Wang, Jia; Schweig, Jonathan D.; Herman, Joan L.
Magnet schools are one of the largest sectors of choice schools in the United States. In this study, we explored the heterogeneity in magnet-school effects on student achievement by examining 24 magnet schools, funded under the Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP), in 5 school districts across 4 states. The magnet effects were synthesized…
Roelande H. Hofman
Full Text Available In this article, we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness. Our review of previous evidence prompted us to look at three sets of factors connected with classroom teachers, school policies and processes, and matters of governance. All three have featured prominently in the public arena. In particular, we look for the relative contributions of teacher-, school-, and governance indicators for educational effectiveness (measured by Math achievement. About 100 Dutch primary schools form the database together with findings of international school effectiveness research (studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. School-level variables are the most substantial in explaining educational effectiveness. The sector effect (public/private explains 16% of the between school variance, other school-level variables explain 51%, and the teacher- or classroom-level variables explain 32%. Some of the underlying variables are identified and we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness.
BARKER, ROGER G.; AND OTHERS
STUDIES WERE MADE IN KANSAS HIGH SCHOOLS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF SCHOOL SIZE UPON THE BEHAVIOR AND EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS. THE FOLLOWING AREAS WERE CONSIDERED-- THE SCHOOL INVOLVED IN THE STUDY, THE DATA GATHERED FROM RECORDS AND RESEARCH, OUT-OF-SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, AND THE PLACE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE TOTAL LIFE OF FOUR SMALL TOWNS.…
Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami
The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…
O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie
School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…
Opdenakker, MC; Van Damme, J
The results indicate that in Flanders secondary schools of different denomination and of different school type (based on their curriculum offerings) differ with respect to several characteristics. With respect to the educational framework, learning environment and learning climate differences
Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...
McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.; Redd, Lacy
Current federal legislation holds schools accountable for ensuring that all students, including those with disabilities, make adequate yearly progress on academic achievement measures, while also including students with disabilities in general education settings whenever possible. Schools are thus expected to be both excellent and equitable in…
Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim
School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…
Jackson, Charlotte; Mangtani, Punam; Hawker, Jeremy; Olowokure, Babatunde; Vynnycky, Emilia
School closure is a potential intervention during an influenza pandemic and has been investigated in many modelling studies. To systematically review the effects of school closure on influenza outbreaks as predicted by simulation studies. We searched Medline and Embase for relevant modelling studies published by the end of October 2012, and handsearched key journals. We summarised the predicted effects of school closure on the peak and cumulative attack rates and the duration of the epidemic. We investigated how these predictions depended on the basic reproduction number, the timing and duration of closure and the assumed effects of school closures on contact patterns. School closures were usually predicted to be most effective if they caused large reductions in contact, if transmissibility was low (e.g. a basic reproduction number 90% reductions or even increases under certain assumptions). This partly reflected differences in model assumptions, such as those regarding population contact patterns. Simulation studies suggest that school closure can be a useful control measure during an influenza pandemic, particularly for reducing peak demand on health services. However, it is difficult to accurately quantify the likely benefits. Further studies of the effects of reactive school closures on contact patterns are needed to improve the accuracy of model predictions.
Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M
at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children...
O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie
School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Asperen IA van; Medema GJ; Havelaar AH; Borgdorff MW; CIE; MGB
To study the health effects of bathing in freshwaters that meet current water quality standard, large epidemiological studies are needed. A design is presented of a study among primary school children, that aims to evaluate current water quality standard. The study concerns a randomised exposure
Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.; Figlio, David
The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for applied education researchers in using multi-level data to study the effects of interventions implemented at the school level. Two primary approaches are currently employed in observational studies of the effect of school-level interventions. One approach employs intact school matching: matching…
Okoye, Nnamdi S.
The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of 252 students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria. These were…
This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…
van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben
Few studies on male-female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls' and boys' educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools' socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly educated teachers, and school practices, being…
Stemler, Steven Edward
This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14
Spielhofer, Thomas; Benton, Tom; Schagen, Sandie
National value-added datasets have recently become available that record a pupil's progress from Key Stage 2 right through to GCSE. Such a dataset is clearly a useful tool for assessing the impact various characteristics of secondary schools have on pupil performance. This paper reports on a research project which involved the use of a variety of…
Hawley, Willis D.
The focus of this inquiry is on the commitment students have to academic achievement. The model on which this analysis is based assumes that student effort in school is the product of several factors relating to parental influences, classroom structure, teacher behavior and peer norms and characteristics. In assessing the possibility of a linkage…
van Hek, M.; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben
Few studies on male–female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls’ and boys’ educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools’ socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly
Kuyken, Willem; Nuthall, Elizabeth; Byford, Sarah; Crane, Catherine; Dalgleish, Tim; Ford, Tamsin; Greenberg, Mark T; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Viner, Russell M; Williams, J Mark G
Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness or cost-effectiveness for young people. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training (MT) programme to enhance mental health, wellbeing and social-emotional behavioural functioning in adolescence. To address this aim, the design will be a superiority, cluster randomised controlled, parallel-group trial in which schools offering social and emotional provision in line with good practice (Formby et al., Personal, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) Education: A mapping study of the prevalent models of delivery and their effectiveness, 2010; OFSTED, Not Yet Good Enough: Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education in schools, 2013) will be randomised to either continue this provision (control) or include MT in this provision (intervention). The study will recruit and randomise 76 schools (clusters) and 5700 school students aged 12 to 14 years, followed up for 2 years. The study will contribute to establishing if MT is an effective and cost-effective approach to promoting mental health in adolescence. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials, identifier: ISRCTN86619085 . Registered on 3 June 2016.
Volpe Stella L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups. Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016. The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008. There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029
This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…
Meier, Lori T.
This ethnographic case study investigated the science practices of teachers at one public elementary magnet school in light of how school culture influenced science curriculum design and instruction. The purpose of the study was to address how school culture impacted the school's overall treatment of science as a viable content area. Key informant teachers were interviewed to explore their personal beliefs and values, teaching, access to materials, and views of the adopted integrated thematic curriculum model and magnet structure. The resulting data, triangulated with informal observation and artifact collection, were analyzed using a theoretical framework that emphasized five interdependent school culture indicators (values, beliefs, practices, materials, and problems). Findings suggest that the school's culture adversely influenced the treatment of science.
Williams, R. David
This study reviews the literature on public school administration and on decentralization to establish the groundwork for an analysis of the administration of a decentralized school system and its media services, discusses some of the confusion in the centralization vs. decentralization debate, and presents a heuristic study of the administration…
Jones, Brian Kirby
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.
Miele, Anthony M.
The purpose of this study was to determine how the study of number theory might affect high school students' metacognitive functioning, mathematical curiosity, and/or attitudes towards mathematics. The study utilized questionnaire and/or interview responses of seven high school students from New York City and 33 high school students from Dalian,…
Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan
This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 ...
Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.
School effectiveness indices (SEIs), based on regressing test performance onto earlier test performance and a socioeconomic status measure, were obtained for eight subject-grade combinations from 485 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school means based on longitudinally matched student data. Reading and mathematics…
Kloosterman, J.G.; Notten, N.J.W.R.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on
Kloostermann, R.; Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.
This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on
Full Text Available Abstract Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls. The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD just 7 (0.8 minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2 minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3 minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38 g in girls and 289 (73 g in boys. Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups
Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergström, Jakob; Brodin, Ulf; Bergh, Cecilia; Leon, Michael; Shield, Julian; Södersten, Per
Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53)% in the girls and to 166 (47
Lawton, Stephen B.
The purpose of this synthesis of the literature on charter school effectiveness is to develop a research agenda on the topic and to propose action that will lead to improved performance of charter schools. To accomplish these goals, background information is first provided including: a definition of charter schools; statistics on charter schools;…
Hendriks, Maria A.; Scheerens, Jaap
Fourteen leadership effect studies that used indirect-effect models were quantitatively analysed to explore the most promising mediating variables. The results indicate that total effect sizes based on indirect-effect studies appear to be low, quite comparable to the results of some meta-analyses of
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim
This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II). Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Cha, Jae Seung
This small-scale pilot study explored the effectiveness of proposed research instruments in measuring the outcomes of the prosocial and global education curriculum, "Journey Around the World" ("JAWD"), regarding attitudes toward school, affective language, prosocial motivation and behavior of second-grade school students.…
He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A
The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gökler, Riza; Gürgan, Ugur; Tastan, Nuray
This study investigated the relationship between quality of school life and happiness among university students. For this purpose, 326 students from five different faculties in Çankiri Karatekin University participated in the study. Participants filled in the "scale for quality of school life" and "scale for Oxford happiness-Compact…
Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera
Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (pschools (pschools, which positively associated with male gender (AOR=4.13, CI: 2.38, 7.15) and having a middle-income family (AOR=2.93, CI: 1.92, 6.15). This study showed that by integrating a dietary intervention into school-based activities, there might be significant improvements in dietary intake of primary school adolescents. Therefore, school-based nutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.
Mustafa Mubarak Pathan
Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language like English is not easy task. The situation become more difficult when the learners are primary school children and teaching and learning focus is grammar, an activity often regarded as ‘boring, ‘uninteresting’ and ‘’tedious’. However, one’s mastery over a language is determined by the appropriate use of language by that individual following grammatical rules and failing to follow the rules of grammar marks one’s use of language as erroneous. Therefore, systematic attempt is done to teach grammatical rules and structures to the language learners from the beginning of language teaching and learning process. However, the success or failure of learning, mastering and using the grammatical rules and structures is largely determined by the technique and approach used by the grammar teacher to teach. The leaner-cantered, interesting, motivating technique of grammar teaching is believed to generate positive results whereas traditional, teacher-centered, uninteresting, uninvolving method is believed to be a cause of failure for learners to learn and master grammar rules and structures. Therefore, the grammar teaching technique, which involves language learners, to maximum, in learning in amusing and creative way, motivating, challenging and stimulating his/her mental processes, and reducing classroom anxiety and fear, is desired and recommended for fruitful language teaching and learning process. In this respect, the present paper discusses the effectiveness of using games for teaching grammar to primary school students as a technique which could easily be utilised and exploited for maximum benefits for learners. The study is based on the practical experiment done on the students of two primary schools in Sebha city of Libya using grammar games. The results, which proved to be fruitful and positive, are discussed as a basis for the argument in support of using games for teaching grammar to school
Chen, Gene; Hsieh, Ming-Yu; Chen, Andy Wei-Ge; Kao, Nina Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Mu-Kuan
To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164-1.248, p-value = 0.018). A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.
Ojio, Yasutaka; Yonehara, Hiromi; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Togo, Fumiharu; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Improving knowledge and beliefs about mental health (or mental health literacy [MHL]) may promote appropriate help-seeking by adolescents who are suffering from mental health problems. We developed a concise, school-staff-led MHL program and examined its effects. The participants comprised 118 grade-9 students (61 boys and 57 girls). The program consisted of two 50-min sessions, and was given by a schoolteacher. The effects of the program were evaluated before, immediately after and 3 months after the program, using a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge of mental health/illnesses and desirable behavior for help-seeking were significantly improved immediately after (post-test, P mental health problems were also significantly (P school-staff-led program may have a significant effect on the improvement of MHL in secondary school students. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Full Text Available School bullying is negatively associated with self-esteem, but psychological mediators of bullying have yet to be clarified. We examined regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE as a possible mediator in the association between self-esteem and school bullying. A cross-sectional study of 995 adolescents was conducted in two middle schools of Xi’an. All of the participants completed the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (RESE. Descriptive statistics analysis, the bias corrected percentile Bootstrap CI method, and structural equation modelling were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 418 students (42.0% reported that they were involved in school bullying in the past year. Self-esteem was negatively associated with school bullying (total effect: β = −0.275, 95% CI = −0.381–−0.034, and RESE mediated the association between self-esteem and school bullying (indirect effect: β = −0.136, 95% CI = −0.245–−0.037. Furthermore, self-esteem had an indirect effect through perceived self-efficacy in managing negative affect, while self-esteem had no indirect effect through self-efficacy in the expression of positive affect. The present study suggests that school authorities and the related education departments should not only focus on improving students’ self-esteem, but should also pay more attention to students’ RESE, in order to mitigate, and potentially reduce, the occurrence of bullying.
Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yue; Hui, Zhaozhao; Bai, Wanyue; Terry, Paul D; Ma, Mei; Li, Yang; Cheng, Li; Gu, Wei; Wang, Mingxu
School bullying is negatively associated with self-esteem, but psychological mediators of bullying have yet to be clarified. We examined regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE) as a possible mediator in the association between self-esteem and school bullying. A cross-sectional study of 995 adolescents was conducted in two middle schools of Xi'an. All of the participants completed the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (RESE). Descriptive statistics analysis, the bias corrected percentile Bootstrap CI method, and structural equation modelling were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 418 students (42.0%) reported that they were involved in school bullying in the past year. Self-esteem was negatively associated with school bullying (total effect: β = -0.275, 95% CI = -0.381⁻-0.034), and RESE mediated the association between self-esteem and school bullying (indirect effect: β = -0.136, 95% CI = -0.245⁻-0.037). Furthermore, self-esteem had an indirect effect through perceived self-efficacy in managing negative affect, while self-esteem had no indirect effect through self-efficacy in the expression of positive affect. The present study suggests that school authorities and the related education departments should not only focus on improving students' self-esteem, but should also pay more attention to students' RESE, in order to mitigate, and potentially reduce, the occurrence of bullying.
Meyer, Georgette Wright
This qualitative case study described the characteristics of science teachers in a high poverty urban middle school whose 2010 scores on South Carolina's Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) ranked second in the state. Data was obtained through classroom observations, open-ended interviews, school documents, and photographs taken inside the school from ten participants, who were seven science teachers, a science coach, and two administrators. Findings revealed a school culture that pursued warm and caring relationships with students while communicating high expectations for achievement, strong central leadership who communicated their vision and continuously checked for its implementation through informal conversations, frequent classroom observations, and test score analysis. A link between participants' current actions and their perception of prior personal and professional experiences was found. Participants related their classroom actions to the lives of the students outside of school, and evidenced affection for their students.
Kennedy, Roy; Scott, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy techniques on the story retelling and speaking skills of English as a Second Language (ESL) middle school students. Thirty-four middle school students of Hispanic heritage, ages 10-12, in high and low-functioning groups participated in the study for 12 weeks. Pretest to posttest data yielded significant differences on the story retelling skills between the experimental and control groups. Chi Square comparisons on English speaking skills also yielded significant results over 3 months of music therapy intervention. A variety of music therapy techniques were used including music and movement, active music listening, group chanting and singing, musical games, rhythmic training, music and sign language, and lyric analysis and rewrite activities as supplemental activities to the ESL goals and objectives. Comparisons of individual subjects' scores indicated that all of the students in the experimental groups scored higher than the control groups on story retelling skills (with the exception of 1 pair of identical scores), regardless of high and low functioning placement. Monthly comparisons of the high and low functioning experimental groups indicated significant improvements in English speaking skills as well.
Sørensen, Louise B.; Dyssegaard, Camilla B.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.
. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794......It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children...... than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention...
Onrust, Simone A; van der Heijden, Amy; Zschämisch, Anna L; Speetjens, Paula A M
The transition to secondary school is linked to more positive attitudes toward substance use, which prelude the moment of first use. Fresh Start is a school-based prevention program for secondary school freshmen (12-13 years old) to retain negative attitudes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Fresh Start on the attitudes toward smoking, alcohol use, and cannabis use, and on multiple secondary outcome measures. In addition, the effect of timing of the program within the schoolyear was examined. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. 48 classes, containing 1083 secondary school freshmen, were randomly allocated to the experimental or waiting list control condition. Experimental classes completed Fresh Start between October 2015 and January 2016 and waiting list control classes completed Fresh Start between March 2016 and May 2016. Measurements were scheduled at three points in time (September 2015, February 2016, and June 2016). Data were analyzed by means of multilevel analyses. Fresh Start had small but significant effects on the attitudes toward smoking, alcohol use and cannabis use. The majority of secondary outcome measures were not influenced by Fresh Start, although a small, adverse effect was found on the perceived social acceptance of cannabis use by friends. Timing of the intervention within the schoolyear did not influence its effectiveness. Conclusions/Importance: Fresh Start can help to delay the development of positive attitudes toward substance use in secondary school freshmen. Strengths and limitations, implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.
Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.
Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer
In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…
In-Iw, Supinya; Saetae, Tridsanun; Manaboriboon, Boonying
The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutri...
Rao, J. Durga Prasad; Singh, Raksha
The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Information Communication and Technology tools viz DLP (Distance Learning Projector) and Computer/Laptop in comparison with selected instructional media for teaching primary and secondary school pupils. It examined the effect of grade on the performance of the pupils taught with four…
Meng, Lingqi; Muñoz, Marco
This international study investigated Chinese and American elementary school teachers' perceptions of effective teaching. The sample comprised Chinese (n = 108) and US (n = 110) participating teachers. The Effective Teaching Quality Survey (ETQS) was adopted for this comparative education research, an instrument that operationalized Stronge's…
Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.
The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…
Adkins, Florence E.
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to examine police officer perceptions of effective school responses to active shooting scenarios. Creswell's (2013) six step process for analyzing and interpreting qualitative data was used to examine the interview information. The study results support the idea that changes…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention. Methods Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils and three control schools (159 pupils participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13. We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT Difference-in-Difference (DD model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9. Results The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication. Conclusions The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.
Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. Methods: A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Results: Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164–1.248, p-value = 0.018. Conclusion: A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Keywords: Betel nut, Betel quid, Education, Papua New Guinea
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.
Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan
This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.
Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan
This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341
林明地 Ming-Dih Lin
Full Text Available 本研究主要探討國小學校領導動力及其學校效能的差異情形，其中，學校領導動力為校長轉型領導、教師自我管理，以及學校領導社群等變項之組合。以臺灣地區國民小學為母群，抽樣調查45所樣本學校，每所學校均抽取具代表性的樣本，分析其在校長轉型領導、教師自我管理及學校領導社群的組合情形，以及不同領導動力學校之學校效能的差異情形。本研究發現，依學校領導動力各面向之特性，學校可被群集劃分為動態整合學校、行政垂直學校、教師水平學校，以及靜態固著學校等四種類型。其次，動態整合及教師水平二類學校所呈現的學校效能較高，顯著高於行政垂直學校與靜態固著學校的效能。最後，學校領導動力的概念有助於整合校長轉型領導、教師自我管理及學校領導社群所形成的個人與團體領導動力，更重要的是，它明確地指出校長領導努力的重心最好是透過校長轉型領導營造優質的學校領導社群，進而提升教師自我管理能力。 The purpose of this study were is to analyze the school leadership dynamics and differences they produce in terms of the effectiveness of elementary schools. The school leadership dynamics is are a variable that combines the scores of principals’ transformational leadership, teachers’ self-management and the leadership community at the school. This study chose 45 sample elementary schools in Taiwan. A representative sample, including teachers and administrators, was selected from each school, to answer a questionnaire that consisted of 14 dimensions. The study utilized Cluster Analysis to classify the 45 schools based on their leadership dynamics, and it was found that the schools could be divided into four types: the Dynamic Integrated School, the Administrative Vertical School, the Teacher Horizontal School and the Static Inertia
Katayoun Safa Chaleshtari; Tayebe Sharifi; Mohammad Ghasemi Pirbalooti
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group spiritual intelligence training on self-efficacy and social responsibility of high school secondary school students in Shahrekord. Methods: The parallel intervention research method was used in this study. The statistical population included all female secondary school students in Shahrekord during the academic year 1393 - 1394. Random cluster sampling was used to select the samples. Then, schools were rand...
Full Text Available Expectations, values, faith, relationships with staff, the school leader, teachers and students behavior create school climate. The leader can promote or hinder a positive climate through his leadership model. The purpose of this study is to explore what are the climate types that appear in the school as well as to contribute to the expectations of different stakeholders on the school climate. The starting point for improving the performance of students and teachers is to improve school climate. Thus, this study will help leaders who for one reason or another have not been effective in keeping their responsibilities, and, as a result, did not work efficiently in improving school climate. It is assumed that a positive school climate enhances effective teaching, and as a result a better performance of student learning. This study will serve to further studies related to the expansion of the leaders’ roles on school climate. In conclusion, the research will assist policy makers in Albania to assess the content of the modules needed for training future managers and teachers to ensure they are equipped with the skills required to create a positive, open and collaborative climate in school. The school leader should be released from some managerial tasks, for paying more time to teachers and students.
Krupp-Schleußner, Valerie; Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas
Does extended music education during primary school foster long-term musical participation? What other factors contribute to long-term musical participation? In our study on "Impacts and Long-Term Effects of Musical Participation," we investigate how the German programme "An Instrument for Every Child (JeKi)," which fosters the…
Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia
This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…
Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.
The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…
Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels
It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (Pschool year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (Pperformance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials.
Educators seek to guide students through appropriate programs and courses that prepare them for future success, in more advanced coursework and in other challenges of life. Some middle schools offer Challenge, or honors, courses for students who have demonstrated high ability. High schools often offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, which are taught at the college level. This study examined the correlation between enrollment in middle school Challenge courses and subsequent AP exam category scores in social studies and science in a suburban school district. The independent variables were the number of years of enrollment in middle school social studies or science Challenge courses. The dependent variables were the AP exam category scores in the eight social studies AP courses or the six science AP courses. The sample sizes were limited to the number of students who took an AP social studies or science exam and also attended the middle school of study. The null hypothesis was that there was no relationship between the two variables. This study included eight social studies AP courses and six science AP courses. A significant positive correlation was indicated in only two of the courses, U.S. Government and Comparative Government, supporting the claim that enrollment in middle school Challenge social studies was correlated with success, at least on these two AP exams. In the remaining 12 courses, there was not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, enrollment in middle school Challenge science and social studies courses generally did not seem to correlate with AP exam category scores. Results of this study call into question the validity of the claim by the district that enrollment in Challenge courses helps prepare students for rigorous coursework in high school. Several factors, including student readiness, teacher training, familiarity with course content, and previous AP experience may contribute more to a student's AP exam category score
Hasan Basri MEMDUHOĞLU
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of teachers about the effectiveness of the schools they work in based on various variables. The research was designed in the descriptive scanning model. The sample of the study is composed of 316 teachers working at Turkish high school in the Ağrı provincial center and local districts during the 2015-2016 academic years. The “Effective School Scale” developed by Abdurrezzak (2015 was used to collect data in the study. The data of the study were analyzed by descriptive statistics and parametric tests. According to the findings of the study, teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the schools they work in are at a “medium” level. While teachers’ perceptions of effective school administrators, teachers and school atmosphere sub-dimensions are at a “medium” level, their perceptions on effective school students, and parents were determined as at a “low” level. It was determined that teachers’ perceptions of school effectiveness were not significantly different according to gender, marital status, education status and duration of service variables. However, significant differences were found between the perceptions of teachers about the dimensions of effective schools according to the type of school they worked in and the branch variable.
The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School Attendance In ... and SFP were significant variables which affect attendance of children in school. ... the school-feeding programme [SFP] succeeded in increasing parent's income.
Cuellar, Matthew J.
Recent incidents of school-based violence have resulted in the widespread implementation of school safety strategies across the United States. While research on these strategies has grown over the past decade, there is little understanding about their collective influence on indicators of school violence. Using data from the 2007-2008 School…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI, as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by kg/m2 ( compared to the control group ( kg/m2, but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly (. Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents.
Kelcey, Ben; Shen, Zuchao
School-based improvement programs represent a core strategy in improving education because they can leverage pre-existing social and organizational structures to promote coordinated and comprehensive change across multiple facets of schooling. School-based programs are generally designed to be implemented by intact schools/districts, frequently…
Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Møller, N C; Klakk, H; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L B
First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline. This study was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. The study population consisted of 10 Danish public schools with children in preschool to fourth grade (cohorts 0-4) with 2.5-year follow-up. Six schools had extra PE and four schools had normal PE. In total 1247 children were included (normal PE = 536, extra PE = 711). Development in fitness was analyzed using a composite z-score from six fitness tests. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the association between school type and development in fitness. Extra PE increased the total development of composite z-score units among children enrolled in cohort 4 and borderline in cohort 3 with 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.48-1.65) and 0.52 z-score units (-0.06 to 1.09), respectively. Children in the lower 50 percentiles increased their development with 0.47 (0.08-0.85) z-score units. Extra PE in schools improved development in fitness for cohort 4 and borderline for cohort 3 among all children. Extra PE improved fitness development across all cohorts among children with low fitness levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kanjorski, N.; Hall, M.; Sundberg, F.
We evaluated the educational successes and challenges of a high school research project designed to assess the effects of a wildfire and subsequent logging on soil erosion during the 2004-2005 school year. The project is extra-curricular for students from Show Low High School in Arizona. Fieldwork is done on Saturdays and lab work is done during lunch periods and after school sessions. Using a silt fence, shovels, and brushes, students collect and measure erosion rates of unburned, burned, and burned and logged land. The project has involved 17 students, 3 female and 14 male students, and their two science teachers. A key goal of the project is to introduce a group of high school students to the process of scientific inquiry through fieldwork and scientific research. A core requirement of this project is that the students will be self-motivated and will lead all major field and laboratory efforts. Interviews of the students and teachers in the fall of 2004 and spring of 2005 are the primary source of the assessment of this project in addition to data collected by informal interviews during two field trips. Consistent student participation was a main challenge to this project in the first year. While most students continued with the program throughout the year, participation was sporadic and generally low during any one class or field session. This is partially due to not having a set schedule for activities and the challenge for students to self-motivate. Interestingly, despite their actual amount of involvement in the project, the students all consider themselves active members of the project and are generally proud of their efforts. To increase the consistency of student participation in the coming year a regular semester schedule has been set and student time and effort requirements have been increased and explicitly stated. Students have a great amount of choice in which role they will fulfill in the project, and which data gathering and analysis skills they
Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A
The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline...
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study in Mainland China.A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge.Overall, 1108 (93.7% of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32±1.36 vs. -0.29±1.40, p = 0.09, although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87 by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02, decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84 and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95, change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40, and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors.The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving health behaviors and obesity
Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen; Hogan, Sarah
Students' views of their educational experience can be an important source of information for curriculum assessment. Although quantitative methods, particularly surveys, are frequently used to gather such data, fewer studies have employed qualitative methods to examine students' dental education experiences. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of effective learning experiences in dental school using a qualitative method. All third-year (seventy) and fourth-year (seventy) dental students enrolled in one midwestern dental school were invited to participate. Fifty-three dental students (thirty-five male and eighteen female; thirty-two third-year and twenty-one fourth-year) were interviewed using a critical incident interview technique. Each student was asked to describe a specific, particularly effective learning incident that he or she had experienced in dental school and a specific, particularly ineffective learning incident, for comparison. Each interview was audiotaped. Students were assured that only the interviewer and one additional researcher would have access to the tapes. Data analysis resulted in identification of key themes in the data describing characteristics of effective learning experiences. The following characteristics of effective learning experiences were identified: 1) instructor characteristics (personal qualities, "checking-in" with students, and an interactive style); 2) characteristics of the learning process (focus on the "big picture," modeling and demonstrations, opportunities to apply new knowledge, high-quality feedback, focus, specificity and relevance, and peer interactions); and 3) learning environment (culture of the learning environment, technology). Common themes emerged across a wide variety of learning incidents. Although additional research is needed, the characteristics of effective learning experiences identified in this study may have implications for individual course design and for the dental school
The results of a study that examined the peer tutoring program at a middle school are discussed in this article. In an effort to determine ways to improve the peer tutoring program an action research (AR) mixed design study was developed. AR is practitioner based research. Its purpose is to examine the work of practitioners for effectiveness and…
Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge
A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Methods/Design A randomized clustered trial will be conducted among 3,784 adolescents of 23 secondary schools in The Netherlands. The trial has three conditions; two intervention conditions (i.e., e-learning and integral and a control condition. The e-learning condition consists of three digital learning modules (i.e., about alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana that are sequentially offered over the course of three school years (i.e., grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3. The integral condition consists of parental participation in a parental meeting on substance use, regulation of substance use, and monitoring and counseling of students' substance use at school, over and above the three digital modules. The control condition is characterized as business as usual. Participating schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Participants filled out a digital questionnaire at baseline and will fill out the same questionnaire three more times at follow-up measurements (8, 20, and 32 months after baseline. Outcome variables included in the questionnaire are the percentage of binge drinking (more than five drinks per occasion, the average weekly number of drinks, and the percentage of adolescents who ever drunk a glass of alcohol and the percentage of adolescents who ever smoked a cigarette or a joint respectively for tobacco and marijuana. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized clustered trial that evaluates the
Namatovu, Fredinah; Strandh, Mattias; Ivarsson, Anneli; Nilsson, Karina
Coeliac disease might affect school performance due to its effect on cognitive performance and related health consequences that might increase school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with coeliac disease performed differently on completion of ninth grade in school compared with children without coeliac disease. Analysis was performed on a population of 445 669 children born in Sweden between 1991 and 1994 of whom 1767 were diagnosed with coeliac disease. School performance at ninth grade was the outcome and coeliac disease was the exposure. Other covariates included sex, Apgar score at 5 min, small for gestational age, year of birth, family type, parental education and income. There was no association between coeliac disease and school performance at ninth grade (adjusted coefficient -2.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 0.4). A weak association was established between late coeliac diagnosis and higher grades, but this disappeared after adjusting for parent socioeconomic conditions. Being small for gestational age affected performance negatively (adjusted coefficient -6.9, 95% CI 8.0 to 5.7). Grade scores were significantly lower in children living with a single parent (adjusted coefficient -20.6, 95% CI 20.9 to 20.2), compared with those with married/cohabiting parents. A positive association was found between scores at ninth grade and parental education and income. Coeliac disease diagnosis during childhood is not associated with poor school performance at ninth grade. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available This study was designed to verify the effect of thematic classes on English vocabulary learning. Thematic class is an educational project, which recently started to be used in junior high schools in Iran. The ministry of Education in Iran has launched the project of thematic classes to improve learning in 2010 with the hope of copying with some of the educational problems so that students experience deeper learning. For subjects of the study, 90 7th grade students of junior high school in Taybad, Khorasan e Razavi were selected. Three groups were used in this study: two experimental groups and one control group. Each group consisted of 30 female students, who settled randomly in the groups, respectively. Their range of age was between 13 and 14. A vocabulary-based test, which was designed by the researcher, was used as the main measurement tool in the study to evaluate the students' achievement in the course. The course lasted 10 weeks, two sessions per week. The results reflected the positive effect of thematic classes on vocabulary learning. Therefore, educational implication of thematic class for junior high school is suggestible.
Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin
The present study aimed to investigate changes in school functioning, including motivation, intentions to quit school and social relations in school, following an early group based CBT intervention implemented for depressed adolescents. The "Adolescent Coping with Depression Course" (ACDC) is such an early group intervention. The primary…
Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study
Southern Education Foundation, 2014
This brief summarizes the findings of the larger study, "Just Learning: The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems into Effective Educational Systems. A Study of Juvenile Justice Schools in the South and the Nation." With awareness growing that schools are disciplining and suspending minority students at alarming rates, the…
Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F
Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Istanto Wahyu Djatmiko
Full Text Available This study is to remind teachers that professional development and quality assurance are required to perform a good working in improving either learning process or school quality. Nowadays, teaching has been officially recognized as a profession. Consequently, teachers must be enforced professionally in their charges. To be professional in carrying their tasks, teachers must continuously improve competency themselves and perform quality assurance in their duties. This study is a literature review related to the importance of professional development and quality assurance in order to increase teachers’ effectiveness in providing learning services in Secondary Vocational Schools. Professional development is the need required by any teachers. Teachers’ professional development in Vocational Secondary School is expected to create changes in attitudes, improve the learning process and promote the students’ learning output and outcomes. In addition, teachers are not only responsible for improving the quality of learning outputs but also for working collaboratively with other teachers to elevate the quality of learning outcomes. It suggests the quality assurance as the key to achieve and to ensure the quality of teaching learning process and also the school’s effectiveness demanded by the stakeholders.
Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy
With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.
Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.
Full Text Available What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. Factorial analysis was also used to identify the principal components of school effectiveness of private and public elementary schools. The participants of the study were the 182 public and private elementary school principals and teachers from the 20 sampled schools. School effectiveness was measured using the seven correlates of effective schools. On the other hand, the level of school performance was gauged through the National Achievement Test (NAT results for the past three years. The qualitative part of the study focused on the school effectiveness practices and NAT practices of selected private and public elementary schools. The findings of the study revealed that the level of school effectiveness of both private and public elementary schools was excellent. However, test of difference showed that public schools exhibited stronger home-school relations than the private schools. In terms of the level of school performance, public schools perform better than the private schools for the past three years. Significantly, there exists a strong positive relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. The factorial analysis revealed that among all the correlates of school effectiveness, school leadership competency and professional collaboration influenced the performance of both schools. Recommendations of the study can help the government and school officials to plan appropriate strategies in improving the quality of
Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.
This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…
Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
Presents results of a study examining the comparative effects of school (system) determinants on the educational careers of minority students in the Netherlands, drawing on rational choice and empowerment theories. Results indicate the importance of a school policy aimed at improving minority student achievement. Pull-out programs are detrimental,…
Dimmock, Clive; Wildy, Helen
Few studies of school effectiveness focus on curriculum management in secondary schools, especially schools situated in supportive socioeconomic environments. (Many studies have focused on poor, urban, elementary schools.) This paper reports the first part of a research project designed to investigate the link between curriculum and management…
Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a
Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a
Karcher, Michael J
The effect of providing youth school-based mentoring (SBM), in addition to other school-based support services, was examined with a sample of 516 predominately Latino students across 19 schools. Participants in a multi-component, school-based intervention program run by a youth development agency were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) supportive services alone or (2) supportive services plus SBM. Compared to community-based mentoring, the duration of the SBM was brief (averaging eight meetings), partly because the agency experienced barriers to retaining mentors. Intent-to-treat (ITT) main effects of SBM were tested using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and revealed small, positive main effects of mentoring on self-reported connectedness to peers, self-esteem (global and present-oriented), and social support from friends, but not on several other measures, including grades and social skills. Three-way cross-level interactions of sex and school level (elementary, middle, and high school) revealed that elementary school boys and high school girls benefited the most from mentoring. Among elementary school boys, those in the mentoring condition reported higher social skills (empathy and cooperation), hopefulness, and connectedness both to school and to culturally different peers. Among high school girls, those mentored reported greater connectedness to culturally different peers, self-esteem, and support from friends. Findings suggest no or iatrogenic effects of mentoring for older boys and younger girls. Therefore, practitioners coordinating multi-component programs that include SBM would be wise to provide mentors to the youth most likely to benefit from SBM and bolster program practices that help to support and retain mentors.
Duffy, Michael; McDermott, Maura; Percy, Andrew; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M; Fitzgerald, Michael; Moriarty, John
The main objective of this study was to assess psychiatric morbidity among adolescents following the Omagh car bombing in Northern Ireland in 1998. Data was collected within schools from adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years via a self-completion booklet comprised of established predictors of PTSD; type of exposure, initial emotional response, long-term adverse physical problems, predictors derived from Ehlers and Clark's (2000) cognitive model, a PTSD symptoms measure (PDS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Those with more direct physical exposure were significantly more likely to meet caseness on the GHQ and the PDS. The combined pre and peri trauma risk factors highlighted in previous meta-analyses accounted for 20% of the variance in PDS scores but the amount of variance accounted for increased to 56% when the variables highlighted in Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model for PTSD were added. High rates of chronic PTSD were observed in adolescents exposed to the bombing. Whilst increased exposure was associated with increased psychiatric morbidity, the best predictors of PTSD were specific aspects of the trauma ('seeing someone you think is dying'), what you are thinking during the event ('think you are going to die') and the cognitive mechanisms employed after the trauma. As these variables are in principle amenable to treatment the results have implications for teams planning treatment interventions after future traumas.
Rosander, Ulla; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Olsson, Viktoria; Åström, Mikael; Rosander, Pia; Wendin, Karin
Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect children's cognitive function positively, while hunger and thirst during lessons before lunch affect academic performance negatively. This pilot study addresses methodological challenges in studying if a berry smoothie, offered to schoolchildren as a mid-morning beverage, affects academic performance. The objective was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study these effects in a school setting. Therefore, in order to investigate assay sensitivity, 236 Swedish children aged 10-12 years were administered either a berry smoothie (active) or a fruit-based control beverage after their mid-morning break. Both beverages provided 5% of child daily energy intake. In total, 91% of participants completed the study. Academic performance was assessed using the d2 test of attention. Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test in StatXact v 10.3. The results showed that the children consumed less of the active berry smoothie than the control (154 g vs. 246 g). Both beverages increased attention span and concentration significantly (p = 0.000). However, as there was no significant difference (p = 0.938) in the magnitude of this effect between the active and control beverages, the assay sensitivity of the study design was not proven. The effect of the beverages on academic performance was attributed the supplementation of water and energy. Despite careful design, the active smoothie was less accepted than the control. This could be explained by un-familiar sensory characteristics and peer influence, stressing the importance of sensory similarity and challenges to perform a study in school settings. The employed cross-over design did not reveal any effects of bioactive compound consumption on academic performance. In future studies, the experimental set up should be modified or replaced by e.g. the parallel study design, in order to provide conclusive results.
The School Executive Website will be a one-stop, online site for officials who are looking for educational data, best practices, product reviews, school documents, professional opinions, and/or job-related networking. The format of the website is designed in certain sections similar to other current and popular websites, such as Angie's List.com,…
Walther, C; Mende, M; Gaede, L; Müller, U; Machalica, K; Schuler, G
It was the aim of this study to measure the effects over two years of daily sport activity during the school-day on their physical fitness (primary endpoint), motor coordination and blood pressure (secondary endpoints). A total of 232 children from eleven different 6 (th) grade classes were enrolled after informed parental consent. Their mean age was 11.1 ± 0.6 years. Six classes were randomly assigned for intervention (n=141), five as control (n=91). Those of the intervention cohort undertook, for five days weekly during the school year one hour of regulated sport exercise, including 15 min of endurance training. The pupils of the control group undertook customary sport activity (two hours a week). Anthropometric data were recorded and maximal oxygen uptake measured in each pupil, as well as blood pressure and motor coordination at the beginning and at the end of each of the two years of the study. The data were analyzed using the cluster randomization method. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO (2)max) had improved among the intervention group after two years, compared with the controls (3.12 m/kg/min, 95% confindence interval [CI] 0.06-6.19), while improvement in motor coordination just failed to reach statistical significance (3.06, 95% CI -0.17-6.29). There was no significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but a downward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 12.1% to 7.8% in the intervention group. The results indicate that daily physical exercise during school hours should be given greater importance. But it will require a long-term trial to determine whether promotion of increased physical activity at school influences the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors when the pupils reach adulthood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bingley, Paul; Markwardt, Kristoffer; Ehrenstein, Vera
Do parents with more schooling have children with more schooling because of their schooling? To identify the effect on offspring schooling, we study fathers subject to a peacetime military draft lottery in Denmark, a lottery providing exogenous schooling variation. The father-offspring schooling...... correlation is 12 percent after controlling for father cognitive test scores and grandparent schooling. We find that father random assignment to nine months of military service reduces father’s schooling by nine months, implying a return to schooling of 4.9 percent and a reduction in father’s lifetime...
Conflict may occur in any organization (and hence school) and, for schools, conflict management style is a joint activity and the degree of its effectiveness determines the type of impact of conflict on school performance. This empirical study investigates the potential sources of conflict in Greek primary schools, determine appropriate approaches…
Full Text Available Abstract The role of L1 in second/foreign language learning has been the subject of much debate and controversy. This article reports on a piece of research carried out in a junior high school in Isfahan, Iran. This study was conducted to examine the effect of using translation from L1 to L2 on the improvement of EFL learners' language accuracy. To fulfill the purpose of the study, 62 students in grade three of junior high school were chosen by means of administering an experimental made pre-test. The participants were divided into a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group received grammar exercises in translating some phrases and sentences from Persian into English related to the intended grammatical structures during the study period while the control group just did their textbook exercises. At the end, a post-test was given to the students and the mean scores of the two groups were identified. T-test revealed that the treatment had a considerable effect on students' language accuracy.
de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L
Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.
Carbone, Peter M.
Due to the challenges of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, many schools and school districts are implementing after-school tutoring programs to provide students additional instruction to score proficient or better in reading and mathematics. This doctoral study analyzed the effects of the ABC Middle School Educational Assistance Program…
Gasteiger-Klicpera, B.; Knapp, W.; Kucharz, D.; Schabmann, A.; Schmidt, B.
The aim of the present contribution is to evaluate and discuss the impacts of language learning interventions in pre-school children with German as a first or a second language. The sample consisted of 864 children in intervention groups and 294 children as a comparison group within two successive cohorts. The instruments used were the SSV (Grimm…
Blended learning is a teaching technique that utilizes face-to-face teaching and online or technology-based practice in which the learner has the ability to exert some level of control over the pace, place, path, or time of learning. Schools that employ this method of teaching often demonstrate larger gains than traditional face-to-face programs…
Winborn, John Douglas
Lack of proper discipline in schools has long been a major concern of the public. Proposals on how to improve discipline have ranged from the bizarre to the cruel. Educators and administrators must devise alternative punishments to replace traditional methods, such as corporal punishment, suspension, and expulsion, that are frequently ineffective.…
Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin; Baslar, Suleyman
The objective of this study is to analyze and determine whether a developed recycling education program would lead to a positive change in the conceptual understanding of ecological concepts associated with matter cycles by high school students. The research was conducted on 68 high school 10th grade students (47 female and 21 male students). The…
Full Text Available Objective: This research aimed to study the effect of life skill training on mental health of Iranian middle school students.Method: This experimental study was conducted In 2015 on 100 students of city of Ghaemshahr (North of Iran, who were randomly selected and divided into two equal groups of intervention (n = 50 and control (n = 50. Qualified trainers provided eight sessions (two sessions a week for 2 hours of life skills training to the intervention group for one month. The control group did not participate in any training sessions during the same period. Mental health in both groups was assessed by a questionnaire pre- and post-training. Data were analyzed using descriptive and infernal (ANCOVA and paired t-test statistic tests.Results: The average age of the participants in both groups was 13.5±1.01. ANCOVA test results revealed that the average score of violence, addiction, stress and sensation-seeking before and after the training was statistically significant in the intervention group and control groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: Life skills training had positive effects on mental health of the participants. Given the importance of mental health in modern societies, it is necessary for schools to incorporate life skills in their curriculum to support the mental health of adolescents.
A growing number of teachers across the U.S. are comfortable using the Bible as a teaching tool. Public school courses involving study of the Bible have spread to at least 43 states, and at least seven state legislatures have approved laws encouraging some form of Bible study. High schools now offer elective courses on the Bible that adhere to a…
Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.
The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a
Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.
It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…
Effects of a school-based stroke education program on stroke-related knowledge and behaviour modification-school class based intervention study for elementary school students and parental guardians in a Japanese rural area.
Kato, Suzuka; Okamura, Tomonori; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Hino, Tenyu; Wada, Shinichi; Arimizu, Takuro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobashi, Gen; Hirata, Koichi; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo
This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. School class based intervention study. Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons. Stroke knowledge (symptoms, risk factors and attitude towards stroke) and behavioural change for risk factors were assessed at baseline, immediately after the programme and at 3 months. We also evaluated behavioural change for risk factors among parental guardians. The percentage of students with all correct answers for stroke symptoms, risk factors and the recommended response to stroke was significantly increased at 3 months Pbehavioural response to improving risk factors was significantly increased at 3 months compared with baseline (P<0.001). In a rural population with high stroke mortality, stroke education can improve knowledge about stroke in elementary school students and their parental guardians. We conducted the intervention as a part of compulsory education; this study was not a clinical trial. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (M27-026). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
This study focused on the motivations and discernment leading to the transformational leadership approach and showed there is continuing momentum in the area towards mindful engagement to build trust in a school culture. The purpose of the study was to investigate how transformational leaders build a culture through trust and commitment within a…
Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.
Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:
Darraj, Hussain; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Al Sanosi, Rashad; Badedi, Mohammed; Sabai, Abdullah
Depression is a serious mental health disorder and characterized by sadness, loss of interest in activities, and decreased energy. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the school intervention program on depression literacy and stigma among students of secondary schools. A cluster randomized trial will be conducted on sample of 360 students to assess the depression literacy and stigma towards depression before and after a designed intervention educational program. The intervention consists of a package of 2 lectures, 1 video contact, and group discussion of 5 myths about depression, posters, and brochure. The target population consists of all secondary school students in Jazan, where there are 13 secondary schools will be stratified according to sex (6 schools for boys and 7 schools for girls). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of educational intervention programs on increasing depression literacy among students of secondary schools in Jazan City. The expected outcome of this study is to increase the depression literacy rate among high school students in the intervention group.
Cahan, S; Cohen, N
The effect of formal education, as opposed to chronological age, on intelligence development has suffered from inadequate empirical investigation. Most studies of this issue have relied on natural variation in exposure to school among children of the same age, thus confounding differences in schooling with differences in other intelligence-related variables. This difficulty can be overcome by a quasi-experimental paradigm involving comparison between children who differ in both chronological age and schooling. The present study applies this paradigm to the estimation of the independent effects of age and schooling in grades 5 and 6 on raw scores obtained on a variety of general ability tests. The sample included all students in Jerusalem's Hebrew-language, state-controlled elementary schools. The results unambiguously point to schooling as the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age and to the larger effect schooling has on verbal than nonverbal tests. These results contribute to our understanding of the causal model underlying intelligence development and call for reconsideration of the conceptual basis underlying the definition of deviation-IQ scores. Some implications of these results concerning the distinction between intelligence and scholastic achievement, the causal model underlying the development of "crystallized" and "fluid" abilities, and the notion of "culture-fair" tests are discussed.
Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom
This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…
Executive Function, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and School Related Well-Being Did Not Mediate the Effect of School-Based Physical Activity on Academic Performance in Numeracy in 10-Year-Old Children. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK Study
Katrine N. Aadland
Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of 10-year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. Aiming to explain this finding, we investigated the mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being in the relation between the physical activity intervention and child’s performance in numeracy. An ANCOVA model with latent variable structural equation modeling was estimated using data from 360 children (the lower third in academic performance in numeracy at baseline. The model consisted of the three latent factors as mediators; executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being. We found no mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation or school related well-being in the relationship between the ASK intervention and academic performance in numeracy (p ≥ 0.256. Our results suggest that the effect of the intervention on performance in numeracy in the present sample is not explained by change in executive function, behavioral self-regulation, or school related well-being. We suggest this finding mainly could be explained by the lack of effect of the intervention on the mediators, which might be due to an insufficient dose of physical activity.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494.
Executive Function, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and School Related Well-Being Did Not Mediate the Effect of School-Based Physical Activity on Academic Performance in Numeracy in 10-Year-Old Children. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) Study.
Aadland, Katrine N; Aadland, Eivind; Andersen, John R; Lervåg, Arne; Moe, Vegard F; Resaland, Geir K; Ommundsen, Yngvar
Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of 10-year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. Aiming to explain this finding, we investigated the mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being in the relation between the physical activity intervention and child's performance in numeracy. An ANCOVA model with latent variable structural equation modeling was estimated using data from 360 children (the lower third in academic performance in numeracy at baseline). The model consisted of the three latent factors as mediators; executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being. We found no mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation or school related well-being in the relationship between the ASK intervention and academic performance in numeracy ( p ≥ 0.256). Our results suggest that the effect of the intervention on performance in numeracy in the present sample is not explained by change in executive function, behavioral self-regulation, or school related well-being. We suggest this finding mainly could be explained by the lack of effect of the intervention on the mediators, which might be due to an insufficient dose of physical activity. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494.
KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill
Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…
The study examined the impact of effective communication in secondary school administration in Enugu State. It was a descriptive study. The study comprised 659 respondents made up of 28 principals and 631 teachers. The population of the study was obtained through random sampling technique. The instrument used for ...
Wang, Jia; Schweig, Jonathan D.; Herman, Joan L.
Magnet schools are one of the largest sectors of choice schools in the United States. In this study, we explored whether there is heterogeneity in magnet school effects on student achievement by examining the effectiveness of 24 recently funded magnet schools in 5 school districts across 4 states. We used a two-step analysis: First, separate…
The purpose of this research project is to investigate if characteristics of school boards and their administrative control do explain variance among schools in pupil achievement in the cognitive domain. A combination of findings of research on school effectiveness and organizational effectiveness,
Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker
This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…
Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre
We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…
Ehresman, Norman D.; Vincent, Roger D.
Comprehensive work experience and vocational guidance activities were established at the middle school level and their effects on career maturity and attitudes toward school of ninth graders were tested. The project was conducted at the Bowling Green Junior High School (Kentucky) during the academic school year of 1975-76. (The school supports a…
Full Text Available Recent European and North American government policies, implementing new systems of evaluation and accountability, have highlighted the use of performance data to inform judgments about schools and stimulate school improvement. This has led to the implementation of school self-evaluation considered as an effective means to increase school quality and effectiveness. Decentralization of education systems has promoted a broadening of educational evaluation methodologies and a conceptualization of theoretical approaches and research about school effectiveness and improvement.This study presents a self-evaluation model, called the ISSEMod, thought to improve school accountability, combining central control managed by public authorities (external control and the autonomy reserved for schools related to pedagogical, instructional and organizational practices (internal control. Using a sample of 58 Tuscan schools, an empirical and explorative model of school self-evaluation focused on a flexible system of areas and indicators to investigate and analyse school quality, is proposed here.
Vasquez, David Alan
Can the educational effectiveness of physics instruction software for middle schoolers be improved by employing "game elements" commonly found in recreational computer games? This study utilized a selected set of game elements to contextualize and embellish physics word problems with the aim of making such problems more engaging. Game elements used included: (1) a fantasy-story context with developed characters; and (2) high-end graphics and visual effects. The primary purpose of the study was to find out if the added production cost of using such game elements was justified by proportionate gains in physics learning. The theoretical framework for the study was a modified version of Lepper and Malone's "intrinsically-motivating game elements" model. A key design issue in this model is the concept of "endogeneity", or the degree to which the game elements used in educational software are integrated with its learning content. Two competing courseware treatments were custom-designed and produced for the study; both dealt with Newton's first law. The first treatment (T1) was a 45 minute interactive tutorial that featured cartoon characters, color animations, hypertext, audio narration, and realistic motion simulations using the Interactive PhysicsspTM software. The second treatment (T2) was similar to the first except for the addition of approximately three minutes of cinema-like sequences where characters, game objectives, and a science-fiction story premise were described and portrayed with high-end graphics and visual effects. The sample of 47 middle school students was evenly divided between eighth and ninth graders and between boys and girls. Using a pretest/posttest experimental design, the independent variables for the study were: (1) two levels of treatment; (2) gender; and (3) two schools. The dependent variables were scores on a written posttest for both: (1) physics learning, and (2) attitude toward physics learning. Findings indicated that, although
Cunningham, James; Sood, Krishan
This study evaluates the validity of claims that Working Memory (WM) training is an effective and legitimate school-based maths intervention. By analysing the current developments in WM in the fields of neurology and cognitive psychology, this study seeks to analyse their relevance to the classroom. This study analyses memory profiles of children…
Aydinli, Fatma Esen; Çak, Tuna; Kirazli, Meltem Çiğdem; Çinar, Betül Çiçek; Pektaş, Alev; Çengel, Ebru Kültür; Aksoy, Songül
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in early childhood. Almost half of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also experience a variety of motor-related dysfunctions ranging from fine/gross motor control problems to difficulties in maintaining balance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distractors two different auditory distractors namely, relaxing music and white noise on upright balance performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We compared upright balance performance and the involvement of different sensory systems in the presence of auditory distractors between school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=26) and typically developing controls (n=20). Neurocom SMART Balance Master Dynamic Posturography device was used for the sensory organization test. Sensory organization test was repeated three times for each participant in three different test environments. The balance scores in the silence environment were lower in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group but the differences were not statistically significant. In addition to lower balance scores the visual and vestibular ratios were also lower. Auditory distractors affected the general balance performance positively for both groups. More challenging conditions, using an unstable platform with distorted somatosensory signals were more affected. Relaxing music was more effective in the control group, and white noise was more effective in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and the positive effects of white noise became more apparent in challenging conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating balance performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder under the effects of auditory distractors. Although more studies are needed, our results indicate that auditory distractors
Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
We investigate the effects of financial aid on student employment and academic outcomes in high school. We exploit administrative differences in the amount of financial aid received based on timing of birth to identify the causal effects of interest. Specifically, individuals born early...... in a quarter receive less financial aid than comparable individuals born late in the previous quarter. We find that receiving less aid induces individuals to work more during high school. However, we do not find any evidence that receiving less financial aid and thereby working more is associated with any...
Kapel, David E.; And Others
This study investigated possible effects of school choice programs by surveying 200 private schools in large urban areas. The survey instrument requested information on school demography, possible effects of participation in a Choice program, costs, selection of students participating in Choice, and climate and parental involvement. Analysis of…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2014
A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…
Tasgin, Adnan; Tunc, Yunus
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the secondary school students' level of effective participation and their motivation. This study employs a survey consisting of 251 secondary school students from the schools located in Igdir and Erzurum, in East of Turkey. The data of the study were gathered through "Effective…
Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.
Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…
Ncontsa, Vusumzi Nelson; Shumba, Almon
We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design…
Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.
Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills
The widely accepted notion that the management of resources in schools involves merely strategic decisions about the deployment of finances, staff, and materials must be contested. The school effectiveness movement ignores the social and political context of schools and, through emphasis upon superficial managerial matters, teaches pupils to…
McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine
Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)
Perez, Cassandra Leigh; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The purpose of this report was to collect a summary of information on instructional programs for bilingual students in Irving Independepent School District (Texas), so the parents of these students as well as staff members could evaluate the existing bilingual programs. The effectiveness of improving English-as-a-Second-Language skills for…
Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.
What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school ...
Full Text Available The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention.And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2 (SE 0.09 and 0.01 (SE 0.11 in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82 ± 0.09 for BMI, 0.10 ± 0.11 for BAZ. No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively.The school-based integrated obesity intervention program was cost-effectiveness
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako
To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school.The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval. The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year; 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report.For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems.In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these
Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki
Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school. The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval). The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year) and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year); 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education) and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report. For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems). Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems. In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these associations could
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Palmer, Neal A.; Kull, Ryan M.; Greytak, Emily A.
For many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, intolerance and prejudice make school a hostile and dangerous place. This study examined simultaneously the effects of a negative school climate on achievement and the role that school-based supports--safe school policies, supportive school personnel, and gay-straight alliance (GSA)…
Damle, Satyawan G; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika
To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.
Fischer, H Felix; Binting, Sylvia; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Heusser, Peter; Hueck, Christoph; Keil, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia
It is speculated that attending Steiner schools, whose pedagogical principles include an account for healthy psycho-physical development, may have long-term beneficial health effects. We examined whether the current health status differed between former attendees of German Steiner schools and adults from the general population. Furthermore, we examined factors that might explain those differences. We included former Steiner school attendees from 4 schools in Berlin, Hanover, Nuremberg and Stuttgart and randomly selected population controls. Using a self-report questionnaire we assessed sociodemographics, current and childhood lifestyle and health status. Outcomes were self-reports on 16 diseases: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, depression and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, participants rated the symptom burden resulting from back pain, cold symptoms, headache, insomnia, joint pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and imbalance. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for each outcome. 1136 Steiner school attendees and 1746 controls were eligible for analysis. Both groups were comparable regarding sex, age and region, but differed in nationality and educational status. After adjusting for possible confounders, we found statistically significant effects of Steiner school attendance for osteoarthritis (OR 0.69 [0.49-0.97]) and allergic rhinitis (OR 0.77, [0.59-1.00]) as well as for symptom burden from back pain (OR 0.80, [0.64-1.00]), insomnia (OR 0.65, [0.50-0.84]), joint pain (OR 0.62, [0.48-0.82]), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 0.76, [0.58-1.00]) and imbalance (OR 0.60, [0.38-0.93]). The risk of most examined diseases did not differ between former Steiner school attendees and the general population after adjustment for
Yulianti, K.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.
The Indonesian government through the Ministry of Education has begun to emphasize the importance of parental involvement and community participation in children's education. However, there is a lack of research on parental involvement in Indonesia. The aim of the study is to provide insights into
Baars, Martine; van Gog, Tamara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; de Bruin, Anique; Paas, Fred
Research on expository text has shown that the accuracy of students' judgments of learning (JOLs) can be improved by instructional interventions that allow students to test their knowledge of the text. The present study extends this research, investigating whether allowing students to test the
Broome, Jeffrey L.
The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate…
Tetteh, Godson Ayertei
Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the student's study time and the learning process in the higher education system by adapting the total quality management (TQM) principles-process approach. Contrary to Deming's (1982) constancy of purpose to improve the learning process, some students in higher education postpone their…
Konishi, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Yasuo; Hymel, Shelley; Waterhouse, Terry
This study examined how student reports of bullying were related to different dimensions of school climate, at both the school and the student levels, using a contextual effects model in a two-level multilevel modeling framework. Participants included 48,874 secondary students (grades 8 to 12; 24,244 girls) from 76 schools in Western Canada.…
Bedard, Kelly; Do, Chan
While nearly half of all school districts have adopted middle schools, there is little quantitative evidence of the efficacy of this educational structure. We estimate the impact of moving from a junior high school system, where students stay in elementary school longer, to a middle school system for on-time high school completion. This is a…
A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement
Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie
Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…
Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung
A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…
Bronfenbrenner, Urie; Hamilton, Stephen F.
This report focuses on the learning and development of primary and secondary school children, employing an "ecology of human development" model. This model is defined as involving the scientific study of the accommodation between growing human beings and the changing immediate settings in which they live and learn. The conceptual framework for the…
... teachers and student s toward the roles of school library in achieving effective performance, school librarians are not recognized as a stakeholder in promoting students academic performance, school librarians are not part of the school management and curriculum planning team. Establishing and adequate management ...
Han, Eun Ok; Kim, Jae Rok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The results of this study, suggest public communication to promote the use of radiation as follows: first, suitable information for the recipient's perception patterns should be provided, as there is a difference in risk perception and acceptance between the experts and the public. Thus, information on the necessity of nuclear power should be provided to the public, while information based on technical risks is provided by the experts. Second, since the levels of perception, knowledge, and attitudes increased highly for sectors which use radiation after the class, classes should be provided continuously to increase students' perception, knowledge, and attitude, which are all preemptive variables which induce positive behavioral changes. Third, since the seven sectors which use radiation are highly correlated, arguments for the necessity of other sectors should be based on the necessity of the medical sector.
Hammer, Patricia Cahape
This is the first in a series of reports based on a research study, Developing Effective Professional Learning Communities in Catalyst Schools, conducted between February 2015 and June 2016. "Catalyst schools" were elementary- and secondary-level schools selected to participate in a pilot project intended to explore how best to support…
Peariso, Jamon Frederick
This mixed methods descriptive and causal-comparative study investigates what instructional leadership behaviors effective California high school principals have and what their beliefs are in regards to pedagogy, related issues, and professional issues, either constructivist or instructivist in nature, in the environment of the current NCLB…
Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret
Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…
Battjes-Fries, M.C.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Renes, R.J.; Meester, H.J.; Veer, van 't P.
Objective To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme ‘Taste Lessons’ on children’s behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. Design In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected
Lezotte, Lawrence W.
This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…
Miskel, Cecil; And Others
The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that schools with more participative processes and less structure have higher levels of perceived organizational effectiveness, teacher job satisfaction, and student achievement than schools with less participative climates and more structure. A sample of 114 school units and 1,632 teachers…
Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert Peter Maria
This article examines whether variation in school effectiveness in terms of reducing bullying can be attributed to differences in their classroom and school learning environment. All 6th grade students (n = 1504) of 35 primary schools in Cyprus participated in this study. The revised Olweus
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James
Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027
都, 基鳳; 全, 宰一; 野島, 一彦; Do, Giebong; Jun, Jaeil; Nojima, Kazuhiko
The purpose of this study is to prepare effective measures to successfully cope with school violence by examining student experiences of school violence and its causes. The participants were middle school students in Korea. An investigation was made into how male and female students are different from each other in patterns of violence experienced or committed and the causes of that violence. The results are as follows: 1) Students who were victims of school violence suffered more than those ...
Ono, K.; Ban, N.; Ojima, M.; Yoshinaga, S.; Akahane, K.; Fujii, K.; Toyota, M.; Hamada, F.; Kouriyama, C.; Akiba, S.; Kunugita, N.; Shimada, Y.; Kai, M.
A nationwide survey was conducted in Japan on paediatric CT among children of public health and school nurses to examine a possibility for a follow-up study on radiation effects. A survey questionnaire was sent out to 3173 public primary and junior high schools and 317 public health centres during October to December in 2009. According to the collected responses, 410 (16.2 %) children received the CT scans and the total number of CT scans was 585. Most of respondents expressed a high interest in radiation health effects and an intent to participate in the epidemiological study that will follow-up the health conditions of children. This study provides information to discuss the feasibility of the epidemiological study on health effects in children who received CT scans. (authors)
Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F
A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.
Pojednic, Rachele; Peabody, Stephanie; Carson, Shelley; Kennedy, Mary; Bevans, Katherine; Phillips, Edward M
Most childhood physical activity interventions focus on reducing childhood obesity with varying success, indicating that body mass index (BMI) may be a limited marker of health in children. To better understand overall childhood health and wellbeing, this study is investigating BOKS (Build Our Kids Success), an established ongoing before-school physical activity program, to evaluate students' physical health, mental health, cognitive capacity, and academic performance. The study is a non-randomized controlled trial with 26 elementary and middle schools in 3 Massachusetts communities, including first through eighth grade (aged 5-14) students, their parents, and teachers. Data collection is occurring during the 2015-2016 school year. Physical fitness is being assessed via 400m run and anthropometrics via height and weight measures (BMI). Psychosocial outcomes are being assessed via student, parent, and teacher survey and include nutrition, daily activities, emotional and relationship scales, bullying and victimization, vitality and energy, student engagement, stress, positive affect, self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Academic performance is reported by grades. Statistical methods include a psychometric evaluation of study measures, Pearson correlations, Student's t-tests, ANOVA/ANCOVA and multivariate linear regression including multilevel modeling analyses to account for the hierarchical organization of the data. This study is investigating a before school physical activity program on parameters of physical health, mental health, cognitive capacity, and academic performance by employing a novel triad approach, correlating the input of the child, parent, and teacher. Outcomes will evaluate the effectiveness of a before school physical activity program in elementary and middle schools and potentially provide valuable information for schools looking to institute innovative physical activity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Bullying perpetration and victimization is associated with significant academic, psychosocial and health related problems among adolescents. There is a need to develop effective interventions to prevent bullying among adolescents, especially in low and middle income countries. This paper presents the study protocol to develop, and evaluate the effect of multi-component school based prevention program for bullying in India. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Methods: The study will be conducted among 846 students of grade 7th and 8th in the intervention and control schools in Chandigarh, Union Territory, North India. A government and a private school will be selected purposively in each of the intervention and control arm. The intervention is based on socio-ecological model, and will be administered at individual, relationship (parents and teachers and school level. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of students experiencing any kind of bullying (bullying, victimization, or both, in each study arm. The effectiveness of the intervention will be measured by performing difference in difference analysis and generalized estimating equations. Expected impact for public health: Bullying is an aggressive behaviour with significant morbidities, including psychological or physical trauma, affecting individuals not only in their adolescence, but also later in their adulthood. This quasi-experimental study is expected to provide evidence on whether multi-component bullying prevention intervention program, can reduce the burden of bullying perpetration and victimization among school adolescents in India. The results of the study will add in the exiting literature on bullying intervention program, especially, from the low middle-income countries, as there are limited studies available on this topic in these countries.
Galand, Benoît; Baudoin, Noémie; Hospel, Virginie; 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology
Rationale. Most studies about bullying focused on individual characteristics of bullies and victims. Only very few studies have investigated the effect of school and classroom factors on bullying. These studies indicated that between-classroom variance is higher than between-school variance. From theoretical and practical points of view, one key issue is to know if those school and classroom effects are related to educational practices rather than to the composition of the student body. At th...
Wildy, Helen; Wallace, John
Reports an impact study of the Western Australian School Leadership Program, a development program for administrators. Questionnaires completed by 357 program participants and 287 colleagues indicated the impact of the training on leader behavior in schools. The effect was enhanced when several leaders from the same school had participated. (SLD)
The purpose of this study is to determine the aim of primary school administrators' use of humor and the organizational effects of their use of humor according to the opinions of the school administrators and teachers. The study was modelled as a multiple holistic case study. The study group consists of 9 administrators and 12 teachers working in…
Full Text Available Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining to enhanced well-being, school-based competence and decreased levels of stress and anxiety. However, these studies have typically examined teacher’s perceptions of change or quantitative outcomes without consideration of children’s experiences. The present study employs an interpretative qualitative approach to gain a greater understanding of children’s experiences of mindfulness in dealing with stress. A 5-week school-based mindfulness program was performed with 63 primary school children at risk of social exclusion in education. Interviews were undertaken with 16 children and 2 teachers. Thematic analysis identified five key themes labelled conceptualisation of stress, awareness, self-regulation, classroom regulations and addressing future stress. Quantitative measures of children’s perceived stress levels evaluated at baseline and follow-up also revealed significant reductions post intervention. These findings offer support for the incorporation of mindfulness interventions into the school curriculum, as a means of empowering children to address stress in their lives and improving full participation in the education system.
A large scale study of the assessment of the social environment of middle and secondary schools: the validity and utility of teachers' ratings of school climate, cultural pluralism, and safety problems for understanding school effects and school improvement.
Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie
Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young adolescents. Teachers' climate ratings exhibited a robust dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability over 1-and 2-year time spans. Teachers' climate ratings were also found to be related consistently with students' ratings. In three large-scale samples of schools, teachers' climate ratings were associated significantly and consistently with students' performance on standardized tests of academic achievement, and with indexes of their academic, behavioral, and socio-emotional adjustment.
Full Text Available Influenza A (H1N1 outbreaks have become common at schools in China since 2009. However, the effects of common countermeasures for school influenza outbreak have not been quantified so far, including isolation, vaccination, antivirus and school closure. We conducted a mathematically modeling study to address this unsolved issue.We collected data of all small-scale school outbreaks caused by influenza A that occurred in Changsha city between January 2009 and December 2013. Two outbreaks (one was in 2009 and the other one was in 2013 were used for simulating the effects of single and combined use of common measures, including isolation (Iso, therapeutics (T, prophylactics (P, vaccinating 70% of susceptible individuals prior to the outbreak (VP70, vaccinating 70% of susceptible individuals every day during the outbreak (VD70 and school closure of one week (S1w. A susceptible-exposed-infectious/asymptomatic-recovered (SEIR model was developed to implement the simulations based on the natural history of influenza A.When no control measures are taken, the influenza is expected to spread quickly at school for the selected outbreak in 2013; the outbreak would last 56 days, and the total attack rate (TAR would reach up to 46.32% (95% CI: 46.12-46.52. Of all single control measures, VP70 is most effective to control the epidemic (TAR = 8.68%, followed by VP50, VD70, VD50 and Iso. The use of VP70 with any other measure can reduce TAR to 3.37-14.04% and showed better effects than any other combination of two kinds of measures. The best two-measure combination is 'S1w+VP70' (TAR = 3.37%, DO = 41 days. All combinations of three kinds of measures were not satisfactory when Vp70 and VD70 were excluded. The most effective three-intervention combination was 'Iso+S1w+VP70' (with TAR = 3.23%. When VP70 or VD70 is included, the combinations of four or five kinds of interventions are very effective, reducing TAR to lower than 5%. But the TAR of combination of 'T
Morinaj, Julia; Scharf, Jan; Grecu, Alyssa; Hadjar, Andreas; Hascher, Tina; Marcin, Kaja
Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students' educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly developed assessment instrument, the School Alienation Scale (SALS), to measure school alienation among primary and secondary school students.…
This study investigated the effect of family type on Secondary School students\\' performance in physics in Ilorin metropolis. The sample comprised one hundred Senior Secondary II students from four schools in Ilorin metropolis. The instrument for the study titled \\"Effect of Family type on Students\\' Performance in Physics ...
Smart, Kristal Carey
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between principal leadership style and school culture and to determine what effect both factors have on teacher effectiveness. This study was based on the perceptions of teachers and principals in Title I elementary schools (Grades 1-5), with high ESL populations in 10 schools within a West…
Wood, Charles L.
Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75
Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter
The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…
Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra
This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984-2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability.
Font-Rivera, Miriam Josefa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of state-level testing on the instructional practices and beliefs of middle school science teachers. The study addressed four questions: (a) What are the beliefs of middle school science teachers regarding the pressure to improve their students' test scores? (b) What are the beliefs of middle school science teachers about how standardized tests influence their class time? (c) What are the attitudes of middle school science teachers toward state testing? and (d) What commonalities emerge from teachers' responses about the state tests? The sample was composed of 86 middle school science teachers from states that have state mandated testing programs in the area of science. Descriptive statistics and an inductive analysis were performed to answer the research questions. Teachers reported that they and their students were under a great amount of pressure to increase test scores from central office administrators and from the school principal. Teachers reported spending considerable time on certain test preparation activities throughout the school year. Teachers reported that the three strongest influences in instructional planning were reviewing the content and skills covered on the state tests prior to the test administration, having to prepare students for state tests, and adjusting the curriculum sequence based on the content tested by the state tests. Multiple-choice items were reported to be the most often used assessment strategy. Teachers reported that state-mandated tests were not very helpful because the test results presented an inaccurate picture of student learning. The categories formed from the teachers' written comments reflected the findings of the survey questions. Comments concentrated on the negative effects of the tests in the areas of pressure, overemphasis on the test, accountability, reduction of instructional time due to test preparation, and negative uses of state-mandated tests
McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.
There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…
Zenke, Larry L.
This paper describes a plan to improve school effectiveness in the Tulsa (Oklahoma) Public Schools by incorporating instruction in thinking skills. The program selected by the school district was the Strategic Reasoning Program, based on Albert Upton's Design for Thinking and J. P. Guilford's Structure of the Intellect. The Strategic Reasoning…
An action research method, consisting of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, and evaluation, was used by the Saskatoon Schools (Canada) to facilitate school self-diagnosis and problem solving. The organizational model that helped categorize research findings on school effectiveness and innovation is explored in this article. (DF)
Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu
Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post
Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…
Nellums, Michael W.
The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…
Stafford, Megan Rose; Cooper, Mick; Barkham, Michael; Beecham, Jeni; Bower, Peter; Cromarty, Karen; Fugard, Andrew J B; Jackson, Charlie; Pearce, Peter; Ryder, Rebekah; Street, Cathy
One in ten children in Britain have been identified as experiencing a diagnosable mental health disorder. School-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) may help young people identify, address, and overcome psychological distress. Data from four pilot trials suggest that SBHC may be clinically effective. However, a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a robust test of its effectiveness, to assess its cost-effectiveness, and to determine the process of change. The Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness Trial of Humanistic Counselling in Schools (ETHOS) is a two-arm, parallel-group RCT comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of SBHC with Pastoral Care as Usual (PCAU) in school settings. Eligibility criteria for young people include being between 13 and 16 years of age and experiencing moderate to severe levels of emotional distress. Participants are randomised to receive either SBHC or PCAU. SBHC is delivered in up to 10 weekly, individual sessions in their school with a qualified, experienced counsellor who has also received training using a clinical practice manual. Adherence to the SBHC model is assessed by a sub-team of auditors and in clinical supervision. PCAU consists of the schools' pre-existing systems for supporting the emotional health and well-being of students. The primary outcomes are psychological distress measured using the Young Person's Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (YP-CORE) and costs evaluated using the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Secondary outcomes include psychological difficulties, levels of depression, anxiety and self-esteem, well-being, school engagement, educational outcomes and achievement of personal goals. Qualitative interviews with participants, parents and school staff will look to identify the mechanisms of change in SBHC. Researchers administering the measures are blind to allocation. The trial requires n = 306 participants (n = 153 in each group), with 90% power to detect a
Eliza S Y Lai
Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate
Baker, Constance M.; And Others
Literature review on organizational effectiveness focuses on major assessment models: goal attainment, human relations, open systems, internal processes, culture, and life cycle. A review of studies of nursing school effectiveness is used to present an agenda for nursing research. (SK)
Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick
The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…
The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…
Lipowski, Stacy; Ariel, Robert; Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John
The main goal of the current experiments was to examine the influence of monitoring and reward on elementary school children's study decisions. First and third graders studied names for 10 animals (e.g., "The elephant's name is Suzy") and then were given a cued recall test on which they were shown the animal and needed to recall the name. Next, they were given an opportunity to restudy the animal-name pairs, and some of these pairs were slated to earn a reward (a sticker) if correctly recalled. In Experiment 1, both groups of children were (a) more likely to restudy previously unrecalled pairs than previously recalled pairs and (b) more likely to restudy pairs that were slated to receive a reward. In Experiment 2, we further explored children's use of reward using a forced-choice selection task. Namely, during selection, pairs were presented in dyads where one pair was slated for a reward and the other pair was not, and the children could choose only one pair from each dyad for restudy. Both first and third graders chose to restudy pairs slated for a reward. Thus, even young elementary school children consider both rewards and performance monitoring when regulating their learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dionisio, Rui Meira
The randomized research study assessed the effect of an inquiry-based science (IBS) program on non-cognitive outcomes and academic achievement. The study was the result of a grant that was awarded by Professional Resources in Science and Mathematics (PRISM), a program affiliated with Montclair State University in conjunction with Bristol-Myers Squibb, and part of the New Jersey Statewide Systemic Initiative (NJSSI). The NJSSI is a partnership of schools, districts, colleges and universities, science centers, businesses, and museums dedicated to improving the teaching and learning of science, mathematics, and technology in New Jersey. The quantitative research study utilized an IBS instructional program titled Science and Technology Concepts for Middle Schools (STC/MS) and was implemented in two middle schools within the same suburban school district. This study examined the effect of IBS classrooms on learning outcomes specifically related to gender and special education. Evaluation of student learning outcomes was conducted through the administration of three instruments: the Academic Self-Concept (ASC) scale, unit assessments, and NJASK 8 Science. The ASC scale and unit assessments were administered as a pretest and posttest in IBS classrooms. NJASK 8 Science scale scores were obtained through reporting of student performance data from the New Jersey Department of Education to the district. The quantitative analysis in this study provided evidence that IBS classrooms had a positive effect on academic achievement. Overall, students in IBS classrooms performed better than students in traditional classrooms on unit assessments. Additionally, male students and special education students in IBS classrooms outperformed students in traditional classrooms on unit assessments.
Mũkoma, Wanjirũ; Flisher, Alan J
The concept of 'health promoting schools' has been embraced internationally as an effective way of promoting the health of children, adolescents, and the wider school community. It is only recently that attempts have been made to evaluate health promoting schools. This paper reviews evaluations of health promoting schools and draws useful evaluation methodology lessons. The review is confined to school-based interventions that are founded explicitly on the concept of the health promoting school and employ the concept beyond one school domain. We included nine evaluations in this review. Seven of these were published in the peer reviewed scientific literature. Two were unpublished reports. One study was a randomized controlled trial, while a quasi-experimental research design with comparison schools was used in three studies. With three exceptions, combinations of quantitative and qualitative data were collected. There was evidence that the health promoting school has some influence on various domains of health for the school community. It is also possible to integrate health promotion into the school curriculum and policies successfully. However, the evaluation of health promoting schools is complex. We discuss some of the methodological challenges of evaluating health promoting schools and make suggestions for improving future evaluations.
Busch, Vincent; Leeuw, Rob J. de; Schrijvers, A.J.P.
Background: Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural
Alayadi, Haya; Sabbah, Wael; Bernabé, Eduardo
Dental caries is one of the most common diseases affecting children in Saudi Arabia despite the availability of free dental services. School-based dental screening could be a potential intervention that impacts uptake of dental services, and subsequently, dental caries' levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative approaches for school-based dental screening in promoting dental attendance and reducing untreated dental caries among primary schoolchildren. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing referral of screened-positive children to a specific treatment facility (King Saud University Dental College) against conventional referral (information letter advising parents to take their child to a dentist). A thousand and ten children in 16 schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, will be recruited for the trial. Schools (clusters) will be randomly selected and allocated to either group. Clinical assessment for dental caries will be conducted at baseline and after 12 months by dentists using the World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Data on sociodemographic, behavioural factors and children's dental visits will be collected through structured questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome is the change in number of teeth with untreated dental caries 12 months after referral. Secondary outcomes are the changes in the proportions of children having untreated caries and of those who visited the dentist over the trial period. This project should provide high level of evidence on the clinical benefits of school dental screening. The findings should potentially inform policies related to the continuation/implementation of school-based dental screening in Saudi Arabia. ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: NCT03345680 . Registered on 17 November 2017.
Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale
This study analyses principals' managerial competencies for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Anambra State. The study was conducted in Anambra State. The study population comprised 257 principals in public secondary schools in the State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A 24 items researcher developed…
Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.
Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pmental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support. PMID:26921275
Andersen, Simon Calmar; Serritzlew, Søren
We examine whether competition from private schools improves public school performance and expenditure. It is difficult methodologically to isolate the effect of competition, but we use new measures of competition in both the public and the private school sector and a data set comprising detailed...... background information on more than 35,000 public school students in the Danish voucher system. This design provides a relatively firm support for the conclusion that competition does not improve achievement of public school students but that it increases public expenditure per student. Finally, we argue...
Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas
The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…
The aim of the study was to determine how secondary school teachers in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria assess their school effectiveness in terms of learning and teaching, planning and organizing teaching, guidance and counselling, leadership and ethos. Three hypotheses were raised. The population of study consisted of ...
Christian, Meaghan S; El Evans, Charlotte; Conner, Mark; Ransley, Joan K; Cade, Janet E
The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children's fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as "Partner Schools" and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as "Associate Schools". Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention "Associate Schools" or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children's knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school's gardening activities. The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children's diets and school based interventions. ISRCTN11396528.
Ali Arshad Riahi
Full Text Available Abstract : The theory of the effects of all human souls on external objects, from the viewpoint of Copenhagen School (in Quantum Physics, has made physicists deny the existence of two separate realms of the observer and the observed; they claim that causality is meaningless and profess that it is impossible to recognize the object. While, on the other hand, Mulla Ṣadra believes that the effect of soul on external objects is limited to the souls of prophets as well as saints and, barring evil eye or supplications, there is no such effect in others. In this article we argue that, based on Mulla Ṣadra’s teachings and philosophical doctrine, it is actually possible to generalize this effect to other human souls. Consequently, it is impossible to have an accurate recognition of the causes of events if causality is considered meaningless. In addition, it is feasible to have cognition about these causes of events through gnostic intuition.Keywords : human soul, external objects, Copenhagen School, Mulla Ṣadra, unity, causality Abstrak : Teori tentang efek jiwa seluruh manusia terhadap objek-objek eksternal, dari sudut pandang Madzhab Copenhagen (dalam Fisika Kuantum, telah membuat para fisikawan mengingkari keterpisahan dua alam, yaitu subjek dan objek; berdasarkan keyakinan ini, mereka mengklaim bahwa [hukum] kausalitas menjadi gugur dan tidak berguna, dan mereka juga percaya bahwa mengetahui sepenuhnya objek adalah tidak mungkin. Sementara, di tempat lain, Mulla Ṣadra meyakini bahwa jiwa yang berefek terhadap objek-objek eksternal terbatas pada jiwa para nabi dan orang-orang suci. Ia juga meyakini bahwa tidak berefeknya jiwa-jiwa manusia biasa kecuali pada perbuatan-perbuatan seperti yang ia sebut sebagai ‘evil eye’ dan doa. Dalam artikel ini, kami berupaya membuktikan bahwa, berdasarkan ajaran dan doktrin filsafat Mulla Ṣadra, pengaruh (efek jiwa manusia dapat digeneralisir. Dengan demikian tidak mungkin untuk mengetahui secara
Hammond, B; Ali, Y; Fendler, E; Dolan, M; Donovan, S
Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for elementary school students. This study involved 5 individual school districts, 16 individual schools, and more than 6000 students in Delaware, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. Individual schools in each district were paired into product and control groups. In the product group schools, an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the students and staff when entering and leaving the classroom. Absenteeism due to infection was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The overall reduction in absenteeism due to infection in the schools included in this study was 19.8% for schools that used an alcohol gel hand sanitizer compared with the control schools (P sanitizer was used. Elementary school absenteeism due to infection is significantly reduced when an alcohol gel hand sanitizer is used in the classroom as part of a hand hygiene program.
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability participate less in both recreational and competitive sports. A variety of intervention studies have shown positive, but only temporary, effects of training programs. Next to issues related to the chronic condition itself, various personal and environmental factors play a key role in determining the extent to which they participate in sports or physical activities. Due to these barriers, sport participation in the immediate after-school hours seems to be a feasible solution to get these children and adolescents physical active structurally. To investigate if an after school sport program can sustain the positive effects of an intervention, a standardized interval training will be given to improve physical fitness levels. High-intensity Interval Training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training in improving physical fitness in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, the Sport-2-Stay-Fit study will investigate whether after school sport participation can increase the sustainability of a HIT program in children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability. The Sport-2-Stay-Fit study is a clinical controlled trial. A total of 74 children and adolescents in the age of 6-19 years with a chronic disease or physical disability will be included. This could be either a cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disorder. Both children and adolescents who are ambulatory or propelling a manual wheelchair will be included. All participants will follow a HIT program of eight weeks to improve their physical fitness level. Thereafter, the
Dossenbach, Chris Payton
The purpose of this mixed-methods capstone is to investigate the effectiveness of the math acceleration initiative that began in the studied school district in 2009 and the impact the initiative has had on mathematics enrollment at the high school level. This research project followed cohorts of students during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school…
Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Renes, Reint-Jan; Meester, Hante J; van 't Veer, Pieter
To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on children's behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected at baseline, four weeks and six months after the intervention in both the intervention and control group. Children completed consecutively three questionnaires in which knowledge, awareness, skills, attitude, emotion, subjective norm and intention towards the two target behaviours were assessed. Teachers implemented on average a third of the programme activities. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare individual changes in the determinants in the intervention group with those in the control group, corrected for children's gender and age. Effect sizes were expressed as Cohen's d. Dutch elementary schools. Forty-nine classes (1183 children, 9-12 years old) in grades 5-8 of twenty-one elementary schools. The intervention group showed a higher increase in knowledge (d=0·26, Peating healthy and a variety of foods. Full and repeated implementation of Taste Lessons in subsequent years might result in larger effects.
Klakk, Heidi; Chinapaw, Mai; Heidemann, Malene
Strategies for combating increasing childhood obesity is called for. School settings have been pointed out as potentially effective settings for prevention. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of four additional Physical Education (PE) lessons/week in primary schools on body...
Panigrahi, Manas Ranjan
The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head…
Educators seek to guide students through appropriate programs and courses that prepare them for future success, in more advanced coursework and in other challenges of life. Some middle schools offer Challenge, or honors, courses for students who have demonstrated high ability. High schools often offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, which are…
Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Van Yperen, Tom Albert; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus
Purpose. Many unhealthy behavioral habits often originate in adolescence. In the literature, the school-based whole school approach is stated be the most promising way to promote healthy behavior. Herein, interventions are evidence based and integrated into the curriculum, while embedded in
Lijster, G.P.A. de; Felten, H.; Kok, G.; Kocken, P.L.
Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual
Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh
This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity.
Rozema, A. D.; Mathijssen, J. J. P.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Van Oers, J. A. M.
Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of
Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools. ... engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, ... and teachers in their perception regarding the effects of teachers classroom ...
Boini, Stephanie; Colin, Regis; Grzebyk, Michel
This study aimed to determine the effect of occupational safety and health (OSH) education during formal schooling on the incidence of workplace injuries (WIs) in young people starting their careers. We hypothesised that young people who had received OSH education during their schooling would have fewer WIs than those who received no OSH education. Secondary objectives focused on the effect of 'first aid at work' training during schooling and the conditions encountered on arrival in the company (occupational hazard information, safety training and job task training) on WI occurrence. Prospective cohort study. From 2009 to 2012, French apprentices and students at the end of their schooling and starting their careers were included. Occurrence of WIs. At the time of inclusion, information about school courses and personal characteristics were collected, and subsequent half-yearly contacts gathered information relating to work and personal data. During the 2-year follow-up, WIs were directly reported by participants and were identified by searching the French National Health Insurance Funds' databases listing compulsory WI declarations. 755 participants reported holding 1290 jobs. During follow-up, 158 WIs were identified, corresponding to an incident rate of 0.12 (0.10 to 0.14) WIs per full-time worker. Subjects who reported having received OSH education at school had two times less WIs than those declaring not having received OSH education (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.51, 0.00 to 0.98). A lower WI risk was observed for participants who received the 'first aid at work' training (IRR=0.68, 0.00 to 0.98). The conditions on arrival in company were not associated with WIs occurrence. In France, the OSH education provided to apprentices and students is mostly broader than the specific risks related to future jobs. Our results highlight the advantages of reinforcing this approach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article
Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Christopher E Anderson,2 Chelsea Hylton,3 Jeanette Gustat2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3Project Peaceful Warriors, New Orleans, LA, USA Objective: To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom.Methods: A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions.Results: In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL (p-value 0.001 and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL (p-value 0.01. Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions (p-value <0.05. Perceived barriers to introducing yoga to the classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high
Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack
There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…
This study evaluated the effect of an AIDS education program on deaf secondary school students' knowledge, attitude and perceived susceptibility to AIDS using peer education. Two secondary schools matched for ownership (government), composition (mixture of hearing and deaf) and teaching arrangement (separate ...
Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…
Thacker, Jerry L.
Describes a study of an Indiana magnet school's effects on student achievement. The school has a diverse student body and offers programs in foreign languages and cultures, economics, politics, history, ecology, and social systems. On the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, the group of 560 students performed significantly better than they had…
Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle
In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the district effectiveness literature. It begins by summarizing the school effectiveness research, the correlates of effective schools, and the conceptual and methodological characteristics of this field. It then describes the findings from a review of 50 studies of district effectiveness, the most…
Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Hofman, Roelande H.
Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different student populations were observed. Conclusions: The…
Arman; Thalib, Syamsul Bachri; Manda, Darman
This study aims at analyzing the effect of the competence of school supervisors and school principals on work motivation and performance of Junior High School teachers in Maros Regency. This research was a quantitative research by using survey approach. This approach was used because it is adjusted to the nature and assumptions of the study in…
Yamamura, Sombo; Ohnuki, Maromi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi
Recently increased number of elementary school pupils brings drinks from home for their hydration at school and this phenomenon indicates the change of the role of water supply at schools. In order to investigate the potential causes and the structure of the problem, an online survey targeting mothers of grade-schoolers was carried out, taking account of psychological factors of mothers as well as their decision making process. In the questionnaire preparation, latent variables and observable variables were assumed. The identified results include: difference exists on people's choice of drinking water; more parents in western Japan wish pupils bring drinks and some parents in eastern Japan wish the same. Covariance structure analysis identified a causalmodel; in which parents' frustration to schools associated with decreased reliability to tap water cause parents' advice to pupils take drink from home. Policy makers are expected to make the most of the result of analysis.
Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell; Dickson, Kelly; Hinds, Kate; Patton, George; Bonell, Chris
For three decades there have been reports that the quality of schools affects student health. The literature is diverse and reviews have addressed different aspects of how the school environment may affect health. This paper is the first to synthesise this evidence using a review of reviews focusing on substance-use, violence and sexual-health. Twelve databases were searched. Eleven included reviews were quality-assessed and synthesised narratively. There is strong evidence that schools' success in engaging students is associated with reduced substance use. There is little evidence that tobacco-control policies and school sexual-health clinics on their own are associated with better outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton
The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…
Full Text Available Background: Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural domains simultaneously via a combination of education, creating a healthy environment and introducing healthy behavioural policies. Additionally, extensive partnerships are formed between schools, parents, neighbourhoods and youth health authorities to coordinate health promotion efforts.Study design and data collection methods: The intervention will be implemented at two secondary schools. Results will be compared with two control schools (n≈1500. The intervention's effectiveness in changing student behaviours as well as physical and psychosocial health status along with qualitative lessons learned on the integration of youth health care services and school health education practices are the main aimed outcomes of this study. Data are collected via a mixed methods design combining an annual youth health (behaviour monitor with a qualitative process evaluation via interviews with key stakeholders.Data analysis: A multilevel analysis is performed combined with a systematic analysis of qualitative interview data.Conclusions: This study will produce an evaluation of a comprehensive health promoting school intervention that combines an integrated approach of schools, neighbourhoods, families and youth health services to improve adolescent health.
Relatively little research has explored whether schools differ in their effectiveness for different group of pupils (e.g. by ethnicity, poverty or gender), for different curriculum subjects (e.g. English, mathematics or science) or over time (different cohorts). This paper uses multilevel modelling to analyse the national test results at age 7 and…
Our Children, 1998
Most effective schools share a number of key characteristics, including clear-cut goals and objectives, adequate funding and financial management, quality academic programs, valid assessment programs, parent and family involvement, teacher and staff development, high expectations for students, community involvement, comprehensive support services,…
Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the state-wide implementation of the health promotion program "Join the Healthy Boat" in primary schools in Germany.Cluster-randomized intervention trial with wait-list control group. Anthropometric data of 1733 participating children (7.1 ± 0.6 years were taken by trained staff before and after a one year intervention period in the academic year 2010/11. Parents provided information about the health status, and the health behaviour of their children and themselves, parental anthropometrics, and socio-economic background variables. Incidence of abdominal obesity, defined as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5, was determined. Generalized linear models were applied to account for the clustering of data within schools, and to adjust for baseline-values. Losses to follow-up and missing data were analysed. From a societal perspective, the overall costs, costs per pupil, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER to identify the costs per case of averted abdominal obesity were calculated.The final regression model for the incidence of abdominal obesity shows lower odds for the intervention group after an adjustment for grade, gender, baseline WHtR, and breakfast habits (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25; 0.94]. The intervention costs per child/year were €25.04. The costs per incidental case of averted abdominal obesity varied between €1515 and €1993, depending on the different dimensions of the target group.This study demonstrates the positive effects of state-wide, school-based health promotion on incidental abdominal obesity, at affordable costs and with proven cost-effectiveness. These results should support allocative decisions of policymakers. An early start to the prevention of abdominal obesity is of particular importance because of its close relationship to non-communicable diseases.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494.
Bazzano, Alessandra N; Anderson, Christopher E; Hylton, Chelsea; Gustat, Jeanette
To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom. A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions. In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL ( p -value 0.001) and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL ( p -value 0.01). Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions ( p -value classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in emotional and psychosocial quality of life in the intervention group when compared to the control group, suggesting that yoga/mindfulness interventions may improve symptoms of anxiety among students. Yoga/mindfulness activities may facilitate stress management among elementary school students and may be added as a complement to social and emotional learning activities.
Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J
Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low ( 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.
Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L
Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.
Chalies, Sebastien; Bertone, Stefano; Flavier, Eric; Durand, Marc
This study assessed the effects of a collaborative mentoring sequence on the professional development of a preservice teacher (PT). The analysis of data from observation and self-confrontation interviews identified work rules [Wittgenstein, L. (1996). In G. E. M. Anscomb & G. H. Von Wright (Eds.), "Remarques philosophiques"…
Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the interaction effects of gender and motivational beliefs on students' self-regulated learning. Specifically, three types of motivational beliefs under the Expectancy-Value Model were examined, namely self-efficacy, control beliefs and anxiety. Methodology: A quantitative correlational research design was used…
Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.
Davis, Holly S.
This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…
Billings, Ward H.; Enger, John M.
This paper presents findings of a study that examined Missouri high school principals' perceptions of the effectiveness of various disciplinary procedures, with a focus on in-school suspension (ISS). A survey mailed to 200 Missouri high school principals elicited 159 responses, a 77 percent response rate. The questionnaire asked principals to…
Ng, Larson S. W. M.
The following study attempted to ascertain the instructional cost-effectiveness of public high school teachers towards high school completion through a financially based econometric analysis. Essentially, public high school instruction expenditures and completer data were collected from 2000 to 2007 and bivariate interaction analyzed through a…
Treviño, Roberto P; Pham, Trang; Mobley, Connie; Hartstein, Jill; El Ghormli, Laure; Songer, Thomas
Food service directors have a concern that federal reimbursement is not meeting the demands of increasing costs of healthier meals. The purpose of this article is to report the food option changes and the annual revenues and expenses of the school food service environment. The HEALTHY study was a 3-year (2006 to 2009) randomized, cluster-designed trial conducted in 42 middle schools at 7 field centers. The schools selected had at least 50% of students who were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch or who belonged to a minority group. A randomly assigned half of the HEALTHY schools received a school health intervention program consisting of 4 integrated components: nutrition, physical activity, behavioral knowledge and skills, and social marketing. The nutrition component consisted of changing the meal plans to meet 5 nutrition goals. Revenue and expense data were collected from income statements, federal meal records, à la carte sale sheets, school store sale sheets, donated money/food records, and vending machines. Although more intervention schools reached the nutritional goals than control schools, revenues and expenses were not significantly different between groups. The HEALTHY study showed no adverse effect of school food policies on food service finances. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan
Mooij, T., & Fettelaar, D. (2013). School and pupil effects on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(6), 1240-1265. doi:10.1177/0886260512468242
Kayiwa, Joshua; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Merrill, Katherine G; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen
The Good School Toolkit, a complex behavioural intervention delivered in Ugandan primary schools, has been shown to reduce school staff-perpetrated physical violence against students. We aimed to assess the effect of this intervention on staff members' mental health, sense of job satisfaction and perception of school climate. We analysed data from a cluster-randomised trial administered in 42 primary schools in Luwero district, Uganda. The trial was comprised of cross-sectional baseline (June/July 2012) and endline (June/July 2014) surveys among staff and students. Twenty-one schools were randomly selected to receive the Toolkit, whilst 21 schools constituted a wait-listed control group. We generated composite measures to assess staff members' perceptions of the school climate and job satisfaction. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01678846). No schools dropped out of the study and all 591 staff members who completed the endline survey were included in the analysis. Staff in schools receiving the Toolkit had more positive perspectives of their school climate compared to staff in control schools (difference in mean scores 2.19, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92, 3.39). We did not find any significant differences for job satisfaction and mental health. In conclusion, interventions like the Good School Toolkit that reduce physical violence by school staff against students can improve staff perceptions of the school climate, and could help to build more positive working and learning environments in Ugandan schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander
Over the past decades, many schools have adapted towards social constructivism with the aim of enhancing students’ motivation. There are a variety of perspectives in educational theory, with social constructivist views standing in contrast to traditional views. Hence, we compared students’
Paige, Kathryn; Zeegers, Yvonne; Lloyd, David; Roetman, Philip
This paper reports on an action research-based professional learning programme (PLP) in which early career teachers volunteered to identify and then research an aspect of their science teaching practice. The PLP was facilitated by academics from the School of Education and the Barbara Hardy Institute at the University of South Australia. The…
George, Paul S.
American schools might improve their performance by emulating certain successful businesses that, while distinctly American, have much in common with Japanese corporations. William Ouchi attributes Japanese business success to worker involvement; the typical Japanese corporation, he asserts, unifies its employees around a corporate philosophy…
Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M
Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
Background: Studies have shown that some children do not participate in sport or exercise because they did not establish early coordination and basic motor skills while at school. Basic motor skills form significant parts of the goals for students to achieve in the Swedish school subject Physical Education and Health (PEH). Aims: The aim was to…
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora
Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…
Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study has been accomplished with the aim of investigating the relationship between managers' communication skills and conflict management in elementary schools in the city of Ardabil. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The statistical population consisted of 150 elementary school principals in Ardabil. 106 participants were selected by using Krejcie-Morgan table randomly and through stratified sampling method. Data were collected through Jerabek communication skills questionnaire and Robbins conflict management questionnaire. Questionnaire’s face validity was reviewed and confirmed by the experts. Their reliability coefficient was (0.82 for communication skills and (0.95 for conflict management by using Cronbach's alpha. Data were analyzed using analytical and descriptive statistical methods (Pearson correlation coefficient test, single-sample t-test, and multiple regression. Results: Results showed that there are positive and significant relationship between communication skills (effective listening, understanding and sending messages, regulating emotions, insight into learning process, and decisiveness in communication and conflict management strategies(denial of opposition, control, solution orientation. Conclusion: Communication skills such as effective listening can be a good predictor for solving conflicts in conflict management but understanding and sending messages cannot predict conflict management abilities of managers.
Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey
This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.
UBE, 2002). School effectiveness therefore involves effective learning and teaching, planning and organizing teaching, guidance and counselling and school leadership and school ethos. One of the priorities resolved upon at the 2000 World.
Humphries, Debbie; Nguyen, Sara; Kumar, Sunny; Quagraine, Josephine E; Otchere, Joseph; Harrison, Lisa M; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael
Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STHs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011. Among 140 school-age children residing in five contiguous communities, the hookworm prevalence was 59% (82/140). The overall cure rate following administration of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) was 35% (27/76), with a community-wide fecal egg reduction rate (ERR) of 61% (95% confidence interval: 51.8-71.1). Significant disparities were observed in albendazole effectiveness by community, with a cure rate as low as 0% ( N = 24) in Jato Akuraa and ERRs ranging from 53% to 95% across the five study sites. Individual host factors associated with response to deworming treatment included time since last meal, pretreatment blood hemoglobin level, and mid-upper arm circumference. These data demonstrate significant community-level variation in the effectiveness of albendazole, even among populations living in close proximity. Identification of host factors that influence response to albendazole, most notably the timing of drug administration and nutritional factors, creates an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness of deworming through targeted interventions. These findings also demonstrate the importance of measuring anthelminthic response as part of the monitoring and evaluation of community-based deworming programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha
School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Sedentarism is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of employing standing desks in classrooms on cognitive function. The intervention class (IG; n = 19 was supplied with standing desks and balance pads for 11 weeks. The control class (CG; n = 19 received lessons as usual. Standing time was assessed objectively (accelerometers and subjectively (self-report sheets, external classroom observers. The impact of standing on the digit span task and Eriksen flanker task was analysed. The standing time of the IG was higher during the school day in comparison to the CG (lesson: p = 0.004; break: p = 0.003. The intra-class correlation coefficient between self-reports and external observation was high (ICC = 0.94. The IG improved slightly on the Digit Span Task compared to CG. Employing standing desks for at least 1 h per school day serves as a feasible and effective opportunity to improve cognitive function.
Vusumzi Nelson Ncontsa
Full Text Available We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design is divided into two phases, beginning with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. The overall purpose of this design is that the qualitative data help explain or build upon initial quantitative results from the first phase of the study. The advantage of the design is that its two-phased nature makes it uncomplicated to implement and to report on. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a better understanding of the research problem than either approach alone. A pilot study of the questionnaire was conducted in a school outside the province in which the study was done. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.72. This was a high positive coefficient and implied that the questionnaire used was reliable. The study found that bullying, vandalism, gangsterism, indiscipline, intolerance, and corporal punishment were prevalent in schools. Furthermore, the study found that school violence had the following effects on learners: loss of concentration; poor academic performance; bunking of classes; and depression. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail.
This study aims to assess the effects of social capital levels at elementary schools on organizational information sharing as reported by teachers. Participants were 267 teachers selected randomly from 16 elementary schools; schools also selected randomly among 42 elementary schools located in the city center of Batman. The data were analyzed by…
Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…
Ma, G; Hu, X; Gao, S; Bai, D
In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance, 151 grade three school children from four classes of two schools were sampled for this study. Children were randomly assigned to breakfast A or B on any given day. They were provided with breakfast with either high or low energy content at school over a period of 5 successive days. The remained foods were collected and weighed. Performance tests including addition, multiplication, number checking, logic, creativity, physical endurance, visual-analogue scales were applied at the third or fourth period of courses in the morning on Tuesday through Friday during the experimental week. The teachers involved in the study were blind to the kind of treatment. No significant effect of energy intake at breakfast on these performance indicators was found in this study.
Rauf, Parwazalam Abdul; Ali, Syed Kamaruzaman Syed; Aluwi, Aliza; Noor, Nor Afizah Mohd
This study explores the influence of school culture on the management of professional development in secondary schools in Malaysia. It illustrates how school culture influences the school professional development management. The instrument used in this study is a self-administered questionnaire involving 515 secondary school teachers. The results…
Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark
Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Samsudin, Syafiza Saila; Ujang, Suriyati; Sahlan, Nor Fasiha
This study was conducted on students in Year 3 at Sekolah Kebangsaan Air Putih, Kuantan. The study used a constructivism approach in simplest fraction topic in Mathematics. Students were divided into 2 groups; the control group and the experimental group. Experimental group was taught using Constructivist Approach whereas the control group student was taught using the Traditional Approach. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of constructivist learning approach the topic of Simplest Fraction. It also aimed to compare the student's achievement between the constructivist approach and traditional approach. This study used the instrument in pre-test, post-test, questionnaires and observation. The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 for window. The finding shows there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test for experimental group after using constructivism approach in learning process. The mean scores (76.39) of the post-test is higher than the mean scores (60.28) for pre-test. It is proved that constructivist approach is more efficient and suitable for teaching and learning in simplest fraction topic in the classroom compared to traditional approaches. The findings also showed interest and the positive perception of this approach.
Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.
Kamrath, Barry; Brooker, Teresa
School counselors are often called upon to develop and implement academic interventions. In this case study of one urban elementary school, a school counselor conducted a small group academic advisement intervention. The results suggest that integrating the activities into the elementary school counseling program can be an effective Response to…
This article, derived from a qualitative case study undertaken among a number of divergent secondary schools in Gauteng province, is an attempt to conceptualise the important and pivotal leadership role of the school principal in ensuring school improvement via effective school-based management in South African ...
van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens H. J.; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko
Background: There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various
Kao, Audiey C; Braddock, Clarence; Clay, Maria; Elliott, Donna; Epstein, Scott K; Filstead, William; Hotze, Tim; May, Win; Reenan, Jennifer
To determine the effect of educational interventions on medical students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry marketing practices and whether restrictive medical school policies governing medicine-industry interactions are associated with student support for banning such interactions. Prospective cohort study involving the graduating classes of 2009 (intervention, n=474) and 2010 (control, n=459) at four U.S. medical schools. Intervention students experienced a former pharmaceutical representative's presentation, faculty debate, and a Web-based course. Both groups completed baseline and follow-up attitude surveys about pharmaceutical marketing. A total of 482 students (51.6%) completed both surveys. In regression analyses, intervention students were more likely than control students to think that physicians are strongly or moderately influenced by pharmaceutical marketing (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.46-3.59) and believed they would be more likely to prescribe a company's drug if they accepted that company's gifts and food (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.12-2.52). Intervention students were more likely to support banning interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and students (OR, 4.82; 95% CI, 3.02-7.68) and with physicians (OR, 6.88; 95% CI, 4.04-11.70). Students from schools with more restrictive policies were more likely to support banning interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and students (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26-3.16) and with physicians (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 2.05-5.79). Education about pharmaceutical marketing practices and more restrictive policies governing medicine-industry interactions seem to increase medical students' skepticism about the appropriateness of such marketing practices and disapproval of pharmaceutical representatives in the learning environment.
Botha, R. J.
According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…
Ha, Yeojin; Park, Hyun-Jeong
The purpose of this study is to examine the causal effects of after-school programs (ASPs) and private tutoring on Korean secondary school students' academic achievement. The students' data from the Gyeonggi Education Panel Study were used in this study for the actual data analysis. The study attempted to adjust for possible selection bias toward…
Watson, Anne H; Ito, Max; Smith, Roger O; Andersen, Lori T
The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) requires assistive technology (AT) be considered at the yearly individualized education program (IEP) meeting of every student in special education. IDEA also directs that AT be implemented on the basis of peer-reviewed literature despite a paucity of research on AT's effectiveness in the public schools. This repeated-measures quasi-experimental study explored AT's effect in a public school special education setting. Participants (N=13) were a heterogeneous group of students in 1 school system who had newly provided AT to address academic and communication goals in one school year. Results suggest that relative to other interventions, AT provided by a multidisciplinary team may have a significant effect on IEP goal improvement (t = 5.54, p= .00) for students in special education (F = 9.35, p= .00), which may support AT's use in special education by occupational therapists as directed by IDEA.
Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford
A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim......) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1.93, 2.42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1.08, 1.47)), legumes (22 (95...
Manas Ranjan Panigrahi
Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head Master and Teachers’ performance and Students’ performance; to find out the relationship between the school effectiveness and classroom teaching. The descriptive survey method was used to carry out this study. A Total number of 27 more-effective and 35 less-effective primary schools were included in the sample of the present study. And also all principals of selected schools and from each school 2 teachers were selected to know their classroom teaching in the classroom situation. The selection of teachers was based on their teaching the classes (III, IV and V, to investigate their participation in school activities. The findings of the present study on school effectiveness and classroom teaching find adequate support from similar or related studies. Thus, the above discussion reflects that there is no simple combination of factors, which can produce effective school. The study has, however, revealed that school effectiveness has emerged as related to classroom teaching.
Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.
We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…
Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.
School effectiveness and school improvement have different origins: School effectiveness is more directed to finding out "what works" in education and "why"; school improvement is practice and policy oriented and intended to change education in the desired direction. However, in their orientation to
Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido; Dika, Sandra
The authors explored the effects of part-time work on school achievement during high school. To estimate the true effects of part-time work on school grades, the authors included family background, students' educational aspirations, and school engagement as controls. Although a substantial literature exists on the relationship of part-time work…
Nir, Adam E.
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) has affected schools' culture of consumption and the inequalities between schools with different socio-economic backgrounds. An analysis of financial reports from 31 SBM schools over four years reveals that schools have increased rather…
The current paper primarily aims to investigate and interpret the observations, perceptions, and experiences of an effective school's principal through a qualitative approach. The study was designed as a case study. The participant of the study was a primary science education teacher with 17 years of experience in the profession who has been a…
The study investigated the effect of students' project work on secondary school science process skills acquisition in Biology. The study was carried out in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State. Three research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of ...
Full Text Available The objectives of the research are to determine the effects of teaching methods (STAD and jigsaw and learning styles (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic on students’ English achievement. This research is an experimental study conducted at Junior High School Pasangkayu in 2014 with 213 sample which is selected stratified-randomly (n = 68. The results of the research are as follow: (1 English achievement of students taught with STAD is better than those of taught with jigsaw; (2 there is no significant difference in English achievement among visual, auditory, and kinesthetic students; (3 there is any significant effect of interaction among teaching method and learning styles on students’ learning English achievement. The research also find out that for visual students, studying English achievement of students taught with STAD is better than that of students taught with jigsaw; for auditory students, learning English achievement of students taught with jigsaw is better than that of students taught with STAD; and for kinesthetic students, English achievement of students taught with STAD is better than that of students taught with jigsaw. To sum up, STAD is more effective than jigsaw in improving students’ English achievement. STAD is suitable to improve English achievement of visual and kinesthetic students, and jigsaw is suitable to improve English achievement of auditory students.
Long, Russell L.
The purpose of this study was to offer evidence for the development of student character through the integration of historical storytelling into a social studies classroom. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of character education through historical storytelling integrated into a United States history curriculum on…
Wojton, Mary Ann
Partnerships between museums and schools never have been more important than they are today. Schools, especially urban schools, are facing challenges, including low student achievement and difficulty obtaining funding. Partners can help schools overcome these challenges by sharing educational and financial resources. Nearly 11,000 American museums spend more than $1 billion annually to provide over 18 million instructional hours for k-12 educational programs such as professional development for teachers, guided field trips, and staff visits to schools. Museums would seem like natural partners for challenged urban schools. Yet museums and schools struggle to establish and maintain effective partnerships. This study examined a partnership between a science center and an urban elementary school to provide additional knowledge and resources for those in the field to overcome these challenges in order to create relationships that help students. Using qualitative methods with interpretive descriptive purposes (Erickson, 1986; Glesne, 1999; Lincoln & Guba, 2000), the research design is based on several methods of data collection, including face-to-face, semi-structured interviews; observations; written text; and field notes. Participants in this study included students, parents, teachers, school administrators and museum educators. In addition, adult representatives of community organizations were interviewed to determine the impact of the partnership on the community. The study found that an effective partnership will have four basic elements: mutual goals, communication plan, key leader support, planning and research, and four interpersonal elements: personal responsibility, honesty, communication at the intimate level, and trust. Partners may have difficulty developing these to their fullest extent due to time limitations. No partnership is perfect. By creating strong interpersonal relationships, partners can mitigate challenges caused by limited basic elements and
Boitomelo Makhuzeni; E. Nicolene Barkhuizen
Orientation: South African schools are facing significant challenges to retain a talented pool of school teachers. A total rewards strategy could assist schools to reduce teacher turnover. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a total rewards strategy on the turnover intentions of school teachers in the North-West province. Motivation: The under supply of quality teachers has negative consequences for both school pupils and the larger community. Re...
Full Text Available Introduction: Programs oriented toward prevention have proven to be highly rewarding in reducing the dental disease burden in western populations. Some developing countries have also reported studies of school health programs with varying effectiveness. However, reports regarding improved effectiveness due to mobile dental unit are scarce. Thus, the present study aims at assessment of effectiveness of prevention-oriented school health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016 in Dr. D.Y. Patil school among 449 students aged 5 and 10 years using census sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee of Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital and permission was obtained from the school principal. The study was conducted in 3 phases. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was significant reduction in decayed component and a significant increase in filled component in primary and permanent dentition. There was a significant reduction in treatment needs, i.e., one surface, two surface fillings, and pulp care and restoration. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this prevention-oriented 1-year program was helpful in improving the oral health of the children.
Mostafaei, Helia; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Hadi
Background and aims Recently, digital research is very popular in schools. The capacity of students to do an effective search is unclear which can lead to utilization of unacceptable evidence in their research. Aims To evaluate middle school students' effective search skills. Methods This survey was done during the summer school of Farzanegan talented students middle school. The self-administrated questionnaire studied 30 items about effective search and digital research skills of students. O...
Nyagowa, Hesbon O.; Ocholla, Dennis N.; Mutula, Stephen M.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of a set of dimensions on e-School success in a cross-sectional study of NEPAD's e-School pilot in Kenya. All of the six e-Schools participating in the NEPAD's e-School pilot in Kenya were selected. The study used survey methodology. Students and teachers in those schools formed the study…
This study analyses how discourses in regional contexts affect the development of curriculum-based literacy standards for adolescents in schooling. A comparative case-study research design enabled the influences of discourses at the regional level to be analysed. The case studies include the development of curricula to define a minimum literacy…
Wyon, D P; Abrahamsson, L; Järtelius, M; Fletcher, R J
In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance the same morning, the parents of ten parallel school classes of 10-year-old school children at five different schools were persuaded to alter their child's breakfast regimen at home over a period of 4 successive days. A total of 195 families were provided with standard breakfasts with either low or high energy content. Uneaten food was returned and weighed. Individual children were randomly assigned to breakfast alternative on any given day. The teachers who carried out the performance assessments at school were blind to treatment condition. Voluntary physical endurance and the performance of a creativity test were significantly better after a breakfast from which children derived over 20% of their recommended daily energy intake than after a breakfast from which they obtained less than 10% of recommended values. The error rate in an addition task was negatively correlated and the rate of working in a number checking task was positively correlated with individual energy intake from the low-energy breakfast. Significantly fewer children reported feeling bad and self-estimates of hunger sensation were lower during the morning at school after the high energy breakfast. Estimates of energy intake at breakfast based on 24-h dietary recall interviews with the children carried out by telephone at their homes showed good correlation with estimates based on returned food (r = 0.89). Energy intake at breakfast as estimated from returned food had no significant effect on energy intake at school lunch as estimated by dietary recall.
School climate is a significant way to predict school achievement as a positive correlation to students' standardized test scores and also teachers' perceptions of bureaucratic effectiveness and empowerment (Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp, 1991; Sweetland & Hoy, 2000). Enabling bureaucracies are positively related to teacher empowering; however,…
Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung
Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871
大迫, 康子; 小住, フミ子; Yasuko, OSAKO; Fumiko, OZUMI
There are many small islands, villages and fishing ports in Kagoshima. This study was designed to investigate whether a local color in school lnuch exist or not. It was found that the school lunch served in small island had the best nutritional quantity and quality and menu contents. Contradictionus results, vitamin deficiency in village and protein deficiency in fishing ports, were also obtained. There is a correlation between lunch cost and menu contents. The shotage of potatos and beans ob...
Kool, Bridget; Thomas, David; Moore, Dennis; Anderson, Angelika; Bennetts, Phillipa; Earp, Karlynne; Dawson, Dianne; Treadwell, Nicky
To describe the changing role of school nurses in eight New Zealand (NZ) secondary schools from low socio-economic areas with high Pacific Island and Māori rolls. An evaluation of a pilot addressing under-achievement in low-decile schools in Auckland, NZ (2002-05). Annual semi-structured school nurse interviews and analysis of routinely collected school health service data were undertaken. Two patterns of school nurse operation were identified: an embracing pattern, where nurses embraced the concept of providing school-based health services; and a Band-Aid pattern, where only the basics for student health care were provided by school nurses. School nurses with an embracing pattern of practice provided more effective school-based health services. School health services are better served by nurses with structured postgraduate education that fosters the development of a nurse-practitioner role. Co-ordination of school nurses either at a regional or national level is required.
Lin, Ruilin; Xie, Jingchen; Jeng, Yoau-Chau; Wang, Zheng-Hong
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between "job involvement" and "school administrative effectiveness" as perceived by junior high school administration teachers. The findings are as follows. (1) The current status of "job involvement" and "school administrative effectiveness" as…
Wilson, Shelli L.
A significant body of research has shown that effective leadership is an essential element of successful efforts to improve student performance in primary and secondary schools. Emotional intelligence is an important component of effective leadership. This study--involving elementary school principals in a Kentucky school district--suggests there…
Rutledge, Stacey A.; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Roberts, Ronnie L.
This article presents findings from a year-long multilevel comparative case study exploring the characteristics of effective urban high schools. We developed a comprehensive framework from the school effectiveness research that guided our data collection and analysis at the four high schools. Using value-added methodology, we identified two higher…
Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…
Seyedehsahar Shafieiosgouei; Nava Nourdad; Robab Hassantofighi; Seyyedreza Shafieioskouei
The technological advances of the 21st century have impacted all spheres of life, including education. The world of books and pens is being replaced by computers at young ages. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of technology on Iranian elementary school students’ learning and interest in school attendance. The participants were 47 sixth grade students selected from two schools with and without technological support. The results of the study revealed a higher level of interes...
Sabatine, Elaina; Lippold, Melissa; Kainz, Kirsten
Parent and school bonds are protective against delinquency. This study used longitudinal data and multilevel Poisson regression models (MLM) to examine unique and interactive associations of parent and school bonds on youth delinquency in a sample of rural adolescents ( n = 945; 84% White). We investigated whether youth sex or transitioning to a new middle school moderated the linkages between parent and school bonds and later delinquency. Results indicated reduced delinquency was associated with positive parent and school relationships. Parent and school bonds interacted such that linkages between parent bonding and youth delinquency were stronger when youth also had high school bonding - suggesting an additive effect. However, interactive effects were only found when youth remained in the same school and became nonsignificant if they transitioned to a new school. Findings support prior evidence that parent and school bonds - and their interaction - play a unique role in reducing delinquency.
Full Text Available School gardens have beneficial effects on children’s dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10–13 years old in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium. We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden, but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves. In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children’s health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.
... to achieve its statutory roles, objectives and aspirations. We suggest that the adoption of School-based management by way of increasing the principals' sphere of influence would facilitate effective service delivery in schools. Keywords: school-based management, principals' effectiveness, public secondary schools.
Educational administrators know that leadership requires hundreds of judgments each day that require a sensitivity and understanding of various leadership strategies. Bridging the gap between the academic and practical world, "A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories" provides an exploration of ten dominant leadership strategies to give…
A "10% solution" to systematic coordination of university collaborations with local schools involves a decentralized approach with incentives and a focus for coordination. The overall effect is that the institution lays out no additional cash, redirects funds to support coordination, and intensifies and focuses scattered efforts for…
Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob
This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there
Romero, Claudia; Krichesky, Gabriela
School leadership has been identified as a key function to assuring quality in education. Principals' leadership can have a direct effect on students' learning by improving teaching, or an indirect effect by creating conditions that foster learning. This exploratory study aims to understand how school principals exercise their leadership and its…
van der Schans, Jurjen; Çiçek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens Hj; de Vries, Tjalling W; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko
There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various parameters of methylphenidate use. We linked children from a pharmacy prescription database with standardized achievement test results at the end of primary school. We explored differences in test scores between current methylphenidate users versus never users and methylphenidate users who stopped treatment at least 6 months before the test, early versus late starters, different dosage of methylphenidate, and concurrent antipsychotic or asthma treatment. Out of the 7736 children, 377 (4.9%) children were treated with methylphenidate at the time of the test. After adjusting for confounders the methylphenidate users (532.58 ± .48) performed significantly lower on the test than never users (534.72 ± .11). Compared with late starters of methylphenidate treatment (536.94 ± 1.51) we found significantly lower test scores for the early starters (532.33 ± .50). Our study indicates that children using methylphenidate still perform less at school compared to their peers. Our study also suggests that earlier start of methylphenidate treatment is associated with a lower school performance compared to children starting later with the treatment. This result could either indicate a limited effect of long term treatment or a more strongly affected group of early starters.
The Third Correlate of Effective Schools Safe and Orderly Environment--The Custodian Connection: A Study of Job Satisfaction as Perceived by Public Elementary School Custodians in San Bernardino County
Masters, Ann V.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, as perceived by elementary school custodians in San Bernardino County. Methodology. Descriptive research methods were used to conduct this qualitative study. Critical incident technique was employed for data collection. Data were…
Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of
Social Marketing and the School Library: An Effective Path to Collaboration? A Review of: Immroth, Barbara and W. Bernard Lukenbill. “Teacher-School Library Media Specialist Collaboration through Social Marketing Strategies: An Information Behavior Study.” School Library Media Research 10 (2007). 22 April 2008
Objective – The study attempted to apply the strategies of social marketing theory to collaboration between school librarians andteachers. Design – Based on the 1972 theory of social marketing by Zaltman, Kotler and Kaufman, a cohort of students in a graduate-level practicum established a collaborative unit with selected teachers within their school. In addition, two focus groups were conducted in alternate schools to gauge the overall attitudes of teachers toward collaboration with school li...
Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey
Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…
In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…
Chime, Emmanuel Onoh
The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions regarding the effects of school uniforms on school climate in a selected metropolitan disciplinary alternative education program. More specifically, this study investigated the influence of the variables group status, gender, ethnicity, age and years of experience on the perceptions…
Ojukwu, M. O.
The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two…
AlMutairi, Abdullahi Naser Mohammad
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using brainstorm strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait. The sample of the study consisted of (98) male students. The sample was distributed into two classes, the first represents the experimental group totaling (47)…
Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib
The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice leads to better long-term retention than additional study of course material. In the present study, we examined whether this finding generalizes to primary school vocabulary learning. We also manipulated the word learning context.
The Arizona Court of Appeals, in the first court decision regarding public school uniform policies, held that mandatory school uniforms do not violate students' First Amendment rights. Discusses the Arizona decision and its effect on the structuring of school uniform policies and their potential successful institution at the high school level. (31…
Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph
School choice researchers are often limited to comparing one type of choice with another (e.g., charter schools vs. traditional public schools). One area researchers have not examined is the effects of different school types within the same urban region. We fill this gap by analyzing longitudinal data for students (grades 3-8) in Indianapolis,…
Angelon-Gaetz, K A; Richardson, D B; Lipton, D M; Marshall, S W; Lamb, B; LoFrese, T
Both high and low indoor relative humidity (RH) directly impact Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), an important school health concern. Prior school studies reported a high prevalence of mold, roaches, and water damage; however, few examined associations between modifiable classroom factors and RH, a quantitative indicator of dampness. We recorded RH longitudinally in 134 North Carolina classrooms (n = 9066 classroom-days) to quantify the relationships between modifiable classroom factors and average daily RH below, within, or above levels recommended to improve school IAQ (30-50% or 30-60% RH). The odds of having high RH (>60%) were 5.8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.9, 11.3] times higher in classrooms with annual compared to quarterly heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system maintenance and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.5, 4.2) times higher in classrooms with HVAC economizers compared to those without economizers. Classrooms with direct-expansion split systems compared to chilled water systems had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.4) times higher odds of low RH (60%) of those without setbacks. This research suggests actionable decision points for school design and maintenance to prevent high or low classroom RH. This study combines longitudinal measurements of classroom relative humidity with school inspection data from several schools to describe the problem of relative humidity control in schools. Our findings on how maintenance and mechanical factors affect classroom humidity provide suggestions on building operations policies and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) design considerations that may improve classroom relative humidity control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vestal, Brad; Torres, Mario
It cannot be overstated the broad skill set managers must have to manage conflict in modern organizations (Lang, 2009; Ramani & Zhimin, 2010). Few studies have explored this topic in smaller organizational settings where leaders often assume a greater number of roles and responsibilities. For this reason, this study analyzed preferred conflict…
Al-Safran, Eissa; Brown, David; Wiseman, Alexander
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of principal's leadership style on school outcome. This study focused on the indirect relationship between the leadership style and the school environment. An additional objective was to investigate the impact of culture on leadership style as related to school environment and outcome.…
Triplett, Carla A.
This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…
Karadag, Engin; Oztekin-Bayir, Ozge
In the study, the effect of school principals' authentic leadership behaviors on teachers' perceptions of school culture was tested with the structural equation model. The study was carried out with the correlation research design. Authentic leadership behavior was taken as the independent variable, and school culture was taken as the dependent…
Davoudi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Dina
This study aimed at investigating the effect of keyword method, as one of the mnemonic strategies, on vocabulary retention of Iranian senior high school EFL learners. Following a quasi-experimental design, the study used thirty eight (n = 38) female senior high school students in grade four from two intact classes at a public high school. The…
Thurston, A.; Christie, D.; Howe, C. J.; Tolmie, A.; Topping, K. J.
The present study investigated the effects of a continuing professional development (CPD) initiative that provided collaborative group work skills training for primary school teachers. The study collected data from 24 primary school classrooms in different schools in a variety of urban and rural settings. The sample was composed of 332 pupils,…
Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.
This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…
Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi
Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…
Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo
Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…
Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike
Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of…
Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
The Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools' nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP's inception in 2006 through 2012. We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP's onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose-response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools.
Shi, Xiuquan; Wang, Tao; Nie, Chan; Wang, Haiyan; Luo, Lirong; Qi, Yonghong; Jiang, Zhixia
Falls are the top one type in all unintentional injuries. In this study, we aim to explore the epidemiological characteristics of falls and assess the intervention effect. Our research had interviewed 2854 rural children in southwest China. Then, we used School-Family-Individual (SFI) comprehensive education model to conduct an intervention among 1506 children and follow up them for one year. The changes in injury knowledge and incidence rate before and after intervention were compared. We found the fall injury was 37.32% (178/477) and ranked top one in the total injuries. After intervention, the children's fall-injuries-related knowledge was significantly increased by 15.29 percent (P < 0.001). While falls incidence significantly decreased after- intervention (6.24% vs. 3.93%; P < 0.001). From the results we concluded that the falls rate was high and was the prior reason of all injuries. SFI intervention model can effectively reduce the incidence of the fall injury.
A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)
Saleh, Salmiza; Rahman, Muhamad Asyrah Abdul
Algebra is a branch of mathematics that deals with symbols and also the rules for manipulating those symbols, which are used to represent numbers and quantities in mathematical formulae and equations. It is needed and used in our everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to examine students' performance in algebra related to gender and types…
The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…
This action research study examined the effects of student voice in one high school and the self-reflection of the researcher-administrator involved in the effort. Using three cycles of action research, the researcher-administrator completed a pilot study, implemented a student voice project in one class, and developed a professional development…
Richter, L M; Rose, C; Griesel, R D
The cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast were explored in a study of 55 children in Grade II and Standard 1 at a farm school outside Johannesburg. A previous study had confirmed widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among the children. For comparative purposes, 55 children at an inner-city school, among whom no signs of undernutrition were found, were assessed in the same way. Three different types of measures of attention, distractibility, short-term memory and activity level were used: psychometric testing of the children; teacher ratings of children's classroom behaviour, and coded video-recorded classroom behaviour. A pre- and post-test design was employed to assess the effects of a school breakfast, continually in place in the experimental school for a period of 6 weeks. The results indicated significant change from pre- to post-test assessment among the experimental children in respect of the psychometric measures, teacher-rated hyperactivity and video-recorded classroom behaviour. With regard to the latter measure, the children showed a decline in both the occurrence and duration of off-task and out-of-seat behaviour, and an increase in active participation in class and positive peer interaction. While the children in the comparison group also showed some changes from pre- to post-test, probably attributable to the effects of observation, familiarity with the test materials and developmental change, the changes were not generalised or consistent. The findings support the conclusion that a school breakfast programme had a beneficial effect on the cognitive and behavioural performance of socially disadvantaged, undernourished children in their first 2 years of school.
Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming
Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and
Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming
Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness
Conclusion: regarding the high level of anxiety among teachers and necessity of doing interventional program, planned stress management educations are successful in reducing anxiety. That programs which are presented to persons step by step, provide a cognition of the environment and it's stressful factors to individuals and finally reduces the stress and then the anxiety level. Determining the efficacy of the programs on personality anxiety requires studies with longer follow up.
Parkison, Paul T.
Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…
Adigun, Joseph; Onihunwa, John; Irunokhai, Eric; Sada, Yusuf; Adesina, Olubunmi
This research studied the relationship between student's gender and academic performance in computer science in New Bussa, Borgu local government of Niger state. Questionnaire which consisted of 30 multiple-choice items drawn from Senior School Certificate Examination past questions as set by the West Africa Examination Council in 2014 multiple…
Cooper, Paul; Yan, Zi
This study aims to explore the relationships between the extent and perceived quality of teachers' experience of training in behaviour management (BM), and their awareness of the nature and extent of behavioural problems among school students, and their confidence in their own competence to deal with such problems. Teachers (n = 183) from Hong…
Full Text Available Advanced Level examination is the most critical examination that determines the future of the students in Sri Lanka as it is the path for the higher education. In Sri Lanka students are sitting for Advanced Level examination in Art Commerce Bio or Maths streams. The objective of this study was to develop a framework with Augmented Reality applications to be used in Advanced Level Bio science subject as a supportive learning technique evaluating the performances of the students with developed Augmented Reality AR applications running on the computer. The study was carried out using the Advanced Level students in Gampaha educational region. AR application was developed using Java language and with available supportive tools. As this application was based on markers another tool was used to create markers. An open ended questionnaire was provided to the selected students to identify the feasibility and students perception on the developed AR application for the students. A question paper was designed based on the subject area of the developed AR application to evaluate the student performances. After developing the AR application it was provided to the half of the selected student sampleone class and the other half of the students another class was exposed to normal existing learning procedure. Thereafter both student samples were exposed to the common examination to assess the performances. AR application helped to enhance the students performances by increasing the student interest better understanding memorizing ability and increasing the pass rate of the students.
Smith, Mary E.
The Georgia State Board of Education has put in place requirements that high school students must meet in order to advance to a higher grade level and to achieve credits for graduation. Georgia requires all ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth graders to take an end-of-course test after completing class time for academic core subjects. The student's final grade in the end-of-course test course will be calculated using the course grade as 85% and the end-of-course test score as 15%. The student must have a final course grade of 70 or above to pass the course and to earn credit toward graduation. Students in Georgia are required to take the Georgia High School Graduation Test. The tests consist of five parts, writing, math, science, social studies and language arts. Students must make a minimum score of 500 which indicates the student was proficient in mastering the objectives for that particular section of the test. Not all students finish high school in four years due to obstacles that occur. Tutorial sessions are provided for those that wish to participate. High schools may offer study skills classes for students that need extra help in focusing their attention on academic courses. Study skill courses provide the student with techniques that he or she may find useful in organizing thoughts and procedures that direct the student towards success.
Peter Chomba Manchishi
Full Text Available Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research instruments used were interview guides, observation checklists, and focus group discussions. The respondents included 80 serving teachers, 80 student teachers, and 10 head teachers drawn from 10 high schools in the Lusaka District. In addition, 10 lecturers from UNZA were also sampled. The findings revealed that the design and delivery of the UNZA student teaching experience was not effective.
Schmits, Emilie; Mathys, Cécile; Quertemont, Etienne
This study identified protective and risk factors of cannabis use initiation, including expectancies and social anxiety. A questionnaire was completed twice by 877 teenagers. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyses were performed. Significant risk factors were alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement, and craving expectancies. Protective factors were negative behavior expectancies and social anxiety. Social anxiety protected from initiation through the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving expectancies, whatever the role of peer users and alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protection, in an overall approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of an internalizing profile of adolescents for prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.
Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study.
Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Lydersen, Stian; Åsheim, Merethe; Fossum, Sturla
Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1 st - 3 rd grade (age 6-8 years) assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls). Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.
Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1st – 3rd grade (age 6–8 years assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter–Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls. Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. Results In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. Conclusion The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.
Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Mudenda, Mweetwa; Zulu, Joseph; Munsaka, Ecloss; Blystad, Astrid; Makasa, Mpundu C; Mæstad, Ottar; Tungodden, Bertil; Jacobs, Choolwe; Kampata, Linda; Fylkesnes, Knut; Svanemyr, Joar; Moland, Karen Marie; Banda, Richard; Musonda, Patrick
Adolescent pregnancies pose a risk to the young mothers and their babies. In Zambia, 35% of young girls in rural areas have given birth by the age of 18 years. Pregnancy rates are particularly high among out-of-school girls. Poverty, low enrolment in secondary school, myths and community norms all contribute to early childbearing. This protocol describes a trial aiming to measure the effect on early childbearing rates in a rural Zambian context of (1) economic support to girls and their families, and (2) combining economic support with a community intervention to enhance knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and supportive community norms. This cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) will have three arms. The clusters are rural schools with surrounding communities. Approximately 4900 girls in grade 7 in 2016 will be recruited from 157 schools in 12 districts. In one intervention arm, participating girls and their guardians will be offered cash transfers and payment of school fees. In the second intervention arm, there will be both economic support and a community intervention. The interventions will be implemented for approximately 2 years. The final survey will be 4.5 years after recruitment. The primary outcomes will be "incidence of births within 8 months of the end of the intervention period", "incidence of births before girls' 18th birthday" and "proportion of girls who sit for the grade 9 exam". Final survey interviewers will be unaware of the intervention status of respondents. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat and adjusted for cluster design and confounders. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. This is the first CRCT to measure the effect of combining economic support with a community intervention to prevent adolescent childbearing in a low- or middle-income country. We have designed a programme that will be sustainable and feasible to scale up. The findings will be relevant for programmes for adolescent reproductive health in
Full Text Available This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students’ reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math and reading achievement for the same students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades. The racial and poverty composition of schools affect student achievement after factoring in student, family, and other school influences. In addition, increasing teacher quality and school resources reduces but does not eliminate the effects of school racial and poverty composition on student achievement. Policies leading to reductions in racial and poverty isolation in schools and increases in teacher quality should be pursued to guarantee equality of educational opportunities to all children in North Carolina schools.
Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo
Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717
Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Mirdad, Fatemeh
The present study aims at exploring the influence of school design on student performance. The participants consisted of 150 students who studied at two Iranian public school and private school in Mashhad City. School Design and Planning Laboratory (SDPL) model of Georgia University (and Tanner (2009)) was used as an appraisal indicator of school…
Project aims to study social intelligence of the gifted and average students in different school environments varying on the dimension of enrichment. Two enriched environment and two non-enriched environment schools were selected from fifteen different schools that were studied for existing school environment. General ...
Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka
This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…
Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…
This review considers the recently released study by Susan Aud of the Milton & Rose D. Friedman Foundation, concerning the fiscal effects of school vouchers policies. Aud calculates the simple difference between, on the one hand, state and local government spending on students attending traditional public schools, and, on the other, the government…
Abraham, Nath. M.; Ememe, Ogbonna N.
This study investigates Effective School-Community Relations as a key Performance Indicator (KPI) of Secondary Schools Administrator in Aba South District, Nigeria. Descriptive survey method was adopted. All the 248 teachers made up the population and sample in a purposive sampling technique representing 100% of the entire population as sample. A…
Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…
Ma, Xin; Nelson, Regena F.; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.
Using hierarchical linear modeling, the present study aimed to examine whether targeted intervention strategies implemented individually during a preschool program exhibited any short-term and long-term effects on children's school readiness in kindergarten, utilizing data gathered through the Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids (SPARK)…
Chiu, Angela W.; Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Drahota, Amy; Galla, Brian M.; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Ifekwunigwe, Muriel; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Most randomized controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders have evaluated treatment efficacy using recruited samples treated in research settings. Clinical trials in school settings are needed to determine if CBT can be effective when delivered in real world settings. This study evaluated a modular…
Dickenson, Karen Nadean
The purpose of this pretest-posttest control group experimental study was to see the effect of classroom walkthroughs on middle school teacher motivation. The independent variable was; classroom walkthroughs and the four dependent variables were teachers' self-concept of the ability to affect student achievement, teachers' attitude toward the…
Anderson, Lorin W.
The purpose of the study was to examine test bias and the "non-effects" of schooling. Teachers were given a list of words selected from standardized vocabulary tests and asked to indicate the words they had taught. The words were classified by the grade level at which they were first introduced. Ninety-five third-grade students in four schools…
Yizhao Yang; Steve Abbott; Marc Schlossberg
School choice policy has implications for school travel as it allows students to attend schools farther from their residence than their neighborhood schools. This paper uses a case study from Oregon to investigate how school choice affects parents’ school travel decision making and the degree to which school choice affects children’s walking or biking to school. The research shows that school choice is associated with lengthened school travel distance and parents’ greater willingness to drive...
The study examined the effects of teaching presentation skills and post-school options to three high school students with developmental disabilities. While previous research has indicated students with learning disabilities can learn both academic and life skills within the same activity (Collins, Hager, & Galloway, 2011; Falkenstine, Collins,…
Beeton, Renee P.
Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.
Do Won Kwak; Hyejin Ku
To separately identify the effects of single-sex â€œschoolingâ€ versus single- sex â€œschoolsâ€ , we exploit two unusual experiments in South Korea: students are randomly assigned to academic high schools within districts regardless of school types, and some schools changed their types from single-sex to coeducational over time. While the overall effects of attending a single-sex school are positive for both boys and girls, these are driven by the differences in resources between school types...
Smith, Wayne Keith
The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the effects of the attendance policy and attendance program after one year of implementation in Newport News Public Schools with a total high school population of approximately 5,820 students. The school district recently implemented a new attendance policy and program to address high school student absenteeism. This multi-faceted study examined the effects of this new policy by conducting statistical analyses of attendance data, pro...
M. Mazharul Islam
Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed. Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.
Lee, Valerie E.; Bryk, Anthony S.
This study compares the effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling. Results indicate that single-sex schools deliver specific advantages to their students, especially female students. Single-sex schools may facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment where social and academic concerns are separated.…
Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…
Mora, Toni; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol
This study analyzes the effects of several factors related to high school, such as the kind of school (public or private), the type of education (general or vocational), school location and peers on undergraduate performance from students of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Particular attention is given to the functional form and to the…
This study examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teachers' school commitment. The research data were collected from 563 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were measured with a servent organizational leadership assessment scale, and the teachers'…
This article examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teacher job satisfaction. The population of this study is 29 primary schools in Duzce, Turkey. Data were collected from 595 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce province of Turkey. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were determined…
Bakker, Marjoke; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Robitzsch, Alexander
This study used a large-scale cluster randomized longitudinal experiment (N=719; 35schools) to investigate the effects of online mathematics mini-games on primary school students' multiplicative reasoning ability. The experiment included four conditions: playing at school, integrated in a lesson
van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Mheen, Dike
Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its implementation and its support by parents, teachers and principals. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to improve the school food policy and/or implementation at Dutch primary schools. Therefore, this study explores the school food policy and investigates schools' (teachers and principals) and parents' opinion on the school food policy. Data on the schools' perspective of the food policy was collected from principals and teachers by means of semi-structured interviews. In total 74 principals and 72 teachers from 83 Dutch primary schools were interviewed. Data on parental perceptions about the school food policy were based on a cross-sectional survey among 1,429 parents from the same schools. Most principals (87.1%) reported that their school had a written food policy; however in most cases the rules were not clearly defined. Most of the principals (87.8%) believed that their school paid sufficient attention to nutrition and health. Teachers and principals felt that parents were primarily responsible to encourage healthy eating habits among children, while 49.8% of the parents believed that it is also a responsibility of the school to foster healthy eating habits among children. Most parents reported that they appreciated the school food policy and comply with the food rules. Parents' opinion on the enforcement of the school food policy varied: 28.1% believed that the school should enforce the policy more strongly, 32.1% was satisfied, and 39.8% had no opinion on this topic. Dutch primary schools could play a more important role in fostering healthy eating habits among children. The school food policy could be improved by clearly formulating food rules, simplifying
Duffield, Stacy Kay
A Midwestern state allocated grant funding to encourage more accessible alternative programming at the middle level. Seventeen schools were approved for this grant and used the funds to supplement the operation of a new or existing program. This study provides policymakers and educators with an overview of the various types of alternative middle…
This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…
Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald
Purpose: School connectedness, or a sense of belonging to the school environment, is an established protective factor for child and adolescent health, education, and social well-being. While a comprehensive, whole-school approach that addresses the school organisational environment is increasingly endorsed as an effective approach to promote…
Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley
This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…
Sacheck, Jennifer M.; Morgan, Emily H.; Wilde, Parke; Griffin, Timothy; Nahar, Elizabeth; Economos, Christina D.
Purpose/Objective: This case study identified common elements of three diverse New England school districts that were real-world models of improving school meals. Methods: School districts that had greater than 1,000 students, [greater than or equal to]3 schools, and [greater than or equal to]40% of students who qualified for free- or…
Carlson, Laurie A.; Kees, Nathalie L.
This descriptive survey research study (N = 120) examined the self-reported comfort level of school counselors in addressing the mental health needs of their students and school counselor perceptions regarding working relationships with school-based therapists. Survey results indicated that school counselors are generally confident in their…
Fragozo, Carina Silva; Monawar, Mônica Deitos Stedile
This paper aims to diagnose, through a qualitative comparative study, the main differences concerning the teaching of English in Brazilian regular schools when compared to language schools. There has been a growing tendency of students to attend language schools while still having English classes at their regular schools, and this has led to a lot…
Phillips, Kay D.
A study examined the freedom of the high school press in North Carolina to determine whether publication guidelines should be in place, and if so, what those guidelines should contain. High school newspaper advisors, high school principals, and high school newspaper editors from large and small, urban and rural, eastern and western high schools…
Egger, Joseph R; Konty, Kevin J; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris
The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Active disease surveillance data collected by the New York City Health Department on rates of ILI in schools were used to evaluate the impact. Sixty-four schools that met the Health Department's criteria for considering dismissal were included in the analysis. Twenty-four schools that met criteria subsequently dismissed all classes for approximately 1 school week. A regression model was fit to these data, estimating the effect of school dismissal on rates of in-school ILI following reconvening, adjusting for potential confounders. The model estimated that, on average, school dismissal reduced the rate of ILI by 7.1% over the entire average outbreak period. However, a large proportion of in-school ILI occurred before dismissal criteria were met. A separate model estimated that school absenteeism rates were not significantly affected by dismissal. Results suggest that individual school dismissal could be considered in situations where schools have a disproportionate number of high-risk students or may be unable to implement recommended preventive or infection control measures. Future work should focus on developing more sensitive indicators of early outbreak detection in schools and evaluating the impact of school dismissal on community transmission. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Bringing up the young people who are seen as the guaranty of the future depends on a better education. One of the best ways of forming a high in quality education is connected to developing the quality in teacher training. Most of the developed countries have been carrying on studies in order to develop teacher training. School experience classes are the ones which are planned for the candidate teachers to observe the school in learning and teaching period and to practice in classrooms. Beginning from candidate teachers first years at school, this class should be thought to be beneficial for identifying their future school atmosphere, and it should be run effectively. For this purpose, it has been identified what difficulties the physics undergraduate and physics (with no thesis) master students, who took part in School Experience classes at the practice schools of Konya at which faculty-school cooperation is applied, had during activities, and their success at overcoming these difficulties, and their ideas about the practice school and its teachers. The research was done by making a survey to the physics undergraduate and physics(with no thesis) master students in 2003 Spring semester. The results of the research were analyzed for both girls and boys separately. After analyzed, the results showed that the most striking activity which both the undergraduate physics and physics(with no thesis) master students had difficulty was group activities. Moreover, it showed that 90 percent of the two groups had the idea that school experience activities would be beneficial for being a good physics teacher. It has been also recognized that the physics undergraduate students had a more positive view than physics(with no thesis) master students on the matter of meeting lack of interest from practice teachers, and taking the same course from the same teacher
Fragaszy, Ellen B; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; White, Peter J; Zambon, Maria; Edmunds, William J; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Hayward, Andrew C
Estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work/school absences for influenza are typically based on medically attended cases or those meeting influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definitions and thus biased towards severe disease. Although community influenza cases are more common, estimates of their effects on HRQoL and absences are limited. To measure quality-adjusted life days and years (QALDs and QALYs) lost and work/school absences among community cases of acute respiratory infections (ARI), ILI and influenza A and B and to estimate community burden of QALY loss and absences from influenza. Flu Watch was a community cohort in England from 2006 to 2011. Participants were followed up weekly. During respiratory illness, they prospectively recorded daily symptoms, work/school absences and EQ-5D-3L data and submitted nasal swabs for RT-PCR influenza testing. Average QALD lost was 0.26, 0.93, 1.61 and 1.84 for ARI, ILI, H1N1pdm09 and influenza B cases, respectively. 40% of influenza A cases and 24% of influenza B cases took time off work/school with an average duration of 3.6 and 2.4 days, respectively. In England, community influenza cases lost 24 300 QALYs in 2010/11 and had an estimated 2.9 million absences per season based on data from 2006/07 to 2009/10. Our QALDs and QALYs lost and work and school absence estimates are lower than previous estimates because we focus on community cases, most of which are mild, may not meet ILI definitions and do not result in healthcare consultations. Nevertheless, they contribute a substantial loss of HRQoL on a population level. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aloush, Sami; Tubaishat, Ahmad; ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Suliman, Mohammad; Alrimawi, Intima; Al Sabah, Ashraf; Banikhaled, Yousef
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a basic life support (BLS) educational course given to 110 middle school children, using a pretest posttest design. In the pretest, students were asked to demonstrate BLS on a manikin to simulate a real-life scenario. After the pretest, a BLS training course of two sessions was provided, followed by posttest on the same manikin. Students were assessed using an observational sheet based on the American Heart Association's BLS guidelines. In the pretest, students showed significant weakness in the majority of guidelines. In the posttest, they demonstrated significant improvement in their BLS skills. BLS training in the middle school was effective, considering the lack of previous skills. It is recommended that BLS education be compulsory in the school setting.
Baker-Smith, E. Christine
Evidence is clear that discipline in high school is associated with negative outcomes across the life course. Not only are suspensions related to declining academic trajectories during high school in the form of attendance and academic achievement, students suspended once are also more likely to be suspended again and also substantially increase…
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve learning quality of high school students in grade ten (X to the study material is about the vector. This research is a quasiexperimental study. Samples selection is random, using the control class from the adjacent class to avoid the large bias. The results of samples selection are the students of class X-H as the control class and the students of class X-I as the experimental class. The motivation variable was distinguished from the observations of student activities at the pre-study and at current research. Highly motivated students are the students who actively ask the questions and give answers to problems. While the low-motivated students are the students whose learning activities are the less. This research was designed using 2x2 factorial ANOVA, namely the effects of cooperative learning between learning without module and module-assisted learning on students’ learning results; and the effects of students’ learning motivation between highly motivated students and low motivated students. After given the treatment, those are: the same pre-test, cooperative learning without modules in control class, module-assisted cooperative learning in experimental class, the same post-test, questionnaires distribution, collection and tabulation of the data. The data were analyzed using qualitative-descriptive technique and percentage. The data analysis results using SPSS 17.0 conclude that: (1 There is a significant difference of study results in cooperative learning without module against module-assisted cooperative learning. (2 There is a significant difference of study results between highly motivated students and low motivated students. (3 There is a significant difference of study results between the group of cooperative learning and the group of student motivation at the significance value of = 0.05.
Female Leadership Dilemmas in Primary Schools: A Case Study of Primary Schools in Harare Province in Zimbabwe. ... Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research ... The study sought to explore dilemmas faced by female school leaders in primary schools in Kambuzuma, Warren Park and Kuwadzana areas of Harare ...
Scheerens, Jaap; van Hoorn, Marjo
Educational effectiveness is an important facet of educational quality. In this article educational effectiveness is used as the general term for instructional effectiveness, school level effectiveness and system effectiveness. Instructional (or teaching) effectiveness largely depends on teachers’
The purpose of the communication is to present a case study of distributed leadership practices and the performances of the Principal of a public school in Madrid. Educational leadership can be considered one of the most important elements of the education system to be effective, achieve quality results, and develop processes of change and…
COLOMBOTOS, JOHN L.
AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED OF THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS AS CONTRASTED WITH THEIR PEERS IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION. THE EFFECT OF THIS DISTINCTIVENESS ON THE PERSONAL NATURE OF TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS ASSOCIATED WITH JOB PERFORMANCE, CAREER GOALS, AND CAREER PATTERNS WAS ALSO STUDIED. ITS GENERAL OBJECTIVE WAS TO…
Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kavvadia, Katerina; Taoufik, Konstantina; Oulis, Constantine J
School based oral health education through traditional lecturing has been found successful only in improving oral health knowledge, while has low effectiveness in oral hygiene and gingival health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experiential learning (EL) oral health education to traditional lecturing (TL), on enhancing oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior as well as oral hygiene, gingival health and caries of 10-year-old children. Eighty-four children were recruited for the EL and 100 for the TL group from 3 locations in Greece. Data regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior were collected via questionnaires. Data regarding dental plaque, gingivitis and caries were collected by clinical examination. The evaluation using questionnaires and clinical examination was assessed at baseline and 6 and 18 months afterwards. Two calibrated pediatric dentists examined the students using a periodontal probe and artificial light. Modified hygiene index (HI) was used for dental plaque recording, the simplified gingival index (GI-S) was used for gingivitis and DMFT, based on BASCD criteria, for dental caries. Based on a dedicated manual, the teacher applied in the classroom the oral health educational program using EL. EL group had statistically significant better hygiene than the TL at 6 months (p 0.05) and attitude (p > 0.05) at 6 months in comparison to baseline. EL program was found more successful than TL in oral hygiene improvement. Both oral health education programs improved the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of children. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02320162).
Full Text Available School leadership styles that affect school innovation is essential to bring schools’ changes. This study aimed to determine school leadership styles and its effect on school innovation at the senior high school level in Jambi city. This study uses ten leadership styles, they are participative, laissez faire, authoritarian, democratic, charismatic, transformational, situational, trust, grid, and three-dimensional leaderships. The framework of the research are developed by associating ten leadership styles with school innovations including (1 the principal's role in doing innovation in the schools, (2 the forms of innovation implemented in the areas of academic achievement, (3 the form of innovations carried out in the field sports and (4 the form of innovations implemented in the institutional field, and (5 the forms of innovation undertaken in the field of school’ culture. There are 32 teachers and 32 principals were taken as samples. This study used mixed methods research. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and correlation. The results showed that the overall principal's leadership style is not sufficient to affect senior high school innovation in Jambi city, this is evidenced by there are only three of those ten leadership styles have positive relationship when they are doing school’s innovations in Jambi city. Thus, the principals should give attention to all the leadership styles to do innovation at senior high school in Jambi city to improve the quality of schools.
Social Marketing and the School Library: An Effective Path to Collaboration? A Review of: Immroth, Barbara and W. Bernard Lukenbill. “Teacher-School Library Media Specialist Collaboration through Social Marketing Strategies: An Information Behavior Study.” School Library Media Research 10 (2007. 22 April 2008 .
by both student librarian and teacher. Measurements and recordings were analysed using accepted case study methods.Main Results – Social Marketing Model The researchers evaluated the study in each of the four aspects of the Social Marketing Model.Attention (A – Gaining Attention and Convincing. Efforts to gain attention through student choices of flyers to teachers were not successful. E-mail announcements were more effective, but it appeared that direct librarian-teacher contact was the most effective. The monetary incentive also did not appear to have an effect on response rate. Host librarians did make suggestions regarding the appropriateness of when and how to distribute the flyers in some cases. Researchers concluded that perhaps such a straightforward advertising approach did not fit in the established relationships, and may be a better choice for new librarians who are establishing their presence in schools.Interest (I - Promoting Interest in Services and/or Products - Researchers noted that initial strategies did not promote interest in the field study project. Teachers cited time and test–related curriculum restraints, and viewed the project as an “extra” responsibility. The researchers note the need to establish the value of the collaborative instruction to long-term goals for both teachers and librarians. The focus groups showed more interest in collaboration, and an awareness of the value of librarians’ collaboration in promoting effective teaching and improving student achievement.Desire (D and Action (A – Recognizing Values and Taking Action. Field test responses did not reflect desire on the part of teachers to collaborate with student librarians. Only two teachers responded directly to the advertisement. The offer of monetary incentive ($200 in library supplies also did not appear to increase motivation of teachers to participate. Results after the field test showed that overall, teachers gained an appreciation of the value of
Burns, W. R. Travis; DiPaola, Michael F.
Emerging research suggests that teachers' perceptions of fairness with respect to interactions with school administrators, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes can contribute greatly to understanding effective schools. This study of Virginia public high schools used correlational analysis to measure the strength of the relationships…
Simmons, Christopher L.
This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…
Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.
Discusses the use of economic analysis to examine relationships between school resources and school outcomes. Outlines a conceptual framework that employs a systems approach to analyze the efficiency of school resource allocation. (JG)
Gayathridevi, K. Sri; Deepa, R.
This study aims to show the effectiveness of a business communication course offered in a business school in India. All students who enrolled for the Master of Business Administration program in the school were considered for the study. The study adapted a pretest and posttest approach to find the effectiveness of the course. It also describes the…
Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Pisapia, John
The purpose of this study was to identify strategic thinking skills that distinguish effective school leaders in Hong Kong. Three constructs framed the study: strategic thinking skills, organizational-personal characteristics, and school leader effectiveness. This study used a quantitative non-experimental design, and univariate and correlation…
Brand, Lance G.
The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve student attitudes of the life sciences. The target population for this study was secondary students enrolled in advanced life science programs. The resulting sample (n = 71) consisted of 36 students in the case-based experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Furthermore, this study employed an experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. The treatment consisted of two instructional strategies: case-based learning and teacher-guided learning. Analysis of covariance indicated no treatment effect on critical thinking ability or Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning. However, the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum did show a treatment effect on student attitudes toward the life sciences. These results seem to indicate that case-based curriculum has a positive impact on students' perspectives and attitudes about the study of life science as well as their interest in life science based careers. Such outcomes are also a good indicator that students enjoy and perceive the value to use of case studies in science, and because they see value in the work that they do they open up their minds to true learning and integration. Of additional interest was the observationthat on average eleventh graders showed consistently stronger gains in critical thinking, motivation and self-regulation of learning strategies, and attitudes toward the life sciences as compared to twelfth grade students. In fact, twelfth grade students showed a pre to post loss on the Watson-Glaser and the MSLQ scores while eleventh grade students showed positive gains on each of these instruments. This decline in twelfth
Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won Oak; Im, Yeo Jin; Cho, Hun Ha
This study examined the mediating effect of school nurses' self efficacy, which is one of the significant cognitive factors influencing cultural sensitivity, on the mutual relationships between multicultural attitude and cultural sensitivity in Korean elementary schools. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used. Participants were 157 school nurses in elementary schools located in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. The survey instruments included Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey, Teacher Efficacy Scale, and Multicultural Sensitivity Scale. Data were analyzed using three regression equations to test the mediation model. The mean score of the school nurses' cultural sensitivity was relatively low. A positive correlation among multicultural attitude, self efficacy, and cultural sensitivity was noted. Self efficacy of school nurses showed a significant mediating effect on the relationships between multicultural attitude and cultural sensitivity. Given the meaningful influence of positive multicultural attitude on cultural sensitivity and significant mediator effect of self efficacy as a school nurse between the two variables, the strategies to cultivate a positive multicultural attitude and enhance school nurses' self efficacy in their unique role should be considered in a training program. School nurses' health care services will benefit from the improvement of cultural sensitivity toward young children from multicultural families. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Grounded in Basic Psychological Need Theory, we examined the direct effects of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school (i.e., satisfaction of autonomy needs at school, satisfaction of relatedness needs at school, and satisfaction of competence needs at school on prosocial behavior and antisocial behavior as well as the mediation effects of school satisfaction on the relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school and prosocial behavior as well as antisocial behavior. We employed a sample of 801 Chinese children (429 males; Mage = 9.47 in a three-wave longitudinal study, with each wave occurring 6 months apart. Direct and indirect effects were estimated by Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicated that: (1 Satisfaction of relatedness needs at school and competence needs at school, but not satisfaction of autonomy needs at school, displayed direct effects on prosocial behavior. Also, satisfaction of relatedness needs at school, but not satisfaction of autonomy needs at school or competence needs at school, displayed direct effects on antisocial behavior. (2 Both satisfaction of relatedness needs at school and competence needs at school displayed indirect effects on prosocial behavior and antisocial behavior via school satisfaction as a mediator. However, satisfaction of autonomy needs at school failed to have indirect effects on prosocial behavior or antisocial behavior via school satisfaction. These findings suggest differential predictors of children’s prosocial and antisocial behavior, supporting the separability of the two constructs. The findings also suggest developmental differences in need satisfaction, with the satisfaction of autonomy needs playing a relatively less important role in school-age children. We also discussed limitations and practical applications of the study.
Geetha Priya, P R; Asokan, Sharath; Kandaswamy, D; Malliga, S; Arthi, G
School textbooks have been considered as an effective platform for promoting oral health. The information on oral health in the Indian school textbooks has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of school textbooks on oral health and to quantitatively analyze the school health camps and guest lectures/demonstrations conducted in the schools of three districts in Tamil Nadu. Twenty schools which participated in the study followed the Central Board of Secondary Education, matriculation, or the state board syllabus. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about the medical camps, dental camps, guest lectures, and demonstrations conducted in the last academic year from the schools. The questionnaires were distributed among the school teachers of grades I-V. They were asked to provide photocopies of the topics on oral health which were included in the syllabus. Content analysis of the information on oral health-related topics in the school textbooks was done. Descriptive statistics of the details of the camps and lectures was done using Pearson's Chi-square test (SPSS version 17) (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA). There was no significant difference in the number of medical camps (P = 0.445), dental camps (P = 0.055), and guest lectures (P = 0.069) organized among the three boards of schools. Basic information on the parts and type of teeth, tooth decay, and brushing were present in the textbooks of all three boards of schools. The school textbooks of all the three boards contained basic and adequate information on oral health. Periodic revisions of the content and quality of information in the school textbooks are essential. To make the information sticky for long-term, reinforcements in the form of school health education is needed.
P R Geetha Priya
Full Text Available Background: School textbooks have been considered as an effective platform for promoting oral health. The information on oral health in the Indian school textbooks has not been evaluated. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of school textbooks on oral health and to quantitatively analyze the school health camps and guest lectures/demonstrations conducted in the schools of three districts in Tamil Nadu. Methodology: Twenty schools which participated in the study followed the Central Board of Secondary Education, matriculation, or the state board syllabus. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about the medical camps, dental camps, guest lectures, and demonstrations conducted in the last academic year from the schools. The questionnaires were distributed among the school teachers of grades I–V. They were asked to provide photocopies of the topics on oral health which were included in the syllabus. Content analysis of the information on oral health-related topics in the school textbooks was done. Descriptive statistics of the details of the camps and lectures was done using Pearson's Chi-square test (SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: There was no significant difference in the number of medical camps (P = 0.445, dental camps (P = 0.055, and guest lectures (P = 0.069 organized among the three boards of schools. Basic information on the parts and type of teeth, tooth decay, and brushing were present in the textbooks of all three boards of schools. Conclusion: The school textbooks of all the three boards contained basic and adequate information on oral health. Periodic revisions of the content and quality of information in the school textbooks are essential. To make the information sticky for long-term, reinforcements in the form of school health education is needed.
Han Gyu Kim
Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6–12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P<0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P<0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P<0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P<0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P<0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P<0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P<0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P<0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.
Heo, YoungJin; Lee, Kyunghee
Previous studies have reported associations among smartphone addiction, school adjustment, and self-control. However, the causal relationship between smartphone addiction and school adjustment has not been clearly demonstrated. The current study examined the association between smartphone addiction and school adjustment and investigated the mediating effect of self-control in this association. A total of 790 students from five high schools in Daegu City, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete a self-diagnostic smartphone addiction scale and validated Korean version of a self-control scale. Among at-risk students, self-control did not mediate the relation between smartphone addiction and school adjustment; among those not at risk, there was a partial mediating effect. To improve school adjustment among high school students, prevention of smartphone addiction seems important. Smartphone addiction could be managed by strengthening self-control to promote healthy use of smartphones. The current results can serve as groundwork for the development of programs to improve school adjustment among high school students. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Slate, John R.; Jones, Craig H.
We surveyed 374 parents and 82 teachers in the Juarez, Mexico schools regarding their views of what makes an effective elementary school. The survey was a Spanish translation of an instrument used by Johnson (1998). Although both parents and teachers supported most of the factors associated with effective schools, they emphasized different aspects…
Siok Fei Oei
Transforming a struggling private Catholic Vocation al School into a well-improved school requires a lot of hard work. Improving a school allowed for no sho rt-cut to assure students’ high achievement. An outstanding school was the res ult of much hard work. The current case study shall focus on the journey of Mater Amabilis School for Training Home Economics Teachers (MA SGKP). More specifically, the paper sh all ...
De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Bammann, K; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Verbestel, V; Ahrens, W
Childhood obesity is a major public health concern but evidence-based approaches to tackle this epidemic sustainably are still lacking. The Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study investigated the aetiology of childhood obesity and developed a primary prevention programme. Here, we report on the effects of the IDEFICS intervention on indicators of body fatness. The intervention modules addressed the community, school and parental level, focusing on diet, physical activity and stress-related lifestyle factors. A cohort of 16,228 children aged 2-9.9 years - about 2000 per country - was equally divided over intervention and control regions. (Participating countries were Sweden, Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Belgium.) We compared the prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean values of body mass index z-score, per cent body fat and waist-to-height ratio over 2 years of follow-up. Mixed models adjusting for age and socioeconomic status of the parents and with an additional random effect for country accounted for the clustered study design. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in both the intervention and control group from 18.0% at baseline to 22.9% at follow-up in the control group and from 19.0% to 23.6% in the intervention group. The difference in changes between control and intervention was not statistically significant. For the cohort as a whole, the changes in indicators of body fatness did not show any clinically relevant differences between the intervention and control groups. Changes in favour of intervention treatment in some indicators were counterbalanced by changes in favour of the control group in some other indicators. Over the 2-year-observation period, the IDEFICS primary prevention programme for childhood obesity has not been successful in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity nor in improving indicators of body fatness in
Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Wells, Helene; Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Campbell, Rona; Murphy, Simon; Moore, Laurence
Schools may have important effects on students' and staff's health. Rather than treating schools merely as sites for health education, 'school-environment' interventions treat schools as settings which influence health. Evidence concerning the effects of such interventions has not been recently synthesised. Systematic review aiming to map and synthesise evidence on what theories and conceptual frameworks are most commonly used to inform school-environment interventions or explain school-level influences on health; what effects school-environment interventions have on health/health inequalities; how feasible and acceptable are school-environment interventions; what effects other school-level factors have on health; and through what processes school-level influences affect health.We will examine interventions aiming to promote health by modifying schools' physical, social or cultural environment via actions focused on school policies and practices relating to education, pastoral care and other aspects of schools beyond merely providing health education. Participants are staff and students age 4-18 years.We will review published research unrestricted by language, year or source. Searching will involve electronic databases including Embase, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo and Social Science Citation Index using natural-language phrases plus reference/citation checking.Stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and methods. Stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. Evidence will be synthesised narratively and statistically where appropriate (undertaking subgroup analyses and meta-regression and where no significant heterogeneity of effect sizes is found, pooling these to calculate a final effect size). We anticipate: finding a large number of studies missed by previous reviews; that non-intervention studies of school effects examine a greater breadth of determinants than are addressed
Lee, Soo Youn
This study examined the effect of middle school students’ perceived parenting style on their school life adjustment focusing on the mediation effect of selfesteem and learning attitude. The author carried out analysis of covariance structure using the 1st wave(2010) data of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey(KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute and consists of 2,351 first year middle school students and their parents. The results indicated that when middle school studen...
Alexander, Mandi M.; Santo, Jonathan B.; Da Cunha, Josafa; Weber, Lidia; Russell, Stephen T.
This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18 years old, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and…
Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Gonzàlez-Balletbò, Isaac
Using PISA data for 16 Western OECD countries having comprehensive school systems, we explore the conditions under which the socioeconomic composition of schools affects educational efficiency and equality, to a greater or lesser extent. First, a multilevel analysis is applied to examine and compare the effect of school socioeconomic composition…
Hibbard, Laura; Franklin, Teresa
School libraries serve an important role; however, elementary students who attend schools online typically do not have a school library. This study followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a library. A mixed methods approach examined data from focus groups, interviews, surveys, library-use records and oral reading fluency scores.…
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E
School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.
In this study; the perceptions of the students studying at sport high schools about democratic school culture were analysed in accordance with different variables. Participants of the research consisted of 216 students studying at Sport High Schools in Sakarya and Batman Provinces of Turkey. The data were collected with the Democratic School…
Bergh, I.H.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bjelland, M.; Grydeland, M.; Lien, N.; Klepp, K.I.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ommundsen, Y.
Background: To improve effectiveness of future screen behaviour interventions, one needs to know whether an intervention works via the proposed mediating mechanisms and whether the intervention is equally effective among subgroups. Parental regulation is identified as a consistent correlate of
able to actualize this, the school organization must be properly managed. The School is an .... equipment and other education facilities that are provided in the school which ... Curriculum: Structure of the curriculum (program/goals, tasks, focus on .... School managers and supervisors should focus their functions based on.
Sinaulan, Ramlani Lina
Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a) the school climate affect performance of teachers, b) there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c) work motivation effect on teacher performance, d) school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e) work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a) improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in sch...
Turkey is now on its way to reforming compulsory education and having a more effective and efficient education system by creating more accountable schools. This research has been designed in a causative pattern to discover the effects of external academic performance pressures on school accountability policies and school accountability responses…
Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S; Oetting, Tara L
The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and group phonics-based instruction supplemented by Visual Phonics in a language-enriched preschool classroom. Standardized assessments were conducted before, during, and after the intervention. Along with some additional assessments, the same assessments were conducted in early elementary school. The results showed that all participants demonstrated at least some use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills when they were explicitly trained, and that these skills were sustained in early elementary school. Furthermore, all participants exhibited overall reading levels at or above age level when measured in early elementary school.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main objective was to investigate the effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness in school-age children of Southern Spain. Methods A total of 494 children aged 8 to 11 years were invited to participate in the study. The schools were non-randomly allocated (i.e., school level allocation into the experimental group (EG or the control group (CG. The EG received an intervention program for 6 months (a monthly activity focused on increasing the level of active commuting to school and mainly targeting children’s perceptions and attitudes. Active commuting to school and health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed-agility, were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Children with valid data on commuting to school at baseline and follow-up, sex, age and distance from home to school were included in the final analysis (n = 251. Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results At follow up, the EG had higher rates of cycling to school than CG for boys only (p = 0.04, but not for walking to school for boys or girls. The EG avoided increases in the rates of passive commuting at follow up, which increased in the CG among girls for car (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 and bus (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 modes. Moreover, we observed significant interactions and main effects between independent variables (study group, sex and assessment time point on health-related fitness (p < 0.05 over the 6-month period between groups, with higher values in the control group (mainly in boys. Conclusion A school-based intervention focused on increasing active commuting to school was associated with increases in rates of cycling to school among boys, but not for
Bendixen, Mons; Daveronis, Josef; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image. Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status. The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.
Chu, Szu-Yin; Baker, Sonia
Video self-modeling has been proven to be effective with other populations with challenging behaviors, but only a few studies of video self-modeling have been conducted with high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This study aimed to focus on analyzing the effects of video self-modeling on four high school students with…
Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program
Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Methods/study design The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438 consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] –for-age Z score, n = 138 received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353 participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n
Thumann, Barbara F; Nur, Ula; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
Few studies have explored risk factors for poor mental health in Ugandan primary schools. This study investigated whether individual- and contextual-level school-related factors including violence from school staff and other students, connectedness to school and peers, as well as school size and urban/rural location, were associated with mental health difficulties in Ugandan children. We also examined whether associations between violence exposure at school and mental health were mediated by connectedness as well as whether associations were different for boys and girls. The analytic sample consisted of 3,565 students from 42 primary schools participating in the Good Schools Study. Data were collected through individual interviews conducted in June and July 2012. Mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with mental health difficulties. Experiences of violence from school staff and other students in the past week were strongly associated with mental health difficulties (OR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.31 to 1.90 and 1.81, 1.47 to 2.23, respectively). Children with a low school connectedness had 1.43 times (1.11 to 1.83) the odds of mental health difficulties compared to those with a high school connectedness. The OR comparing children never feeling close to other students at their school with those always feeling close was 1.86 (1.18 to 2.93). The effect of violence on mental health was not mediated through the connectedness variables. School size was not related to mental health difficulties, but attending an urban school increased the odds of mental health difficulties after accounting for other factors. We did not find evidence that the effect of one or more of the exposures on the outcome differed between boys and girls. These findings suggest that violence in school and low connectedness to school and peers are independently associated with mental health
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Jespersen, Eva; Franz, Claudia; Christensen, Heidi Klakk
: The pragmatic design of this study makes it a virtual implementation study - easy to implement in other public schools in Denmark, and it provides: •A large cohort for future follow-up studies. •A tool for identifying ”specific target groups” and provides new information of dose-re¬sponse for health related...... for the promotion of physical activity among children and youth. Aim: The overall aim of the study is to investigate the short and long term health effects of 4 addi¬tional lessons of physical education per week, compared to 2 lessons of physical education. The present five PhD-projects outlining the project...... of increased physical activity on neck and back pain in Danish school children. •Impact of increased physical activity on sports and leisure time related injuries in Danish school children Methods: A three-year controlled intervention study (2008-11) in 10 public schools. 1520 children aged 6 to 11 were...
Mohan, Lindsey; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Reffitt, Kelly
Much of Michael Pressley's work during the past decade focused on the nature of highly effective, engaging literacy instruction. Michael Pressley believed that studying effective teachers and schools had the potential to influence more engaging and effective teaching, especially in underresourced schools. First, we describe the grounded…
Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study
Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde
), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD......Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted......·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods...
Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.
Patriota, Pollyanna Fernandes; Filgueiras, Andrea Rocha; de Almeida, Viviane Belucci Pires; Alexmovitz, Guilherme Aparecido Costa; da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Vivian Fortuna Feres; Carvalho, Natália; de Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; Torres, Gustavo Enrique Salazar; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Reis; Sesso, Ricardo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia
Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN) in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438) consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] -for-age Z score, n = 138) received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353) participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n = 125) were invited to attend the routine outpatient
Willeboordse, M; Jansen, M W; van den Heijkant, S N; Simons, A; Winkens, B; de Groot, R H M; Bartelink, N; Kremers, S P; van Assema, P; Savelberg, H H; de Neubourg, E; Borghans, L; Schils, T; Coppens, K M; Dietvorst, R; Ten Hoopen, R; Coomans, F; Klosse, S; Conjaerts, M H J; Oosterhoff, M; Joore, M A; Ferreira, I; Muris, P; Bosma, H; Toppenberg, H L; van Schayck, C P
Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children's body mass index (BMI). In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200) in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200) in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named 'The Healthy Primary School of the Future', is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called 'The Physical Activity School', is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted nature and sound scientific foundation, these integrated programmes
Bingler, Steven; Diamond, Barbara M.; Hill, Bobbie; Hoffman, Jerry L.; Howley, Craig B.; Lawrence, Barbara Kent; Mitchell, Stacy; Rudolph, David; Washor, Elliot
This publication summarizes research on the educational and social benefits of small schools and the negative effects of large schools on students, teachers, and members of the community, as well as the "diseconomies of scale" inherent in large schools. It asserts that research shows that measuring the cost of education by graduates rather than by…
Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.
Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
Busch, Steve; Johnson, Shirley; Robles-Piña, Rebecca; Slate, John R.
In this study, the researchers examined principal behaviors related with change in school climate. That is, the manner in which principals managed change within their schools and the impact of these change behaviors on the school climate was investigated. Through use of the Leadership Profile (Johnson, 2003) and the Organizational Health Inventory…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership roles and practices of the principal in improving school effectiveness. This descriptive study involved the principal , counselor, and 11 teachers from the Tonsley Park Primary School in South Australia. The findings showed that all respondents generally regarded team leader as the most important role, while supervisor was rated as the least important. Of the 20 tasks observed, generally revealed that a principal should work cooperatively with staff to ensure more effective use of their skills. While, the task of a principal in making decisions on staff development programs was not necessarily expected by the practicing teachers. All respondents considered organization coordination as the most important area within which a principal should provide more leadership, while curriculum or instructional improvement and innovation was regarded as the least important
Østergaard, Lars; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Andersen, Lars Bo
BACKGROUND: Active transportation to school has been positively associated with various health parameters whereas only sparse evidence exists on risk of injury while commuting to school. This study investigated the overall effectiveness of cycling promotion combined with structural changes...... on cycling to school. METHODS: Interventions at public schools in three different regions in Denmark were based on planned infrastructural changes near schools (e.g. road surface and traffic regulation) and school-motivation for promoting commuter cycling. Participants were pupils from control schools (n...... = 12) or intervention schools (n = 13). All children (n = 2415) from the 4(th) and 5(th) grade were measured at baseline during spring 2010 and at follow-up one year later. RESULTS: No significant differences in commuter cycling were detected in the adjusted analyses comparing the intervention...
With access to technology and expectation by the mainstream, the use of technology in the classroom has become essential these days. However, the problem in science education is that with classrooms filled with technological equipment, the teaching style is didactic, and teachers employ traditional teacher-centered methods in the classroom. In addition, results of international assessments indicate that students' science learning needs to be improved. The purpose of this study is to analyze and document the lived experience of middle-school science teachers and their use of technology in personal, professional lives as well as in their classroom and to describe the phenomenon of middle-school science teachers' technological beliefs for integration of digital devices or technology as an instructional delivery tool, knowledge construction tool and learning tool. For this study, technology is defined as digital devices such as computer, laptops, digital camera, iPad that are used in the science classroom as an instructional delivery tool, as a learning tool, and as a knowledge construction tool. Constructivism is the lens, the theoretical framework that guides this qualitative phenomenological research. Observation, interview, personal journal, photo elicitation, and journal reflection are used as methods of data collection. Data was analyzed based on a constructivist theoretical framework to construct knowledge and draw conclusion. MAXQDA, a qualitative analysis software, was also used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that middle-school science teachers use technology in various ways to engage and motivate students in science learning; however, there are multiple factors that influence teachers' technology use in the class. In conclusion, teacher, students, and technology are the three sides of the triangle where technology acts as the third side or the bridge to connect teachers' content knowledge to students through the tool with which students are
Sharpe, Rachael; Abrahams, Ian; Fotou, Nikolaos
In England, there is a growing need to improve the lives of secondary school students who are defined as disadvantaged and to support these students in their attainment and attitudes to secondary school science.
Singh, Bhagat; Kumar, Arun
The objective of the study was to find out the effect of EI and gender on job satisfaction of primary school teachers. A total of 300 (150 male and 150 female) primary school teachers were selected randomly for the study. Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) and Teachers' Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS) were used to collect the data. The study found a…
Edet, Aniefiok Oswald; Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Uko, Esther Samuel
The study examined principals' management role effectiveness of secondary schools for youth leadership in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State. The study employed survey research design. The target population comprised all 158 principals in both public and private secondary schools in the study area. The sample selected through random…
Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated to answer the research questions and independent samples t-tests were used for testing the hypotheses. Major findings revealed that insecurity of school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while students’ gangsterism, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted insecurity of the school environment which eventually cause boys to leave school and join trading while leading girls to drop out and settle for marriage. Based on the findings, it was recommended that owners of schools and other stakeholders in education should take bold steps to fence and protect school environments from intruders to ensure safety of the students.
Lovato, Chris; Watts, Allison; Brown, K Stephen; Lee, Derrick; Sabiston, Catherine; Nykiforuk, Candace; Eyles, John; Manske, Steve; Campbell, H Sharon; Thompson, Mary
We identified the most effective mix of school-based policies, programs, and regional environments associated with low school smoking rates in a cohort of Canadian high schools over time. We collected a comprehensive set of student, school, and community data from a national cohort of 51 high schools in 2004 and 2007. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict school and community characteristics associated with school smoking prevalence. Between 2004 and 2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 13.3% to 10.7% in cohort schools. Predictors of lower school smoking prevalence included both school characteristics related to prevention programming and community characteristics, including higher cigarette prices, a greater proportion of immigrants, higher education levels, and lower median household income. Effective approaches to reduce adolescent smoking will require interventions that focus on multiple factors. In particular, prevention programming and high pricing for cigarettes sold near schools may contribute to lower school smoking rates, and these factors are amenable to change. A sustained focus on smoking prevention is needed to maintain low levels of adolescent smoking.
Hawley, Willis D.
This paper is based on a review of research and other commentary about educational policies in desegrated schools. It identifies four general conditions likely to affect educational quality and suggests 12 policies and practices concerning school and classroom organization, human relations activities, and school staff. (PP)
Full Text Available Abstract: Self concept and self esteem are two psychological aspects that need to be attention in learning at school because a high of self concept and self esteem can influence students success in their learning. The objective of this research is to know about the differences about self concept and self esteem among elementary students with full day school and half day school system. The method used in this observation is comparison by comparing self concept and self esteem of elementary students with full day and half day system. The population of this research is 3 fullday Islamic elementary schools and 6 halfday Islamic elementary schools. The sample of this research is SD Islam Al-Madina as fullday school and SD Muhammadiyah Purworejo as halfday school. The data is gotten by the scale, observation, interviews and documentation. The result shows that there are no significant differences between self concept (t=0,096 with df :47 and self esteem (t=0,396 with df :47 among student who study in full day school and half day (regular school system so it means that school system doesn’t influence the quality of self concept and self esteem. Keywords: self concept, self esteem, full day school, half day school.
Middle school is a critical time for the development of girls' attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Existing research has indicated declining positive attitudes toward these fields among girls throughout adolescence. This study investigated how, to what extent, and for whom participation in a summer STEM Camp at a Midwestern college in the United States affected the STEM attitudes and career aspirations of 23 female participants, ages 10-14 years. Using a concurrent triangulation design, the researcher collected pre- and post-questionnaire data (N = 20), interviewed participants (N = 9), read journal entries (N = 22), and wrote field notes. The researcher adapted the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales (FSAS) to measure five of the original nine attitude scales concerning STEM: Male Domain, Confidence, Usefulness, Success, and Motivation. In addition to these standardized, Likert-type scale questions, the questionnaire included demographic items to gauge participants' anticipated career choices and the level of STEM motivation (e.g., extracurricular activities and guardians' STEM involvement). The interview questions elicited information about the participants' Camp experiences and the Camp's influence on participants' attitudes and career aspirations. The journal prompts provoked participants to think about their perceptions of, and relationship with, science and mathematics as well as how supportive their parents and peers had been regarding these two fields. Participants' incoming STEM attitudes were positive. Accordingly, there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-scores of attitudes toward STEM. Nevertheless, qualitative results showed that the Camp did strengthen participants' positive attitudes through enthusiastic instructors, STEM-motivated peers, and hands-on activities that allowed for creative freedom. Participating in the STEM Camp challenged participants' prior career aspirations by
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children’s body mass index (BMI. In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. Methods In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200 in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200 in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named ‘The Healthy Primary School of the Future’, is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called ‘The Physical Activity School’, is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. Discussion A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted
Denton, Carolyn A.; Solari, Emily J.; Ciancio, Dennis J.; Hecht, Steven A.; Swank, Paul R.
This pilot study examined an implementation of a kindergarten summer school reading program in 4 high-poverty urban schools. The program targeted both basic reading skills and oral language development. Students were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 25) or a typical practice comparison group (n = 28) within each school; however,…
Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan
This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja
The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…
Jorgensen, Robyn; Walsh, Lynne; Niesche, Richard
Reforming schools is a challenging aspect of contemporary education. The role of leadership within reform agendas is critical. This article presents a case study of one school that has been highly successful in the implementation of this reform. The processes employed by the school at various levels demonstrate the ways in which effective…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu
This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…
Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie
Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation
Harris, R J; Johnston, RJ
In this paper we distinguish polarization from other conceptions of segregation by conceiving the former as a local phenomenon. To this end we argue that evidence for any school-level separation of ethnic groups must be sought and contextualised within the local markets within which schools operate. By determining the ‘core catchment’ areas of primary schools from geographical micro-data reporting where pupils reside and which school they attend within the study region of Birmingham, England,...
This study investigated types of career choice in high school students and examined the effects of career paths on time perspective development. The participants were 4,756 third grade students from nine public high schools in Tokyo. The high school questionnaire survey was conducted throughout autumn of 2008, 2009, and 2010. One year later, 962 graduates participated in the follow-up questionnaire survey by post. Distinguishing gender difference among career paths was found. Girls tend to choose significantly shorter learning careers (p time perspective than other groups (p time perspective between "school to school transition" and "school to work transition". It is suggested that the "school to work transition" tends to be more critical for adolescents and has negative effects on time perspective. These results suggest that the goal content in careers may promote or inhibit the formation of time perspectives during the graduation transition.
Neumark, David; Wascher, William
Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…
Kennedy, C.A.; Gray, A.M.
Indoor radon is an important source of radiation dosage in the general population and has been recognised as a world-wide environmental and public health challenge. Governments in many Western and Eastern European and North American countries are undertaking active radon-risk reduction policies, including the remediation of existing residential and work place building stocks (1). These endeavours include a priority of remediating school buildings. Epidemiological and technical radon research has produced information which has enabled attention to be turned to specific effectiveness and optimisation questions regarding radon identification and remediation programmes in buildings, including schools. Decision making about policy implementation has been an integral part of these programmes and questions have been raised about the economic implications of the regulations and optimisation strategies for workplace action level policy (2,3). (the action level applied to schools is 400 Bq m -3 ). No previous study has estimated the cost-effectiveness of a radon remediation programme for schools using the methodological framework now considered appropriate in the economic evaluation of health interventions. It is imperative that this should be done, in order that the resources required to obtain health gain from radon remediation in schools can be systematically compared with equivalent data for other health interventions and radon remediation programmes. In this study a cost-effectiveness analysis of radon remediation in schools was undertaken, using the best available national data and information from Northamptonshire on the costs and effectiveness of radon identification and remediation in schools, and the costs and health impact of lung cancer cases. A model based on data from Northamptonshire is presented (where 6.3% of residential stock is over 200 Bq m -3 ). The resultant cost-effectiveness ratio was pound 7,550 per life year gained in pound 1997. Results from the
of girls' education in Science subjects, as it exists in Ghana with reference to J.S.S. pupils' attitude to Science. Using a stratified random sample of junior secondary school students from public and private schools, the study investigated the attitudes of junior secondary school students towards the study of science. Data were ...
Zidack, Astri Marie
This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…
Full Text Available Aim: This study of nutrition education given to primary school students was conducted to determine the effects of feeding behavior. Material and Method: This is an intervention study. Research was made at elementary schools located in the center of the province of Yozgat among 6 grade students in 2012-2013. Students were divided into 2 groups by random. Students in the intervention (n=305 and control (n=233 groups were administered a questionnaire prepared by the researcher feeding behaviors. Nutrition surveys in the intervention group after the application of the selected class are given a standardized nutrition education by intern nurses. In data analysis, the dependent and independent samples Student%u2019s t-test, ANOVA for repeated measures multivariate analysis (repeated multiple general model, chi-square, correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: Seventy-one percent point nine of the students usually make breakfast before coming school, 24.5% often bring food to school, 79.4% have at least 3 meals a day, %41.3 at least 2 times eating something between meals. After a year of this habit of the students (49.3% increases in the frequency of eating something between meals as well as a reduction of approximately 10% was determined. In the study, positive and negative eating behavior could not gain the desired level of behavior change with the education given in schools to students. However, the decline in average scores positive eating behaviors, the intervention group (%uF8E5d=3.5 than in the control group (%uF8E5d=6.4 were found to be less. Discussion: Education is an important method meets the information needs of individuals, but is insufficient in creating behavior change in a short time.
Park, Jang Hee
This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.
Pasaribu, A. P.; Angellee, J.; Pasaribu, S.
Worm infestation is mainly caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infecting one-third of the world’s population, where the most affected are primary school children. This chronic, long-lasting infection can affect the growth aspects in children. A school-based deworming is one of the treatments recommended by WHO to counterattack worm infection in primary school children. To evaluate the effect of school-based deworming on the hemoglobin level, growth and school performance of primary school children, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted on 165 targeted populations in SukaKaro village, North Sumatra; 156 of which were then chosen based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The samples’ feces- sampling, hemoglobin level, and growth chart data were recorded on the first day of study before any treatment was given. They were then divided into two groups; the first group of 80 samples did not receive any treatment, while the second group of 76 samples received 400mg of albendazole as part of a school-based deworming program. The samples were being followed up after sixth months of study. In conclusion, albendazole is able to improve the hemoglobin level, growth development, and school performance of the samples, although there were no significant differences between the two groups.
O efeito das escolas no aprendizado dos alunos: um estudo com dados longitudinais no Ensino Fundamental The effect of schools on pupil's learning: a study with longitudinal data in Fundamental Education
Maria Teresa Gonzaga Alves
Full Text Available Nas pesquisas sobre o efeito das escolas, reconhece-se uma clara distinção entre desempenho escolar e aprendizado. A primeira noção se refere ao nível de desempenho em alguma etapa da escolarização, e a segunda, à aquisição de conhecimentos durante a trajetória escolar. Há um consenso na literatura que, para se estudar o sucesso de escolas específicas, é preciso analisar a segunda noção com dados longitudinais. O objetivo deste estudo é medir o efeito das sete escolas públicas de Belo Horizonte semelhantes quanto à localização e ao perfil socioeconômico. O estudo se baseou em dados longitudinais coletados em dois anos e com início na 5ª série. Os alunos foram submetidos a testes cognitivos em três ocasiões. Eles também responderam a um questionário contextual para levantar informações sobre suas características demográficas, socioeconômicas e outros dados. O efeito das escolas no aprendizado foi analisado com modelos multiníveis de regressão para dados longitudinais, nos quais as escolas foram incluídas com variáveis indicadoras. Os resultados mostraram que os alunos com nível inicial mais baixo, em média, progrediram mais que os alunos com nível inicial mais alto, embora as diferenças de nível persistam no final do estudo. Os atributos socioeconômicos dos alunos têm muito impacto na explicação de diferenças no nível inicial, mas apenas algumas têm impacto no aprendizado dos alunos, dependendo da disciplina e da série. Este estudo tem contribuições metodológicas importantes para a investigação do efeito das escolas em perspectiva longitudinal.In the studies on the effects of schools there is a clear distinction between pupil's performance at school and learning. The former notion refers to the level of performance at some stage of the process of schooling, whereas the latter is related to the acquisition of knowledge along the school trajectory. There is a consensus in the literature around
This paper concerns an applied research aimed at applying the concept of usability, as derived form the standard ISO 9241/11, in the filed of building design, namely primary schools. Starting from the concept that space characteristics play a very relevant role in learning performances, the study presented here developed an original methodology for the assessment of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of buildings hosting primary schools, in order to create a school environment better supporting users in their tasks. Research core is the framework of usability requirements and their related markers, indicators and technical specification that has been formulated in order to check compliance of urban area, building, rooms and architectural details with users needs. Therefore, a detailed task analysis of pupils and teacher tasks has been carried out and two questionnaires addressed to a significant users panel have been formulated for satisfaction survey. Lastly, a matrix for an overall reading of gathered data has been set-up and criteria for usability assessment based on that data has been defined. The whole study has been developed within the case study of a primary school in the Naples city centre, whose contents and results are discussed.
This research focused on the school turnaround process in six turnaround elementary schools located in urban and rural areas of the state of North Carolina. The purpose of the study was to learn about the challenges facing the six schools, the process of improving student achievement, and, more specifically, the degree to which adaptive leadership…
MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…
Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan; Mortimore, Peter; Hack, Sarah; Clark, Helen
This paper presents preliminary findings from a large-scale study of ability grouping in English secondary schools. Forty-five secondary schools representing three levels of grouping took part in the research. Within these schools, data have been collected from a cohort of Year 9 pupils, aged 13-14 years. All these pupils took tests in English,…
Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben
Chronic absenteeism in K-12 schools is strongly associated with critical educational outcomes such as student achievement and graduation. Yet, the causes of chronic absenteeism are complex, with environmental, family/individual, and school factors all affecting the likelihood of a student attending school regularly. This exploratory study examines…
Breum, Lars; Toftager, M; Boyle, E
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention targeting the physical and organizational school environment for noncurricular physical activity (SPACE) on adiposity, aerobic fitness, and musculo-skeletal strength in Danish adolescents. The study used a cluster randomized...... controlled design. Fourteen schools and 1348 adolescents aged 11-14 years were included at baseline. Seven schools were randomized to the intervention, which was designed to change the organizational and physical environment of the school. The analysis revealed no significant differences between...... the adolescents in the intervention group compared to the comparison group after a 2-year follow-up. Adjusted for baseline, sex, age, and clustering within schools, the difference between the intervention schools compared to the comparison schools was 6 m in the shuttle run test [95% confidence interval (CI): -21...
Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote health behaviours and prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children in disadvantaged areas, the Healthy School Start Study II, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.
Nyberg, Gisela; Norman, Åsa; Sundblom, Elinor; Zeebari, Zangin; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of parental support programmes to promote healthy behaviours and prevent obesity in children, but only few studies have been conducted among groups with low socio-economic status. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in six-year-old children in disadvantaged areas. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in disadvantaged areas in Stockholm. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 378) and their parents. Thirty-one school classes from 13 schools were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 16) and control groups (n = 15). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary intake and screen time with a questionnaire, body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 5months follow-up. Group effects were examined using Mixed-effect Regression analyses adjusted for sex, parental education and baseline values. Fidelity to all three intervention components was satisfactory. Significant intervention effects were found regarding consumption of unhealthy foods (p = 0.01) and unhealthy drinks (p = 0.01). At follow-up, the effect on intake of unhealthy foods was sustained for boys (p = 0.03). There was no intervention effect on physical activity. Further, the intervention had no apparent effect on BMI sds for the whole sample, but a significant difference between groups was detected among children who were obese at baseline (p = 0.03) which was not sustained at follow-up. The Healthy School Start study shows that it is possible to influence
Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina
We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us...... school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas....
Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia (NJ1), 2005
This paper presents key concepts from the theoretical literature on organizational change and school learning cultures. It concludes with eight actions school leaders can take to help school communities develop or enhance learning cultures that are receptive to change. [This report is based on a literature review by Albert J. Boerema.
Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K
The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jaakkola, Tomi; Veermans, Koen
The present study investigates the effects that concreteness fading has on learning and transfer across three grade levels (4-6) in elementary school science education in comparison to learning with constantly concrete representations. 127 9- to 12-years-old elementary school students studied electric circuits in a computer-based simulation…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation to learn technology, as perceived by South Korean middle school students, on their attitudes toward engineering. Using the instruments of Glynn et al. (2011) and Lee (2008), the study focused on eighth and ninth grade students in four middle schools located in South Korea's…
This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…
Wimpelberg, Robert K.
This paper reports on a research study designed, in part, to explore the expression of bureaucracy (or structural management) and culture (or symbolic management) in the work of eighteen elementary school principals in Louisiana. In addition, the study compares principals in nine of the schools categorized as "more effective" and nine…
Gül, Özgür; Çaglayan, Hakan Salim; Akandere, Mehibe
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of sports education on psychological well-being levels of high school students in terms of individual, environmental and self-determination. This study group consists of totally 187 high school students, in other words 97 students (n[subscript male] = 48, n[subscript female] = 49) receive education in…
Hartono, S.W.; Lambri, S.E.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van
A study in West Java has indicated that involvement of primary health care personnel and schoolteachers in oral health education (OHE) at primary schools is a feasible approach that is sustainable. AIM: The present study aims to assess the effects of that school-based OHE programme on pupils who had
Waters, Lea; Stokes, Helen
This qualitative study describes the effect of two gratitude interventions designed to trigger emotion-gratitude (gratitude diary) and action-gratitude (gratitude letter) in school leaders. Case study methodology was applied to analyse reflective journals of 27 school leaders. The gratitude diary served to foster a more balanced view of the…
Bolanle, Akinola Oluwatoyin
The study sought to find out the leadership skills possessed by Principals of public secondary schools in south western Nigeria and the relationship between these leadership skills and school effectiveness in terms of student academic achievement. The descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. 154 Principals and 770 teachers,…
Inuwa, Umar; Abdullah, Zarifah; Hassan, Haslinda
This study examined the effect of cooperative learning approach on financial accounting achievement among secondary school students in Gombe state, Nigeria. A pre-test-post-test-control group design was adopted. 120 students participated in the study were selected randomly from six schools. The students were divided into two equal groups, namely:…
Tanriögen, A.; Iscan, S.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of distributive leadership behavior of foreign language schools' principals on the job satisfaction of instructors. Sample size of 416 instructors working in foreign language school for the academic year 2013 to 2014 was used in the study. The data was gathered using questionnaires tag…
Tickle, Benjamin R.; Chang, Mido; Kim, Sunha
This study examined the effect of administrative support on teachers' job satisfaction and intent to stay in teaching. The study employed a path analysis to the data of regular, full-time, public school teachers from the Schools and Staffing Survey teacher questionnaire. Administrative support was the most significant predictor of teachers' job…
Gage, Timothy; Smith, Clive
Top performing companies have long used intelligence tests in their selection procedures to predict who the best leaders are. However, no longer are the brightest favoured, or guaranteed success. A post-modern world demands a fresh outlook on leadership. How can school leaders judge their effectiveness? How can school leaders lead intelligently? This article explores a theoretical approach to effective school leadership in an emerging context, which embraces a holistic understanding of intell...
Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Mei; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Xu, Biao; Dong, Hengjin; Palm, Lars; Liu, Li; Nie, Shaofa
School absenteeism is a common data source in syndromic surveillance, which allows for the detection of outbreaks at an early stage. Previous studies focused on its correlation with other data sources. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of control measures based on early warning signals from school absenteeism surveillance in rural Chinese schools. A school absenteeism surveillance system was established in all 17 primary schools in 3 adjacent towns in the Chinese region of Hubei. Three outbreaks (varicella, mumps, and influenza-like illness) were detected and controlled successfully from April 1, 2012, to January 15, 2014. An impulse susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was used to fit the epidemics of these three outbreaks. Moreover, it simulated the potential epidemics under interventions resulting from traditional surveillance signals. The effectiveness of the absenteeism-based control measures was evaluated by comparing the simulated datasets. The school absenteeism system generated 52 signals. Three outbreaks were verified through epidemiological investigation. Compared to traditional surveillance, the school absenteeism system generated simultaneous signals for the varicella outbreak, but 3 days in advance for the mumps outbreak and 2-4 days in advance for the influenza-like illness outbreak. The estimated excess protection rates of control measures based on early signals were 0.0%, 19.0-44.1%, and 29.0-37.0% for the three outbreaks, respectively. Although not all outbreak control measures can benefit from early signals through school absenteeism surveillance, the effectiveness of early signal-based interventions is obvious. School absenteeism surveillance plays an important role in reducing outbreak spread.
Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
Introduction The Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools’ nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP’s inception in 2006 through 2012. Methods We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP’s onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose–response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools. PMID:25996984
Dijkstra, Anne Bert; Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; van der Veen, Ineke; ten Dam, Geert
This study examines the effects of general educational quality of schools, school citizenship policy, and ethnic homogeneity of the student body on the acquisition of citizenship competences in the final year of primary education. The theoretical framework is based on developmental, psychological, and sociological studies into effects of social…
Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel
Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…