity environment and student BMI and physical activity were not uniformly strong. We conclude that, as currently practiced in schools, existing variations in physical activity policies may not be sufficient to produce discernible school-wide differences; thus, there is a need for more vigorous PE programming than is typically provided.
Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina
Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school marketing environments with federal school nutrition standards. The purpose of this study was to determine how to improve school marketing environments so that they align with new federal competitive food nutrition standards. We assessed food marketing environments in 3 Portland, Maine schools using the Food and Beverage Marketing Survey (FBMS) and provided technical assistance to bring their marketing environments into conformity with the federal competitive food regulations, tracking resources and strategies for marketing removal. Noncompliant marketing was significantly reduced pre- to postintervention. Intervention strategies were facilitated by the School Health Coordinator and school-based wellness teams. Low monetary resources were required to remove marketing not compliant with federal nutrition standards for foods sold in schools. Several key challenges remain to sustain efforts. This study provides timely information for policymakers to support crafting policies that address the realities of school nutrition environments and universal enforcement challenges. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Tabak, Rachel G.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Clarke, Megan A.; Schwarz, Cynthia D.; Haire-Joshu, Debra L.
Background: An environment that supports healthy eating is one factor to prevent obesity. However, little is known about postpartum teen's perceptions of their home and school environments and how this relates to dietary behaviors. Purpose: This study explores the relationship between home and school environments and dietary behaviors for…
Thornton, Christina M; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Kerr, Jacqueline; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D; Glanz, Karen; Sallis, James F
The after-school period provides an opportune context for adolescent physical activity. This study examined how characteristics of after-school recreation environments related to adolescent physical activity. Participants were 889 adolescents aged 12 to 17 (mean = 14.1, SD = 1.4) from 2 US regions. Adolescents reported on whether their school offered after-school supervised physical activity, access to play areas/fields, and presence of sports facilities. Outcomes were accelerometer-measured after-school physical activity, reported physical activity on school grounds during nonschool hours, attainment of 60 minutes of daily physical activity excluding school physical education, and BMI-for-age z-score. Mixed regression models adjusted for study design, region, sex, age, ethnicity, vehicles/licensed drivers in household, and distance to school. School environment variables were all significantly associated with self-reported physical activity on school grounds during non-school hours (P < .001) and attainment of 60 minutes of daily physical activity (P < .05). Adolescents' accelerometer-measured after-school physical activity was most strongly associated with access to supervised physical activity (P = .008). Policies and programs that provide supervised after-school physical activity and access to play areas, fields, and sports facilities may help adolescents achieve daily physical activity recommendations.
Mâsse, Louise C; Frosh, Marcy M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Yaroch, Amy L; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Blanck, Heidi M; Atienza, Audie A; McKenna, Mary L; Igoe, James F
As policy strategies are rapidly being developed to address childhood overweight, a system was developed to systematically and reliably classify state policies related to the school nutrition environment. This study describes the development process, the inter-rater reliability to code state policies enacted as of December 2003, and the variability in state policies related to the school nutrition environment. The development of the School Nutrition Environment State Policy Classification System (SNESPCS) included a comprehensive review of published literature, reports from government and nongovernmental sources, input from an expert panel, and select experts. Baseline statutes and regulations for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were retrieved from Westlaw (data retrieved in 2005-2006 and analyzed in 2006) and pilot testing of the system was conducted. SNESPCS included 11 policy areas that relate to a range of environmental and surveillance domains. At baseline, states had no (advertising/promotion and preferential pricing) or modest (school meal environment, reimbursable school meals, coordinating or advisory councils, body mass index screening) activities in many of the policy areas. As of 2003, 60% of the states had policies related to the sale of foods in school that compete with the school meal program. Evaluation of policies that affect the school-nutrition environment is in its earliest stage. SNESPCS provides a mechanism for assessing variation in state policies that can be incorporated in an evaluation framework aimed at elucidating the impact of state policies on the school environment, social norms, and children's dietary behaviors in schools.
Cicutto, Lisa; Julien, Brianna; Li, Nancy Y.; Nguyen-Luu, Nha Uyen; Butler, Janice; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan J.; Harada, Laurie; McGhan, Shawna; Stark, Donald; Vander Leek, Timothy K.; Waserman, Susan
Background School personnel in contact with students with life-threatening allergies often lack necessary supports, creating a potentially dangerous situation. Sabrina’s Law, the first legislation in the world designed to protect such children, requires all Ontario public schools to have a plan to protect children at risk. Though it has captured international attention, the differences a legislative approach makes have not been identified. Our study compared the approaches to anaphylaxis prevention and management in schools with and without legislation. Methods Legislated (Ontario) and non-legislated (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec) environments were compared. School board anaphylaxis policies were assessed for consistency with Canadian anaphylaxis guidelines. Parents of at-risk children and school personnel were surveyed to determine their perspectives on school practices. School personnel’s EpiPen technique was assessed. Results Consistency of school board policies with anaphylaxis guidelines was significantly better in a legislated environment (p=0.009). Parents in a legislated environment reported more comprehensive anaphylaxis emergency forms (pEpiPen training (>80%), suboptimal technique was commonly observed. However, school personnel in the legislated environment had better technique (p EpiPen administration, content and distribution of anaphylaxis emergency forms, and awareness of school procedures by school personnel and parents. PMID:21951319
Toenders, Frank G. C.; de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. A.; Sanders, Wendy T. M.; den Brok, Perry
Although visually impaired students attend regular high school, their enrolment in advanced science classes is dramatically low. In our research we evaluated the physics learning environment of a blind high school student in a regular Dutch high school. For visually impaired students to grasp physics concepts, time and additional materials to support the learning process are key. Time for teachers to develop teaching methods for such students is scarce. Suggestions for changes to the learning environment and of materials used are given.
Panter, Jenna R; Jones, Andrew P; Van Sluijs, Esther M.F.; Griffin, Simon J
Objective To assess whether objectively-measured characteristics of the neighbourhood, route and school environments are associated with active commuting to school among children. We also explore whether distance acts as a moderator in this association. Methods A cross sectional study of 2012 children (899 boys and 1113 girls) aged 9-10 years attending 92 schools in the county of Norfolk, UK. During the summer of 2007 questionnaires were completed by children and parents. Attributes around the home and route to school were assessed using a Geographical Information System. School environments were assessed using a newly developed school audit and via questionnaires completed by head teachers. Data were analysed in 2008. Results Almost half of the children usually walked or cycled to school. Children who lived in a more deprived area and whose route to school was direct were less likely to walk or cycle to school, whilst those who had a higher density of roads in their neighbourhood were more likely to walk. Furthermore, children whose routes had a high density of streetlights were less likely to cycle to school. Distance did not moderate the observed associations. Discussion Objectively measured neighbourhood and route factors are associated with walking and cycling to school. However, distance did not moderate the associations found here. Creating environments which are safe, through improving urban design may influence children’s commuting behaviour. Intervention studies are needed to confirm the findings from this observational cross-sectional study. PMID:20171528
Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.
Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)
Results of noise research indicate that communication, and as a result, teaching, learning and the social atmosphere are impeded by noise in schools. The development of strategies to reduce noise levels has often not been effective. A more promising approach seems to be to pro-actively support the ability to listen and to understand. The presentation describes the approach to an acoustic and social school design developed and explored within the project ``GanzOhrSein'' by the Education Department of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The scope includes an analysis of the current ``school soundscape,'' an introduction to the concept of the project to improve individual listening abilities and the conditions for listening, as well as practical examples and relevant research results. We conclude that an acoustic school design should combine acoustic changes in classrooms with educational activities to support listening at schools and thus contribute to improving individual learning conditions and to reducing stress on both pupils and teachers.
Éberson Pereira Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the perception of school environment and physical education classes for students of early grades of elementary school and end of a municipal school in Novo Cabrais-RS. The study has a descriptive and exploratory, and has 31 students as subjects of both sexes, aged between 9 and 17 years, students of the 5th and 8th grades of elementary school. For data collection, a questionnaire was administered to students. We observed that 100% of the boys interviewed like the time they spend in school, while 76.9% of girls also agreed with this statement. Both in the 5th class, the class in 8th grade, was 17 visible the perception of solidarity among the students. The satisfaction with the quality of teaching is reflected in the percentage of students who consider the faculty as "Good" and "Very Good", with respectively 51.6% and 48.4%. In relation to Physical Education classes, all students were satisfied and happy to carry out the activities. Among the activities of physical education that most students enjoy, stood Football, Handball, Basketball and Volleyball, and among the least stood out like the heating, stretching and Basketball. After analyzing the data collected, it can be concluded that both students in early grades, and the final grades of elementary school perceive the school as a welcoming and supportive environment for their learning, finding in Physical Education, an excellent ally, capable of stimulating the like, further, by that environment. Keyword: School, Quality of Life: Physical Activity.
Ivon, Hicela; Kušcevic, Dubravka
The present paper explores the idea that learning, both in and out of school, is a cultural act, and that school and its cultural-heritage environment stamp their own characteristics on pupils. This implies that pupils gradually, with the help of teachers and other relevant adults from their close social environment, develop and adjust their…
Liu, Min; Horton, Lucas; Olmanson, Justin; Toprac, Paul
This study examines middle school students' learning and motivation as they engaged in a new media enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment for middle school science. Using a mixed-method design with both quantitative and qualitative data, we investigated the effect of a new media environment on sixth graders' science learning, their…
John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda
Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…
Abbott, Ian; Middlewood, David; Robinson, Susan
This paper draws on data collected from a series of semi-structured interviews with head teachers and other stakeholders on the impact and effectiveness of the introduction of a Primary School Improvement Group (PSIG) by the Local Authority (LA). The PSIG was introduced as a response to concerns expressed by the Department of Education about the…
Wiley, Ben D.
This study examines the physical environment of school buildings and the effects it has on teacher morale, sense of belonging, and work ethic. Within this mixed-method study, four New York State schools were given the researcher developed School Environment Survey, and multiple school stakeholders were interviewed to determine the extent of these…
Celik, Laurel A; Pancoe, Diane L
Hand washing remains the single most important action for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although easy and inexpensive, promoting hand hygiene in an elementary school can be a challenge. This study was a collaborativeproject between the co-investigators (a registered nurse at an urban elementary school and a senior high school student working on a senior International Baccalaureate research project), the 5th-grade science teacher, and a physician from the local children's hospital. The study purposes were to (a) determine the effectiveness of a 30-minute hand washing educational intervention at decreasing organisms on the hands of 5th-grade students and (b) introduce the 5th-grade students to the scientific method. Forty-one percent of the 5th-grade students used an effective hand washing technique after receiving instruction on proper hand washing.
Olga P. Pinchuk
Full Text Available The article analyses the current state of school openness and presents an experience of creating a school website as a mean to resolve the contradiction between the appearance of various forms of information and limited ways to use these forms in educational systems. Website is regarded as a component of a common information educational space in Ukraine and an important factor in its development as a tool to develop cooperation of all members of the educational process (students, teachers, psychologists, principals and parents. The article considers the following elements as operative informing of parents open exchange of teaching experience and reporting monitoring results. Perspective course of research, among others, information security of school operation is defined.
Coleman Karen J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children
Bonell, C; Wells, H; Harden, A; Jamal, F; Fletcher, A; Thomas, J; Campbell, R; Petticrew, M; Whitehead, M; Murphy, S; Moore, L
Owing to the limited effectiveness of traditional health education curricula in schools, there is increasing interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by modifying the school environment. Existing systematic reviews cannot determine whether environmental intervention is effective because they examine interventions combining environmental modifications and traditional health education. This gap is significant because school-environment interventions are complex to implement and may be sidelined in underfunded and attainment-focused school systems without evidence to support such an approach. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of school-environment interventions without health-education components on student health and inequalities. This was a systematic review of experimental/quasi-experimental studies of school-environment interventions. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and narratively synthesised. Sixteen reports of 10 studies were included, all from the USA and the UK. Five evaluations of interventions aiming to develop a stronger sense of community and/or improve relationships between staff and students suggested potential benefits particularly regarding violence and aggression. Two trials of interventions enabling students to advocate for changes in school catering and physical activity reported benefits for physical activity but not diet. Three evaluations of improvements to school playgrounds offered weak evidence of effects on physical activity. School environment interventions show the potential to improve young people's health particularly regarding violence, aggression and physical activity. Further trials are required to provide a stronger and more generalisable evidence base.
Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Omidvar, Nasrin; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash
The Iranian Health Promoting Schools (IHPS) program was first piloted and then formally established in Iran in 2011 as a framework to promote healthy environment and behaviors such as proper dietary practice among adolescents. This study examined the role of IHPS in improving the school food environment and snacking behaviors among adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 1320 eighth grade students from 40 middle schools with IHPS and non-IHPS program were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified 55-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks in the studied adolescents. Mixed effect negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the data. The association was also adjusted for individual variables, including gender, socio-economic status, pocket money, family structure and nutritional knowledge level. No significant difference was observed between the average of healthy and unhealthy snack items in IHPS and non-IHPS schools (p > 0.05). On the basis of adjusted analysis, being from/in IHPS was not associated with weekly frequency consumption of unhealthy [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85-1.16] and healthy (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.2) snacks among the adolescents. There was no difference regarding school food environment and snacking behaviors in IHPS and non-IHPS schools. This might indicate that there has been a weakness in institutionalizing the comprehensive concepts of the HPS approach in the studied schools. Addressing the proper understanding of HPS approach and the need for development of HPS through matching and adaptability with health promotion actions to reach defined standards, is necessary. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Remmers, Teun; Van Kann, Dave; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Sanne; Kremers, Stef
Physical Activity (PA) occurs in several behavioral domains (e.g., sports, active transport), and is affected by distinct environmental factors. By filtering objective PA using children's school schedules, daily PA can be separated into more conceptually meaningful domains. We used an ecological design to investigate associations between "playability" of 21 school-environments and children's objectively measured after-school PA. We also examined to what extent distinct time-periods after-school and the distance from children's residence to their school influenced this association. PA was measured in 587 8-11 year-old children by accelerometers, and separated in four two-hour time-periods after-school. For each school-environment, standardized playability-scores were calculated based on standardized audits within 800 m network buffers around each school. Schools and children's residences were geocoded, and we classified each child to be residing in 400, 800, 1600, or >1600 m crow-fly buffers from their school. The influence of network-distance buffers was also examined using the same approach. Playability was associated with light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA after-school, especially in the time-period directly after-school and among children who lived within 800 m from their school. Playability explained approximately 30% of the after-school PA variance between schools. Greater distance from children's residence to their school weakened the association between playability of the school-environments and after-school PA. This study demonstrated that relationships between the conceptually matched physical environment and PA can be revealed and made plausible with increasing specificity in time and distance.
Barrera, Lucia Hernandez; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Barquera, Simon; Cifuentes, Enrique
The childhood obesity epidemic is a global concern. There is limited evidence in Mexico linking the local food environment to obesity. The purpose of this study is to describe the links between the local food environment around elementary schools and schoolchildren's BMI in two Mexican cities. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 60 elementary schools in two Mexican cities (i.e., Cuernavaca and Guadalajara) in 2012-2013. Anthropometric measurements on schoolchildren were collected, as well as environmental direct audits and observations in a 100-m buffer around schools. Children's BMI was evaluated according to WHO-recommended procedures. In BMI models, the explanatory variable was the number of retail food sources. These models were adjusted for child's characteristics, schools' socioeconomic background, compliance with federal guidelines concerning unhealthy foods within schools' facilities, and corresponding city. Analysis was conducted in 2014. The number of mobile food vendors was higher around public schools than outside private schools (pschools. Schoolchildren from the highest tertile of mobile food vendors showed 6.8% higher BMI units than those from the lowest tertile. Children attending schools within the highest tertile of food stores also had 4.7% higher BMI units than children from schools in the lowest tertile. Health policy in Mexico should target the obesogenic environment surrounding elementary schools, where children may be more exposed to unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Wells, Helene; Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Campbell, Rona; Murphy, Simon; Moore, Laurence
Schools may have important effects on students' and staff's health. Rather than treating schools merely as sites for health education, 'school-environment' interventions treat schools as settings which influence health. Evidence concerning the effects of such interventions has not been recently synthesised. Systematic review aiming to map and synthesise evidence on what theories and conceptual frameworks are most commonly used to inform school-environment interventions or explain school-level influences on health; what effects school-environment interventions have on health/health inequalities; how feasible and acceptable are school-environment interventions; what effects other school-level factors have on health; and through what processes school-level influences affect health.We will examine interventions aiming to promote health by modifying schools' physical, social or cultural environment via actions focused on school policies and practices relating to education, pastoral care and other aspects of schools beyond merely providing health education. Participants are staff and students age 4-18 years.We will review published research unrestricted by language, year or source. Searching will involve electronic databases including Embase, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo and Social Science Citation Index using natural-language phrases plus reference/citation checking.Stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and methods. Stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. Evidence will be synthesised narratively and statistically where appropriate (undertaking subgroup analyses and meta-regression and where no significant heterogeneity of effect sizes is found, pooling these to calculate a final effect size). We anticipate: finding a large number of studies missed by previous reviews; that non-intervention studies of school effects examine a greater breadth of determinants than are addressed
French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy
Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203
Diamanduros, Terry; Downs, Elizabeth
Technology has changed the school yard or neighborhood bully. It no longer requires physical intimidation to be a bully. In fact, bullying can be done anonymously, on or off campus, and physical size does not enter into the scenario. Every year headlines identify children who take their own lives as a result of being victims of various forms of…
Takaoka, Motoko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Norbäck, Dan
There is an increasing concern about sick building syndrome (SBS), especially in Asia. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between SBS and the home, school environment and personal factors among Japanese junior high school students. We investigated students in four junior high schools in Hyogo in Kansai area, Japan. A questionnaire study was performed among students (n=1056), 12-15 years old. Temperature and relative air humidity was measured in the classrooms and dust was collected from the classroom floors and air and was analysed for cat and dog allergens. Associations were analysed by multi-level logistic regression. Mucosal symptoms (45.4%), general symptoms (38.9%) and skin symptoms (22.6%) were common. Totally 8.8% reported cat allergy, 6.1% dog allergy, 6.0% mold allergy and 25.7% pollen allergy. Atopy, window pane condensation, floor dampness and odor at home and high relative air humidity in the classrooms were associated with SBS. The prevalence of SBS symptoms was high and associated with both home and school environment. Window pane condensation and floor dampness at home can increase the risk for SBS symptoms in students. Moreover high relative air humidity at school may increase the risk for SBS.
RISING PRESSURES OF COMPETITION FOR LAND IN URBAN AREAS SUGGEST THE NEED FOR NOVEL APPROACHES TO PLANNING PUBLIC LAND USE FOR FOSTERING HIGHER LEVELS OF LIVING DESIRABILITY OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT. EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN BOTH ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC DISCIPLINES SERVE AS THE BASIS FOR A BROADER CONCEPT OF THE URBAN SCHOOL LOCATION PROBLEM.…
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Turner, Lindsey; Sandoval, Anna; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J
Schools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor. To examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012. Annual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators. School-based commercialism, including exclusive beverage contracts and associated incentives, profits, and advertising; corporate food vending and associated incentives and profits; posters/advertisements for soft drinks, fast food, or candy; use of food coupons as incentives; event sponsorships; and fast food available to students. Changes over time in school-based commercialism as well as differences by student body racial/ethnic distribution and socioeconomic status. Although some commercialism measures-especially those related to beverage vending-have shown significant decreases over time, most students at all academic levels continued to attend schools with one or more types of school-based commercialism in 2012. Overall, exposure to school-based commercialism increased significantly with grade level. For 63.7% of elementary school students, the most frequent type of commercialism was food coupons used as incentives. For secondary students, the type of commercialism most prevalent in schools was exclusive beverage contracts, which were in place in schools attended by 49.5% of middle school students and 69.8% of high school students. Exposure to elementary school coupons, as well as middle and high school exclusive beverage contracts, was significantly more likely for students attending schools with mid or low (vs high) student body socioeconomic status. Most US elementary, middle, and high school students attend schools where they are exposed to commercial efforts aimed at obtaining food or beverage sales or developing brand recognition
Connolly, Daniel M; Dockrell, Julie E; Shield, Bridget M; Conetta, Rob; Cox, Trevor J
A poor acoustic environment in a school is known to negatively affect pupils' learning and achievement. This paper presents the design and findings of an online questionnaire survey of 11-16 year olds' impressions of their school's acoustic environment. A total of 2588 English secondary school pupils responded to the questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify variables which best characterized pupils' impressions of their school's acoustic environment. Four factors, corresponding to ease of hearing in school spaces, sensitivity to noise, the consequences of noise in the classroom, and annoyance to intermittent noise, accounted for 43% of the total variance in pupils' responses to the questionnaire. Analysis of the responses on these factors showed that pupils who reported additional learning needs such as hearing impairment, speaking English as an additional language or receiving learning support reported being significantly more affected by poor school acoustics than pupils reporting no additional learning needs. Older pupils were significantly more sensitive to noise annoyance and to the consequences of poor acoustical conditions on their learning and behaviour than younger pupils. Pupils attending suburban schools featuring cellular classrooms that were not exposed to a nearby noise sources were more positive about their school acoustics than pupils at schools with open plan classroom designs or attending schools that were exposed to external noise sources. The study demonstrates that adolescents are reliable judges of their school's acoustic environment, and have insight into the disruption to teaching and learning caused by poor listening conditions. Furthermore, pupils with additional learning needs are more at risk from the negative effects of poor school acoustics.
Rowley, Patrick James
While research studies have investigated postsecondary planning for high-need student populations, few studies have explored the intersectionality of students experiencing emotional disturbances and students living in urban environments and the postsecondary planning perspectives of school counselors with this demographic. The purpose of this study was to explore the current perspectives, practices, and experiences of 10 high schools counselors working within a large school district of the no...
Dowdy, Josh; Dore, Elizabeth
Research pertaining to institutions of public education reveals that curricular structures often function to produce and reproduce systemic inequalities. The following personal statement outlines a middle school teacher's attempt to address social reproduction in public education. By situating issues of inequity within a local context of…
Personalized learning is defined as "tailoring learning for each student's strengths, needs, and interests--including enabling student voice and choice in what, how, when and where they learn-- to provide flexibility and supports to ensure mastery of the highest standards possible". Personalized learning offers school librarians a way to…
Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet-Fitzgerald, Judith Evelyn; Watts, Allison W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students' dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N=174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N=11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student's intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student's age and sex. School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.02-1.30) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.12-2.01 and OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.06). The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents' dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity.
Altenburg, T.; te Velde, S.; Chiu, K.-J.; Moschonis, G.; Manios, Y.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Vik, F.N.; Lien, N.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.
Background: The school environment can play an important role in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Photos of the school environment may contribute to more adequate measurement of the school environment, as photos can be rated by different assessors. We aimed to examine the
Edasseri, Anu; Barnett, Tracie A; Kâ, Khady; Henderson, Mélanie; Nicolau, Belinda
Dental caries are highly prevalent among children and have negative health consequences. Their occurrence may depend in part on school-based environmental or policy-related factors, but few researchers have explored this subject. This study aimed to identify oral health promoting school environment types and estimate their relation with 2-year dental caries incidence among Québec children aged 8-10 years. This study used data from two visits (completed in 2008 and 2011) of the QUALITY (Québec Adipose Lifestyle Investigation in Youth) cohort, which recruited white children at risk of obesity and their families from Greater Montreal schools. Measures included school and neighborhood characteristics, and Decayed, Missing, Filled-Surfaces index scores. Principal component and cluster analyses, and generalized estimating equations were conducted. Data were available for 330 children attending 200 schools. Based on a series of statistical analyses conducted in 2016, the authors identified three distinct school environment types. Type 1 and 2 schools had strong healthy eating programs, whereas Type 3 had weak programs. Type 1 schools had favorable neighborhood food environments, whereas Type 2 and 3 had unfavorable ones. Adjusting for potential confounders, children attending Type 1 and 2 schools had 21% (incidence rate ratio=0.79, 95% CI=0.68, 0.90) and 6% (incidence rate ratio=0.94, 95% CI=0.83, 1.07) lower 2-year incidence of dental caries, respectively, compared with Type 3 schools. School-based oral health promotion programs combined with a favorable neighborhood can lower dental caries incidence in school children. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maki-Opas, T.; de Munter, J.; Maas, J.; den Hertog, F.; Kunst, A.E.
Objectives: This study examined the effect of physical environment on cycling to and from school among boys and girls of Turkish and Moroccan origin living in Amsterdam. Methods: The LASER study (n = 697) was an interview study that included information on cycling to and from school and the
Remer, Pam; Ross, Ed
Provides a summary of sexist educational practices and a definition of the concept of androgyny as an alternative model of effective living. Explores the steps counselors can take in cooperation with the school staff to create a school environment that fosters androgyny. (Author)
Smith, Sabra R
Educational problems of African American students are examined in the context of why young, successful early elementary school students are suddenly struggling in the late elementary and middle school years. Educators need to explore the educational environment, teacher attitudes and expectations, student empowerment, and the appropriateness of the curriculum.
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Rounds, Kathleen A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) continue to face extreme discrimination within the school environment. Existing literature suggests that LGBT youth are at high risk for a number of health problems, including suicide ideation and attempts, harassment, substance abuse, homelessness, and declining school performance. This…
Bland, Derek; Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe
A visual research project addressed school children's concepts of ideal learning environments. Drawings and accompanying narratives were collected from Year 5 and Year 6 children in nine Queensland primary schools. The 133 submissions were analysed and coded to develop themes, identify key features and consider the uses of imagination. The…
Steck, Andrew K.
The purpose of this study was to examine how administrators perceived their role in creating a safe and inclusive school environment wherein all students are accepted, able to achieve academically and remain safe. LGBT students suffer ostracism, victimization, peer isolation, excessive absenteeism and early school separation. This qualitative…
Lang, Quek Choon
This study aims to replicate and extend a previous study which was conducted on primary school students' asynchronous online project-based learning. In this study, 276 high school students' participation and interaction in a project-based learning environment was mediated by an asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool. The students'…
Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; Collier, K.L.; Metselaar, M.
Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexual minority adolescents. Methods. Data were
Swanson, Jane L.; Fouad, Nadya A.
Describes potential contributions of theories of person-environment fit to understanding of the transition from school to work. Provides specific implications for integrating these concepts into school-to-work programs including: students need to spend time in exploration that leads to self-knowledge; programs should teach elements of…
Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F
African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.
Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.
Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in education, women pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees at much lower rates than those of their male peers. This study extends existing explanations for these gender differences and examines the role of the high school context for plans to major in STEM fields. Building on recent gender theories, we argue that widely shared and hegemonic gender beliefs manifest differently across schools so that the gender-specific formation of study plans is shaped by the local environment of high schools. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study, we first show large variations between high schools in the ability to attract students to STEM fields conditional on a large set of pre–high school measures. Schools that are successful in attracting students to these fields reduce the gender gap by 25 percent or more. As a first step toward understanding what matters about schools, we then estimate the effect of two concrete high school characteristics on plans to major in STEM fields in college—a high school's curriculum in STEM and gender segregation of extracurricular activities. These factors have a substantial effect on the gender gap in plans to major in STEM: a finding that is reaffirmed in a number of sensitivity analyses. Our focus on the high school context opens concrete avenues for policy intervention and is of central theoretical importance to understand the gender gap in orientations toward STEM fields. PMID:27857451
María Teresa Muñoz Quezada
Full Text Available Currently there is concern for promoting healthy and inclusive coexistence in schools. The aim of this research was to assess the perception of socialization and school environment in an inclusive school in the Province of Talca, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional case study in a sample of 180 students, 193 parents and 21 teachers. A questionnaire evaluating school life was applied to students, parents and teachers and another assessing the school's social climate and bullying was applied to students in the last two grades. The results indicate that students perceive a positive social climate with a low risk of bullying. Issues of conflict were students’ respect for the rules, being on friendly terms with the teachers, and disciplinary actions on the part of the families. We observed that the inclusive learning system contributes to school life and a positive climate and interactions.
The thesis deals with an understanding of the importance and usefulness of play and play activities for school counseling. The theoretical part focuses on understanding of children's play in relation to their development and learning. It contain the presentation of the characteristic of play activities and the connection between play therapy techniques and particular counselling (social pedagogical) strategies. Thesis follows the theoretical basis of child psychology and child's play developm...
COOPER, JAMES G.; IVEY, CARL H.
AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE INTO THE EFFECTS OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-FALLOUT SHELTER UPON THE EDUCATIONAL CLIMATE WITHIN THAT SCHOOL AS COMPARED TO THE CLIMATES OF WINDOWLESS OR CONVENTIONAL SCHOOLS. THE ABO SCHOOL IN ARTESIA, NEW MEXICO, WAS BUILT WITHOUT WINDOWS AND ENTIRELY BELOW GROUND EXCEPT FOR THE ENTRY. INITIAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS WERE ABOUT…
Okoko, A R; Ekouyabowassa, G; Moyen, E; Oko, A P G; Abessou, L C Togho; Mbika-Cardorelle, A; Atanda, H L; Moyen, G M
To determine the frequency of dental caries and habits that can be the cause of this disease in Brazzaville. A prospective study was conducted in primary schools between February and May 2010. This study involved a sample of 307 students of both sexes, aged 4-15 years from school in the city of Brazzaville. Prevalence of dental caries was 53.4% and the index of DMFT 2.06. Use of toothbrush was 99.4%. Two children (0.7%) brushed their teeth three times a day. There was a statistical link between regularity of brushing and occurrence of caries. The prevalence of caries was of 53% in children who brushed once a day and 12.8% in those who brushed twice a day. No decay was noted in those who brushed three times a day (p = 0.001). The DMFT was 2.06 in children who used non-fluoridated toothpaste and 1.13 in those who used the fluoridated toothpaste (p = 0.002). To ensure students a better oral hygiene and healthier teeth, a module in oral health education in schools is one of the way to fight against this public health problem.
Sara de Francesco
Full Text Available Nowadays elementary school teachers and preschool often complain about the noise pollution into the classrooms, which could be an occupational risk for them. In this cross-selection study are evaluated the acoustic climate of classrooms through the measurement of noise levels and reverberation time. These surveys were conducted in 24 classrooms belonging to three elementary schools or to a preschool one. By noise levels measurements it was evident a noise pollution problem, which depended on the structural requirements of the classrooms or on the type of activity carried out. We have obtained a minimum value of Leq dB (A 61.9 and the maximum of Leq dB (A 103.4, with an overall median of 75 dB (A. The study findings indicated that 15.9% of elementary school teachers and 31.25% in preschool ones are exposed to Leq dB(A values (exceeding the action level established by Legislative Decree, 81/08 that could cause vocal or auditory disorders.
Full Text Available This presentation investigates the typology of learning environments that enable effective school teaching and learning. According to the National Education Policy Act (27/1996),research show that there is a direct link between the physical...
Chantelle A M Richmond; Dawn Smith
.... In collaboration with The Wabano Centre for Aboriginal Health (Ottawa, Canada), we undertook focus groups with urban Aboriginal youth at-risk to examine perceptions of their urban school environments, including access to social support...
Rahmedia Alfi Rahmi; Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
Classroom environment is different from one school to another. This may lead to students’ achievement. This study was aimed at finding out whether the two variables were correlated positively by involving 378 students selected randomly from 55 schools in different sub-districts. The ‘What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC) questionnaire’ and an English test were used to collect the data. The findings showed that: (1) there was a positive correlation between classroom environment and students’...
Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study.
Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven
There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transitioned to a different school for year 7 secondary school, while in six schools (combined primary-secondary), students remained in the same school environment from year 6 to year 7. Time 1 (T1) measures were collected from students (N=245) in year 6 (age 11-13). Time 2 (T2) data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original student cohort when in year 7. PA and sedentary behaviour data were collected objectively (via ActiGraph accelerometer) and subjectively (via child self-report recall questionnaire). School environment data were collected via school staff survey. Change of behaviour analyses were conducted longitudinally i) for all students and ii) by change/no change of school. Mixed model regression analysis tested for behavioural interaction effects of changing/not changing school. Sixty-three percent (N=152) changed schools from T1 to T2. Across all students we observed declines in average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (-4 min) and light PA (-23 min), and increases in average daily sedentary behaviour (16 min), weekday leisure screen time (17 min) and weekday homework screen time (25 min), all Penvironment, students who changed school reported a greater reduction in PA intensity at recess and lunch, less likelihood to cycle to/from school, greater increase in weekday (41 mins) and weekend (45 mins) leisure screen time (Penvironments.
Tackett, Sean; Bakar, Hamidah Abu; Shilkofski, Nicole A; Coady, Niamh; Rampal, Krishna; Wright, Scott
While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES) for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%). After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%), with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%). The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92) and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85). The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.
Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate whether there are differences in the level of computer literacy, the amount of implementation of ICT in teaching and learning-assessment processes and the attitudes of teachers from computerized schools in comparison to teachers in non-computerized schools. In addition, the research investigates the characteristics of Israeli school teachers in a 21st century computer-based learning environment. A quantitative research methodology was used. The research sample included 811 elementary school teachers from the Jewish sector of whom 402 teachers were from the computerized school sample and 409 were teachers from the non-computerized school sample. The research findings show that teachers from the computerized school sample are more familiar with ICT, tend to use ICT more and have a more positive attitude towards ICT than teachers in the non-computerized school sample. The main conclusion which can be drawn from this research is that positive attitudes of teachers towards ICT are not sufficient for the integration of technology to occur. Future emphasis on new teaching skills of collective Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge is necessary to promote the implementation of optimal pedagogy in innovative environments.
Rothman, Linda; To, Teresa; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Howard, Andrew
To estimate the proportion of children living within walking distance who walk to school in Toronto, Canada and identify built and social environmental correlates of walking. Observational counts of school travel mode were done in 2011, at 118 elementary schools. Built environment data were obtained from municipal sources and school field audits and mapped onto school attendance boundaries. The influence of social and built environmental features on walking counts was analyzed using negative binomial regression. The mean proportion observed walking was 67% (standard deviation=14.0). Child population (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.36), pedestrian crossover (IRR 1.32), traffic light (IRR 1.19), and intersection densities (IRR 1.03), school crossing guard (IRR 1.14) and primary language other than English (IRR 1.20) were positively correlated with walking. Crossing guard presence reduced the influence of other features on walking. This is the first large observational study examining school travel mode and the environment. Walking proportions were higher than those previously reported in Toronto, with large variability. Associations between population density and several roadway design features and walking were confirmed. School crossing guards may override the influence of roadway features on walking. Results have important implications for policies regarding walking promotion. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Puusniekka, Riikka; Pohjonen, Tiina; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) and psychosocial problems are common in schools worldwide, yet longitudinal research on the issue is scarce. We examined whether the level of or a change in pupil-reported school environment (IAQ, school satisfaction, and bullying) predicts recorded sick leaves among teachers. Changes in the school environment were assessed using pupil surveys at two time points (2001/02 and 2004/05) in 92 secondary schools in Finland. Variables indicating change were based on median values at baseline. We linked these data to individual-level records of teachers' (n = 1678) sick leaves in 2001-02 and in 2004-05. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline sick leave and covariates showed a decreased risk for short-term (one to three days) sick leaves among teachers working in schools with good perceived IAQ at both times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and for those with a positive change in IAQ (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), compared to teachers in schools where IAQ was constantly poor. Negative changes in pupil school satisfaction (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) and bullying (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) increased the risk for short-term leaves among teachers when compared to teachers in schools where the level of satisfaction and bullying had remained stable. School environment factors were not associated with long-term sick leaves. Good and improved IAQ are associated with decreased teacher absenteeism. While pupil-related psychosocial factors also contribute to sick leaves, no effect modification or mediation of psychosocial factors on the association between IAQ and sick leave was observed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor indoor air quality (IAQ and psychosocial problems are common in schools worldwide, yet longitudinal research on the issue is scarce. We examined whether the level of or a change in pupil-reported school environment (IAQ, school satisfaction, and bullying predicts recorded sick leaves among teachers. Methods Changes in the school environment were assessed using pupil surveys at two time points (2001/02 and 2004/05 in 92 secondary schools in Finland. Variables indicating change were based on median values at baseline. We linked these data to individual-level records of teachers’ (n = 1678 sick leaves in 2001–02 and in 2004–05. Results Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline sick leave and covariates showed a decreased risk for short-term (one to three days sick leaves among teachers working in schools with good perceived IAQ at both times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, and for those with a positive change in IAQ (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9, compared to teachers in schools where IAQ was constantly poor. Negative changes in pupil school satisfaction (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8 and bullying (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3 increased the risk for short-term leaves among teachers when compared to teachers in schools where the level of satisfaction and bullying had remained stable. School environment factors were not associated with long-term sick leaves. Conclusions Good and improved IAQ are associated with decreased teacher absenteeism. While pupil-related psychosocial factors also contribute to sick leaves, no effect modification or mediation of psychosocial factors on the association between IAQ and sick leave was observed.
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.
This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq
This paper describes how a new classroom environment instrument, the "Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI)", was developed to investigate the nature of Chinese language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The CLCEI is a bilingual instrument (English and Chinese Language) with 48 items…
Kraft, Matthew A; Papay, John P
Although wide variation in teacher effectiveness is well established, much less is known about differences in teacher improvement over time. We document that average returns to teaching experience mask large variation across individual teachers and across groups of teachers working in different schools. We examine the role of school context in explaining these differences using a measure of the professional environment constructed from teachers responses to state-wide surveys. Our analyses show that teachers working in more supportive professional environments improve their effectiveness more over time than teachers working in less supportive contexts. On average, teachers working in schools at the 75th percentile of professional environment ratings improved 38% more than teachers in schools at the 25th percentile after 10 years.
Original title: De school bestuurd. Until now, little was known about school boards in primary and secondary schools. This study presents a national overview of the way in which these school boards interpret and fulfil their role. More and different demands have been placed on school boards in
Mâsse, Louise C; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F
We examined state laws affecting the school food environment and changes in these laws between 2003 to 2008. We used the Westlaw legal database to identify state-codified laws, with scoring derived from the updated School Nutrition-Environment State Policy Classification System, obtained from the Classification of Laws Associated With School Students Web site. States significantly changed their school nutrition laws from 2003 to 2008, and many increased the stringency of the laws targeting competitive foods (snacks and entrées sold in competition with the school meal) and beverages sold in school and for in-school fundraising. Many states enacted laws that mandated the establishment of a coordinating or advisory wellness team or council. Stronger laws were enacted for elementary grades. We found tremendous variability in the strength of the laws and plenty of room for improvement. State law governing school nutrition policies significantly changed from 2003 to 2008, primarily affecting the competitive food environment in schools. The extent to which changes in school nutrition laws will lead to desired health outcomes is an area for additional research.
Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.
Objectives. We examined state laws affecting the school food environment and changes in these laws between 2003 to 2008. Methods. We used the Westlaw legal database to identify state-codified laws, with scoring derived from the updated School Nutrition–Environment State Policy Classification System, obtained from the Classification of Laws Associated With School Students Web site. Results. States significantly changed their school nutrition laws from 2003 to 2008, and many increased the stringency of the laws targeting competitive foods (snacks and entrées sold in competition with the school meal) and beverages sold in school and for in-school fundraising. Many states enacted laws that mandated the establishment of a coordinating or advisory wellness team or council. Stronger laws were enacted for elementary grades. We found tremendous variability in the strength of the laws and plenty of room for improvement. Conclusions. State law governing school nutrition policies significantly changed from 2003 to 2008, primarily affecting the competitive food environment in schools. The extent to which changes in school nutrition laws will lead to desired health outcomes is an area for additional research. PMID:23327259
Natalya Nikolaevna Masyuk
Full Text Available Developing entrepreneurial competencies for high school students is only possible as a result of the creation of such an educational environment that will play such a relationship between training firms, which would be as realistic as possible. To this end, the university created an innovative educational business environment.Objective: To create an organizational model and algorithm innovative educational business environment.Method or the methodology of the work: desk research.Results: The algorithm of the organizational procedures for creating innovative business environment of high school.Scope results: management, marketing, entrepreneurship.
Neckerman, Kathryn M; Bader, Michael D M; Richards, Catherine A; Purciel, Marnie; Quinn, James W; Thomas, Juli Simon; Warbelow, Caitlin; Weiss, Christopher C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew
Studies of the food environment near schools have focused on fast food. Research is needed that describes patterns of exposure to a broader range of food outlet types and that examines the influence of neighborhood built environments. Using data for New York City, this paper describes the prevalence of five different food outlet types near schools, examines disparities by economic status and race/ethnicity in access to these food outlets, and evaluates the extent to which these disparities are explained by the built environment surrounding the school. National chain and local fast-food restaurants, pizzerias, small grocery stores ("bodegas"), and convenience stores within 400 m of public schools in New York City were identified by matching 2005 Dun & Bradstreet data to 2006-2007 school locations. Associations of student poverty and race/ethnicity with food outlet density, adjusted for school level, population density, commercial zoning, and public transit access, were evaluated in 2009 using negative binomial regression. New York City's public school students have high levels of access to unhealthy food near their schools: 92.9% of students had a bodega within 400 m, and pizzerias (70.6%); convenience stores (48.9%); national chain restaurants (43.2%); and local fast-food restaurants (33.9%) were also prevalent within 400 m. Racial/ethnic minority and low-income students were more likely to attend schools with unhealthy food outlets nearby. Bodegas were the most common source of unhealthy food, with an average of nearly ten bodegas within 400 m, and were more prevalent near schools attended by low-income and racial/ethnic minority students; this was the only association that remained significant after adjustment for school and built-environment characteristics. Nearly all New York City public school students have access to inexpensive, energy-dense foods within a 5-minute walk of school. Low-income and Hispanic students had the highest level of exposure to the food
Warne, Maria; Snyder, Kristen; Gillander Gådin, Katja
Education is an important factor in health equity, but many students still do not complete high school. A focus on the school context rather than on individual problems might help to create a supportive environment for health and learning. In this study we explored factors that promote health and learning from the perspective of vocational and low-achieving high school students in Sweden. We used grounded theory with a constructivist orientation, informed and sensitized by the concept of salutogenesis. Students from a school in a mid-sized municipality in Sweden participated, and we collected data using the photovoice method and interviews. Students identified general factors as significant to their well-being and success in school. The main theme, "promoting driving forces for health and learning," emerged from the categories "longing to be seen by teachers," "longing for support," and "longing for recuperation."
Sims, Alexandra J.; Boasso, Alyssa M.; Burch, Berre; Naser, Shereen; Overstreet, Stacy
Background: School satisfaction is linked to a number of important school outcomes like academic performance and school engagement. Following exposure to disasters, adolescents may undergo mental health challenges that threaten factors critical to school satisfaction, such as positive school climate and supportive school relationships. Objective:…
Hart, Sara A; Soden, Brooke; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Influential work has explored the role of family socioeconomic status (SES) as an environmental moderator of genetic and environmental influences on cognitive outcomes. This work has provided evidence that socioeconomic circumstances differentially impact the heritability of cognitive abilities, generally supporting the bioecological model in that genetic influences are greater at higher levels of family SES. The present work expanded consideration of the environment, using school-level SES as a moderator of reading comprehension. The sample included 577 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, Behavior and Environment. Reading comprehension was measured by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) Reading in third or fourth grade. School-level SES was measured by the mean Free and Reduced Lunch Status (FRLS) of the schoolmates of the twins. The best-fitting univariate G × E moderation model indicated greater genetic influences on reading comprehension when fewer schoolmates qualified for FRLS (i.e., 'higher' school-level SES). There was also an indication of moderation of the shared environment; there were greater shared environmental influences on reading comprehension at higher school-level SES. The results supported the bioecological model; greater genetic variance was found in school environments in which student populations experienced less poverty. In general, 'higher' school-level SES allowed genetic and probably shared environmental variance to contribute as sources of individual differences in reading comprehension outcomes. Poverty suppresses these influences. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Disparities in the type and density of food retail outlets have been hypothesized as a possible cause of differential obesity rates across racial/ethnic and income groups. Several local studies have documented differences in business environments by sociodemographic neighbourhood characteristics, but no data specific for youth have been published. This study analyses the food environment surrounding all public middle and high schools in the USA. Buffers were calculated with a radius of 400 and 800 m from the main entrance of public secondary schools in the USA (n=31,622), and business establishments within those buffers were identified using InfoUSA proprietary business listings. Indicators of any convenience store, limited-service restaurant, snack store or off-licences/liquor store and counts of businesses were regressed on the proportion of students eligible for free school meals, Title I eligibility of the school, racial/ethnic composition, location and student/teacher ratio. Hispanic youth are particularly likely to attend schools that are surrounded by convenience stores, restaurants, snack stores or off-licences. This effect is independent and in addition to poverty (i.e. students eligible for free school meals or schools that are Title I eligible) or location (urban core, suburban, town, rural). The association between other racial groups and nearby businesses is weaker, with the exception of off-licences, where a higher proportion of minority groups increases the probability of off-licences in close proximity to the school. Middle schools have fewer surrounding businesses than high schools, and larger schools have fewer surrounding businesses than smaller schools. Easy availability of snacks, sodas and fast food in the immediate vicinity of a school could easily negate school food policies, especially among students who can leave campus. Surrounding food outlets could also lower the effectiveness of health education in the classroom by setting a highly
Whatley Blum, Janet E; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E; O'Rourke, Karen A
We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51 of soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and junk food. Frequency data were tabulated pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51, and Fisher exact test was used to assess significance in changes. We conducted food and beverage inventories at 11 high schools. The survey return rate was 61% (N = 54). Availability of soda in student vending significantly decreased pre-Chapter 51 versus post-Chapter 51 (P = .04). No significant changes were found for other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food. Exceptions to Chapter 51 were permitted to staff (67%), to the public (86%), and in career and technical education programs (31%). Inventories in a subset of schools found no availability of soda for students, whereas other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food were widely available in à la carte, vending machines, and school stores. Candy, considered a FMNV, was freely available. Soda advertisement on school grounds was common. Student vending choices improved after the implementation of Chapter 51; however, use of FMNV as the policy standard may be limiting, as availability of other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food was pervasive. School environments were not necessarily supportive of the policy, as advertisement of soda was common and some FMNV were available. Furthermore, local exceptions to Chapter 51 likely reduced the overall effect of the policy.
Background Schools can be an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This nation-wide survey investigated changes in the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, school health policy, and actions taken by schools to prevent overweight. Methods In 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools, (n = 1250 and n = 1145, response rate 44% and 33% respectively, repeated data for 187 schools). Results The percentage of schools with vending machines for soft drinks (~90%) and sweets (~80%) remained fairly stable, whereas slightly more schools indicated to have a canteen (87%-91%). The food supply was reported to be healthier in 2010/2011 compared to 2006/2007. Canteens and/or vending machines offered more often fresh fruits (+8%), sandwiches (+11%), water (+11%) and salad (+7%) and less often sugar sweetened soft drinks (−10%). However, unfavorable changes such as an increase in the supply of pizza slices (+13%) and milk and yoghurt drinks with added sugar (+12%) were also reported. Between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, the presence of water coolers increased (12% versus 33%) as well as facilities for physical activity (67% versus 77%). However, more schools had vending places of unhealthy foods in the vicinity (73% versus 85%). Compared to 2006/2007, a higher percentage of schools indicated that they have taken actions to stimulate healthy eating behavior (72% versus 80%) or to prevent overweight (34% versus 52%) in 2010/2011. Less schools indicated that they expect to pay more attention to overweight prevention in the near future (56% versus 43%), but none of them expected to pay less attention. Conclusions Several aspects of the school environment changed in a positive way. However, schools should be encouraged to contribute to the prevention of overweight, or to continue to do so. PMID:23870483
van den Berg, Saskia W; Mikolajczak, Jochen; Bemelmans, Wanda J E
Schools can be an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This nation-wide survey investigated changes in the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, school health policy, and actions taken by schools to prevent overweight. In 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools, (n = 1250 and n = 1145, response rate 44% and 33% respectively, repeated data for 187 schools). The percentage of schools with vending machines for soft drinks (~90%) and sweets (~80%) remained fairly stable, whereas slightly more schools indicated to have a canteen (87%-91%). The food supply was reported to be healthier in 2010/2011 compared to 2006/2007. Canteens and/or vending machines offered more often fresh fruits (+8%), sandwiches (+11%), water (+11%) and salad (+7%) and less often sugar sweetened soft drinks (-10%). However, unfavorable changes such as an increase in the supply of pizza slices (+13%) and milk and yoghurt drinks with added sugar (+12%) were also reported. Between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, the presence of water coolers increased (12% versus 33%) as well as facilities for physical activity (67% versus 77%). However, more schools had vending places of unhealthy foods in the vicinity (73% versus 85%). Compared to 2006/2007, a higher percentage of schools indicated that they have taken actions to stimulate healthy eating behavior (72% versus 80%) or to prevent overweight (34% versus 52%) in 2010/2011. Less schools indicated that they expect to pay more attention to overweight prevention in the near future (56% versus 43%), but none of them expected to pay less attention. Several aspects of the school environment changed in a positive way. However, schools should be encouraged to contribute to the prevention of overweight, or to continue to do so.
Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y
Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Original title: De school bestuurd. Until now, little was known about school boards in primary and secondary schools. This study presents a national overview of the way in which these school boards interpret and fulfil their role. More and different demands have been placed on school boards in recent years, for example with regard to transparency of governance and public accountability. In a national survey of school boards, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP explored what they...
Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.
Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.
Breum, Lars; Toftager, M; Boyle, E
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention targeting the physical and organizational school environment for noncurricular physical activity (SPACE) on adiposity, aerobic fitness, and musculo-skeletal strength in Danish adolescents. The study used a cluster randomized...... controlled design. Fourteen schools and 1348 adolescents aged 11-14 years were included at baseline. Seven schools were randomized to the intervention, which was designed to change the organizational and physical environment of the school. The analysis revealed no significant differences between......; 33], 0.2 cm in waist circumference (95% CI: -2.6; 3.1), and -1.1 kg in handgrip strength (95% CI: -2.2; -0.1). The results did not provide evidence for the effect of the intervention on adiposity, aerobic fitness, or musculo-skeletal strength in adolescents. Reasons for not finding an effect could...
Previous research shows that children and youth who cycle to/from school are more active and fitter than those who travel by motorized modes. However, rates of cycling are low in many countries, and a better understanding of the correlates of cycling may inform the development of future interventions. This review summarizes the current literature on the built environment correlates of cycling among school-aged children and youth. While both studies of transportation and recreational cycling were eligible, the majority of the 12 included studies focused on the trip to/from school and consistently indicated that shorter distance between home and school is associated with greater odds of cycling. However, little is known about the correlates of cycling for other purposes. Furthermore, other built environment features have not been studied enough to allow strong conclusions to be drawn. Recommendations for future studies are proposed to address the limitations of current evidence.
Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...
Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J
This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.
Mawdsley, Ralph D.
Reviews the legal principles and precedents that frame current sexual harassment laws as they relate to schools. Discusses school district liability and responsibility for providing school environments safe from sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for developing and implementing school policies regarding sexual harassment. (CFR)
Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruener, Gregory; CichoskiKelly, Eileen; Deitz, Jennifer; Elliott, Donna; Stuber, Margaret L; Skochelak, Susan E
Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity. Understanding the changes in perceptions of the learning environment related to student characteristics and year of training could inform interventions that facilitate positive experiences in undergraduate medical education. The Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) was administered to 4,262 students who matriculated at one of 23 U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2010 and 2011. Students completed the survey at the end of each year of medical school as part of a battery of surveys in the Learning Environment Study. A mixed-effects longitudinal model, t tests, Cohen's d effect size, and analysis of variance assessed the relationship between MSLES score, year of training, and demographic variables. After controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and school, students reported worsening perceptions toward the medical school learning environment, with the worst perceptions in the 3rd year of medical school as students begin their clinical experiences, and some recovery in the 4th year after Match Day. The drop in MSLES scores associated with the transition to the clinical learning environment (-0.26 point drop in addition to yearly change, effect size = 0.52, p medical school learning environment in the 4th year. Insights: Perceptions of the medical school learning environment worsen as students continue through medical school, with a stronger decline in perception scores as students' transition to the
Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E
States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Technology-enabled learning environments are beginning to come of age. Tools and frameworks are now available that have been shown to improve learning and are being deployed more widely in varied school settings. Teachers are now faced with the formidable challenge of integrating these promising new environments with the everyday context in which…
Dinkins, Elizabeth G.; Englert, Patrick
This paper uses a case study approach to examine how the heteronormative nature of one middle school setting and classroom environment shapes the climate of safety, support and learning for LGBTQ students when they are engaged in studying a novel with a gay character. Heteronormative environments inform and shape positioning of and by students and…
Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Wei-Lun; Miao, Nae-Fang; Wu, Yu-Ping; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern
Background: A good classroom environment can promote students' learning motivation and affect their academic efficacy and adaptation. This study compares the perceptions of Taiwanese middle school students regarding actual and preferred classroom environments and explores the association with sex and grade level. Methods: Data were collected using…
This paper reviews the findings reported by Dyer and Tiggemann (1996) in Australia studying the effect of single sex versus coeducational school environments on body concerns in adolescent females. It details the reasons why parents and their children choose to be educated in single sex versus coeducational environments; and reviews literature…
Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Niikko, Anneli
The aim of this qualitative case study is to explore how the teachers, parents and children describe the advantages and disadvantages of preschool education when it is located in the comprehensive school context. In addition, the study aims to clarify which dimensions of the learning environment occur in preschool? The learning environment is…
Prieto, Nuria Joglar; Sordo Juanena, José María; Star, Jon R.
The information and communication technologies of Web 2.0 are arriving in our schools, allowing the design and implementation of new learning environments with great educational potential. This article proposes a pedagogical model based on a new geometry technology-integrated learning environment, called "Geometry 2.0," which was tested…
Heelan, Kate A; Bartee, R Todd; Nihiser, Allison; Sherry, Bettylou
Schools play a role in addressing childhood obesity by implementing healthy eating and physical activity strategies. The primary aim of this case study was to describe prevalence of overweight and obesity among elementary school students in a rural Mid-western community between 2006 and 2012. The secondary aim was to use a novel approach called "population dose" to retrospectively evaluate the impact dose of each strategy implemented and its estimated potential population level impact on changes in overweight and obesity. Weight and height were directly measured annually beginning in January 2006 to assess weight status, using BMI (kg/m(2)), for all kindergarten to fifth-grade students (N ≈ 2400 per year). Multiple evidence-based strategies were implemented in nine schools to increase physical activity and healthy eating behaviors. BMI reporting and revised school meal programs were implemented districtwide. Comprehensive school physical activity programs, school food environment, and supportive/promotional strategies were implemented at individual schools. The absolute change in prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) decreased from 16.4% to 13.9%, indicating a 15.2% relative change in prevalence of obesity in 6 years. There was an inverse relationship between the number of strategies implemented and prevalence of overweight and obesity over time. District and school-level approaches have the potential to impact childhood obesity. Schools can successfully implement strategies to address overweight and obesity, but the extent of implementation between schools may vary. Population dose analysis can be used to estimate impact of clusters of strategies to address overweight/obesity.
Heelan, Kate A.; Bartee, R. Todd; Nihiser, Allison; Sherry, Bettylou
Background Schools play a role in addressing childhood obesity by implementing healthy eating and physical activity strategies. The primary aim of this case study was to describe prevalence of overweight and obesity among elementary school students in a rural Mid-western community between 2006 and 2012. The secondary aim was to use a novel approach called “population dose” to retrospectively evaluate the impact dose of each strategy implemented and its estimated potential population level impact on changes in overweight and obesity. Methods Weight and height were directly measured annually beginning in January 2006 to assess weight status, using body mass index (kg·m2), for all kindergarten – fifth grade students (N ≈ 2,400 per year). Multiple evidence-based strategies were implemented in nine schools to increase physical activity and healthy eating behaviors. BMI reporting and revised school meal programs were implemented district-wide. Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP), school food environment, and supportive/promotional strategies were implemented at individual schools. Results The absolute change in prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) decreased from 16.4% to 13.9%, indicating a 15.2% relative change in prevalence of obesity in 6 years. There was an inverse relationship between the number of strategies implemented and prevalence of overweight and obesity over time. Conclusions District and school-level approaches have the potential to impact childhood obesity. Schools can successfully implement strategies to address overweight and obesity, but the extent of implementation between schools may vary. Population dose analysis can be used to estimate impact of clusters of strategies to address overweight/obesity. PMID:26440386
Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C
Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). The study has been approved by the University of Otago
Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F
Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P advertising by food or beverage companies (31.7% in 2005, 42.6% in 2008; P chocolate milk: 9.0% in 2004, 24.0% in 2008, P
van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke
Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.
Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M
As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel
Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…
Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Reppa, Christina; Teplitsky, Paul E
The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of the faculty and students of the University of Athens Dental School in Greece regarding the appropriate penalty for specific academic offenses. In addition, faculty and student opinions were compared. A questionnaire was distributed to officially registered seniors and full-time faculty members, and 177 individuals responded anonymously and voluntarily. The respondents were asked to select one from a set of nine penalties for each of fifteen hypothetical academic offenses and three cases with extenuating circumstances. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the nature of variables, were used to detect significant differences in penalty scores between faculty and students. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The penalty scores for the fifteen offenses ranged from a mean of 2.23±1.55 to 7.25±2.64. Faculty respondents gave more severe penalties than students did for all offenses, and the finding was statistically significant (p<0.05) for eleven of the fifteen offenses. Where extenuating circumstances were added, the penalty selection altered in two of the three cases. A significantly more lenient penalty was selected by both faculty and students in these two cases. The results of this study suggest that faculty members are harsher than students for the same offenses and that extenuating circumstances can sometimes significantly change recommended penalties.
Karla Elizabeth Barrera-del Castillo
Full Text Available In this work is described the proposal of a model of semi-presence educational intervention for the subject, "Teaching of Mathematics in basic education", corresponding to the fourth semester of Special Education Bachelor's Degree, Plan 2004, of the Specializing Teaching School of the State of Sinaloa (ENEES, that attend the desirable characteristics of the graduates in the effective and efficient use of the technological tools, disciplinary competences, collaborative work and digital competences which are developed through the adaptation and the use of the model proposed. In this task, it is attended the digital literacy too, that the society of knowledge demands; firstly in function of the personal development needs, and then to respond to the actual educational context. The model of educational intervention defined in this task contributes to the interaction of teachers and students with technological background, collaborative work, groups of study, material and activities for each topic to develop. It was used the e-Collaborative Learning Sistema Integral Colaborativo para la Educación sin Barreras (SICEB implemented by the Secretary of Public Education and Culture (SEPyC, in which various types of learning objects are integrated among synchronized and unsynchronized activities. The proposed model is given through the defined criteria by the e-pedagogy which involves concepts such as quality, values and efficiency with support of the Learning Technologies and Knowledge (TAC.
Hebden, Lana; Hector, Debra; Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley
Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been targeted in obesity prevention strategies internationally. This study examined associations between SSB availability at school and in the home, and consumption among Australian school students. Secondary analysis of the 2010 New South Wales Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (n=8058) was conducted. Logistic regression analyses tested the impact of SSB availability at school and in the home on consumption category (low, ≤1 cup/week; moderate, 2-4 cups/week; high, ≥5 cups/week). Students in years K-10 (ages 4-16years) who usually purchased sugar-sweetened soft drinks or sports drinks from their school canteen were almost three times as likely to be high consumers (AOR 2.90; 95%CI 2.26, 3.73). Students in years 6-10 (ages 9-16years) were almost five times as likely to be high consumers if soft drinks were usually available in their home (AOR 4.63; 95%CI 3.48, 6.17), and almost ten times as likely to be high consumers if soft drinks were usually consumed with meals at home (AOR 9.83; 95%CI 6.06, 15.96). Limiting the availability of SSBs in the home and school environments is a prudent response to address high SSB consumption among school students, albeit only part of the solution for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siti Hendon SHEIKH ABDULLAH
Full Text Available The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This article discusses the need for transforming the primary school science teaching environment so that school children could have meaningful learning using tools familiar to them. However, while some parts of Malaysia are developing very rapidly, others are not developing as rapidly. School children in some areas are just as contented to share a single desktop computer without the Internet for a lesson. Thus teachers need to be creative to transform and improvise the learning environment to meet the pupils’ needs. This article discusses a case study on seven excellent teachers of primary school science from different parts of Malaysia. The findings of the study indicated that the excellent teachers have improvised their teachings and teaching environment to meet the needs of their pupils and the curriculum for 21st century learning.
Full Text Available The following paper is based on a research41 made on school environments that promote learning in children. Its objective was “to determine the physical and socio-emotional factors of school environments that promote learning.” To this end, the investigation had both an exploratory and descriptive approach in terms of the various physical and emotional elements that influence the classroom environment and, therefore, the learning process. In this paper, reference is made only to the data provided by the child population. Such group was comprised of 307 boys and girls of public schools from six provinces in the country, intentionally selected through coordination and negotiation with the authorities of schools that agreed to participate. The data collection instruments used were two questionnaires with closed and open questions, an anecdotal record, and a guide on which the observation technique was performed. The analysis of the information derived from the technique and instruments used was developed by complementing quantitative data with qualitative data. Emerging categories were created to interpret the latter. The information provided by the boys and girls will hopefully serve as input to raise awareness among universities, authorities and teachers about the imperative need for school environments that are aesthetic, pleasant, motivating, comfortable, clean and promote the emotional stability every human being requires for the learning process to be successful.
Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia
Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.
Behaviour patterns specific to children pose them at greater risk of environmental hazards than adults. Ergonomics is the science of matching human interaction with the proximate environment. Conventionally ergonomic principles were applied on adult work places to ensure safety of the working environment. With emerging scientific evidence, school environments are being a focus to apply ergonomic principles. Children spend more time within schools during critical developmental stages of their life. Everybody feels that the schools are safe places, but they are not. A multitude of ergonomic hazards have been identified in school settings. Widespread mismatches between anthropometry and school furniture, heavy schoolbag carriage and unhealthy bag behaviour are significant. Negative effects range from general tiredness, musculoskeletal pains, spinal deviations, shoulder level shifts, injuries and psychological disturbances. There are fragmented efforts to widen ergonomic concepts to health care professionals and other stakeholders of child health. Addressing ergonomic issues will ensure that children, the future productive generation contributing to economic growth and development of a country, are provided with opportunities in a healthy environment. This paper emphasizes the need for a concerted effort on widening the scope of ergonomics to cater for the evolving demand.
Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.
When the author became principal at South Pittsburg High School in the rural southeast corner of Tennessee, he noticed that the school had a serious problem with students arriving late to school in the morning and late to classes during the school day. When this issue was discussed, it was decided that there was a need to initiate a Saturday…
Lopes, Adalberto Aparecido dos Santos; Lanzoni, Alessandra Nunes; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rodriguez-Añez, Ciro Romélio; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira
To analyze the association between perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity (PA) in high school students from Curitiba (PR), Brazil. A sample of 1,611 high school students from public schools was surveyed. The PA was assessed through questions, engaged for at least 20 minutes or 60 minutes. Perceptions on neighborhood environment were assessed through ten questions about neighborhood characteristics. Gender, age and number of cars in the household were self-reported and used as confounding variables. Absolute and relative frequencies were used in the sample, and associations were tested through adjusted logistic regressions for the confounding variables and stratified by gender (p perception of the environment was associated to PA practice among boys and girls in this sample. The results suggest that some environmental characteristics which make neighborhoods more attractive could be related to PA among adolescents.
Full Text Available The article is analysing the research that was already carried out in order to determine correlation between a physical environment of schools and educational paradigms. While selecting materials for the analysis, the attention was focused on studies conducted in the USA and European countries. Based on these studies the methodological attitudes towards coherence of the education and spatial structures were tried to identify. Homogeneity and conformity of an educational character and a physical learning environment became especially important during changes of educational conceptions. The issue how educational paradigms affect the architecture of school buildings is not yet analysed in Lithuania, therefore the results of this research could actualize a theme on correlation between educational paradigms and the architecture of school buildings and form initial guidelines for the development of the modern physical learning environment.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research exploring the correlation between exposure of elementary school students to various types of bulling at school (stealing of personal belongings, violence, coercion, mockery, shunning and their parents' educational level. Special emphasis was put on connections in mother-daughter and father-son dyads were explored. The research is a part TIMSS 2007 International Project covered a representative sample of 2447 8th Grade students (1161 boys and 1286 girls from 36 elementary schools in Serbia. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on assessment of school environment, as well as students' experience of peer victimization. Overall, 48.1% students (in male sub-sample 54.4%; in female sub-sample 42.7% reported being subjected to some kind of bullying in the preceding month. Much more frequently than girls, boys were subjected to theft of personal belongings, coercion and shunning. Correlation is found between educational level of mothers and bullying of their daughters at schools (especially violence, coercion and mockery. While students/daughters of highly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to coercion (forced to do something they did not want to do, daughters of poorly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to shunning. The sub-sample of boys did not indicate any correlation between educational level of fathers and peer victimization in school environment.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J
Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
R. K. Napolitano
Full Text Available Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba’s National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.
Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis of speech transcripts revealed substantial variability in teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and total amount of talk and that individual teacher's language use was consistent across the school year. Analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that when controlling for students' reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge at the start of the year, teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary was significantly related to students' reading comprehension outcomes, as was the time spent on vocabulary instruction. These findings suggest that the middle school classroom language environment plays a significant role in the reading comprehension of adolescent learners. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mahan, Pamela L; Mahan, Michael P; Park, Na-Jin; Shelton, Christie; Brown, Kathleen C; Weaver, Michael T
Work environment stress, a salient health and safety issue for secondary school teachers, school administrators, parents, and students, was examined in 168 teachers from two urban and five suburban high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ongoing and episodic stressors and anxiety and depression, as well as the extent to which anxiety and depression may be predicted by stressors and coworker and supervisor support. The Ongoing Stressor Scale (OSS) and the Episodic Stressor Scale (ESS), the Coworker and Supervisor Contents of Communication Scales (COCS), the State Anxiety inventory (S-Anxiety), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to measure the variables. Ongoing and episodic stressors were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and depression. Ongoing stressors and coworker support were significant in explaining anxiety and depression among secondary school teachers. Coworker support had an inverse relationship to anxiety and depression.
Bachelor thesis titled School maturity deals with the development of preschool age. The aim is to evaluate the optimal maturity in pre-school ride. The theoretical part describes preschool age, his motor, cognitive, perceptual, emotional and social development. It defines the concepts of school readiness and its components, school readiness, school immaturity. Describes measures for education immature kids. The practical part contains the results of investigations on a selected sample of chil...
Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L
In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors.
Yang, H; Wu, Z; Duan, S; Li, Z; Li, X; Shen, M; Mathur, A; Stanton, B
A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Longchuan County, China, to study the lives of children with HIV-infected parents. Registered HIV-infected drug users and their households were approached and information about the living environment of children school and more likely to be truant if enrolled in school. Findings in the current study suggest that many children whose parents are infected with HIV or have died from HIV are living in stressful environments with minimal support from the community. Efforts should be taken to provide support and supervision to these children.
Hafiz M Imran Saeed; Nadia Nasir
Abstract—This study was aimed to assess the relationship between work environment, motivation and job satisfaction in private school teachers of Lahore, Pakistan. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect the data from 300 private school’s teachers. The data was analyzed through SPSS by using correlation, principle component analysis and multiple regression. The results indicates that there is a positive relationship between work environment and job satisfaction in school teachers. Res...
Describes the School of the Woods' (Houston, Texas) middle school environment, a learning environment developed to create trust and community, provide meaningful work, and allow adolescents to create a vision for their future. Explains the school's philosophy in terms of adolescent psychology, trust, and curriculum. (TJQ)
Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n = 42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936
Johnson, Norris Brock
The thesis presented in this paper is that school failure among minority subgroups is related to the nature, characteristics, and function of public schooling as well as to the social structural position of the subgroups of which these children are members. An overview of some ethnographic studies of schools and the process of schooling is…
Marturano, Edna Maria; Ferreira, Marlene de Cássia Trivellato; Bacarji, Keiko Mali Garcia D'Avila
This study describes the development of the Home Environment Resources Scale, a Brazilian measure for families with children ages 6 to 12 years. The scale measures aspects of support for school achievement, made available to the child at home. A first version of the measure with 11 subscales was administered to 100 mothers or guardians of children with poor school achievement in a clinical setting. Analysis of the items in the first version resulted in a final version comprising 8 subscales with acceptable indices of internal consistency. Two validity studies were conducted. One aimed at verifying to what extent the Home Environment Resources Scale could discriminate the home environment of students referred to a mental health clinic on account of poor school performance. The sample included mothers of 53 referred and 23 nonreferred children. The two groups differed significantly in home resources and on four subscales. The other study assessed the validity, i.e., prediction of the academic outcome of children entering Grade 1. 70 children and their mothers participated. Results indicate that school achievement and social competence at school are mediated by family support.
Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A
In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity
Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine
For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from sixth to eighth grade. Using data from adolescents of a rural New York State birth cohort (N = 281), we used linear mixed models to identify N&PA environments associated with change in BMI. We also examined family income trajectory as a potential modifier to consider how the association between school environment and change in BMI might differ depending on income. We found considerable heterogeneity in environments within and between schools. Among students with low-income trajectories, reductions in BMI z-scores were associated with school environments that promote better physical education (PE) and general (non-PE, non-sport) physical activity. Schools with better sports environments were associated with reductions in BMI for some students, but not lower-income students. School environments may have differing effects on students depending on their socioeconomic status. Strategies are needed to identify and address barriers that impair low-income students' access to health-promoting school resources. © 2015, American School Health Association.
A. J. Adeyemi
Full Text Available Learning, which is the expected outcome of any educational institution, can be influenced by many factors that include environmental factors. This study is aimed at comparing the learning environment of junior secondary schools, in a North-western state of Nigeria, with established standards in some other countries. Four government-owned and four private owned schools participated in the study. Environmental variables such as classroom temperature, noise level, lighting and classroom size were all evaluated using standard equipment. Using statistical analytical tools, such as descriptive and comparison of means, the result shows that classroom lighting, noise and temperature do not meet the established standards. The noise level in all the schools was above the recommended maximum comfort noise level of 40 dB(A but still below noise harmfulness level of 85dB. The lighting in the classes was also not sufficient based on international recommendations of 300 Lux. The temperature in the classrooms is significantly higher than the acceptable level of 18-28°C. Although public schools have significantly larger classrooms than private schools, they have a smaller space/pupil ratio because of larger population. There is need to improve the building design of schools so that they might aid learning among the children.
Most software tools that have been developed with the aim of helping students to learn school algebra have not yet achieved successful results in classroom. Almost all of them are menu-based systems that provide transformation rules in menus and buttons. Aplusix is a new interactive software tool for learning school algebra. In contrast to…
Militello, Matthew; Metzger, Scott Alan; Bowers, Alex J.
This article examines the implications of competition between school districts in a mid-Michigan metropolitan area. Over the 10-year period after Michigan's major school-funding reform in 1994, many urban and suburban districts found themselves competing for per-pupil state funding. Suburban districts need extra students to make up budgetary…
Austin, S. Bryn; Melly, Steven J.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Patel, Aarti; Buka, Stephen; Gortmaker, Steven L.
Objectives. We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. Methods. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function statistical method to quantify the degree of clustering (spatial dependence) of fast-food restaurants around school locations. Results. The median distance from any school in Chicago to the nearest fast-food restaurant was 0.52 km, a distance that an adult can walk in little more than 5 minutes, and 78% of schools had at least 1 fast-food restaurant within 800 m. Fast-food restaurants were statistically significantly clustered in areas within a short walking distance from schools, with an estimated 3 to 4 times as many fast-food restaurants within 1.5 km from schools than would be expected if the restaurants were distributed throughout the city in a way unrelated to school locations. Conclusions. Fast-food restaurants are concentrated within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to poor-quality food environments in their school neighborhoods. PMID:16118369
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent
provision were selected. All schools had a framework for student participation, a policy for including nutrition in the curriculum as well as canteen facilities. Schools were sampled to represent different social layers, different regions and different sizes of schools. The study investigated the attitudes......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime......". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...
Full Text Available The present paper explores the idea that learning, both in and out of school, is a cultural act, and that school and its cultural-heritage environment stamp their own characteristics on pupils. This implies that pupils gradually, with the help of teachers and other relevant adults from their close social environment, develop and adjust their behaviour and lifestyle to their cultural and civilisational milieu. An integrative approach to learning and teaching, through the concept of “learning-centred teaching”, can be instrumental in this regard (Terhart, 2001. This approach aims at linking cognitive, social and moral teachings. According to this teaching concept, pupils learn to appreciate the value of their cultural-heritage environment by living and reliving its experience, while freely and reflexively nterpreting and becoming active participants in the culture of those who “learn about life by living” (Terhart, 2001. The relationship between school and its cultural-heritage environment is discussed from a creative and artistic perspective in the second part of the paper. By visually stimulating artistic expression when learning about the culturalheritage and natural environment of school, and through the concept of “action-centred learning”, we explain how pupils can be motivated to learn and display creative-artistic expression, and how they can be actively involved in their communities (participating in organising art exhibitions in their neighbourhood, working in museum workshops, etc.. Pupils’ art projects, inspired by the historical, cultural and natural heritage of their environment, confirm that such projects are an effective way of encouraging pupils’ identity development and sensitivity towards the arts. They teach pupils about the importance of preserving cultural heritage, which is one of the basic principles in the upbringing of future participants and creators of new cultural values. Children’s artistic works
Pavic Simetin, Ivana; Kern, Josipa; Kuzman, Marina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja
The socioeconomic inequality in pupils' risk behaviors has been the topic of many studies with quite contradictory findings. Furthermore, the role of socioeconomic environment has been analyzed much less often than the role of individual socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the association between school/area-level socioeconomic environment and Croatian pupils' risk behaviors (tobacco use, drunkenness, cannabis use, early sexual initiation and fighting). Data from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Croatia in 2006 (1601 secondary schools' pupils, aged 15) and census data were used. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted by gender, were performed. The individual level of SES explained the majority of differences in all risk behaviors among adolescents. Differences in tobacco use, early sexual initiation and fighting were more closely attributed to school level than area level, which was more closely associated with differences in adolescent drunkenness and cannabis use. At the individual level, high individual SES was associated with higher probability for tobacco use and drunkenness compared to low individual SES. Furthermore, school heterogeneity (compared to school homogeneity) and medium school-level SES (compared to low school-level SES) were associated with higher probability for cannabis use. Compared to the most advanced schools (gymnasiums), attending the least advanced schools (industrial and crafts schools) was associated with higher probability for fighting. Compared to low area-level SES, medium area-level SES was associated with higher probability for cannabis use and fighting. Conclusively, it was found that low SES at individual, school and area levels, school homogeneity and advanced school attendance play a protective role against risk behaviors. To reduce inequalities in pupils' risk behaviors, there is a need for community and school-based programs that take into consideration
Full Text Available This study assumes that the affective dimensions involves the process of planning and developing pedagogical practices and are an important factor in determining the nature of relations between the students and the various objects of knowledge. In this sense, the study aimed to analyze how students represent the affective aspects of both the teaching and learning process and what are their perceptions of the learning environment. The participants were 120 students of the 5th year of elementary school of public schools in the metropolitan region of Campinas, 60 of those students having satisfactory academic performance and 60 having learning disabilities. To gather the data, three instruments were used: “Psychopedagogical Educational Par Proof”, “AffectionsZanon Scale” and “Teacher Expectations Scale”. The results revealed that students with learning disabilities differ significantly from those with adequate performance. Students with learning difficulties establish fewer ties with the formal school learning and for their teachers and this portrays non-school situations while students with satisfactory performance have a better understanding of the expectations of their teachers and this shows that they have a more emotional relationship with the school environment. It is believed that this study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between the feelings experienced by students in the context of the classroom and its implications for the academic performance of the same. Keywords: Positive Psychology. Interpersonal relationships. Learning experiences.
Verpoorten, Dominique; Chatti, Amine; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus
Verpoorten, D., Chatti, M., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2010). Personal Learning Environment on a Procrustean Bed – Using PLEM in a Secondary-School Lesson. In C. A. Shoniregun, & G. A. Akmayeva (Eds.), Proceedings of the London International Conference on Education (LICE-2010) (pp. 197-203).
Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.
Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…
Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.
Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…
Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; Papastylianou, Donna; Papadatou-Pastou, M.
A framework based on research on bullying and on educational effectiveness was offered to schools to assist them in developing strategies and actions to improve their learning environment, their policy for teaching, and their evaluation mechanisms in order to reduce bullying. At the beginning and
Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.
This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors attending…
Yates, Shirley M.
Reviews in many countries have found little evidence of consistent advantages in either single-sex education or coeducation. Over the last three decades, coeducation has been introduced into many single-sex schools, but there is a dearth of evidence from the student perspective of the impact of such changes on the classroom learning environment.…
The main question that leads the focus in this study is: What is the contribution of the school environment to the resilience of middle-adolescent students? Before going into the background and rationale of this study I will specify the terms used in this research question: - Contribution: In this
Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina
Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…
Stokas, Dimitrios; Strezou, Elena; Malandrakis, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope
In the present study, we explore aspects of Greek primary school children's representations about the urban environment through the use of drawings and their relation to sustainability. For that purpose, 104 children, aged 9-12 (4th and 6th grades), were asked to make two drawings of their town: one as it is now and another as they would like it…
Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel
Home environment quality is a well-known predictor of school readiness (SR), although the underlying processes are little known. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) child language mediates the association between home characteristics (socioeconomic status and exposure to reading) and SR, and (b) genetic factors partly explain the association…
Hemming, Peter J.
This article addresses the issue of children's spiritual, relational and emotional encounters with the primary school environment, with reference to concepts and theories from both education studies and human geography. Drawing on mixed-method qualitative research in two case study institutions, the article examines pupils' photographed "special…
Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Papastylianou, Dona; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta
A framework based on research on bullying and on educational effectiveness was offered to schools to assist them in developing strategies and actions to improve their learning environment, their policy for teaching, and their evaluation mechanisms in order to reduce bullying. At the beginning and end of the intervention, the Revised Olweus…
Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik
Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…
Gaskins, Clare Smith
This study uses a three-level model (within-student, between-student, and between-classroom) to examine the effects of 4th and 5th grade classroom environments on student achievement trajectories during the school year. Between-classroom differences in teacher warmth and classroom order were tested as predictors of student rates of achievement…
Itzek-Greulich, Heike; Flunger, Barbara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516322; Vollmer, Christian; Nagengast, Benjamin; Rehm, Markus; Trautwein, Ulrich
The issue of how to increase student motivation and achievement in science subjects is considered to be a major challenge in modern school systems. Lab-work learning environments in which students get direct (hands-on) experience with science content that is related to their everyday lives are
Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon
The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…
Full Text Available Wide involvement of children of primary school age to information and communication environment requires the creation of a scientific substantiated system of childs integration in to this environment. The article deals with the issue of using media education for primary school pupils preparing for life in the modern information age, the perception of different information, obtaining the ways of communication on the basis of non-verbal communication forms by technical means. Involving primary school pupils to computer technologies highlights the issue of their socialization in the information environment. The article deals with the process of socialization as a process of an individual integration into society by mastering his or her elements of culture, social norms and values, which are formed on the basis of socially significant features of a person. Generalization of researches, existing experience let identify the main directions of a teacher’s activity for successful socialization of a primary school pupil in modern information and communication environment.
Edwards, Michael B.; Bocarro, Jason N.; Kanters, Michael A.
Disadvantaged rural youth may be especially at risk for obesity and poorer health due to physical inactivity. Research suggests that extracurricular school programs can increase physical activity for this population. This study sought to determine whether local differences existed in the availability of supportive environments for extracurricular…
Sergey F. Rodionov
Full Text Available The approach is offered to development of the informational and educational environment of high technical school,based on deep integration of electronic educational content with methods and tools for the engineering problemssolving. The application program interface (API is used asthe main integration instrument, which modern Its have.
Fretz, Joan R.
Understanding what motivates people to put forth effort, persevere in the face of obstacles, and choose their behaviors is key to creating an optimal learning environment--the type of school that policy makers desire, but are unknowingly sabotaging (Dweck, 2000). Many motivation and self-concept theories provide important insight with regard to…
environment, anxiety, personality traits, phobia, race/ethnicity and learning disabilities, parental attitude, parental involvement and family poverty as causal factors for school absenteeism. Poor teaching skills, interpersonal conflict, dissatisfaction with school, school disciplinary practices, bullying, teacher's hostile attitude to.
Arnt Vestergaard Louw
Full Text Available In this article, we address one of the most critical challenges facing the schools today: designing of learning environments that can provide learning opportunities for all students. The article first provides a brief introduction to content of this challenge. Then we focus on theoretical tools to understand the learning environment. Based on the concepts of classification and framing, as found in the later work of Basil Bernstein, we view that learning is fundamentally linked to the social and the cultural context of the school. To scales are presented for understanding and analysing the learning environment: the praxis scale and the student positioning scale. The scales are tools for analysing three different learning environments in upper secondary schools in Denmark, Switzerland and the USA. The article provides theoretical and empirical explanations of how the design of the learning environment is connected to the challenges and opportunities faced by different kinds of students. Based on these analyses, a model of four ideal types of learning environment will be presented. It is concluded that the specific design of the learning environment always comes down to the conscious, reflected and common sharing of the teaching responsibilities as the crucial factor in the development of learning opportunities for all students, regardless of the intention of the teaching and the desired learning outcome.
Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L
Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.
Rahmedia Alfi Rahmi
Full Text Available Classroom environment is different from one school to another. This may lead to students’ achievement. This study was aimed at finding out whether the two variables were correlated positively by involving 378 students selected randomly from 55 schools in different sub-districts. The ‘What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC questionnaire’ and an English test were used to collect the data. The findings showed that: (1 there was a positive correlation between classroom environment and students’ English achievement; (2 although there was very small contribution of classroom environment (total to students’ English achievement, yet when stepwise method was applied, ‘equity’ aspect shared the highest contribution to students’ achievement, and (3 interestingly, based on gender, there was a significant difference in students’ perception of classroom environment but not in their English achievement.
Australia's marine environment hosts a high level of diverse endemic species along with some of the highest biodiversity in the world. Two-thirds of the population of Australia are living in coastal areas and can be considered a threat to marine life which is very vulnerable to human impacts. Although marine environments conserve high economic…
André Ribeiro de Santana
Full Text Available In this narrative research, we aimed to characterize conceptions of environment of 181 students in the Fundamental Teach (5° and r grades, medium teach (3° grade and at university (4° and the last semester of pedagogy, verifying possibles distinctions of complexity. The instrument applied was a questionnaire. The analysis of the answers noticed that conceptions of environment are social representations, because they are, at the same time, in the base of behaviors and interpersonal communication, exposing experiences and cultural values socially configured. We realized the predominant of two beliefs between the subjects, influenced by the scholar praxis and bay midia: the environment where I leave, I am and I'll go, the scene of interactions between the homo sapiens with himself and with other components of the environment; life manancial, source of the elements that ensure the existence. From those conceptions, it appears two categories: the universal environment, whose limits may extrapolate the land atmosphere, being plain with peace and harmony and configured by all the relations between many environmental members; the man's environment, product of our existence, fined by culture and technology. We noticed intense anthropocentrism in the subjects that find themselves privileged for being the especie capable of deciding the environment's destiny. Those may help both, environment education and science education, turned to the relations between us and the other environmental integrants
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher....... These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success....
Valentin Gavídia Catalan; Nathalia Parente De Sousa; Ana Paula de Vasconcellos Abdon; Cristina de Santiago Viana Falcão; Ana Maria Fontenelle Catrib
Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and de...
Full Text Available Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gayparented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children’s education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and administrators wishing better to support lesbian/ gay-parented families. The results of our study offer an understanding of the challenges and needs of this diverse family in the school system, as well as a starting point for administrators and teachers wanting to create inclusive environments for all family types.
Full Text Available This study analyzed from a gender perspective relationships between perceived family climate, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and adolescent victimization by peers in school. The associations between variables were analyzed with a sample of 1,884 adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls, aged 11 through 17 years (M = 13.7, DT = 1.4. Results structural equation modeling analysis showed that family environment, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were significantly and negatively related to school victimization. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships between variables were not different for boys and girls. We discuss the implications of these results.
Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...
Lau, Erica Y; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Dowda, Marsha; Forthofer, Melinda; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R
This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 sixth-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children’s after-school total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associations between each element of the home environment and children’s after-school physical activity and sedentary time. Availability of home physical activity resources was associated positively with after-school TPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in boys. Parental support was associated positively with after-school TPA and MVPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in girls. The home physical environment was associated with boys’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time, whereas the home social environment was associated with girls’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time. PMID:25386734
The thesis deals with a hard real-life school timetabling problem of a Czech secondary school. In this problem, lessons are to be allocated to classrooms while respecting various constraints such as curricula and teacher availability. We study existing approaches used for school timetabling problems and we show how to represent introduced problem in existing school timetabling software. We then present a software prototype that solves introduced problem using constraint logic programming. Rel...
Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason; Hess, Paul; Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer; He, Meizi
We examined whether certain characteristics of the social and physical environment influence a child's mode of travel between home and school. Students aged 11 to 13 years from 21 schools throughout London, Ontario, answered questions from a travel behavior survey. A geographic information system linked survey responses for 614 students who lived within 1 mile of school to data on social and physical characteristics of environments around the home and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the influence of environmental factors on mode of travel (motorized vs "active") to and from school. Over 62% of students walked or biked to school, and 72% from school to home. The likelihood of walking or biking to school was positively associated with shorter trips, male gender, higher land use mix, and presence of street trees. Active travel from school to home was also associated with lower residential densities and lower neighborhood incomes. Our findings demonstrate that active travel is associated with environmental characteristics and suggest that school planners should consider these factors when siting schools in order to promote increased physical activity among students.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K
This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Veloso, Luísa; Marques, Joana S.
This article on secondary schools science laboratories in Portugal focuses on how school space functions as a pedagogical and political instrument by contributing to shape the conditions for teaching and learning dynamics. The article places the impact of changes to school layouts within the larger context of a public school renovation programme,…
Uline, Cynthia L.; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Lin, Chii-Dean
This study explored the interplay between quality facilities and school climate, charting the effects of facility conditions on student and teacher attitudes, behaviors, and performance within schools slated for renovations in a large metropolitan school district. The research applied a school leadership-building design model to explore how six…
Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/
School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…
School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…
Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.
The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…
School prospectuses and promotional videos appeal to parents by presenting idealised images of the education a school provides. These educational idealisations visually realise the form of discipline a school is expected to provide, depending on the social habitus of the parents. This paper presents a content analysis of the images used in 33 sets…
Chingos, Matthew M.; Henderson, Michael; West, Martin
Never before have Americans had greater access to information about school quality. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), all school districts are required to distribute annual report cards detailing student achievement levels at each of their schools. Local newspapers frequently cover the release of state test results, emphasizing…
Farmer, Victoria L; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Schofield, Grant; McPhee, Julia C; Taylor, Rachael W
To investigate whether increasing risk and challenge in primary school playgrounds influences interactions between children. In a 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial, 8 control schools were asked to not change their play environment, whereas 8 intervention schools increased opportunities for risk and challenge (eg, rough-and-tumble play), reduced rules, and added loose parts (eg, tires). Children ( n = 840), parents ( n = 635), and teachers ( n = 90) completed bullying questionnaires at baseline, 1 (postintervention), and 2 (follow-up) years. Intervention children reported higher odds of being happy at school (at 2 years, odds ratio [OR]: 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.25) and playing with more children (at 1 year, OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.29-2.15) than control children. Although intervention children indicated they were pushed/shoved more (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.71), they were less likely to tell a teacher (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92) at 2 years. No significant group differences were observed in parents reporting whether children had "ever" been bullied at school (1 year: P = .23; 2 years: P = .07). Intervention school teachers noticed more bullying in break time at 1 year (difference in scores: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.06-0.34; P = .009), with no corresponding increase in children reporting bullying to teachers (both time points, P ≥ .26). Few negative outcomes were reported by children or parents, except for greater pushing/shoving in intervention schools. Whether this indicates increased resilience as indicated by lower reporting of bullying to teachers may be an unanticipated benefit. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L
Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olave P, Guisela; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortiz M, Liliana; Bastías V, Nancy; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ibáñez G, Pilar
Educational environment has an important effect on the quality of learning and student satisfaction in medicine. Most of previous studies have been conducted using questionnaires that assess the phenomenon considering overall dimensions, without paying attention to the specific manifestations of this topic, especially those aspects that are related to the protagonists of the learning process: teachers and students. To describe factors that affect the educational environment in the preclinical Medical formation, according to Medical teachers in Concepción, Chile. Qualitative study, using the Grounded theory method. Semi-structured interviews were performed to 10 medical teachers in Concepcion, Chile. They were selected by theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed using open coding. Four emerging categories about the factors that affect the learning environment were identified: Personal factors of students, academic factors of students, personal factors of teachers and academic factors of teachers. According to interviewed teachers, both personal factors in teachers and students that promote a positive learning environment are related with an attitude oriented towards others and communication skills. Academic factors are related with the responsible exercise of student and teacher roles and with the promotion of participation in the educational process.
Bathon, Justin M.
Many of the recent legal decisions regarding public employee expression, particularly in electronic environments, run counter to the culture being facilitated by the Internet. This article uses a legal analysis to examine recent decisions and then considers those legal positions within the context of digital expression. (Contains 2 notes.)
Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ is very important for children health and well-being, since children are particularly vulnerable and sensitive on presence of air pollutants. This study was performed in two naturally ventilated schools located in the same municipality. First school is located in urban area, at residential - industrial site, while the other school is situated in rural area. School buildings were chosen based on their urban environment features. The measurements were carried out in heating as well as in non-heating period in duration of five consecutive working days. The objective of the study was to analyze IAQ in the classrooms with special emphasis on levels and diurnal variations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 in occupied and unoccupied school classrooms. In this paper, the CO2 concentrations were measured at both indoor and outdoor environments. Concentrations of CO2 higher than 1000 ppm were regularly detected in the classrooms during teaching hours. Indoor concentrations of PM10 were not exceeded the guideline, daily average, value of 50 μg/m3. Concentrations of PM2.5 were exceeded the guideline, daily average, value of 25 μg/m3 in both school during heating period. Concentrations NO2 were not exceeded the guideline value of 200 μg/m3. Ventilation rates were calculated and compared with the prescribed limits. In both occupied and unoccupied periods high correlation between CO2 and PM concentrations was determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008
Kenney, Erica L; Redman, Morgan T; Criss, Shaniece; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Austin, S Bryn
Weight bias can negatively impact health, and schools may be risky environments for students with obesity. We aimed to explore teachers' perceptions of the school experiences and academic challenges of students with obesity. We conducted interviews with 22 teachers in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and Midwest in July-August 2014. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed for important themes by two researchers using the immersion/crystallization approach. Most teachers felt that students with obesity were more likely to have academic difficulties. Two main perceptions of the reasons for these difficulties emerged: (1) obesity led to lower self-esteem that caused students to participate less, and (2) poorer nutrition, increased screen time, and reduced physical activity were simultaneously causing obesity and poorer academic performance. A few teachers described colleagues who felt students with obesity were not as motivated to work hard in school as their peers. Many teachers described school health promotion efforts focused on weight reduction that could exacerbate weight stigma and risk of disordered eating. Students with obesity, particularly girls, may be at risk for negative social and academic experiences in K-12 schools and may be perceived as struggling academically by their teachers.
Morton, K L; Atkin, A J; Corder, K; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E M F
There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18 years old), (2) investigated school-environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non-quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety-three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school-based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social-environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed-studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education-related factors were a mastery-oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. © 2015 World Obesity.
The simultaneous presence of faculty growth and a sense of faculty community can help a good school really shine. This article explores ways in which a school environment supporting these two factors can be developed and maintained, using the private Sidwell Friends Lower School in Washington, D.C., as an example. (PGD)
... preventing “middle school malaise” is for mothers and fathers to fully understand just how different this new learning environment is and how much is being asked of their son or daughter. Compared to elementary school, middle school offers fewer ...
Swanepoel, De Wet; Maclennan-Smith, Felicity; Hall, James W
To validate diagnostic pure-tone audiometry in schools without a sound-treated environment using an audiometer that incorporates insert earphones covered by circumaural earcups and real-time environmental noise monitoring. A within-subject repeated measures design was employed to compare air (250 to 8000 Hz) and bone (250 to 4000 Hz) conduction pure-tone thresholds measured in natural school environments with thresholds measured in a sound-treated booth. 149 children (54% female) with an average age of 6.9 yr (SD = 0.6; range = 5-8). Average difference between the booth and natural environment thresholds was 0.0 dB (SD = 3.6) for air conduction and 0.1 dB (SD = 3.1) for bone conduction. Average absolute difference between the booth and natural environment was 2.1 dB (SD = 2.9) for air conduction and 1.6 dB (SD = 2.7) for bone conduction. Almost all air- (96%) and bone-conduction (97%) threshold comparisons between the natural and booth test environments were within 0 to 5 dB. No statistically significant differences between thresholds recorded in the natural and booth environments for air- and bone-conduction audiometry were found (p > 0.01). Diagnostic air- and bone-conduction audiometry in schools, without a sound-treated room, is possible with sufficient earphone attenuation and real-time monitoring of environmental noise. Audiological diagnosis on-site for school screening may address concerns of false-positive referrals and poor follow-up compliance and allow for direct referral to audiological and/or medical intervention. American Academy of Audiology.
H S Kiran
Full Text Available Background: The accomplishment and contentment of students depends upon their educational environment. Very few studies in India have looked at the impact of educational environment on students, there are few such studies in our country despite having a large number of medical schools. Objective: This study was performed to assess the undergraduate students′ perceptions of medical education in general and educational environment in our medical school in particular. Materials and Methods: The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM, a validated inventory was distributed among undergraduate students in final Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS (2010-2011 and students who were undergoing internship (2010-2011 and various scores were calculated and the means were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean total DREEM score was found to be 121.5/200 for final MBBS students (n = 115 and 118.4/200 (n = 109 for the internship batch students. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches. The overall DREEM score for our Medical School during the academic year 2010-2011 (for the final MBBS and internship batch was 120/200 (n = 224, which showed that the students′ perceptions were more positive. Conclusion: The study showed that the students′ perception of the educational environment was positive. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches (final MBBS and internship. This study helped us to introspect and identify remediable areas in the educational environment of our medical school and hence we could suggest some measures to modify them.
Dahinten, S L; Castro, L E; Zavatti, J R; Forte, L M; Oyhenart, E E
Nutritional transition has been described in various countries, each showing inherent characteristics. Furthermore, different patterns also appear within the same country. To compare the nutritional status of schoolchildren, of both sexes, living in two Argentine cities with different urban and environment characteristics, from the perspective of nutritional transition. The sample comprised 5355 children (6-13 years) living in Puerto Madryn (Chubut) and General Alvear (Mendoza), Argentina. Weight and height were transformed into Z-scores according to NHANES I- II; underweight, stunting and wasting defined by - 2 SD and overweight and obesity calculated according the cut-off proposed by IOTF. Prevalences of nutritional status were estimated. Comparison of the two cities revealed significant χ² values for the indicators of nutritional status analysed. Puerto Madryn had higher prevalences of overweight and obesity. General Alvear exhibited higher stunting and underweight values. The cities studied are in different stages of nutritional transition. Puerto Madryn is undergoing growing industrialization and urbanization and thus exhibits characteristics typical of an 'obesogenic' environment. General Alvear, a less complex urban centre, where some cultural patterns related to an agrarian way of life appear to have been retained, is situated at a less advanced stage.
Bracik, Joanna; Krysta, Krzysztof; Zaczek, Adam
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a very common condition, although its prevalence is believed to be underestimated. The affected subjects often have trouble to search for support. The onset occurs mainly in early adolescence. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of school and family background on the development of SAD. Our survey, available on a popular social network site, was divided into 4 parts: 1) demographic data (gender, age, site of residence), 2) genetic and organic background (comorbid mental disorders, addictions), 3) situation at school and in the family environment during adolescence, 4) the part designed to define the group that may suffer from SAD with the use of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN). 226 people were recruited. The age range was 16-61, with the average of 25,8. 71% of the respondents lived in cities with a population of more than 100 000. Male to female ratio was 3:1. According to Mini-SPIN 26,5% of the interviewees might suffer from SAD (28.2% of women and 21.4% of men). Our study showed, that both family and school environment factors have an influence on the development of SAD. It was shown that the especially important risk factors are bad relations with peers and being an object of derision at school. The percentage of network community users that are likely to suffer from SAD, significantly exceeds the clinical data. Both family and school environment factors were shown to be risk factors for the development of this disorder.
Williamson, Donald A.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert L.
Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: 1) foods selected by the children and 2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. PMID:23154216
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L
Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skochelak, Susan E; Stansfield, R Brent; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruppen, Larry D; Christianson, Charles; Filstead, William; Quirk, Mark
Accreditation and professional organizations have recognized the importance of measuring medical students' perceptions of the learning environment, which influences well-being and professional competency development, to optimize professional development. This study was conducted to explore interactions between students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment, student demographic variables, and students' professional attributes of empathy, coping, tolerance of ambiguity, and patient-centeredness to provide ideas for improving the learning environment. Twenty-eight medical schools at 38 campuses recruited 4,664 entering medical students to participate in the two-cohort longitudinal study (2010-2014 or 2011-2015). The authors employed chi-square tests and analysis of variance to examine the relationship between Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) scores and student characteristics. The authors used mixed-effects models with random school and campus effects to test the overall variances accounted for in MSLES scores at the end of the first year of medical school. Student attributes and demographic characteristics differed significantly across schools but accounted for only 2.2% of the total variance in MSLES scores. Medical school campus explained 15.6% of the variance in MSLES scores. At year's end, students' perceptions toward the learning environment, as reported on the MSLES, differed significantly according to the medical school campus where they trained. Further studies are needed to identify specific factors, such as grading policies, administrative support, and existence of learning communities, which may influence perceptions of the learning environment at various schools. Identifying such variables would assist schools in developing a positive learning environment.
Ingoglia, Nicholas A
Most graduate schools associated with medical schools offer programs leading to the PhD degree but pay little attention to master's programs. This is unfortunate because many university graduates who are interested specifically in biomedical rather than pure science fields need further education before making decisions on whether to enter clinical, research, education, or business careers. Training for these students is done best in a medical school, rather than a graduate university, environment and by faculty who are engaged in research in the biomedical sciences. Students benefit from these programs by exploring career options they might not have previously considered while learning about disease-related subjects at the graduate level. Graduate faculty can also benefit by being compensated for their teaching with a portion of the tuition revenue, funds that can help run their laboratories and support other academic expenses. Faculty also may attract talented students to their labs and to their PhD programs by exposing them to a passion for research. The graduate school also benefits by collecting masters tuition revenue that can be used toward supporting PhD stipends. Six-year outcome data from the program at Newark show that, on completion of the program, most students enter educational, clinical, or research careers and that the graduate school has established a new and significant stream of revenue. Thus, the establishment of a master's program in biomedical sciences that helps students match their academic abilities with their career goals significantly benefits students as well as the graduate school and its faculty.
Costello, Mary Jean E; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid; Church, Dana L; Cunningham, John A
Substance use is common among youth; however, our understanding of co-morbid tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use remains limited. The school-environment may play an important role in the likelihood a student engages in high risk substance use behaviors, including co-morbid use. This study aims to: (i) describe the prevalence of co-morbid substance use behaviors among youth; (ii) identify and compare the characteristics of youth who currently use a single substance, any two substances, and all three substances; (iii) examine if the likelihood of co-morbid use varies by school and; (iv) examine what factors are associated with co-morbid use. This study used nationally representative data collected from students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 41,886) as part of the 2006-2007 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Demographic and behavioral data were collected including, current cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use. Results. 6.5% (n = 107,000) reported current use of all three substances and 20.3% (n = 333,000) of any two substances. Multi-level analysis revealed significant between school variability in the odds a student used all three substances and any two substances; accounting for 16.9% and 13.5% of the variability, respectively. Co-morbid use was associated with sex, grade, amount of available spending money and perceived academic performance. Co-morbid substance use is high among youth; however, not all schools share the same prevalence. Knowing the school characteristics that place particular schools at risk for student substance use is important for tailoring drug and alcohol education programs. Interventions that target the prevention of co-morbid substance use are required.
Chriqui, Jamie F; Turner, Lindsey; Taber, Daniel R; Chaloupka, Frank J
Given the importance of developing healthy eating patterns during early childhood, policies to improve the elementary school food and beverage environments are critical. To examine the association between district and state policy and/or law requirements regarding competitive food and beverages and public elementary school availability of foods and beverages high in fats, sugars, and/or sodium. Multivariate, pooled, cross-sectional analysis of data gathered annually during elementary school years 2008-2009 through 2010-2011 in the United States. Survey respondents at 1814 elementary schools (1485 unique) in 957 districts in 45 states (food analysis) and 1830 elementary schools (1497 unique) in 962 districts and 45 states (beverage analysis). EXPOSURES Competitive food and beverage policy restrictions at the state and/or district levels. Competitive food and beverage availability. RESULTS Sweets were 11.2 percentage points less likely to be available (32.3% vs 43.5%) when both the district and state limited sugar content, respectively. Regular-fat baked goods were less available when the state law, alone and in combination with district policy, limited fat content. Regular-fat ice cream was less available when any policy (district, state law, or both) limited competitive food fat content. Sugar-sweetened beverages were 9.5 percentage points less likely to be available when prohibited by district policy (3.6% vs 13.1%). Higher-fat milks (2% or whole milk) were less available when prohibited by district policy or state law, with either jurisdiction's policy or law associated with an approximately 15 percentage point reduction in availability. Both district and state policies and/or laws have the potential to reduce in-school availability of high-sugar, high-fat foods and beverages. Given the need to reduce empty calories in children's diets, governmental policies at all levels may be an effective tool.
Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Richmond, Sarah A; Macpherson, Alison
Child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) have decreased in Canada in the past 20 years. Many believe this trend is explained by the rise in automobile use for all travel. Initiatives to increase walking to school need to consider PMVC risk. Potential risk factors related to walking to school, the built environment and social factors were examined for schools with historically high child PMVC rates. Child PMVCs (age 4-12 years) from 2000 to 2013 and built environment features were mapped within school attendance boundaries in the City of Toronto, Canada. Case and control schools were in the highest and lowest PMVC quartiles respectively. Observational counts of travel mode to school were conducted. Logistic regression evaluated walking to school, built environment and social risk factors for higher PMVC rates, stratified by geographic location (downtown vs. inner suburbs). The mean PMVC rates were 18.8/10,000/year (cases) and 2.5/10,000/year (controls). One-way street density (OR=4.00), school crossing guard presence (OR=3.65) and higher social disadvantage (OR=1.37) were associated with higher PMVCs. Higher residential land use density had a protective effect (OR=0.56). More walking was not a risk factor. While several built environment risk factors were identified for the inner suburbs; only social disadvantage was a risk factor within older urban neighbourhoods. Several modifiable environmental risk factors were identified for child PMVCs. More walking to school was not associated with increased PMVCs after controlling for the environment. School social disadvantage was associated with higher PMVCs with differences by geographic location. These results have important implications for the design of roadways around schools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Надія Іванівна Луцан
Full Text Available In the article it is revealed the main aspects of learning the native language and analyzed problem of communicative approach that promotes linguistic identity junior children. The attention is focused that the formation of linguistic personality involves reproduction of native speech, detects knowledge of the language, linguistic flair and ability to use words. It is proved that a leading factor in the formation of all primary school children believe the competences language environment
María Alice Olavarrieta; Francisco Chong; Karelia Ramones; Salvatore Garagozzo; Jesús Sánchez; Ernesto Álvarez; Ana Acero; Luis Reinoza
The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educatio...
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Low, Sabina K.
This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who…
Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John
Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about how diverse learning needs of ethnic minority students could be better fulfilled. This study examines local teachers' constructs of assessment classroom environments. Using qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews with 32 teachers from three secondary schools, this study shows ways in…
Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine
Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…
Williams, Susan L.; Mummery, W. Kerry
Evidence for effectiveness of school-based studies for prevention of adolescent obesity is equivocal. Tailoring interventions to specific settings is considered necessary for effectiveness and sustainability. The PRECEDE framework provides a formative research approach for comprehensive understanding of school environments and identification of…
Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl
Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…
This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…
Bonell, Chris; Allen, Elizabeth; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Adam; Grieve, Richard; LeGood, Rosa; Mathiot, Anne; Scott, Stephen; Wiggins, Meg; Viner, Russell M
Systematic reviews suggest that interventions that address school organisation are effective in reducing victimisation and bullying. We successfully piloted a school environment intervention modified from international studies to incorporate 'restorative justice' approaches. This trial aims to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying in English secondary schools. cluster randomised trial. 40 state-supported secondary schools. OUTCOMES assessed among the cohort of students in year 8 (n = approximately 6,000) in intervention year 1. INCLUSIVE is a school-led intervention which combines changes to the school environment with the promotion of social and emotional skills and restorative practices through: the formation of a school action group involving students and staff supported by an external facilitator to review local data on needs, determine priorities, and develop and implement an action plan for revising relevant school policies/rules and other actions to improve relationships at school and reduce aggression; staff training in restorative practices; and a new social and emotional skills curriculum. The intervention will be delivered by schools supported in the first two years by educational facilitators independent of the research team, with a third locally facilitated intervention year.Comparator: normal practice. primary: 2 primary outcomes at student level assessed at baseline and at 36 months:1. Aggressive behaviours in school: Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime school misbehaviour subscale (ESYTC)2. Bullying and victimisation: Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS)Secondary outcomes assessed at baseline, 24 and 36 months will include measures relating to the economic evaluation, psychosocial outcomes in students and staff and school-level truancy and exclusion rates. 20 schools per arm will provide 90% power to identify an effect size of 0.25 SD with a 5% significance level
Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne
This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...
Full Text Available The article analyzes the impact of new information and communication technologies in formation trends for changes in the education system. An important factor according to specific trends and satisfying the educational needs of students in the school is to create an information and communication environment (ICE. This requires the presence in educational institutions the specialists able to advise the management on the choice of hardware and software, to the design, implementation, configuration programs, serve teaching aid and others. Anonymous survey of teachers of Informatics of Kherson region is conducted and it revealed that in most cases the defined functions are performed exactly by teachers of Informatics. Only a few schools have special workers or appeal to workers or companies that provide related services. Therefore, special importance is the preparation of future teachers of Informatics for continuous tracking trends of educational technologies, self-reliant mastering of new services and applications, finding ways for their implementation in the educational process of the school, consulting colleagues, conducting explanatory work with parents. Also, in the survey we determined the level of equipment and working conditions of teachers of Informatics at school and at home.
Badr, Hanan El-Sayed
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) among adolescents aged 13-16, and to identify psychosocial correlates of suicidal behaviors. The 2010 Kuwait Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) cross-sectional study employed a two-stage cluster sample design targeting a representative sample of 2,672 students. A weighting factor was applied to make inferences to all students of the same age. Students' suicidal behaviors were the focus of this paper. The prevalence rates of suicide ideation, planning, and attempts were 20.0% (95% CI = 18.5-21.6%), 14.0% (95% CI = 12.7-15.4%), and 18.1% (95% CI = 16.6-19.5%), respectively. About 26% of adolescents reported at least one suicidal behavior, while 8.5% experienced all three suicidal behaviors. Multivariate analysis revealed that girls, smoking, physical violence, feeling lonely, exposure to bullying at school, and having nonempathetic parents were significant correlates of the experience of suicidal behaviors among adolescents. Moreover, suicidal ideation stood out as a predictor of attempting suicide more than suicidal planning in both the total population and separately by gender. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors was alarmingly high among Kuwaiti adolescents. Adverse school and home environments strongly contributed to such behaviors. School-based mental health programs are necessary to reduce these life-threatening behaviors in Kuwait.
Ichiba, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Zenkou; Takaishi, Keiko; Nishimura, Koichi; Kamachi, Masashi; Kondoh, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ueno, Daisuke; Miyajima, Toru
Saga University has the "Saga Forum of Environment" project conducted in collaboration with the Saga city local government. In this project, a workshop was held to study the sick building syndrome at schools. The purpose of this workshop was to evaluate indoor air pollution levels in elementary and junior high schools in Saga city. The levels of aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured in 96 classrooms of the 49 schools in August. The sampling of these chemicals were performed by the passive sampler method and measured by high-performance liquid chromatograph or gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer by participants of the workshop. In 40% of all classrooms, formaldehyde levels were higher than that of the standard of Japanese Ministry of Education. Relatively high levels of formaldehyde were found in some music classrooms. The origin of formaldehyde was thought to be musical instruments, furniture or wooden floors. A significant correlation was found between formaldehyde level and room temperature. The classrooms with ventilators showed lower levels of formaldehyde than those without ventilators. The levels of most VOCs except that of alpha-pinene were low. There is still room for improvement of air pollution in elementary and junior high schools.
Gene V Glass
Full Text Available Eighteen educators and scholars discuss vouchers as a means of promoting school choice and introducing competition into education. The discussion centers around the thinking of the economist Herbert Gintis, who participated in the discussion, and his notion of market socialism as it might apply to education. In 1976, Gintis published, with Samuel Bowles, Schooling in Capitalist America; in 1994, he is arguing for competitive markets for the delivery of schooling.
Kuncoro, Tri; Dardiri, Ahmad
Teachers should have pedagogical, personality, social, and professional competency. stated that performance appraisal has several benefits, namely for the implementation of reward and punishment system, provision of feedback for teachers to develop their competencies, identification of training needs, and diagnosis of problems. According to performance is one's work result or success rate as a whole over a certain period of time in performing tasks compared to various possibilities, such as work standards, targets or criteria which have been predetermined and agreed. One's performance is based on daily tasks and responsibilities assigned to him/her. The racial differences in personality are largely due to different environmental influences, where people of different races have progressed for generations. Vocational high school teachers have a low pedagogic and professional performance. The factors that influence performance, according to the partner-lawyer model proposed, are expectations about rewards, encouragements, abilities, needs and traits, perceptions of tasks, internal and external rewards, perceptions of reward levels and job satisfaction. This study used a survey method to collect data or information about a large population using relatively small samples. The population of this research was vocational high school teachers. Data analysis techniques used the Regression Analysis with the assistance of SPSS. The results of teacher performance are as follows: 1) the pedagogic performance was relatively good; 2) professional performance was relatively good, and the overall performance of vocational high school teachers was still less effective and efficient; 3) the teachers' work environment was 42.5234%; and 4) there was no correlation between work environment and teacher performance, meaning that the work environment (conditions of physical work environment, psychological work environment, and non-physical work environment) does not positively support the
Conclusions: Teachers have a crucial role in student smoking; therefore, they strategies must be taken to persuade the student, school staff, and students to adhere free-smoking policies in and out of school.
Enrollments 2012-2013 Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf
* * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2010-2011%20EN.pdf
Altenburg, Teatske; Te Velde, Saskia; Chiu, Kai-Jan; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vik, Frøydis N; Lien, Nanna; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai
The school environment can play an important role in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Photos of the school environment may contribute to more adequate measurement of the school environment, as photos can be rated by different assessors. We aimed to examine the interrater reliability for rating characteristics of primary school environments related to physical activity and eating. Photos taken at 172 primary schools in 7 European countries were rated according to a standardized protocol. Briefly, after categorizing all photos in subsections of physical activity or eating opportunities, 2 researchers independently rated aspects of safety, functionality, aesthetics, type of food/drinks advertised, type/variety of foods provided. Interrater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. Six subsections of the photo-rating instrument showed excellent (ICC or Cohen's kappa ≥0.81) or good (ICC or Cohen's kappa 0.61 to 0.80) interrater reliability. Outdoor physical activity facilities (ICC = 0.54) showed moderate, and school canteens (Cohen's kappa = 0.05) and vending machines showed poor (Cohen's kappa = 0.16) interrater reliability. Interrater reliability of the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) photo-rating instrument was good-to-excellent for 6 out of 9 characteristics of primary school environment components related to physical activity and eating.
Martin, Karen; Bremner, Alexandra; Salmon, Jo; Rosenberg, Michael; Giles-Corti, Billie
The objective of this study was to develop a multidomain model to identify key characteristics of the primary school environment associated with children's physical activity (PA) during class-time. Accelerometers were used to calculate time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class-time (CMVPA) of 408 sixth-grade children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 0.43 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth Western Australia. Child and staff self-report instruments and a school physical environment scan administered by the research team were used to collect data about children and the class and school environments. Hierarchical modeling identified key variables associated with CMVPA. The final multilevel model explained 49% of CMVPA. A physically active physical education (PE) coordinator, fitness sessions incorporated into PE sessions and either a trained PE specialist, classroom teacher or nobody coordinating PE in the school, rather than the deputy principal, were associated with higher CMVPA. The amount of grassed area per student and sporting apparatus on grass were also associated with higher CMVPA. These results highlight the relevance of the school's sociocultural, policy and physical environments in supporting class-based PA. Interventions testing optimization of the school physical, sociocultural and policy environments to support physical activity are warranted.
The aim of the study was to develop a short Swedish standardized, factor analyzed and cross-validated, family and school psychosocial environment questionnaire (FSPE). The study was based on 244 Swedish girls and boys, 10-19 years old, who filled in the FSPE. Maximum likelihood factor analysis, promax rotation, yielded six primary factors, based on absolute ratings. Since the factors were somewhat correlated, two broader secondary factors, with satisfactory reliabilities, were also included in the form, named Warmth, support and openness from parents, siblings and peers, and Family conflicts and school discipline, respectively. Means and standard deviations for girls and boys showed sex differences in most of the factors. Because the children participated anonymously they could report about spanking without negative consequences. Indeed, 8.1% of the children had been spanked by their parents. Based on relative ratings, two factors were identified, covering environmental questions about "more than, the same as or less than" a sibling. Only 6.6% of the children rated their environment exactly the same on the Family Psychosocial Environment (FPE) factors, compared to a sibling within the family. Thus the majority reported environmental differences. Further research is proposed to evaluate such differences and relations to personality, genotype-environment correlation and genetic mediation. © 2011 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
For many students with disabilities, their school experience began or quickly became non-inclusive. As schools increasingly adopt inclusive practices, these students and their families may have questions or concerns. This brief provides strategies, suggestions, and resources for schools to help families understand and become a vital part of the…
Rudd, Peter; Reed, Frances; Smith, Paula
This document summarizes research to demonstrate the difference that Building Schools for the Future (BSF) schools are making to young people's attitudes towards education and learning, as measured by their levels of engagement and enthusiasm for school. The key research objective was further broken down into a number of research questions: (1)…
Neil, Ted; Bonner, Nancy; Bonner, David
Home school populations have been studied for socialization and academic preparedness, but there are few studies on the use of technology among home schooled families. One researcher, in studying technology use among home school families in the greater Albany, New York area, found that the use of technology had a positive influence on the decision…
Caldwell, Robert David, II
Bullying is a continuing problem in schools, and can result in physical, psychological, and emotional harm to victims, as well as negatively affecting the school culture for students and teachers. Anti-bullying initiatives have typically focused on zero-tolerance strategies, but these have not been effective in promoting a positive school culture.…
Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…
Lueken, Martin; Ritter, Gary; Beck, Dennis
This paper evaluates an online charter school that serves children in grades K-8 in a southern state in the United States. We compare growth in math and literacy learning on state standardized assessments between students enrolled in this school and "matched twin" students enrolled in traditional public school students statewide each…
Burt, Kate Gardner; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel
Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study. Participants were identified with the help of Grow To Learn, the organization coordinating the New York City school garden initiative, and recruited via e-mail. A stratified, purposeful sample of 21 New York City elementary and middle schools participated in this study throughout the 2013/2014 school year. The sample was stratified in their garden budgets and purposeful in that each of the schools' gardens were determined to be well integrated and sustained. The processes and strategies used by school gardeners to establish well-integrated school gardens were assessed via data collected from surveys, interviews, observations, and concept mapping. Descriptive statistics as well as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to examine the survey and concept mapping data. Qualitative data analysis consisted of thematic coding, pattern matching, explanation building and cross-case synthesis. Nineteen components within four domains of school garden integration were found through the mixed-methods concept mapping analysis. When the analyses of other data were combined, relationships between domains and components emerged. These data resulted in the development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool. When schools with integrated and sustained gardens were studied, patterns emerged about how gardeners achieve institutionalization through different combinations of critical components. These patterns are best described by the GREEN Tool, the first framework to identify how to
Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to assess whether school-level influence is different for the adolescents exposed to violence and sexual abuse versus the adolescents not exposed to these forms of abuse. This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 7,343 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 16 from 56 schools in Oslo, Norway. We investigated associations between violence, sexual abuse, bullying, classmate relationships, teacher support and academic achievement. Linear regression was used to investigate associations on the individual level. Multilevel analyses were conducted to test for school level differences while controlling for both individual and contextual factors. On the individual level, all combinations of violence and sexual abuse categories were significantly associated with lower grades. This was also true for bullying, while teacher support resulted in better grades. At the school level, the analysis showed that students in schools with higher levels of bullying performed worse academically. Each unit of increment in bullying in school corresponded to an average 0.98 point decrease in grades (pschool environment and adolescent exposure to violence, indicating that the school environment affects all students. Factors on both levels can contribute to reduced grades. This stresses the need to investigate individual and contextual factors simultaneously when examining academic achievement. Our results indicated that students attending schools with higher levels of bullying may show poorer school performance. This was true for all students regardless of previous exposure to violence and sexual abuse. This emphasizes the need for preventive efforts that focus
An, Ruopeng; Sturm, Roland
Various hypotheses link neighborhood food environments and diet. Greater exposure to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores is thought to encourage overconsumption; supermarkets and large grocery stores are claimed to encourage healthier diets. For youth, empirical evidence for any particular hypothesis remains limited. This study examines the relationship between school and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among youth in California. Data from 8226 children (aged 5-11 years) and 5236 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) from the 2005 and 2007 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed in 2011. The dependent variables are daily servings of fruits, vegetables, juice, milk, soda, high-sugar foods, and fast food, which were regressed on measures of food environments. Food environments were measured by counts and density of businesses, distinguishing fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and large supermarkets within a specific distance (varying from 0.1 to 1.5 miles) from a respondent's home or school. No robust relationship between food environment and consumption is found. A few significant results are sensitive to small modeling changes and more likely to reflect chance than true relationships. This correlational study has measurement and design limitations. Longitudinal studies that can assess links between environmental, dependent, and intervening food purchase and consumption variables are needed. Reporting a full range of studies, methods, and results is important as a premature focus on correlations may lead policy astray. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blyth, Dale A.; And Others
The impact of different school environments on the process of incorporating adolescent physical changes into body image is explored using data on 225 White females from a longitudinal study. (Author/LMO)
Cyber-bullying is a psychologically devastating form of social cruelty among adolescents. This paper reviews the current policy vacuum as it relates to the legal obligations and reasonable expectations of schools to monitor and supervise on-line discourse, while balancing student safety, education, and interaction in virtual space. The paper opens…
Wu, Theresa F.; Macaskill, Lesley A.; Salvadori, Marina I.; Dworatzek, Paula D. N.
Background: The Balanced School Day (BSD) is a scheduling policy that has the potential to impact children's food behaviors because students are provided with two 20-minute eating opportunities versus the traditional 20-minute lunch. Methods: We aim to raise awareness of this grassroots academic policy and its potential consequences to inform…
Valentin Gavídia Catalan
Full Text Available Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and desire for change. Results: For the students, the idea of good posture would be a person who had good education and to be straight when walking and sitting. We perceived dissatisfaction and important misunderstanding in relation to their body and posture, and there was unanimity concerning the desire of achieving changes. Conclusion: There are mixed feelings related to the body, by teenage students, when you inquire about their image and desire to change. If, on one hand, they refer to perceive themselves with proper and correct posture, on the other hand, they are eager for change, easily identified with present standard body reported in the media and worshiped as “ideal body”. It is urgent and necessary to consolidate the culture of health promotion in schools as well as build healthy educational environment.
Sellschop, Ingrid; Myezwa, Hellen; Mudzi, Witness; Mbambo-Kekana, Nonceba
The interest in school ergonomic intervention programs and their effects on musculoskeletal pain is increasing around the world. The objective of this longitudinal randomized control trial was to implement and measure the effects of a computer-related ergonomics intervention on grade eight learners in a school environment in Johannesburg South Africa (a developing country). The sample comprised of a control group (n= 66) and an intervention group (n= 61). The outcome measures used were posture assessment using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool (RULA) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Measurements were done at baseline, three months and six months post intervention. The results showed that the posture of the intervention group changed significantly from an Action Level 4 to an Action level 2 and Action level 3, indicating a sustained improvement of learners' postural positions whilst using computers. The intervention group showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain from 42.6% at baseline to 18% six months post intervention (p< 0.003). In conclusion, the results indicated that a computer-related intervention program for grade eight learners in a school environment is effective and that behavioural changes can be made that are sustainable over a period of six months.
Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses some recent studies that allow us to understand the importance of analyzing the educational needs in the conceiving of the digital classroom and its possible redefinitions in the learning and methods environment. This paper also proposes a reflection on the implementation of innovative educational environments and settings through mobile technologies in Italian schools. Recently, the focus on active teaching and informal learning with the integration of mobile devices has reflected in the current Flipped Lesson and in the Episodes of Situated Learning EAL, some of the most interesting methods to support the renovation of school practice. These methods are based on group work both in the classroom and at home with digital devices and BYOD Bring Your Own Device model. Choosing the right teaching method to the current challenges is fundamental in a society where the use of the internet increases every day and the possibility of being always connected provides diffuse learning processes. Keywords: School. Device mobile. Learning.
Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William; Ranney, Richard R; Vargas, Adriana; Cardenas, Lina; Rose, William; Ross, Ridley; Funk, Edward
This report is the third in a series of articles on the dental school work environment commissioned by the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education. The report is based on the most extensive research to date on faculty satisfaction in the dental school environment. The purpose of the study was to assess faculty perceptions and recommendations related to work environment, sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and professional development needs. More broadly, the study intends to provide insight into the "change readiness" of dental schools to move forward with curricular improvements and innovations. Findings are based on 1,748 responses from forty-nine U.S. dental schools obtained during the time frame of February to April 2007. The total number of respondents constituted 17 percent of all U.S. dental school faculty. The average response rate per school was thirty-six (21 percent). To elucidate the data in terms of issues related to the quality of faculty work-life based on demographics, the authors compared perceptions of various aspects of the work culture in academic dentistry among faculty with different academic ranks and academic degrees and by other variables such as age and gender, tenure versus non-tenure appointments, and full- versus part-time status. Quantitative and qualitative analyses show that the majority of faculty members described themselves as very satisfied to satisfied with their dental school overall and with their department as a place to work. Tenured associate professors expressed the greatest level of dissatisfaction. Opportunities for and support of professional development emerged as an area requiring substantially more attention from dental schools. The authors of the study suggest that dental school leaders use these findings to assess their individual dental school's work environment and to plan changes as needed.
Ladd, Victoria J
A variety of leadership theories are examined to support the idea that school nurses can be positive deviants in the school setting. Transformational leadership, situational leadership, and complexity theory can all be used by school nurses to create positive change in the school environment because all recognize the need for flexible leadership in a changing environment. The complex and chaotic nature of the school setting requires organizational leaders to be flexible and to have the ability to recognize and address its changing needs. The school nurse can develop personal power to be used as an appropriate agent for change using Benziger's 12-step process. Conflict and cultural consonance promotion provide opportunities for the school nurse to demonstrate leadership skills within the school community. Positive deviants can be found in any setting. They demonstrate winning behaviors that can be adopted by their peers. School nurses, in their unique role, can use their leadership behaviors to promote the health of their school environment.
Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to examine the problem of determinants of the learning process in preschool children. The study presented the issue of support provided in the learning process with reference to teachers’ beliefs on education that help them undertake initiatives they find most effective. In the introduction the importance of the interaction in which children are involved for the learning process was presented. Subsequently, the way children function in a preschool learning environment was focused on, as described by female pre-school teachers. This article reports on an investigation into the reconstruction of the meaning that pre-school teachers attach to the support they give children in the course of their learning process.
Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling...... socioeconomic backgrounds than those from more privileged families. Thus, socioeconomic context needs to be considered as part of the physical activity landscape when exploring individual physical activity behavior.......Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...
Manikam, Arti; Said, Ismail
Home-school journey is part of children daily routine in many Indonesian cities and towns. Consequently, the street environment is an important component for children's growth and development. In the last two decades, many urban centers have been identified as unsuitable for children's home-school journey due to issues relating to high urban density and traffic congestion. Therefore, many children are denied the opportunity to experience the outdoor environment. Their life is centered at home...
Ladd, Victoria J.
A variety of leadership theories are examined to support the idea that school nurses can be positive deviants in the school setting. Transformational leadership, situational leadership, and complexity theory can all be used by school nurses to create positive change in the school environment because all recognize the need for flexible leadership…
Recommendations from the first annual Utah Small Schools Conference resulted in several specific actions. After studying certification requirements to determine if greater flexibility could be attained to remedy some of the restrictive rules that burdened small schools, the Utah State Board made it possible to move administrators and supervisors…
Splitt, David A.
Summarizes a variety of religious issues before United States courts, including two religion-in-the-schools cases in New Jersey and Georgia and two New York cases involving public assistance of private schools. Discusses a wrongful death lawsuit in Connecticut concerning a teenage suicide. (MLH)
Lamas, Héctor A.
The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic…
The author reminisces about his educational experience at a small school in Maine during the late 1930s, revealing the respect he extended toward his teachers, what it was like to grow up during this time period, and his feelings upon returning to the now vacant school. (LP)
Sonmark, Kristina; Modin, Bitte
This study explores the association between the psychosocial work environment in school and students' somatic health complaints. With its point of departure from the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model, the aim was to examine how aspects of decision control and social support can moderate stress-related health implications of high psychological demands. Data come from two cross-sectional waves of the Swedish version of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/2006 and 2009/2010), which consists of a total of 9427 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students. A two-level random intercept model was applied, with school class as the level 2 unit. Findings showed significant associations between school demands and somatic health complaints for all studied age groups, with a slight increase in strength with age. Decision control as well as social support from teachers, parents and peers consistently predicted a favorable association with health. An age pattern emerged in the analyses of stress-moderating resources. For 11 year olds parental support was the only resource that displayed a significant interaction with demands in relation to somatic health complaints, whereas for 13 year olds, decision control and support from teachers and parents all demonstrated moderating effects on student health. For 15 year olds, however, it was peer support that acted as a buffering resource in the studied relationship. The psychosocial work environment is an important predictor of students' health complaints. Overall, social support was a better stress-moderating resource than decision control, but some "buffers" were more important at certain ages than others.
Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.
Adalberto Aparecido dos Santos Lopes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity (PA in high school students from Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: A sample of 1,611 high school students from public schools was surveyed. The PA was assessed through questions, engaged for at least 20 minutes or 60 minutes. Perceptions on neighborhood environment were assessed through ten questions about neighborhood characteristics. Gender, age and number of cars in the household were self-reported and used as confounding variables. Absolute and relative frequencies were used in the sample, and associations were tested through adjusted logistic regressions for the confounding variables and stratified by gender (p < 0.05. RESULTS: The adjusted analyses showed that the variables "interesting things" among girls (OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.05 - 2.96 and "there are places I like" (OR = 2.18; 95%CI 1.33 - 3.58 and "I see people my age", among boys, were associated with PA of at least 20 minutes/day once a week. Additionally, among boys, "I see people my age" was associated with 60-minute (OR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.15 - 2.45. Perceiving the neighborhood environment as "very good" was associated with higher chances of taking up PA among girls (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.15 - 3.22 and boys (OR = 3.13; 95%CI 1.97 - 4.97. CONCLUSION: A positive perception of the environment was associated to PA practice among boys and girls in this sample. The results suggest that some environmental characteristics which make neighborhoods more attractive could be related to PA among adolescents.
Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In this study, we examined the developmental pathways from children’s family environment to school readiness within a low-income sample (N = 1,046), with a specific focus on the role of sustained attention. Six distinct factors of the family environment representing maternal parenting behaviors, the physical home environment, and maternal mental health at 3 years of age were explored as independent predictors of children’s observed sustained attention as well as cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 5 years of age. Children were grouped by poverty status (poor vs. near-poor). Results suggest specificity in the associations among attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) and its correlates, with different patterns emerging by poverty status group. Overall, the family environment was largely unrelated to children’s sustained attention. For both groups, focused attention was associated with receptive vocabulary; however, it partially mediated the association between maternal lack of hostility and receptive vocabulary only among the near-poor. In addition, lack of impulsivity was associated with both receptive vocabulary and externalizing behaviors but only for the poor group. Findings indicate sustained attention as a potential target for efforts aimed at enhancing school readiness among predominantly poor children. PMID:20677860
Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.
Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…
Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Jones, Stephanie M; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C
Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions.
. The present PhD thesis is based on evaluation of the dietary effect of this project. There is room for improvement of the dietary habits of Danish children. Dietary habits are influenced by multiple factors across different contexts. The school setting is known as a suitable arena for promotion of healthy...... into account the multiple factors and environments which affect the dietary habits of children. The focus of such an intervention could be implementation of a sustainable school food programme. Another focus could be improvement of the packed lunches brought from home with the purpose to contribute......Background and aim In 2007, the Danish Food Industry Agency announced a project where Danish schools could apply for funds to establish a school food programme to provide the school children with free school meals for two months during 2008. This school food programme should be tested and evaluated...
Hendrik P. Mostert
Full Text Available In schools today discrimination based on sexual orientation takes place on a regular basis. This form of discrimination leads to aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual, as well as towards those with a homosexual orientation. For more than 15 years South Africa has been a democratic country with laws that protect learners who have a homosexual orientation. Nevertheless, aggression and discrimination towards these learners still occur in schools. Aggression often leads to verbal and physical bullying of the victims by perpetrators. The objectives of this research were to explore and describe Grade 11 learners’ experiences of aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual as well as those with a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The data for this investigation consisted of essays based on a published newspaper photograph, phenomenological group interviews, observations and field notes. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used, and an independent coder assisted. Three themes were identified, discussed and supported by a literature control: that learners experience that it is right and acceptable to have a homosexual orientation; that they experience ambivalence towards homosexual orientation of learners; and experienced feelings that it is wrong to have a homosexual orientation. Recommended guidelines are provided to address aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual and those with a homosexual orientation.
Hendrik P. Mostert
Full Text Available In schools today discrimination based on sexual orientation takes place on a regular basis. This form of discrimination leads to aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual, as well as towards those with a homosexual orientation. For more than 15 years South Africa has been a democratic country with laws that protect learners who have a homosexual orientation. Nevertheless, aggression and discrimination towards these learners still occur in schools. Aggression often leads to verbal and physical bullying of the victims by perpetrators. The objectives of this research were to explore and describe Grade 11 learners’ experiences of aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual as well as those with a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The data for this investigation consisted of essays based on a published newspaper photograph, phenomenological group interviews, observations and field notes. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used, and an independent coder assisted. Three themes were identified, discussed and supported by a literature control: that learners experience that it is right and acceptable to have a homosexual orientation; that they experience ambivalence towards homosexual orientation of learners; and experienced feelings that it is wrong to have a homosexual orientation. Recommended guidelines are provided to address aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual and those with a homosexual orientation.
Mostert, Hendrik P; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie
In schools today discrimination based on sexual orientation takes place on a regular basis. This form of discrimination leads to aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual, as well as towards those with a homosexual orientation. For more than 15 years South Africa has been a democratic country with laws that protect learners who have a homosexual orientation. Nevertheless, aggression and discrimination towards these learners still occur in schools. Aggression often leads to verbal and physical bullying of the victims by perpetrators. The objectives of this research were to explore and describe Grade 11 learners' experiences of aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual as well as those with a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The data for this investigation consisted of essays based on a published newspaper photograph, phenomenological group interviews, observations and field notes. Tesch's method of data analysis was used, and an independent coder assisted. Three themes were identified, discussed and supported by a literature control: that learners experience that it is right and acceptable to have a homosexual orientation; that they experience ambivalence towards homosexual orientation of learners; and experienced feelings that it is wrong to have a homosexual orientation. Recommended guidelines are provided to address aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual and those with a homosexual orientation.
Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.
Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".
Graziose, Matthew M; Gray, Heewon Lee; Quinn, James; Rundle, Andrew G; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A
The benefits of physical activity for health and well-being are well established, yet built environment characteristics in the school neighborhood may constrain students' ability to engage in physical activity and contribute to the considerable variation in physical activity among students at different schools. Baseline data from the Food, Health and Choices obesity prevention trial were used to create multilevel linear models of the relationship between fifth-grade students' (n = 952) physical activity and related psychosocial factors and characteristics of the built environment of the school's neighborhood (park access, public transportation density, total crime, and walkability), controlling for age and body mass index z scores. Total crime was inversely associated with boys' light physical activity duration (β = -0.189; P = .02) and behavioral intention for physical activity (β = -0.178; P = .03). Boys' habit strength for physical activity was positively associated with public transportation density (β = 0.375; P = .02) and negatively associated with total crime (β = -0.216; P = .01), explaining 67% of between-school variation. Girls' frequency of light physical activity was positively associated with park access (β = 0.188; P = .04). Built environment characteristics explained 97% of the between-school variation in girls' self-efficacy in walking for exercise. Characteristics of the built environment surrounding schools were associated with and explain between-school variation in students' physical activity and several theory-based psychosocial factors. Partnerships between public health practitioners, policy makers, and school administrators may be warranted to shape the school neighborhood, specifically to decrease crime rates and increase park access, to encourage physical activity in youth.
Full Text Available Understanding the notion of learner’s experiences in the design of physical environment of an architecture design studio is a necessity as it contains certain values of influence. It is due to the unique learning experiences which are accrued particularly in design studio that is continued during professional practice as well. Most architectural campuses in Malaysian Private Higher Education Institutions (MPHEI are devoid of certain important elements and this issue needs to be looked into seriously. Apparently, most architectural design studios today have different physical settings, and have developed their own learning culture based on the typical space that they have. Reviewing the physical environment and how it contributes to the social environ-ment in MPHEI’s architectural context requires certain understanding on the learner’s psycho-logical needs, expectations and in the same time to meet the educational objective which is never an easy task. Hence, this paper reviewed the studies of the possible physical environment approaches in connecting the learner’s connections in architecture studio learning environ-ment. A questionnaire survey with Likert-scale components, and semi-structured interview on learners of five distinguished Private Architectural schools in Malaysia unveiled several signifi-cant findings that can lead entrepreneurs to upgrade the physical environment of these MPHEIs in order to cope with the demands of the stakeholders.
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, youâll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement. Created: 9/13/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 9/13/2017.
Chan, G C T; Koh, D
This study aims to understand the physical and psychosocial work environment, expectations and the perceived levels of stress encountered of medical students in Singapore. A cross-sectional study employing a self-administered work environment questionnaire was applied over a one-week period to the entire 2003/2004 medical school cohort (1,069 students, response rate 85 percent) from the first to fifth (final) years at the National University of Singapore. 3.3 percent had at least one needlestick injury within the academic year. The majority (especially the clinical students) also had musculoskeletal complaints (neck and back mainly) within the last three months. Using the General Health Questionnaire, it was found that 49.6 percent encountered significant stress and 64.6 percent reported that more than 60 percent of their total life stress was due to medical school. The most important psychosocial stressors were: too much work and difficulty in coping. The clinical students were particularly concerned about being good medical students and doctors. The reasons for choosing Medicine as a career and social health (health, study and sleep habits) were also studied. The health risks of a medical student are primarily psychosocial in nature. The biggest challenges are work demands, maintaining a work-life balance and managing the psychosocial work environment.
Full Text Available The present paper aims at drawing attention on the stress levels students are exposed to in the educational environment. The study into the students’stress is insufficiently explored, and it can open new research directions in education given the general interest for the improvement of the school climate and effectiveness. In order to briefly present this topic we carried out document analysis and review of research that looks into the stress factors in education either as a study focus or in a wider perspective. Among these we highlight the fear of error, assessment and exams, public speaking.
Vanden Buverie, Lut; Simons, Maarten
Although a large amount of ethnographic research has been conducted in schools, little is known about the particularity of the school, about what makes the school--as a school--different from other (learning) environments. As school ethnographies focus primarily on the perspectives and interpretations of pupils and teachers, the school itself…
The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.
Full Text Available In article the author examines the role of the educational environment in forminga creatively directed personality of the child of the senior preschool age. It was found thateducational environment of out-of-school educational institution has a multicomponentstructure, which consists of interrelated components: creative, gaming, developmental,affective and emotional. Stated that the educational environment of out-of-school educationalinstitutionplays in society especially significant features that give us reason to consider it asan important factor in the formation of the creatively directed personality of the 5th year child.Prospects for further scientific researches are determined in studying the psychological andeducational of creative potential characteristics of personality of the pedagogue in out-ofschooleducational institution.Key words: educational environment of out-of-school educational institutions, thecreatively directed personality of the senior preschooler, components of the educationalenvironment, functions of the educational environment.
Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study
Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M.; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven
Background There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transition...
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
Organic food strategies are increasingly developing within European school food services at the same time as these services are being involved in measures aiming at promoting healthy eating at school and counter acting obesity. Schools have an important role to play in teaching children fundamental...... life skills, including good food habits according to a number of authoritative policy papers from Council of Europe, the WHO and the EU platform. Although there are great national differences, European school food culture seems to be in a transitional state in which both healthy eating as well...... as sustainable consumption strategies are contributing to shaping the future school food culture. It is therefore imperative to study how these changes in agendas influences each other and to study the associations between healthy eating and organic supply strategies at school....
Haar, Jean M.; Robicheau, Jerry W.
School districts are faced with challenges resulting from the changing demographics of the student population. Consequently, school districts are creating positive, multicultural learning environments. School districts intent on establishing multicultural learning environments should consider the contributions people of color, specifically women…
research on conducting and non-conducting polymer nanofibers. Five High School students worked with me during the Summer 2014 and part of the Fall 2014...the experiments and simple data analysis. Two of these students participated in the High School Science Fairs. The goal was to motivate these students...to do some basic research and to choose a career in Science upon graduating from High School .
... Staff Role Modeling Energy Drinks Childhood Obesity Prevention Childhood Obesity Facts Youth Obesity Maps (2003-2015) Body Mass Index (BMI) Measurement in Schools Physical Education and Physical Activity Physical Activity Facts ...
Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...
Shows how architects are designing new schools to function as community centers, reflect contemporary teaching methods, address demands for technology, and meet increased standards in health and safety. (GR)
Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo
School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; Psex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; Pschools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.
Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie
This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.
Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna
The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
Annabelle Wilson; Anthea Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data fr...
L. T. Dzever
The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four ...
La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Romano, Vincenzo; Cesaroni, Claudio
One of the relevant objectives of the researchers should be filling the gap between the scientific research and the school. Such objective should be pursued methodically, through commitment, foresight and cooperation. In this frame the idea to communicate and to share the experience of the scientific research in Antarctica with the public and with the school is a challenge that a team of INGV researchers, engaged for many years in scientific missions in Antarctica, carries on with great enthusiasm within the several outreach activities of the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA). The outreach activities, aiming to disseminate the knowledge and the culture of the polar regions, have been mainly addressed to a public of adults and students of the secondary school (11-19 years). Recently, the researchers matured the need to realize outreach paths addressed to pupils of the primary school (8-10 years), taking the advantage of the multidisciplinary themes offered by the Antarctic research. The present work reports the experience of the outreach laboratory "On a mission to the South Pole", realized in the frame of events organized by INGV (ScienzAperta 2012 e 2014) and dedicated to the primary school. The educational themes developed within the laboratory concern the research in Antarctica, with particular focus on the human aspects, the geophysics and the progress of new technologies. The innovative aspect of the laboratory stands in the strategy to deal with Antarctica with an educational aim, proposing Antarctica as a natural laboratory, not only from a scientific point of view, but also as a laboratory of shared human experiences. The didactic path, based on interactive methodology that uses the role-paly and the experiential activities, enable the children to acquire the knowledge on Antarctica (knowledge); to explore the Antarctic characteristics as a natural laboratory and to experiment an emotional education through individual and team
Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.
As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed
Smith, Sunny D; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Dinh, An; Lanken, Paul N; Moynahan, Kevin F; Stuber, Margaret L; Skochelak, Susan E
Many medical schools have implemented learning communities (LCs) to improve the learning environment (LE) for students. The authors conducted this study to determine whether a relationship exists between medical student perceptions of the LE and presence of LCs during the preclerkship years. Students from 24 schools participating in the American Medical Association Learning Environment Study completed the 17-item Medical Student Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) at the end of their first and second years of medical school between 2011 and 2013. Mean total MSLES scores and individual item scores at the end of the first and second years in schools with and without LCs were compared with t tests, and effect sizes were calculated. Mixed-effects longitudinal models were used to control for student demographics and random school and student effects on the relationship between LC status and MSLES score. A total of 4,980 students (81% of 6,148 matriculants) from 18 schools with LCs and 6 without LCs participated. Mean [SD] MSLES scores were significantly higher in LC schools compared with non-LC schools at the end of year one (3.72 [0.44] versus 3.57 [0.43], P < .001) and year two (3.69 [0.49] versus 3.42 [0.54], P < .001). The effect size increased from 0.35 (small) at the end of year one to 0.53 (medium) at the end of year two. This large multi-institutional cohort study found that LCs at medical schools were associated with more positive perceptions of the LE by preclerkship students.
Full Text Available The article shows up “media environment” as a factor of future teachers` creative potential realization in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The problem of using media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the ways of its optimization is the main point of this research. Highlights ways to modernize social and professional orientation training of students in the creative process of nature is situates in information education and educational environment of high school. We consider the causal link use media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential and complexity of the teacher in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The basic function of the media environment are extensity, instrumental, communicative, interactive, multimedia. Reveals some aspects of training students to creatively active teaching process we describe subjects with objective possibilities in the formation of professional skills of future teachers` and which directly affect the realization of creative potential – “Ukrainian folk art”, “Basic recitation and rhetoric”, “The basis of pedagogical creativity”. The necessity of creating a full-fledged media environment in higher education is important condition of successful education as an important factor that allows the efficiency of the creative potential of future teachers` in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians.
Williams, J; Scarborough, P; Matthews, A; Cowburn, G; Foster, C; Roberts, N; Rayner, M
The high prevalence of childhood obesity has led to questions about the influence of 'obesogenic' environments on children's health. Public health interventions targeting the retail food environment around schools have been proposed, but it is unclear if they are evidence based. This systematic review investigates associations between food outlets near schools and children's food purchases, consumption and body weight. We conducted a keyword search in 10 databases. Inclusion criteria required papers to be peer reviewed, to measure retailing around schools and to measure obesity-related outcomes among schoolchildren. Thirty papers were included. This review found very little evidence for an effect of the retail food environment surrounding schools on food purchases and consumption, but some evidence of an effect on body weight. Given the general lack of evidence for association with the mediating variables of food purchases and consumption, and the observational nature of the included studies, it is possible that the effect on body weight is a result of residual confounding. Most of the included studies did not consider individual children's journeys through the food environment, suggesting that predominant exposure measures may not account for what individual children actually experience. These findings suggest that future interventions targeting the food environment around schools need careful evaluation. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory
Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…
Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre
This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…
Malakolunthu, Suseela; Idris, Abdul Rahman; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.
This study investigated the work environment and general welfare of the Malaysian secondary school teachers. Past studies have explicated that the experience of work environment and general welfare exerted a direct influence on the performance of the teachers, hence student outcome. In the factor analysis, the study identified six factors, namely…
Yang, Kai-Ti; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung
This research investigates the effectiveness of integrating Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) into the junior high school biology teaching. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design and divides the participating students into the conventional ICT-integrated learning environment and IWB-integrated learning environment. Before teaching, students…
Thompson, James R.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Hughes, Carolyn
A person-environment fit conceptualization of intellectual disability (ID) requires educators to focus on the gap between a student's competencies and the demands of activities and settings in schools. In this article the implications of the person-environment fit conceptual model are considered in regard to instructional benefits, special…
Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Leite, Iuri da Costa
To identify the association of individual and school environment factors with overweight among adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and behavioural information was collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Indicators on human and physical resources of the schools were based on information collected in interviews with school principals. Overweight was defined based on the BMI Z-score for age and sex recommended by WHO. Logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. By means of a two-stage (classrooms and students) probabilistic sampling, subjects comprised 1632 students enrolled in the last year of primary education of the municipal public school network, stratified by city region. The mean prevalence of overweight at schools was 17·2%, ranging from 0% to 50%. Adolescents more likely to be overweight were those who attended schools without knives and forks or ceramic/glass plates for students in the school refectory (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 1·40; P = 0·04), those whose head of household had completed between 8 and 10 years of schooling (POR = 1·46; P = 0·03), those who did not live with both parents (POR = 1·24; P = 0·06) and those who had not practised physical activity outside school on at least 1 d in the 7 d before the study (POR = 1·56; P = 0·04). Sociodemographic and behavioural variables of adolescents and school characteristics were associated with overweight, confirming individual and context effects on this health disorder. Studies such as the present one, identifying variables in context, may support actions to prevent overweight among adolescents.
Weathersby, William, Jr.
Describes a Connecticut elementary school design that integrates the natural outdoor environment with the school, unites several buildings into a unified whole, and preserves forest pathways for public use. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)
Background Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question. Methods In total, 736 children (10–13 years) of the last year of primary school participated in the first phase of this longitudinal study. Two years later, 502 of these children (68.2%) agreed to participate in the second phase. Accelerometers, pedometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to measure PA. School environmental characteristics were reported by the school principals. Cross-classified regression models were conducted to analyze the data. Results S elf-reported active transport to school and accelerometer weekday moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) increased after the transition to secondary school while self-reported extracurricular PA and total PA decreased. Pedometer weekday step counts decreased, but this decrease was only apparent among those who achieved the PA guidelines in primary school. Secondary schools scored higher on the school environmental characteristics: provision of sports and PA during lunch break, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy but lower on sports and PA after-school than primary schools. Changes in the school environmental characteristics: active commuting to school, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy resulted in changes in self-reported extracurricular PA, total PA , pedometer/accelerometer determined step counts and accelerometer determined MVPA. Moderating effects were found for baseline PA and gender. Conclusion PA changed after the transition to
Judd, Jeffrey S.
Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective self-regulatory learning strategies, with the goal of helping students adapt to future learning situations and become life-long learners. This study identifies key features that may characterize these "powerful learning environments", which I term "high self-regulating learning environments" for ease of discussion, and examine the environment's role on students' motivation and self-regulatory processes. Using direct observation, surveys, and formal and informal interviews, I identified perceptions, motivations, and self-regulatory strategies of 67 students in my high school chemistry classes as they completed academic tasks in both high and low self-regulating learning environments. With social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, I then examined how students' beliefs and processes changed after they moved from low to a high self-regulating learning environment. Analyses revealed that key features such as task meaning, utility, complexity, and control appeared to play a role in promoting positive changes in students' motivation and self-regulation. As embedded cases, I also included four students identified as high self-regulating, and four students identified as low self-regulating to examine whether the key features of high and low self-regulating learning environments played a similar role in both groups. Analysis of findings indicates that key features did play a significant role in promoting positive changes in both groups, with high self-regulating students' motivation and self-regulatory strategies generally remaining higher than the low self-regulating students; this was the case in both environments. Findings
Pizarro Milian, Roger
Competition has intensified substantially within the American law school sector in recent decades. Scholars note that this has augmented pressures to engage in institutional self-promotion, as law schools attempt to distinguish themselves within a severely over-crowded marketplace. To date, however, few have ventured to empirically examine the…
School can be inhospitable for any lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents with children in pre-K-12 classrooms (Kosciw & Diaz, 2008). Some LGBTQ parents feel they must be silent and discreet so their children will not endure any discrimination at school (Fakhrid-Deen & COLAGE, 2010). Some reasons for this silence…
Magzamen, Sheryl; Mayer, Adam P.; Barr, Stephanie; Bohren, Lenora; Dunbar, Brian; Manning, Dale; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Schaeffer, Joshua W.; Suter, Jordan; Cross, Jennifer E.
Background: Sustainable school buildings hold much promise to reducing operating costs, improve occupant well-being and, ultimately, teacher and student performance. However, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effects of sustainable school buildings on health and performance indicators. We sought to create a framework for a multidisciplinary…
Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Weiner, Jennie
This case focuses on the complexity of change and improvement within schools with a particular emphasis on the role of the principal and a science teacher leader. Although current rhetoric suggests that school improvement should happen quickly and consistently, research indicates that it is difficult, context specific, and incremental. In fact,…
Dogan, Yadigar; Sezer, Gonul Onur
Schools as educational and instructional institutions are expected to be renewable ones where motivation is increased through establishing relationships between students' interests and needs, and subject matters of social studies lessons are derived from daily life and events. Finalizing any learning activity at school by realizing it as aimed and…
Menard, Lauren A.
A contextual analysis of the general education default and student benefit is presented from the perspective of school-based compliance with federal mandates from IDEIA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act] of 2004. A goal was to inform school administrators striving to develop and maintain effective, inclusive learning…
Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
socioeconomic backgrounds attending schools with little urban green space (OR = 0.47 and 0.16 respectively). The cumulative effect of paths, street intersections, and number of sports facilities showed boys and girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds attending schools with low exposure were least likely...
Full Text Available The rapid decline in young children's active commutes to and from school has prompted investigations into ways to raise activity levels. The period after school is recognized as very important in the daily activity regime of primary school children. In this study, we examine the relative effects of local environmental factors and socio-economic status on children's after-school commute mode choice. Environmental factors are pedestrian priority streets, street intersection density, motorways, shops, and play spaces. Property values are used as a proxy for income. Twenty-four school districts are selected using intersection density and motorway length as criteria. All children's exit behaviors were film-recorded on October weekdays and extracted as four choices–alone, in a group of children, on foot with a parent or guardian, on e-bike driven by an adult. A multinomial logistic regression reveals that gated communities, higher priced housing, motorways and bus stops are associated with children accompanied by adults. The presence of pedestrian streets is associated with children travelling alone and in groups. Greater travel distance is also associated with parents accompanying children on foot or on e-bike. The amount of play space is associated with children leaving school in groups. Overall, social and environmental factors are influential in the independent travel of primary school children after the school day ends in south China.
Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey
This study examined high school student handbooks for evidence that school administrators consider dress codes as one strategy to address the physical and psychological security of students. "Physical" security refers to freedom from actual harm to the body. "Psychological security refers to freedom from implied threats to personal well-being.…
Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…
Lo, Celia C.; Kim, Young S.; Allen, Thomas M.; Allen, Andrea N.; Minugh, P. Allison; Lomuto, Nicoletta
Effects on delinquency made by grade level, school type (based on grade levels accommodated), and prosocial school climate were assessed, controlling for individual-level risk and protective factors. Data were obtained from the Substance Abuse Services Division of Alabama's state mental health agency and analyzed via hierarchical linear modeling,…
Strike, Kenneth A.
Discover the link between ethical leadership and successful educational communities! In an age of accountability and transparency, principals are held responsible for everything from test scores to school finances. Because of this increased accountability, school leaders must regularly confront difficult ethical dilemmas. This book teaches…
Freiberg, Jo Ann
This article take a critical look at what can be done to create safe school climates for all students because some schools are not the safest places in our communities when it comes to emotional or intellectual safety--and this is especially true for those who are "different." Children with special needs, gender non-conforming students,…
Griffiths, Sue; Smith, Andy
The role of schools in providing extended services to their communities continues to undergo change and development. This has raised issues regarding the training of student teachers who are increasingly likely to take up appointments in schools offering extended services. This research project investigated the development of resources to prepare…
Magzamen, Sheryl; Mayer, Adam P; Barr, Stephanie; Bohren, Lenora; Dunbar, Brian; Manning, Dale; Reynolds, Stephen J; Schaeffer, Joshua W; Suter, Jordan; Cross, Jennifer E
Sustainable school buildings hold much promise to reducing operating costs, improve occupant well-being and, ultimately, teacher and student performance. However, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effects of sustainable school buildings on health and performance indicators. We sought to create a framework for a multidisciplinary research agenda that links school facilities, health, and educational outcomes. We conducted a nonsystematic review of peer review publications, government documents, organizational documents, and school climate measurement instruments. We found that studies on the impact of physical environmental factors (air, lighting, and thermal comfort) on health and occupant performance are largely independent of research on the social climate. The current literature precludes the formation of understanding the causal relation among school facilities, social climate, occupant health, and occupant performance. Given the average age of current school facilities in the United States, construction of new school facilities or retrofits of older facilities will be a major infrastructure investment for many municipalities over the next several decades. Multidisciplinary research that seeks to understand the impact of sustainable design on the health and performance of occupants will need to include both an environmental science and social science perspective to inform best practices and quantification of benefits that go beyond general measures of costs savings from energy efficiencies. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Anttila, Jaakko; Rytkönen, Tatu; Kankaanpää, Rami; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu
In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products. This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test. Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (psweet products, candies and soft drinks had decreased (psweet products had not changed (p=0.665). Schools tended to improve their exposure and policy status (psweet products among adolescents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina
Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…
Rothman, L.; Buliung, Ron; To, Teresa; Macarthur, Colin; Macpherson, Alison; Howard, Andrew
Background Walking to school is an important source of physical activity for children. Parents are the key decision makers regarding school travel mode, with parents׳ perceptions of traffic safety being an important factor in the decision making process. The study examines the relationships between
Ryom, Knud; Andersen, Mie Maar; Stelter, Reinhard
The purpose of this study was to implement group coaching in a school setting and examine the participants' experiences. Participants were all males (age 12-16 years), primarily with a Middle Eastern family background and from a socioeconomically deprived area. A 2-year intervention with regular coaching counselling during school hours was…
Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.
This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…
Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher
This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zitomer, Michelle R.
Teachers are key players in creating inclusive dance education environments. Guided by a conceptual framework of relational ethics, this qualitative study explored the perceptions and practices of four elementary school dance teachers teaching in public schools in two large school districts in Western Canada. Data collection involved interviews,…
Buldur, Aycan; Ömeroglu, Esra
The purpose of this study is to determine the level of awareness and attitudes towards environment of pre-school children's and their teachers' and to examine the relationship between them. This study was based on correlational research model. The study group consisted of 26 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens and primary schools in a…
Krølner, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Rasmussen, Mette
It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses...... stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate...... > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls...
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende
Full Text Available To analyze the association of physical activity facilities and extracurricular sports activities in schools with physical activity among adolescents.We used data collected for the National Survey of School Health in 2012. The national representative sample comprised 109,104 Brazilian students from 2,842 schools. We calculated the prevalence of participation in physical education classes, leisure-time physical activity, and total physical activity level. We also evaluated the following physical activity facilities: sports courts, running/athletics tracks, schoolyard with teacher-directed physical activities, swimming pools, locker rooms; and the offer of extracurricular sports activities. Schools with at least one physical activity facility had increased odds of participation in physical education (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.10. However, in order to increase leisure-time physical activity (OR1.14; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26 and total physical activity level (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24 at least four and two facilities, respectively, were necessary. Extracurricular sports activities in schools were positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and physical activity level. The number of sports courts and swimming pool in a school were associated with participation in physical education classes. Availability of sports courts, running/athletics tracks, and swimming pool in schools were associated with leisure-time physical activity. Total physical activity was associated with schools with sports courts, schoolyard with teacher-directed physical activities, and swimming pool.School-level characteristics have important potential to increase the possibility of engagement in physical activity in and out of school, and therefore have a fundamental role in promoting these practices.
de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Silva, Kelly Samara; Claro, Rafael Moreira; França-Junior, Ivan; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Eluf-Neto, José
To analyze the association of physical activity facilities and extracurricular sports activities in schools with physical activity among adolescents. We used data collected for the National Survey of School Health in 2012. The national representative sample comprised 109,104 Brazilian students from 2,842 schools. We calculated the prevalence of participation in physical education classes, leisure-time physical activity, and total physical activity level. We also evaluated the following physical activity facilities: sports courts, running/athletics tracks, schoolyard with teacher-directed physical activities, swimming pools, locker rooms; and the offer of extracurricular sports activities. Schools with at least one physical activity facility had increased odds of participation in physical education (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.10). However, in order to increase leisure-time physical activity (OR1.14; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and total physical activity level (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24) at least four and two facilities, respectively, were necessary. Extracurricular sports activities in schools were positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and physical activity level. The number of sports courts and swimming pool in a school were associated with participation in physical education classes. Availability of sports courts, running/athletics tracks, and swimming pool in schools were associated with leisure-time physical activity. Total physical activity was associated with schools with sports courts, schoolyard with teacher-directed physical activities, and swimming pool. School-level characteristics have important potential to increase the possibility of engagement in physical activity in and out of school, and therefore have a fundamental role in promoting these practices.
High, Pamela C
School readiness includes the readiness of the individual child, the school's readiness for children, and the ability of the family and community to support optimal early child development. It is the responsibility of schools to be ready for all children at all levels of readiness. Children's readiness for kindergarten should become an outcome measure for community-based programs, rather than an exclusion criterion at the beginning of the formal educational experience. Our new knowledge of early brain and child development has revealed that modifiable factors in a child's early experience can greatly affect that child's learning trajectory. Many US children enter kindergarten with limitations in their social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development that might have been significantly diminished or eliminated through early identification of and attention to child and family needs. Pediatricians have a role in promoting school readiness for all children, beginning at birth, through their practices and advocacy. The American Academy of Pediatrics affords pediatricians many opportunities to promote the physical, social-emotional, and educational health of young children, with other advocacy groups. This technical report supports American Academy of Pediatrics policy statements "Quality Early Education and Child Care From Birth to Kindergarten" and "The Inappropriate Use of School 'Readiness' Tests."
Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…
Crilley, Leigh R; Ayoko, Godwin A; Jayaratne, E Rohan; Salimi, Farhad; Morawska, Lidia
Long-term exposure to vehicle emissions has been associated with detrimental health effects. Children are amongst the most susceptible group and schools represent an environment where they can experience significant exposure to vehicle emissions. However, there are limited studies on children's exposure to vehicle emissions in schools. The aim of this study was to quantify the concentration of organic aerosol (OA) and in particular, vehicle emissions that children are exposed to during school hours. Therefore an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (TOF-AMS) was deployed at five urban schools in Brisbane, Australia. TOF-AMS enabled the chemical composition of the non-refractory (NR-PM1) to be analysed with a high temporal resolution to assess the concentration of vehicle emissions and other OA components during school hours. The organic fraction at each school comprised the majority of NR-PM1. Primary emissions were found to dominate the OA at only one school which had an O:C ratio of 0.17, due to fuel powered gardening equipment used near the TOF-AMS. A significant source of the OA at two of the schools was aged vehicle emissions from nearby highways. More oxidised OA was observed at the remaining two schools, which also recorded strong biomass burning influences. In general, the diurnal cycle of the total OA concentration varied between schools and was found to be at a minimum during school hours. The major organic component that school children were exposed to during school hours was secondary OA at all schools. Peak exposure of school children to vehicle emissions occurred during school drop-off and pick-up times. Unless a school is located near major roads, children are exposed predominately to regional secondary OA as opposed to local emissions during school hours in urban environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Teachers serve as the natural raters of students within the school and classroom contexts. Yet teachers' ratings of their students may vary based on these contextual factors. The current study explored the extent to which teacher perceptions of the school environment predict their longitudinal ratings of student behaviors. Data for this study come from 702 teachers in 42 elementary schools. Teachers self-reported their perceptions of the school context at a single time point, and provided ratings of their students' behavior via the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaption-Checklist (TOCA-C) across three school years. Latent profile analysis identified three latent classes of teachers based on their ratings of school organizational health, burnout, and efficacy. A regression framework demonstrated an association between the baseline profiles in relation to TOCA-C ratings of student behavior across 3 years. Teachers with more favorable perceptions of the environment had lower initial ratings of concentration problems, disruptive behavior, and internalizing symptoms, and higher ratings of prosocial behaviors and family involvement. They also showed slower growth in their ratings of emotion dysregulation and greater increases of their ratings of family involvement over time. This work is particularly important for determining the extent to which teacher ratings may be biased by teacher and contextual factors, and may have implications for the identification of teachers who may rate students poorly over time.
Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta
More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor...... environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit...
Bonell, Chris; Mathiot, Anne; Allen, Elizabeth; Bevilacqua, Leonardo; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Legood, Rosa; Scott, Stephen; Warren, Emily; Wiggins, Meg; Viner, Russell M
Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection. The methods are summarised as follows. cluster randomised trial. 40 state secondary schools. Outcomes assessed among the cohort of students at the end of year 7 (n = 6667) at baseline. INCLUSIVE is a multi-component school intervention including a social and emotional learning curriculum, changes to school environment (an action group comprising staff and students reviews local data on needs to review rules and policies and determine other local actions) and staff training in restorative practice. The intervention will be delivered by schools supported in the first two years by educational facilitators independent of the research team, with a third intervention year involving no external facilitation but all other elements. Comparator: normal practice. Primary: Two primary outcomes at student level assessed at baseline and at 36 months: 1. Aggressive behaviours in school: Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime school misbehaviour subscale (ESYTC) 2. Bullying and victimisation: Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS) Secondary outcomes assessed at baseline, 24 and 36 months will include measures relating to the economic evaluation, psychosocial outcomes in students and staff and school-level truancy and exclusion rates. 20 schools per arm will provide 90% power to identify an effect size of 0.25 SD with a 5% significance level. Randomisation: eligible consenting schools were
Nuño-Gutiérrez, Bertha Lidia; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Madrigal-de León, Eduardo; Martínez-Becerra, Bertha Alicia; Miranda-Moreno, Rosaura
Evaluation of effect in short term of the parents school program (PSP) about the family environment and the different results between participating and non-participating parents. A cohort study was performed on 112 parents of students from the High School 5 (University of Guadalajara) during six months, 61 parents received the program (intervention group, IG) and 51 were the control group (CG). The program was made in 17 weekly interactive meetings, where the topics were: adolescent psychology and sexuality; parent-children relationship; family communication; self esteem; and addiction prevention. All of these topics were discussed. To evaluate family relationship the key word used was: How is your family relationship? There were found at baseline, a smaller family, and lesser family income in the IG. On the other hand, the CG showed higher scores on satisfaction with the academic and work performance; participation and problem solving; power, money and sex; and life satisfaction. At the end of the program, only 4% subjects of the IG and 59% of the CG were available for assessment. At this point we found that all differences have disappeared except life satisfaction, In addition new differences appeared as: in the control group there was a higher score for children's problems, and satisfaction with life. On the other hand, the IG showed an increased score on professional support searching, a lower score in parent-children communication. Our findings suggest that parents who voluntary received the PSP came from vulnerable families. The program improves the search for Professional support.
María Alice Olavarrieta
Full Text Available The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educational units, in which planimetric surveys were carried out, the collection of fault symptoms, tests in some structural members and finally a general evaluation of damages that allowed identifying their durability and particular recommendations for each school building. As a result, these units of different construction ages were in a better state of conservation, when compared directly to the sample evaluated in 2006 in private multifamily buildings, which were even younger than this sample. It was recommended for all cases that they apply a programmed and technical continuous maintenance system, which goes beyond the systems of paints whose substrate is not properly prepared, resulting in a process of superficial repair and aesthetic ineffective.
Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia
As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.
Atkin, A. J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.
Summary There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school‐based policy, physical and social‐environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11–18 years old), (2) investigated school‐environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non‐quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety‐three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school‐based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social‐environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed‐studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education‐related factors were a mastery‐oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. PMID:26680609
), school principals and parents (Hein), classroom culture with its particular experiences and histories (Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed) and the virtual experiences of children – both in terms of their electronically mediated communications and the media products with and through which they play...... – to theoretical approaches developed and applied within the humanities (e.g., history, literature and philosophy) and the social sciences (e.g., anthropology, law, psychology/social psychology and sociology). Foucault’s work, for example, has been making a substantial impact on these disciplines for more than......, such as interviews, observations, school essays, drawings, school-policy documents, virtual ethnography and various other forms of fieldwork. The theoretical and analytical perspectives already mentioned have informed the analysis of this data and enabled the authors’ research into the complex processes of becoming...
School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... participated in a five-year research project based in Denmark called ‘Exploring Bullying in Schools’ (eXbus) and others have been collaborative partners. Many are based in the Nordic countries, and others are from Australia and the US; their collective experiences with conducting empirical research...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...
Remetić, Mirjana; Tahirović, Husref; Loga, Slobodan
Family home and institutions for children without parental care represent the rearing-environments where, from the early years, whole human development goes on. It's known today that despite the recognized importance of inborn traits, the influence of child-rearing environments dominates current models of development. The aim of the study was to investigate the satisfaction with the rearing-environment of school-aged institutionalized children, their dominating feeling and if institutionalization affects life optimism for now and for the future. The study was conducted in two institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina who share the same care model imitating the traditional Bosnian families where the older children care for the younger siblings. We took as a sample 30 institutionalized children aged 8-12, and for the control group 60 children matched by age and sex. Parents, children and teachers who gave their informed consent answered the questionnaires. It was confirmed that children without parental care are vulnerable group and in a great risk who need urgent help of professional multidisciplinary team of their close and broad environment. Lack of social support cause the withdrawing and suffering and can lead soon or later to problematic behaviour.
Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Balasubramanium, Ramanan
The learning environment at Xavier University School of Medicine (XUSOM), Aruba has not been previously studied. Hence, the present study was carried out using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) to obtain student perceptions about the learning environment and compare the same among different subgroups of respondents. The questionnaire was administered to undergraduate medical students in their first to fifth semester during the first two weeks of June 2013. The students' perceptions were evaluated by noting their degree of agreement with a set of 50 statements using a Likert-type scale. The mean overall score and the scores of subcategory were calculated and compared among different respondents (Pperception of teaching/learning was 31.99±6.23 (maximum score, 48), while the score for students' perceptions of teachers was 30.05±5.54 (maximum score, 44). The mean±SD scores for students' academic self-perception, students' perception of the atmosphere, and students' social self-perception were 21.88±5.11 (maximum score, 32), 30.92±8.59 (maximum score, 48), and 16.96±4.71 (maximum score, 28), respectively. There were no differences in scores according to the respondents' personal characteristics. The student responses about the learning environment at the institution were positive. We plan to obtain regular student feedback as the curriculum becomes progressively more student-centered and integrated.
Sheyla R. C. Furtado
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature demonstrates that the social participation of children with disabilities is influenced by both their functional skills repertoire and environmental factors. However, it is not yet known whether the effect of functional limitations on social participation is minimized or enhanced by the environmental facilitators and barriers. This study aimed to test this hypothesis.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP.METHOD: Participants were 102 elementary school children and adolescents with CP, aged 6 to 17 years, classified as levels I, II, and III according to the Gross Motor Classification System, along with their parents or caregivers and teachers. School participation and parents' perceptions of barriers were evaluated using the School Function Assessment and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF, respectively.RESULTS: The regression model failed to reveal a moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation. While mobility was a strong predictor of participation, environmental factors demonstrated a weak predictive effect on the latter. The CHIEF subscale school/work showed the factors which were greatest barrier to children's participation, while the subscale attitude/support had the least impact.CONCLUSION: The absence of moderation on the tested relationship suggests that, when investigated under the negative perspective of environmental barriers, the contextual factors do not modify the relationship between mobility and school participation. Factors specific to the school environment might add to the present study's results regarding the effect of school participation in this population.
Furtado, Sheyla R C; Sampaio, Rosana F; Kirkwood, Renata N; Vaz, Daniela V; Mancini, Marisa C
The literature demonstrates that the social participation of children with disabilities is influenced by both their functional skills repertoire and environmental factors. However, it is not yet known whether the effect of functional limitations on social participation is minimized or enhanced by the environmental facilitators and barriers. This study aimed to test this hypothesis. To investigate the moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were 102 elementary school children and adolescents with CP, aged 6 to 17 years, classified as levels I, II, and III according to the Gross Motor Classification System, along with their parents or caregivers and teachers. School participation and parents' perceptions of barriers were evaluated using the School Function Assessment and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF), respectively. The regression model failed to reveal a moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation. While mobility was a strong predictor of participation, environmental factors demonstrated a weak predictive effect on the latter. The CHIEF subscale school/work showed the factors which were greatest barrier to children's participation, while the subscale attitude/support had the least impact. The absence of moderation on the tested relationship suggests that, when investigated under the negative perspective of environmental barriers, the contextual factors do not modify the relationship between mobility and school participation. Factors specific to the school environment might add to the present study's results regarding the effect of school participation in this population.