WorldWideScience

Sample records for school dropouts

  1. High School Dropouts in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Kidsdata.org shows the California Department of Education's adjusted four-year derived dropout rate, which reflects the estimated percentage of public high school dropouts over four years based on a single year's data, and the grade 9-12 dropout count. Data also are provided by race/ethnicity. This paper presents the statistics on high school…

  2. The School Dropout: Causes, Effects and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinal, Terry Lynn

    This document reviews the literature on elementary and secondary school dropouts and notes the effects and possible solutions to the dropout problem. Statistical findings about dropouts from the 1960's to the present are presented along with methods of predicting who the dropouts will be. Dropout characteristics, including psychological, social,…

  3. High School Dropout and Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…

  4. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  5. Work environment and school dropout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas

    Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...

  6. Noncognitive Skills, School Achievements and Educational Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Coneus; Johannes Gernandt; Marianne Saam

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of dropout from secondary and vocational education in Germany using data on 17- to 21-year-olds from the Socio-Economic Panel from 2000 to 2007. Beyond the role of classical variables like family background and school achievements, we examine the effect of noncognitive skills. At constant school grades, noncognitive skills reduce the risk of becoming an educational dropout. The influence of school achievements on the dropout probability tends to decrease and the in...

  7. High School Dropouts: Causes, Consequences, and Cure. Fastback 242.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, Donald R.

    This booklet addresses the issue of high school dropouts. The dropout problem is briefly reviewed and dropout statistics are presented. A section on identifying the dropout lists early warning signs of potential dropouts and examines reasons for dropping out. Seven profiles of dropouts are included which provide personal insights, describe…

  8. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  9. School Dropout Indicators, Trends, and Interventions for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors are expected to develop programs that promote academic success for all students, including those at risk for dropping out of school. Knowledge of key indicators of potential dropouts and current trends in dropout prevention research may assist school counselors in better understanding this complex issue. Implementing recommended…

  10. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  11. Predicting secondary school dropout among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education is one of the strongest predictors of health worldwide. In South Africa, school dropout is a crisis where by Grade 12, only 52% of the age appropriate population remain enrolled. Survival analysis was used to identify the risk of dropping out of secondary school for male and female adolescents and examine the ...

  12. High School Dropout: The Students' Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesca Salvà-Mut; Miquel F Oliver-Trobat; Rubén Comas-Forgas

    2014-01-01

      This study addresses the problem of high school dropout in Spain. It aims to gain a more profound understanding of the reasons and processes that lead to students leaving school, based on the point of view of the teenagers themselves...

  13. Adjustment of High School Dropouts in Closed Religious Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Yael; Itzhaky, Haya; Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: While extensive research has been done on high-school dropouts' adjustment, there is little data on dropouts from closed religious communities. Objective: This study examines the contribution of personal and social resources to the adjustment of high school dropouts in Ultraorthodox Jewish communities in Israel. Method: Using a…

  14. Oregon's High School Dropouts: Examining the Economic and Social Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily Anne

    2010-01-01

    This analysis presents the public costs of high school dropouts in Oregon. It examines how dropouts in the state dramatically impact state finances through reduced tax revenues, increased Medicaid costs, and high incarceration rates. This study describes how much high school dropouts cost Oregon's tax-payers each year, and how much could be saved…

  15. Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…

  16. High School Dropout Experiences: A Social Capital Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Drewry, Julie Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and analyze students' experiences with dropping out of high school within a social capital framework. Discussing the stories of high school dropouts provided valuable information related to the root causes of dropout behaviors in a social capital context. This information can be used to develop programs designed to increase social capital in schools, families, and communities, which can contribute to a decrease in dropout behaviors. This phenomenol...

  17. Noncognitive Skills, School Achievements and Educational Dropout (Revised Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Coneus, Katja; Gernandt, Johannes; Saam, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of dropout from secondary and vocational education in Germany using data from the Socio-Economic Panel from 2000 to 2007. In addition to the role of classical variables like family background and school achievements, we examine the effect of noncognitive skills. Both, better school grades and higher noncognitive skills reduce the risk of becoming an educational dropout. The influence of school achievements on the dropout probability tends to decrease and the influe...

  18. The School Counselor's Role in School Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan Williams; Kelly, F. Donald

    2010-01-01

    The role of the school counselor has undergone numerous revisions over the past few decades. The current emphasis on accountability and academic performance of students has forced counselors to scrutinize their role in promoting students' academic success and school completion. In this article, the authors review the problem of school dropout from…

  19. Use of Holland's Vocational Theory with Potential High School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Claude H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The construct validity for potential high school dropouts (N=252) of Holland's theory of vocational choice as measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was studied. Results indicate Holland's theory is appropriate for potential high school dropouts and by implication, for other high school students. (Author)

  20. Aggressive Students and High School Dropout: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive students often struggle in multiple domains of their school functioning and are at increased risk for high school dropout. Research has identified a variety of warning flags which are strong predictors of high school dropout. While it is known that aggressive students exhibit many of these warning flags, there is little research which…

  1. Leadership and dropout prevention : strategies for school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Ed. The objective of this study is to explore and describe the viewpoints of rural black secondary school principals concerning their leadership responsibilities with regard to the prevention of dropout; to develop strategies for secondary school principals with regard to their leadership role in preventing school dropout and to describe guidelines for the implementation of the strategies

  2. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Şahin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A “case study” design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of 64 school principals working at primary, secondary and high schools in the province center and districts of Düzce. A semi-structured interview form consisting of nine questions was used as the data collection tool. The collected data was analyzed by content analysis method. 15 main themes were formed under five categories. Certain suggestions were developed based on the findings obtained as the result of the study.

  3. Reasons for School Dropout in Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Selda

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the causative factors that lead to vocational high schools dropout by referring to the opinions of the students who did leave the school. A qualitative phenomenological research method has been designed and adopted. The study group consisted of 19 children and young adults (15-24 years old) who continue their education…

  4. The reasons of dropout of sport in Hong Kong school athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo

    2017-01-01

    Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two...

  5. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  6. Switching Schools: Revisiting the Relationship between School Mobility and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and…

  7. Student engagement and its relationship with early high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Pagani, Linda S

    2009-06-01

    Although the concept of school engagement figures prominently in most school dropout theories, there has been little empirical research conducted on its nature and course and, more importantly, the association with dropout. Information on the natural development of school engagement would greatly benefit those interested in preventing student alienation during adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 11,827 French-Canadian high school students, we tested behavioral, affective, cognitive indices of engagement both separately and as a global construct. We then assessed their contribution as prospective predictors of school dropout using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Global engagement reliably predicted school dropout. Among its three specific dimensions, only behavioral engagement made a significant contribution in the prediction equation. Our findings confirm the robustness of the overall multidimensional construct of school engagement, which reflects both cognitive and psychosocial characteristics, and underscore the importance attributed to basic participation and compliance issues in reliably estimating risk of not completing basic schooling during adolescence.

  8. Switching Schools: Reconsidering the Relationship Between School Mobility and High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2012-06-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9 th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools.

  9. Switching Schools: Reconsidering the Relationship Between School Mobility and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706

  10. Tennessee's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Christian

    2010-01-01

    High school dropouts adversely impact the state of Tennessee each year--financially and socially. Dropouts' lower incomes, high unemployment rates, increased need for medical care, and higher propensity for incarceration create a virtual vortex that consumes Tennesseans' tax dollars at a vicious rate. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on…

  11. Occupational Constraints and Opportunities Faced by School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between building human capital of former dropouts and their occupational standing and the interaction effects with individual characteristics. By applying the growth curve model, this study highlighted the factors that lead high school dropouts to enhance their occupational standing. An increment in the work…

  12. Influence of mental disorders on school dropout in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina Mora-Icaza, María Elena; Benjet, Corina; Lee, Sing; Lane, Michael; Breslau, Joshua

    2011-11-01

    To study the impact of mental disorders on failure in educational attainment in Mexico. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 16 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-reports with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) during fieldwork in 2001-2002. Survival analysis was used to examine associations between early onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent school dropout or failure to reach educational milestones. More than one of two Mexicans did not complete secondary education. More than one-third of those who finished secondary education did not enter college, and one of four students who entered college did not graduate. Impulse control disorders and substance use disorders were associated with higher risk for school dropout, secondary school dropout and to a lesser degree failure to enter college. Anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk for school dropout, especially secondary school dropout and, to a lesser degree, primary school dropout. The heterogeneity of results found in Mexico may be due to the effect of mental disorders being diminished or masked by the much greater effect of economic hardship and low cultural expectations for educational achievement. Future research should inquire deeper into possible reasons for the better performance of students with anxiety disorders in developing countries.

  13. Socioeconomic differences in school dropout among young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully...... understood. Aim: To investigate the effect of social relations on the association between parental socioeconomic position and school dropout in the Danish youth cohort Vestliv. Methods This prospective study used data from questionnaires in 2004 and 2007 and register data in 2004 and 2010. The study...... between parental socioeconomic position and dropout at age 21, taking into account effects of social relations at age 15 and 18. Results A large proportion of young people were having problems with social relations at age 15 and 18. In general, social relations were strongly related to not completing...

  14. Differential Developmental Pathways of High School Dropouts and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Bartholomew, Mitchell; Mathwig, Jennifer; Heinrich, Randy S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the developmental pathways between high school graduates and dropouts. The authors obtained official school data via a random sample of 119 students enrolled across 4 cohorts. The authors postulated 2 research questions: (a) Do differences exist in the developmental pathways of high school graduates in comparison with high…

  15. Suicidality, school dropout, and reading problems among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Stephanie S; Walsh, Adam K; Goldston, David B; Arnold, Elizabeth M; Reboussin, Beth A; Wood, Frank B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts and school dropout among youth with poor reading in comparison to youth with typical reading (n = 188) recruited from public schools at the age of 15. In a prospective naturalistic study, youth and parents participated in repeated research assessments to obtain information about suicide ideation and attempts, psychiatric and sociodemographic variables, and school dropout. Youth with poor reading ability were more likely to experience suicidal ideation or attempts and more likely to drop out of school than youth with typical reading, even after controlling for sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Suicidality and school dropout were strongly associated with each other. Prevention efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between these outcomes, as well as on the developmental paths leading up to these behaviors among youth with reading difficulties.

  16. Dropouts and Social Determinants of Health; Policy for the Prevention of School Dropout, Qualitative Study of the Causes and Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahbari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study, with the presentation of statistical documents specifically of the current problem of school dropouts in all levels of the Iranian society has been determined and aside from identifying the causes and factors affecting school dropouts, provision of strategies in three levels of prevention to combat this problem has been addressed.

  17. DIMENSIONS OF BASIC SCHOOL DROPOUTS IN RURAL GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    Indian hemp”. Such children normally leave home and instead of going to school they secretly join their friends, who may be school dropouts themselves but are now what is commonly re- ferred to as “station boys”. These boys are nor-.

  18. 20 CFR 664.310 - When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT ACT Out-of-School Youth § 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools? A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any... dropout status is determined at the time of registration. A youth attending an alternative school at the...

  19. Exploring the Impact of Career Mentoring on High School Dropout: A Qualitative Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffington Ameir, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    According to Department of Education reports on public high school dropout rates for 2009, a national average of 44.3% of dropouts left their secondary school education in the 11th and 12th grades. The majority of school dropouts attributed the reason for dropping out of school to boredom. High social and economic costs associated with dropping…

  20. Hidden School Dropout among Immigrant Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Elena; Herzog, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Actual school dropout among immigrant youth has been addressed in a number of studies, but research on hidden school dropout among immigrant students is rare. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyze hidden school dropout among primary school students with an immigrant background. The analyses were performed using survey data of 1186…

  1. Predictors of school dropout among adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.

  2. Patterns and Factors of High School Dropout Risks of Racial and Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Allen, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the dropout trajectories of racial and linguistic minority students and explored the effects of students' contextual factors on their high school dropout risks. Our motivation was to identify the dropout patterns of Black, Hispanic, and Hispanic English language learner (ELL) students, who have comparatively high dropout rates,…

  3. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care: e0142315

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marie-José Theunissen; Hans Bosma; Petra Verdonk; Frans Feron

    2015-01-01

    ... process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks...

  4. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  5. Folk High Schools and Dropouts from Upper Secondary School: Effects of Non-Academic Investments in Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Solveig T.; Borgen, Nicolai T.

    2015-01-01

    High dropout rates from upper secondary school are related to substantial societal costs, and are hence a major policy concern. The Norwegian folk high schools provide a non-academic education in an intimate and nurturing environment where interpersonal and social skills are emphasised, and where individuals grow in sense of self-esteem and sense…

  6. 70001: From Soaps to Hopes for School Dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Donna Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities and achievements of Broome County Catholic Youth Organization 70001, a unique program for economically disadvantaged youth and high school dropouts, which offers preemployment training, educational upgrading, motivational activities, and job placement assistance. Explains the benefits for the young participants, community,…

  7. Causes of Dropouts among CAMFED Bursary Supported School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the causes of dropouts among students under the CAMFED (Campaign for Female Education) Bursary programme. The target population of the study was 53 secondary schools in all 5 clusters in Buhera district of Manicaland province in Zimbabwe. One cluster, Chirozva, out of five clusters was ...

  8. A Case Study into the Causes of School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirtes, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    School dropout leads to failure in social integration, and as a result greatly diminishes a person's chances to achieve personal success in legally accepted fields of activity. The prevention and reduction of this phenomenon are extremely difficult to achieve due to the high complexity of its causes. Research that has been carried out into this…

  9. Grade Repetition and Primary School Dropout in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabay, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Research on education in low-income countries rarely focuses on grade repetition. When addressed, repetition is typically presented along with early school dropout as the "wasting" of educational resources. Simplifying grade repetition in this way often fails to recognize significant methodological concerns and also overlooks the unique…

  10. Rural and Urban High School Dropout Rates: Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Kostandini, Genti; Mykerezi, Elton

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the high school dropout rate in rural and urban areas, the determinants of dropping out, and whether the differences in graduation rates have changed over time. We use geocoded data from two nationally representative panel household surveys (NLSY 97 and NLSY 79) and a novel methodology that corrects for biases in graduation…

  11. Montana's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences. State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in Montana from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The majority of the authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, and public service costs. In quantifying these costs, the authors seek to inform public…

  12. Understanding the Mechanism behind Maternal Imprisonment and Adolescent School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically tested 3 mechanisms commonly suggested to disadvantage youths whose mothers are incarcerated in prison. An event history analysis of school dropout was conducted on a sample of 6,008 adolescents in a large city created by merging several Illinois state administrative data. Findings revealed that adolescents are indeed at…

  13. California's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in California from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, public health, and incarceration costs. The authors' quantification of these costs reveals the sizeable…

  14. The Societal Benefits and Costs of School Dropout Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Catterall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the analysis. Rigorous attention is given to accurate estimation of the number of students who would not have graduated without the program in the year assessed and to the induced public costs of their continued education. Estimated benefits are weighed against the total annual public costs of the program, which operates in 65 school centers and commands an annual budget of about $70 million. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for this program is 3 to 1, a figure comparable to benefit-cost ratio estimates reported in studies of dropout prevention. The sensitivity of this conclusion to specific assumptions within the analysis is discussed.

  15. Marijuana Use and High School Dropout: The Influence of Unobservables

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Bing Han; Phyllis Ellickson

    2010-01-01

    In this study we reconsider the relationship between heavy and persistent marijuana use and high school dropout status using a unique prospective panel study of over 4500 7th grade students from South Dakota who are followed up through high school. Propensity score weighting is used to adjust for baseline differences that are found to exist before marijuana initiation occurs (7th grade). Weighted logistic regression incorporating these propensity score weights is then used to examine the exte...

  16. Alternative education programmes and middle school dropout in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther

    2014-05-01

    Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article analyses dropout in three of the four main alternative lower secondary school programmes in Honduras over a three-year period for a cohort of roughly 5,500 students. The results show that these programmes are indeed reaching a vulnerable population in the country, but dropout rates are generally very high - upwards of 50 per cent in some cases - between Grades 7 and 9. Furthermore, even in the control school comparison samples made up of formal lower secondary schools, about 25 per cent of children leave school between Grades 7 and 9. The authors' analysis includes propensity score matching (PSM) methods that make more focused comparisons between students in alternative programmes and control samples. These results show that dropout rates in alternative programmes are not much different than in control schools, and only significant in one programme comparison, when taking into account family background characteristics like socioeconomic status (SES). Multivariate analysis within alternative programme samples finds that attrition is lower in those learning centres which have adopted key features of formal schools, such as university-educated teachers. The results highlight the tremendous variation in the alternative middle school sector in terms of programme features, school quality and student outcomes, as well as the challenges of expanding this sector to meet the growing demand for lower secondary schooling in Honduras.

  17. New Approach to reduce High School Dropout Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.

  18. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.

  19. Prevention of School Dropout through the Reduction of Disruptive Behaviors and School Failure in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Reports the effects of a preventive intervention program on dropping out of school in a sample of disruptive boys from low socioeconomic status. Results show that the program had an indirect effect on later school dropout problems through its impact on grade retention/special education placement. The reduction of grade retention/special classroom…

  20. Risk Factors for School Dropout in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions : These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended.

  1. Risk Factors for School Dropout in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions: These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended. PMID:28082934

  2. A case study into the causes of school dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chirteş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available School dropout leads to failure in social integration, and as a result greatly diminishes aperson’s chances to achieve personal success in legally accepted fields of activity. The preventionand reduction of this phenomenon are extremely difficult to achieve due to the high complexity ofits causes. Research that has been carried out into this problem leads to the conclusion that therehas been an increase in the number of students facing school adjustment problems and it alsoattempts to answer the question whether there has been a real increase in the number of dropouts orif the situation should be put down to a series of very different and complex factors.A just identification and analysis of these factors would help reveal the action to be taken andeventually lead to a decrease and prevention of school dropout.Apart from the ineffectiveness of social policies in our country, a successful result of such anintervention would be the result of the joint efforts of a multi-curricular approach, involvement ofsocial institutions and team work.

  3. The impact of community schools on student dropout in pre-vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2014-01-01

    Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors determine student dropout. Community schools recognize this and aim to modernize education such that it better accommodates

  4. The impact of community schools on student dropout in pre-vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2012-01-01

    Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors are determining student dropout. Community schools recognize this and modernize education such that it better accommodates

  5. Texas School Dropout Survey: A Report to the 69th Legislature, State of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Community Affairs, Austin. Training and Employment Development Div.

    As a response to legislative demands, the Texas School Dropout Survey described in this document attempted to identify the magnitude of the dropout problem, regional characteristics or causes of the problem, costs associated with dropping out, and programs currently available for serving the dropout population. Twenty-four major findings of the…

  6. Dropouts and social determinants of health; policy for the prevention of school dropout, qualitative study of the causes and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Maryam; Hajnaghizadeh, Fatemeh; Damari, Behzad; Adhami, Behzad

    2014-11-01

    Indicators of the level of education are the most important parameters influencing each country's development. Social indicators considered to be a determinant of one's health consists of two constituents namely; (1) Rate of students enrolled in elementary, guidance, secondary and higher education and (2) the rate of adult literacy. This study is aimed to evaluate the situation of school dropouts in Iran, their causes, and appropriate interventions. Data were collected through literature review (including published researches and analysis of documents), focus group discussions with the presence of experts from (Department of Community Health, Academy of Medical Sciences) and interviews with stakeholders then these data were classified and presented in three sections namely; current situation, causes and solutions. Results showed that Iran's current situation in terms of school dropouts is unsatisfactory in comparison to developed countries and in some countries in the region. Influencing factors for school dropouts were classified into (1) Individual factors such as intellectual disability and behavioral disorders (2) group factors such as peer groups, family problems and children's reduced interests in school and (3) major factors such as educational system and the changes of value, economic, cultural, and political issues. The present study, with the presentation of statistical documents specifically of the current problem of school dropouts in all levels of the Iranian society has been determined and aside from identifying the causes and factors affecting school dropouts, provision of strategies in three levels of prevention to combat this problem has been addressed.

  7. Adolescent use of school-based health centers and high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Lyon, Aaron R; Cosgrove, T J; Bruns, Eric J

    2011-07-01

    To determine the association between use of school-based health centers (SBHCs) and school dropout. Quasi-experimental longitudinal analysis of a retrospective student cohort, with SBHC use as the independent variable. We statistically controlled for dropout risk and used propensity score regression adjustment to control for several factors associated with SBHC use. Integrated database from an urban public school district (academic outcomes) and department of public health (SBHC use). District-enrolled students in their first semester of ninth grade in 2005 (N = 3334), followed up through their anticipated on-time graduation semester of 12th grade in 2009. Students were divided into 4 groups: never used (47%); low use (23%); moderate use (20%); and high users (10%). Time to nongraduation (described as dropout). Low to moderate SBHC use (0.125-2.5 visits per semester) was associated with a 33% reduction in dropout compared with non-SBHC users. The high-use group (>2.5 visits per semester) did not have dropout rates that differed from nonusers. For SBHC users who did drop out, dropout occurred approximately 1 semester later than nonusers. Exploratory analyses revealed that the association between SBHC use and prevention of dropout was greatest for higher-risk students. This study found an association between low to moderate SBHC use and reductions in dropout for high school students in an urban school district, especially for students at higher risk for dropout. This study supports the theory that benefits of SBHCs extend beyond managing physical and mental health needs to include academic outcomes.

  8. Finishing high school: alternative pathways and dropout recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John H; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    John Tyler and Magnus Lofstrom take a close look at the problems posed when students do not complete high school. The authors begin by discussing the ongoing, sometimes heated, debate over how prevalent the dropout problem is. They note that one important reason for discrepancies in reported dropout rates is whether holders of the General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school graduates. The authors also consider the availability of appropriate student data. The overall national dropout rate appears to be between 22 and 25 percent, but the rate is higher among black and Hispanic students, and it has not changed much in recent decades. Tyler and Lofstrom conclude that schools are apparently doing about as well now as they were forty years ago in terms of graduating students. But the increasingly competitive pressures associated with a global economy make education ever more important in determining personal and national well-being. A student's decision to drop out of school, say the authors, is affected by a number of complex factors and is often the culmination of a long process of disengagement from school. That decision, not surprisingly, carries great cost to both the student and society. Individual costs include lower earnings, higher likelihood of unemployment, and greater likelihood of health problems. Because minority and low-income students are significantly more likely than well-to-do white students to drop out of school, the individual costs fall unevenly across groups. Societal costs include loss of tax revenue, higher spending on public assistance, and higher crime rates. Tyler and Lofstrom go on to survey research on programs designed to reduce the chances of students' dropping out. Although the research base on this question is not strong, they say, close mentoring and monitoring of students appear to be critical components of successful programs. Other dropout-prevention approaches associated with success are family

  9. The reasons of dropout of sport in Hong Kong school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo

    2017-05-16

    Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two predominated reasons of dropout; Influence of parent and training seemed to affect the termination of the sport to a lesser extent. Moreover, the perception of social value and lost focus were significantly different between two groups. Character of coach and teammates affect the engagement of training in school athletes. However, the parental influence had less influence than expected. Training intensity played little role as the dropout reason. Previous experience of dropout had an impact of potential dropout reasons on their current sport training.

  10. Alaskan Native High School Dropouts: A Report Prepared for Project ANNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Desa

    Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…

  11. A Tripartite Perspective of Social Capital and Its Access by High School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Julie A.; Burge, Penny L.; Driscoll, Lisa G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to document and analyze students' experiences with dropping out of high school, using a social capital framework. Examining the stories of high school dropouts provided valuable information related to the root causes of dropout behaviors. The context of this study was a high school in an urban school…

  12. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez; María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo; Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence o...

  13. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  14. The Relation of Dropout Prevention Programs in West Virginia Schools to Dropout Rates and Principal Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Vicky Callison

    2016-01-01

    This study used non-experimental survey research to gather data on the kinds of dropout prevention programs in place in West Virginia high schools in 2014-15 and to evaluate their effectiveness based on possible relationships between principals' perceptions of the programs and graduation rates. The study focused on nine of 15 effective strategies…

  15. Predicting Different Types of School Dropouts: A Typological Approach with Two Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosz, Michel; Le Blanc, Marc; Boulerice, Bernard; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the heuristic value of a typological approach for preventing and studying school dropout. Empirically builds a typology of dropouts based on individual school experiences, tests the typology's reliability by replicating the classification with two different longitudinal samples, and examines the typology's predictive and discriminant…

  16. Another Way out: The Impact of Juvenile Arrests on High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfield, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that contact with the legal system increased school dropout in a Chicago sample of 4,844 inner-city students. According to multilevel multivariate logistic models, students who were first arrested during the 9th or 10th grade were six to eight times more likely than were nonarrested students ever to dropout of high school and…

  17. Basic school dropout in Ghana: a case study of the Amansie West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the increasing cost of education the persistent phenomenon of school dropout has become a constant worry to all stakeholders. The focus of this paper was to assess the trend of basic school dropout in Amansie West, a predominantly rural district in Ghana and to further determine the main causes and policy ...

  18. Dimensions Of Basic School Dropouts In Rural Ghana: The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the various dimensions of basic school dropouts in rural Ghana using the Asutifi district as a case study. The analysis of data (both quantitative and qualitative) gathered from several stakeholders of basic education in the district, revealed that the causes of school dropout were ...

  19. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.J.; Bosma, H.; Verdonk, P.; Feron, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs

  20. An Overview of School Dropout in Central America: Unresolved Issues and New Challenges for Education Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Melissa A.; Székely, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    School dropout is a growing concern in Central America, and in Latin America as a whole, because of its consequences for economic productivity, the inclusiveness of growth, social cohesion, and increasing youth risks. This paper utilizes more than two decades of household survey data to construct a systematic overview of school dropout at the…

  1. Dropout in the lower tracks of Dutch secondary education : Predictor variables and variation among schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, H; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H; Derks, A

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the data from a large-scale longitudinal investigation into the effect of both school and student characteristics on the dropout rate for students in lower secondary education in The Netherlands. Dropout rates were found to vary significantly between schools, but only a single

  2. Stressors and Turning Points in High School and Dropout: A Stress Process, Life Course Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré, Véronique; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Crosnoe, Robert; Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel

    2015-01-01

    High school dropout is commonly seen as the result of a long-term process of failure and disengagement. As useful as it is, this view has obscured the heterogeneity of pathways leading to dropout. Research suggests, for instance, that some students leave school not as a result of protracted difficulties but in response to situations that emerge…

  3. Predicting Dropout Using Student- and School-Level Factors: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C.; Leroux, Audrey J.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors…

  4. Evidence That Classroom-Based Behavioral Interventions Reduce Pregnancy-Related School Dropout among Nairobi Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Clea; Sinclair, Jake; Omondi Mboya, Benjamin; Langat, Nickson; Paiva, Lee; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Golden, Neville H.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Baiocchi, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of behavioral, empowerment-focused interventions on the incidence of pregnancy-related school dropout among girls in Nairobi's informal settlements. Method: Retrospective data on pregnancy-related school dropout from two cohorts were analyzed using a matched-pairs quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome was…

  5. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  6. Keeping Count of All and Losing Count of a Few: The Construction of the High School Dropout Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Shana Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the construction of the high school dropout rate is the policy issue investigated in this dissertation. This qualitative dissertation explores the constructs necessary to create a high school dropout rate and seeks to unearth complexities in the construction of the high school dropout rate. Every single year, approximately 1.2…

  7. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  8. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  9. School factors related to dropout from primary and secondary education in Serbia: A qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dropping out of educational system is a serious individual, familial, educational and social problem. It is a complex process influenced by a large number of factors. Nevertheless, it is a phenomenon that takes place in school, and different school factors can serve as risk or protective factors. Dropout rates in Serbia are still high. One way to improve the educational system and ensure equal education for every child is to reduce dropout rates from primary and secondary education. As part of a larger study, the goal of this research was to investigate and identify key school factors related to dropout from primary and secondary schools in Serbia. The research was conducted in 8 primary and 13 secondary schools from 17 municipalities with high dropout rates. In order to hear voices from different actors in the educational system, qualitative research was conducted, involving interviews and focus groups with teachers, school principals, school psychologists, counsellors, pedagogical assistants, parents and students. Following the analysis, several school factors highly related to dropout were singled out. Low quality (individualisation of teaching, lack of learning and emotional support and lack of positive teacher-student relationships proved to have the greatest influence on student dropout. On the other hand, our results indicate that student and parent participation in school life is underused as a resource for dropout prevention. These factors are described and their impact in Serbian context explained. The results are discussed in the light of similar findings from previous research.

  10. [A Cross-sectional Study of School dropout in adolescents: National Mental Health Survey Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Padilla Muñoz, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    School dropout in adolescents can have negative consequences, not only for the individual and the family, but also for the society. To identify the characteristics associated with the occurrence of this event might contribute to the planning of a prevention strategy. To evaluate the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old in Colombia. A cross sectional study was conducted from information taken from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. A study was made of the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old RESULTS: A higher percentage of school dropouts was found in the older adolescents, females, and those who have children. Among the home characteristics, it was observed that those homes with more than two people, located in rural area, or that are classified as poor, have an increased percentage of school dropout adolescents. Strategies for which the main goal is to prevent school dropout should consider populations with higher prevalence of out-of-school adolescents (female, homes in rural area, or household poverty). Preventive actions of adolescent pregnancy might contribute to reduce the school dropout rate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Changing Pattern and Process of High School Dropouts between 1980s and 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2011-01-01

    There has been a general decline in the dropout rate and an increase in the high school completion rate over the last three decades. This research investigates causes for the decline in the dropout rate over the periods using decomposition analysis. Traditional cross-section analysis was inadequate to perform this task. Using the two cohort…

  12. Evaluation of a Public Awareness Campaign to Prevent High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign.

  13. The Meaning of School from Dropout's View Point (A Phenomenological Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi; Setiawan, Cally

    2017-01-01

    Student dropouts are complex problems in Indonesia. Some of the dropouts living in rural areas have migrated to the large cities. It contributes to the child labor growth which is already one the major problems in Indonesia. Knowledge about the meaning of school from their perspective could be helpful for policy and programs related to dropout…

  14. Oregon's High School Dropouts: Examining the Economic and Social Costs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Foundation for Educational Choice recently commissioned a new study to examine the economic and social costs of Oregon's high school dropouts. Emily House, the study's author, analyzed how dropouts in the state dramatically impact state finances through reduced tax revenues, increased Medicaid costs, and high incarceration rates. House's study…

  15. Extracurricular Participation, "At-Risk" Status, and the High School Dropout Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    I estimate the effect of extracurricular participation on the high school dropout decision with a particular focus on at-risk students. Using a sample of tenth grade students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, I jointly estimate the dropout and participation decisions (including extracurricular offerings per student), and…

  16. Keeping Students on Track to Graduate: A Synthesis of School Dropout Trends, Prevention, and Intervention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…

  17. The American Indian High School Dropout Rate: A Matter of Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, John S.

    1993-01-01

    The Gregorc Style Delineator was administered to 358 graduates and dropouts from 2 matched, racially homogeneous white and Chippewa high schools in Minnesota. Dominant learning styles were abstract random for all Chippewa subjects and concrete sequential for all whites. No significant differences were found between Chippewa graduates and dropouts.…

  18. Dropouts and Social Determinants of Health; Policy for the Prevention of School Dropout, Qualitative Study of the Causes and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbari, Maryam; Hajnaghizadeh, Fatemeh; Damari, Behzad; Adhami, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indicators of the level of education are the most important parameters influencing each country′s development. Social indicators considered to be a determinant of one′s health consists of two constituents namely; (1) Rate of students enrolled in elementary, guidance, secondary and higher education and (2) the rate of adult literacy. This study is aimed to evaluate the situation of school dropouts in Iran, their causes, and appropriate interventions. Methods: Data were collecte...

  19. Relationship of dropout and psychopathology in a high school sample in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalita, Pablo J; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students' self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students' self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders.

  20. Do School Budgets Matter? The Effect of Budget Referenda on Student Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Gon; Polachek, Solomon W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes how changes in school expenditures affect dropout rates based on data from 466 school districts in New York during the 2003/04 to the 2007/08 school years. Past traditional regression approaches show mixed results in part because school expenditures are likely endogenous, so that one cannot disentangle cause and effect. The…

  1. A Reason To Stay in School: What Educators Can Do To Reduce Dropout Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presson, Alice; Bottoms, Gene

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) and the Center on Education and Training for Employment (CETE) at Ohio State University worked with six schools (two comprehensive high schools, two high schools served by an area vocational center, an area vocational center, and a junior high school) in the SREB region to keep potential dropouts in…

  2. Medical school dropout--testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-11-01

    Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  3. Local Access to Family Planning Services and Female High School Dropout Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks-Courant, Katherine; Schwartz, Aaron L

    2016-04-01

    To assess whether geographic access to family planning services is associated with a reduced female high school dropout rate. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. We merged the location of Planned Parenthood and Title X clinics with microdata from the 2012-2013 American Community Surveys. The association between female high school dropout rates and local clinic access was assessed using nearest-neighbor matching estimation. Models included various covariates to account for sociodemographic differences across communities and male high school dropout rates to account for unmeasured community characteristics affecting educational outcomes. Our sample included 284,910 16- to 22-year-old females. The presence of a Planned Parenthood clinic was associated with a decrease (4.08% compared with 4.83%; relative risk ratio 0.84, Pschool dropout rates. This association was consistent across several model specifications. The presence of a Title X clinic was associated with a decrease (4.79% compared with 5.07%; relative risk ratio 0.94, P=.03) in female high school dropout rates, an association that did not remain significant across model specifications. Local access to Planned Parenthood is associated with lower high school dropout rates in young women.

  4. A package of interventions to reduce school dropout in public schools in a developing country. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Oswald, Sylvia; Comassetto, Júlia Obst; Kieling, Christian; Gonçalves, Renata Rocha; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2006-12-01

    School dropout rates are staggeringly high in developing countries, even for elementary school children. This study aims to assess the feasibility and initial efficacy of a package of interventions tailored to reduce school dropout in public schools in an urban city in Brazil. Two public schools with similar high rates of dropout in elementary grades were selected. In one of them, a package of universal preventive interventions was implemented during a school year, including two workshops with teachers, five informative letters to parents, three meetings with parents at school, a telephone helpline at school, and a 1-day cognitive intervention. For children who stayed ten consecutive days out of school without reason, mental health assessment and referral to mental health services in the community were offered. In the second school, no intervention was implemented. After this 1-year intervention, there were significant differences between the two schools in rates of both dropout (P school, 18 (45%) youths returned to school after intervention among the 40 at-risk students. Moderate engagement of school staff was the main logistic problem. Our findings suggest that programs combining universal primary preventive strategies and interventions focused on at-risk students can be implemented and useful in developing countries to reduce school dropout.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of the Causes of Primary School Dropout in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to compare the causes of school dropout in a commercial farm setting and an urban setting. The sample for the study consisted of forty teachers (twenty from each setting) drawn from two urban schools and three commercial farm schools, twenty parents/ caregivers (ten from each setting), forty pupils ...

  6. Rebound in Dropout Rates as a Result of Rural School Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibo, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rural school consolidation has significantly changed the landscape of rural education in China. Based on a study carried out in nine provinces, this article analyzes the effect of this policy initiative. It has led to increased school dropout rates in rural schools.

  7. Primary and Secondary Education in Morocco: From Access to School into Generalization to Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zoulal; Moumine, Mohamed El Amine

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of school wastage, namely repetition and dropout in primary and secondary schools in Morocco. It describes how this phenomenon has progressed since school was implemented in the 1960s. It shows that the fundamental principles of the education system established in the aftermath of Morocco?s independence in 1956…

  8. Relationship between Self-Reported Psychopathology and Future Dropout in a Mexican School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Chalita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odd ratio of school dropout associated with student’s self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty seven students participated in the study. Psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR=8.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7-37.2, depression (OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7, tic disorders (OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.4-9.5, ADHD (OR=3.2 (95%CI:1.5-6.4, and social phobia (OR=2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.8 were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico.

  9. Towards peer education prevention of school dropout: An exploratory analysis of an action-research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colucci Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.

  10. Adolescent behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement in school: relationship to dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Morizot, Julien; Pagani, Linda

    2009-09-01

    High school dropout represents an important public health issue. This study assessed the 3 distinct dimensions of student engagement in high school and examined the relationships between the nature and course of such experiences and later dropout. We administered questionnaires to 13,330 students (44.7% boys) from 69 high schools in the province of Quebec (Canada). During 3 consecutive high school years, students reported their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement to school. Information on later dropout status was obtained through official records. Although many adolescents remained highly engaged in high school, one third reported changes, especially decreases in rule compliance, interest in school, and willingness to learn. Students reporting low engagement or important decrements in behavioral investment from the beginning of high school presented higher risks of later dropout. School-based interventions should address the multiple facets of high school experiences to help adolescents successfully complete their basic schooling. Creating a positive social-emotional learning environment promises better adolescent achievement and, in turn, will contribute to a healthier lifestyle.

  11. Hospital admissions and school dropout: a retrospective cohort study of the 'selection hypothesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, Mirjam M J; Bosma, Hans; Traag, Tanja; Otten, Ferdy

    2012-08-01

    School dropout is an important predictor of poor health and of high relevance for public health (in accord with the 'causation hypothesis'). Rather than examining how dropout affects health, we set out to examine how poor health might affect school dropout (in accord with the 'selection hypothesis'). Hospital admissions are potentially indicative of more serious disease and might be expected to result in learning backlogs. Longitudinal data of the Dutch Secondary Education Pupil Cohort 1993 (VOCL'93) and the National Medical Registration (LMR) were combined. The study population consisted of 16,239 pupils who were followed from first grade at secondary school until they left fulltime education. Pupils were monitored regarding both their educational careers and their hospital admissions. Nine percent had a hospital admission and 10% became a school dropout. Hospital admissions were only predictive of later school dropout for pupils starting in the highest type of secondary education (pre-university education) [OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.05-2.26)], not for pupils with lower educational levels. Pre-university pupils who had been hospitalized for more than 9 days [OR 2.34 (95% CI 1.08-5.09)] or who were hospitalized more than three times [OR 4.20 (95% CI 1.75-10.04)] had particularly heightened odds of school dropout. Our findings further support the 'selection hypothesis' and confirm the relevance of dropout for public health. Public health workers and educational professionals should probably aim at intensified monitoring of children who have been hospitalized and simultaneously aim at improving accessibility to (higher quality) education in the hospital.

  12. A Competing Risks Survival Analysis of High School Dropout and Graduation: A Two-Stage Model Specification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    There has been a wealth of research conducted on the high school dropouts spanning several decades. It is estimated that compared with those who complete high school, the average high school dropout costs the economy approximately $250,000 more over his or her lifetime in terms of lower tax contributions, higher reliance on Medicaid and Medicare,…

  13. School motivation and high school dropout: the mediating role of educational expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research examining the dynamics of whether students' motivational beliefs from earlier in high school might be used to predict their status as a dropout in their final year. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating role of students' educational expectations in linking students' school motivation to their dropout status by utilizing a nationally representative dataset. The present study used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The final sample consisted of 16,194 students, with approximately 54% White, 13% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 10% Asian students, and the rest were Native American, Hawaiian, multiracial, or of other races. Structural equation modelling was employed to conduct the mediational analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the relationships between student ability beliefs in math and English and student behaviour of dropping out were fully mediated by students' educational expectations. The results also revealed that student intrinsic value in math and English had significant indirect relations with student behaviour of leaving school through students' educational expectations. The results of this study suggest that explanations for student dropout status that rely solely on students' social background and school behaviours without considering their motivation are incomplete. The study expands the extant research by showing possible pathways that motivate students to persist in high school. These pathways are specifically rooted in students' ability beliefs and intrinsic interest in learning through their relationships with students' expectations for their education. © 2012 The

  14. Disentangling the Weight of School Dropout Predictors: A Test on Two Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosz, Michel; LeBlanc, Marc; Boulerice, Bernard; Tremblay, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Predictors of school dropout and their stability over time were studied in 791 white French-speaking Canadian students aged 12 to 16 years in 1974 and 791 similar students in 1985 through self-administered questionnaires. School, family, behavioral, social, and personality variables predicted dropping out in both samples, and these predictors were…

  15. Do GED Recipients Differ from Graduates and School Dropouts?: Findings from an Inner-City Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2008-01-01

    The differences in income, crime, health, mental health, and substance use among high school dropouts, GED recipients, and high school graduates are investigated. The study sample is drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children who grew up in the inner city. After controlling…

  16. Determining Relationships between Predictive Factors of High School Dropout and Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, educational leaders and researchers have tried to find the causes for high school dropout. Studies have shown that both demographic and student factors have contributed to placing a student at risk for dropping out of high school. Most of the studies, however, have been conducted in urban or suburban settings.…

  17. The Effects of Runaway-Homeless Episodes on High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Cooper, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationship between running away from home between the ages of 12 and 14 and dropping from high school among youth. Propensity score matching was conducted in estimating the effect of running away on high school dropout while controlling for confounding…

  18. The Effects of Transitional Challenges on Ninth-Grade School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Merlene Leona

    2017-01-01

    The high dropout rate of the United States Virgin Islands school district's ninth-grade students is a major educational problem and the catalyst for a myriad of social problems. Ninth grade academies and extended school day intervention programs have benefited only the academically prepared students. This qualitative case study examined educators'…

  19. High School Dropout, Graduation, and Completion Rates: Better Data, Better Measures, Better Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert M., Ed.; Koenig, Judith Anderson, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    High school graduation and dropout rates have long been used as indicators of educational system productivity and effectiveness and of social and economic well being. While determining these rates may seem like a straightforward task, their calculation is in fact quite complicated. How does one count a student who leaves a regular high school but…

  20. Predicting Secondary School Dropout among South African Adolescents: A Survival Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Xie, Hui; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Education is one of the strongest predictors of health worldwide. In South Africa, school dropout is a crisis where by Grade 12, only 52% of the age appropriate population remain enrolled. Survival analysis was used to identify the risk of dropping out of secondary school for male and female adolescents and examine the influence of substance use…

  1. Is Obesity Associated with School Dropout? Key Developmental and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to expand the literature on child obesity and school outcomes by examining associations between obesity and high school dropout, including the role of obesity onset and duration as well as ethnicity. Methods: Data on 5066 children obtained between 1986 and 2010 from the child cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of…

  2. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  3. Why Tenth Graders Fail to Finish High School: A Dropout Typology Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Sprott, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A large percentage of the students who drop out of K-12 schools in the United States do so at the end of high school, at some point after grade 10. Yet little is known about the differences between types of students who drop out near the end of high school. The purpose of this study is to examine a typology of high school dropouts from a large…

  4. The long-term effects of school dropout and GED attainment on substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Connell, Nadine M; Jetelina, Katelyn K; Clipper, Stephen J; Businelle, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that 14% of the population do not complete high school, and dropout has been linked to mental health conditions, substance use, chronic health problems, and criminal behavior. Few studies have assessed whether attainment of the general education development (GED) credential is protective from substance use. To assess the long-term outcomes of school dropout and GED attainment on past year substance use disorders, age of onset, and current smoking status. Longitudinal data were included for lifetime substance users who participated in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Waves I and II). Eligible participants (N=30,608) were classified as having completed high school, dropped out of high school and did not complete a GED, or completed GED at Wave I. Survey logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether high school graduation status was associated with substance use disorders and smoking at Wave II. Multivariate results suggest that participants who dropped out of high school (OR=1.53; pschool graduates. High school dropouts were also more likely to be current smokers (OR=1.88; pschool dropouts have higher long-term rates of marijuana use disorder and smoking in adulthood than graduates. Attainment of a GED does not appear to be protective from marijuana use disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Did the 18 Drinking Age Promote High School Dropout? Implications for Current Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D; Agrawal, Arpana; Tate, William F; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Disagreement exists over whether permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws affected underage adolescents (e.g., those age 17 years with the MLDA of 18). We used MLDA changes during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate how underage exposure to permissive MLDA affected high school dropout. MLDA exposure was added to two data sets: (a) the 5% public use microdata samples of the 1990 and 2000 censuses (n = 3,671,075), and (b) a combined data set based on the 1991-1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey (NLAES) and the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 16,331). We used logistic regression to model different thresholds of MLDA on high school dropout. We also estimated models conditioned on demographic variables and familial risk of developing alcohol problems. Only the MLDA of 18 predicted high school dropout. Exposure was associated with 4% and 13% higher odds of high school dropout for the census and NLAES/NESARC samples, respectively. We noted greater impact on women (5%-18%), Blacks (5%-19%), and Hispanics (6%). Self-report of parental alcohol problems was associated with 40% higher odds, which equals a 4.14-point increase in dropout rate for that population. The MLDA of 18 likely had a large impact on high school dropout rates, suggesting that the presence of legal-aged peers in a high school setting increased access to alcohol for younger students. Our results also suggest that policy can promote less dangerous drinking behavior even when familial risk of alcohol use disorders is high.

  6. Did the 18 Drinking Age Promote High School Dropout? Implications for Current Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Tate, William F.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Disagreement exists over whether permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws affected underage adolescents (e.g., those age 17 years with the MLDA of 18). We used MLDA changes during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate how underage exposure to permissive MLDA affected high school dropout. Method: MLDA exposure was added to two data sets: (a) the 5% public use microdata samples of the 1990 and 2000 censuses (n = 3,671,075), and (b) a combined data set based on the 1991–1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey (NLAES) and the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 16,331). We used logistic regression to model different thresholds of MLDA on high school dropout. We also estimated models conditioned on demographic variables and familial risk of developing alcohol problems. Results: Only the MLDA of 18 predicted high school dropout. Exposure was associated with 4% and 13% higher odds of high school dropout for the census and NLAES/NESARC samples, respectively. We noted greater impact on women (5%–18%), Blacks (5%–19%), and Hispanics (6%). Self-report of parental alcohol problems was associated with 40% higher odds, which equals a 4.14-point increase in dropout rate for that population. Conclusions: The MLDA of 18 likely had a large impact on high school dropout rates, suggesting that the presence of legal-aged peers in a high school setting increased access to alcohol for younger students. Our results also suggest that policy can promote less dangerous drinking behavior even when familial risk of alcohol use disorders is high. PMID:26402348

  7. Are Barbie and Ken too cool for school? A case-control study on the relation between gender and dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.J.; de Man, I.; Verdonk, P.; Bosma, H.; Feron, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: As school dropout is an important public health problem that needs to be addressed, we set out to examine whether and how, beyond the well-known effects of sex, gender beliefs and self-reported masculinity and femininity are related to school dropout. Methods: The study used a

  8. Adolescent health and high school dropout: a prospective cohort study of 9000 Norwegian adolescents (the Young-HUNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Karin A A; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Westin, Steinar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2013-01-01

    High school dropout is of major concern in the western world. Our aims were to estimate the risk of school dropout in adolescents following chronic somatic disease, somatic symptoms, psychological distress, concentration difficulties, insomnia or overweight and to assess to which extent the family contributes to the association between health and school dropout. A population of 8950 school-attending adolescents (13-21 years) rated their health in the Young-HUNT 1 Study (90% response rate) in 1995-1997. High school dropout or completion, was defined with the Norwegian National Education Database in the calendar year the participant turned 24 years old. Parental socioeconomic status was defined by using linkages to the National Education Database, the National Insurance Administration and the HUNT2 Survey. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and risk differences of high school dropout, both in the whole population and among siblings within families differentially exposed to health problems. All explored health dimensions were strongly associated with high school dropout. In models adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, the risk differences of school dropout according to health exposures varied between 3.6% (95% CI 1.7 to 5.5) for having ≥ 1 somatic disease versus none and 11.7% (6.3 to 17.0) for being obese versus normal weight. The results from the analyses comparing differentially exposed siblings, confirmed these results with the exception of weaker associations for somatic diseases and psychological distress. School dropout was strongly clustered within families (family level conditional intraclass correlation 0.42). Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status. Although school dropout it strongly related to family-level factors, also siblings with poor health have reduced opportunity to complete high school compared to healthy siblings. Public health policy should focus on

  9. Adolescent health and high school dropout: a prospective cohort study of 9000 Norwegian adolescents (the Young-HUNT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin A A De Ridder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High school dropout is of major concern in the western world. Our aims were to estimate the risk of school dropout in adolescents following chronic somatic disease, somatic symptoms, psychological distress, concentration difficulties, insomnia or overweight and to assess to which extent the family contributes to the association between health and school dropout. METHODS: A population of 8950 school-attending adolescents (13-21 years rated their health in the Young-HUNT 1 Study (90% response rate in 1995-1997. High school dropout or completion, was defined with the Norwegian National Education Database in the calendar year the participant turned 24 years old. Parental socioeconomic status was defined by using linkages to the National Education Database, the National Insurance Administration and the HUNT2 Survey. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and risk differences of high school dropout, both in the whole population and among siblings within families differentially exposed to health problems. RESULTS: All explored health dimensions were strongly associated with high school dropout. In models adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, the risk differences of school dropout according to health exposures varied between 3.6% (95% CI 1.7 to 5.5 for having ≥ 1 somatic disease versus none and 11.7% (6.3 to 17.0 for being obese versus normal weight. The results from the analyses comparing differentially exposed siblings, confirmed these results with the exception of weaker associations for somatic diseases and psychological distress. School dropout was strongly clustered within families (family level conditional intraclass correlation 0.42. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status. Although school dropout it strongly related to family-level factors, also siblings with poor health have reduced opportunity to complete high school compared to

  10. An Explorative Analysis of Children’s Dropouts from Rural Schools of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mehar AKRAM

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an explorative analysis about the causes of children’s high proportion of drop-outs from rural schools of Pakistan. For this purpose, simple random sampling technique was used by taking a sample size of 120 respondents from six villages of the rural areas of district Jhang, Pakistan in 2010. The major objectives of the said research were to investigate the socio-economic hurdles of the drop-outs of children from schools, to find out the attitude of pare...

  11. Ability, Parental Valuation of Education and the High School Dropout Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David

    that teenage boys with two parents who are themselves high school dropouts have a 16% chance of dropping out, compared to a dropout rate of less than 1% for boys whose parents both have a university degree. We examine the channels through which this socio-economic gradient arises using an extended version......We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...

  12. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    OpenAIRE

    O?Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the stud...

  13. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Theunissen

    Full Text Available To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks.In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC files (that contain information from birth onwards and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18-23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample.One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93 in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.74 in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53-5.14 in middle childhood and (sickness absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18-14.52 in adolescence increased the risks.To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care.

  14. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2015-01-01

    To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18-23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53-5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18-14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care.

  15. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  16. Revisiting the Link Between Depression Symptoms and High School Dropout: Timing of Exposure Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Nault-Brière, Frédéric; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Lesage, Alain

    2018-02-01

    Recent reviews concluded that past depression symptoms are not independently associated with high school dropout, a conclusion that could induce schools with high dropout rates and limited resources to consider depression screening, prevention, and treatment as low-priority. Even if past symptoms are not associated with dropout, however, it is possible that recent symptoms are. The goal of this study was to examine this hypothesis. In 12 disadvantaged high schools in Montreal (Canada), all students at least 14 years of age were first screened between 2012 and 2015 (N screened  = 6,773). Students who dropped out of school afterward (according to school records) were then invited for interviews about their mental health in the past year. Also interviewed were matched controls with similar risk profiles but who remained in school, along with average not at-risk schoolmates (N interviewed  = 545). Interviews were conducted by trained graduate students. Almost one dropout out of four had clinically significant depressive symptoms in the 3 months before leaving school. Adolescents with recent symptoms had an odd of dropping out more than twice as high as their peers without such symptoms (adjusted odds ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.14-4.12). In line with previous findings, adolescents who had recovered from earlier symptoms were not particularly at risk. These findings suggest that to improve disadvantaged youths' educational outcomes, investments in comprehensive mental health services are needed in schools struggling with high dropout rates, the very places where adolescents with unmet mental health needs tend to concentrate. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review of the relationship between high school dropout and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Flisher, Alan J; King, Gary

    2007-12-01

    A systematic review of peer-reviewed, empirical literature published between 1990 and 2006 was undertaken to determine whether existing research could provide evidence, and a deeper understanding of the relationship between dropping out of high school and the use of substances such as tobacco, alcohol, cannabis/marijuana and other illicit drugs. Forty-six articles were reviewed. The review describes the heterogeneity of theoretical frameworks employed, as well as the limited ability of any one to adequately explain the relationship between high school dropout and substance use. A refinement of the many confounding and mediating variables into coherent conceptual categories would aid more robust theory building and theory integration. In spite of differences in dropout definitions and diverse measures of substance use across studies, the main findings point to a largely consistent relationship between dropping out of high school and substance use. However, socially disadvantaged and poor persons, dropouts, and drug users are over-represented in some of the loss to follow-up groups in longitudinal studies surveyed. More rigorous mechanisms to retain participants in longitudinal studies should be employed. Suggestions for future research include comparisons between urban and rural populations, employing qualitative research methods, and research in developing countries, which have the least favourable school outcomes and a dearth of research on high school dropout.

  18. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.

  19. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazutaka; Hodgkin, Marian Ellen

    2017-01-01

    School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the ‘tipping point’ school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls’ school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15–17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls’ dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl’s marriage so as to reduce girls’ school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups. PMID:28727793

  20. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sekine

    Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.

  1. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazutaka; Hodgkin, Marian Ellen

    2017-01-01

    School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.

  2. Dropout Prevention in Middle and High Schools: From Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams

    2016-01-01

    Based on work with state and local education agencies in dropout prevention for students with disabilities, successful research-based interventions are described along with details of how these interventions have been implemented in middle and high schools across the country. The interventions that have helped students with disabilities graduate…

  3. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  4. The Impact of Child Labor and School Dropout on Human Capital: Gender Differences in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie

    This chapter, Chapter 2 in "the Economics of Gender in Mexico," uses retrospective household survey data from Mexico to assess the long-term impacts of school dropout and of working early in life, in terms of adult labor market returns. Through these data, it is possible to link adult wages to the ages at which individuals started…

  5. Predicting School Dropout and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Offspring of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Garber, Judy; Horowitz, Jason L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of school dropout and adolescent sexual behavior in offspring of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Possible moderators of the relation between maternal depression and these outcomes also were explored. Method: Participants were 240 mothers and adolescents assessed annually from 6th through 12th grade. Interviews…

  6. Dumping Ground or Effective Alternative: Dropout Prevention Programs in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Cori

    1998-01-01

    An alternative dropout-prevention program is examined from the students' perspectives. Findings from interviews and observations suggest that the program is effective in keeping the students in school but does little to help the students develop daily living and social skills. Policy implications are discussed and suggestions for future research…

  7. School Dropout, Problem Behaviour and Poor Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal View of Portuguese Male Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite

    2011-01-01

    This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…

  8. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  9. Relationships between Parenting Practices, Social Engagement, Academic Competency, and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…

  10. Salient Predictors of School Dropout among Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Bonnie; Murray, Christopher; Gau, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unique contributions of a comprehensive set of predictors and the most salient predictors of school dropout among a nationally representative sample of students with learning disabilities (LD). A comprehensive set of theoretically and empirically relevant factors was selected for examination. Analyses…

  11. The Reasons of School Dropouts in Higher Education: Babaeski Vocational College Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertug; Aktas, Fatma Oya; Arpacioglu, Isil Tuzun

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, nearly 400.000 higher education students have left university education in the last 3 years. This figure is an indication of a negative situation. Turkey is in the first place in terms of school dropout rates within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). After completing primary and secondary education and passing the necessary…

  12. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  13. School Expulsions, Suspensions, and Dropouts: Understanding the Issues. Hot Topics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Arnold, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the causal and contextual issues surrounding the emerging rash of student expulsions, suspensions, and dropouts; discusses legal restrictions that school personnel must consider when establishing and implementing student codes of conduct; and presents promising programs and practices to reduce the number of…

  14. Socioeconomic differences in school dropout among young adults: the role of social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-10-15

    School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully understood. To investigate the effect of social relations on the association between parental socioeconomic position and school dropout in the Danish youth cohort Vestliv. This prospective study used data from questionnaires in 2004 and 2007 and register data in 2004 and 2010. The study population consisted of 3,054 persons born in 1989. Information on dropout was dichotomised into those who had completed a secondary education/were still attending one and those who had dropped out/had never attended a secondary education. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between parental socioeconomic position and dropout at age 21, taking into account effects of social relations at age 15 and 18. A large proportion of young people were having problems with social relations at age 15 and 18. In general, social relations were strongly related to not completing a secondary education, especially among girls. For instance, 18-year-old girls finding family conflicts difficult to handle had a 2.6-fold increased risk of not completing a secondary education. Young people from low socioeconomic position families had approximately a 3-fold higher risk of not completing a secondary education compared to young people from high position families, and the estimates did not change greatly after adjustment for social relations with family or friends. Poor relations with teachers and classmates at age 18 explained a substantial part of the association between income and dropout among both girls and boys. The study confirmed a social gradient in completion of secondary education. Despite the fact that poor social relations at age 15 and 18 were related to dropout at age 21, social

  15. School Dropout Prevention: What Arts-Based Community and Out-of-School-Time Programs Can Contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; Hall, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Out-of-school-time programs, especially arts-based programs, can be critical players in a community's efforts to prevent school dropout. This research review suggests the following approaches for arts-based programs: (1) recruitment and retention of target populations with multiple risk factors; (2) long-term skill development that engages youth…

  16. Household Decision-Making Process: It's Effect on School Dropout Behavior for Girls in the Secondary School Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidul, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to understand the parents' household decision-making process with respect to allowing girls to drop out of school, an area that has, thus far, been overlooked in the research regarding school dropouts. This paper has examined the household decision-making process between fathers and mothers and explores how their respective levels…

  17. Direct and Indirect Pathways From Adverse Childhood Experiences to High School Dropout Among High-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Anne S; Villodas, Miguel T

    2017-07-24

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk for school dropout. This study examined pathways from childhood adversity to school dropout through academic, behavioral, emotional, and social pathways. Data were collected prospectively from 728 adolescents and their caregivers who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect and from child protective services records. Path analyses revealed a direct association between ACEs and dropout, as well as indirect effects through poor reading achievement and elevated externalizing problems. ACEs were associated with elevated internalizing problems, which were negatively associated with dropout. However, ACEs were not associated with peer influences. Implications of the identified mechanisms in the ACEs and school dropout association for future preventive interventions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. School Dropout and Associated Factors Among Omani Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Hassan; Roberts, Emmert; Al-Belushi, Mohammed; Al-Salti, Humaid; Al-Hosni, Amira; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Al-Adawi, Samir

    Despite the rising incidence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a dearth of studies examining the rate of school dropout and its correlates in non-Western populations. Medical records were scrutinized to identify Omani children diagnosed with ADHD from 2006 to 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. The persistence of ADHD symptoms, school performance and dropout, as well as sociodemographic characteristics were examined. Three hundred sixty-seven children fulfilled the diagnosis of ADHD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria and 16.6% of them had dropped out of school. School dropout was associated with poor school performance, comorbid conduct disorder, and parental divorce. This study from Oman concurs with existing literature that school dropout is common among children with ADHD. Concerted efforts are needed to mitigate this trend. Management strategies should incorporate the treatment of comorbid conduct disorder.

  19. The early identification of risk factors on the pathway to school dropout in the SIODO study: a sequential mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, J.A.M.; Griensven, I.A.N.v.; Verdonk, P.; Feron, F.; Bosma, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This

  20. High school dropouts in emerging adulthood: substance use, mental health problems, and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the distribution of substance use, mental health, and criminal behavior among dropouts derived from a nationally representative sample of 18-25 year old (N = 19,312) emerging adults in the United States. Using public-use data from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study employed multiple logistic regression with adjustments for complex survey sampling and compared high school dropouts with graduates with respect to substance use, mental health, and criminal behavior. After controlling for the effects of age, gender, race/ethnicity, family income, receipt of government assistance, employment status, and metropolitan population density, dropouts were more likely to meet criteria for nicotine dependence and report daily cigarette use, and more likely to report having attempted suicide in the previous year, been arrested for larceny, assault, drug possession or drug sales relative to their high school graduate counterparts. The findings of this study provide important insights and an initial epidemiologic portrait of mental health, substance use, and criminal behaviors of dropouts during emerging adulthood.

  1. I want to quit education: a longitudinal study of stress and optimism as predictors of school dropout intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Véronique; Staerklé, Christian; Clémence, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Prior research on school dropout has often focused on stable person- and institution-level variables. In this research, we investigate longitudinally perceived stress and optimism as predictors of dropout intentions over a period of four years, and distinguish between stable and temporary predictors of dropout intentions. Findings based on a nationally representative sample of 16-20 year-olds in Switzerland (N = 4312) show that both average levels of stress and optimism as well as annually varying levels of stress and optimism affect dropout intentions. Additionally, results show that optimism buffers the negative impact of annually varying stress (i.e., years with more stress than usual), but not of stable levels of stress (i.e., stress over four years). The implications of the results are discussed according to a dynamic and preventive approach of school dropout. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How can we strengthen students’ social relations in order to reduce school dropout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. METHODS: The development study was based......BACKGROUND: This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study...... additional qualitative interviews and four group interviews were conducted with students 16-25 years old. RESULTS: The qualitative data collection resulted in seven major themes to be addressed in the intervention: social relations, sole focus on professional skills, institutionalized individualization...

  3. Are Barbie and Ken too cool for school? A case-control study on the relation between gender and dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Marie-José; de Man, Inge; Verdonk, Petra; Bosma, Hans; Feron, Frans

    2015-02-01

    As school dropout is an important public health problem that needs to be addressed, we set out to examine whether and how, beyond the well-known effects of sex, gender beliefs and self-reported masculinity and femininity are related to school dropout. The study used a case-control design, consisting of 330 dropout cases and 330 controls still attending school. The respondents, aged between 18 and 23 years, living in the south-east of the Netherlands, were sent a self-administered questionnaire. Separate logistic regression analyses for the male and female participants were used to explore the relation between dropout and gender, controlling for sociodemographic determinants. As indicated by significant curvilinearity, young women were less likely to drop out when they occupied an intermediate positions on the gender variables. Odds of dropout were elevated among highly masculine women (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.1), and, as indicated by significant interactions, also among highly masculine men with strong normative masculine beliefs and in feminine men who simultaneously considered themselves low on masculinity. Beyond sex, gender is important in the explanation of school dropout. To prevent dropout, public health professionals should assess, monitor and intervene on the basis of gender characteristics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Do Ubiquitous Laptop Initiatives Decrease the High School Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Misty Dawn

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Mooresville Graded School District developed a strategic plan to infuse twenty-first-century learning skills into the schools by providing staff and students in grades four through twelve with a laptop computer. In late fall of 2007, Mooresville High School deployed laptops to all certified staff and to the entire student body in the…

  5. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Marie-Lise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. Methods/Design The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. Discussion As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236

  6. An Analysis of the Impact of Socio-Economic Disadvantage and School Quality on the Probability of School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuteau, S.; Mavromaras, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper combines the Australian Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) micro-level data with its longitudinal continuation, the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth data, to measure the association between individual PISA scores and early school dropouts. We use multilevel modelling to distinguish between student and school…

  7. School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; Knight, Kelly E; Thornberry, Terence P

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of early warning systems for dropout prevention. These warning systems use a set of indicators based on official school records to identify youth at risk for dropout and then appropriately target intervention. The current study builds on this work by assessing the extent to which a school disengagement warning index predicts not only dropout but also other problem behaviors during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (N = 911, 73% male, 68% African American, and 17% Latino) were used to examine the effects of a school disengagement warning index based on official 8th and 9th grade school records on subsequent dropout, as well as serious delinquency, official offending, and problem substance use during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Results indicate that the school disengagement warning index is robustly related to dropout as well as serious problem behaviors across the three developmental stages, even after controlling for important potential confounders. High school dropout mediates the effect of the warning index on serious problem behaviors in early adulthood.

  8. School dropout susceptibility mapping with fuzzy logic – a study in the District of Purulia, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukunda Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.

  9. An Analysis of Primary School Dropout Patterns in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…

  10. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  11. Programs and policies to assist high school dropouts in the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Dan Bloom of MDRC examines policies and programs designed to help high school dropouts improve their educational attainment and labor market outcomes. So called "second-chance" programs, he says, have long provided some combination of education, training, employment, counseling, and social services. But the research record on their effectiveness is fairly thin, he says, and the results are mixed. Bloom describes eleven employment- or education-focused programs serving high school dropouts that have been rigorously evaluated over the past thirty years. Some relied heavily on paid work experience, while others focused more on job training or education. Some programs, especially those that offered paid work opportunities, generated significant increases in employment or earnings in the short term, but none of the studies that followed participants for more than a couple of years found lasting improvements in economic outcomes. Nevertheless, the findings provide an important foundation on which to build. Because of the high individual and social costs of ignoring high school dropouts, the argument for investing more public funds in services, systems, and research for these young people is strong. The paucity of conclusive evidence, however, makes it hard to know how to direct resources and magnifies the importance of ensuring that all new initiatives provide for rigorous evaluation of their impacts. Bloom concludes with recommendations for policy and research aimed at building on current efforts to expand and improve effective programs for dropouts while simultaneously developing and testing new approaches that might be more effective and strengthening local systems to support vulnerable young people. He stresses the importance of identifying and disseminating strategies to engage young people who are more seriously disconnected and unlikely to join programs. A recurring theme is that providing young people with opportunities for paid work may be useful both as an

  12. School dropout prevention: what arts-based community and out-of-school-time programs can contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; Hall, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Out-of-school-time programs, especially arts-based programs, can be critical players in a community's efforts to prevent school dropout. This research review suggests the following approaches for arts-based programs: (1) recruitment and retention of target populations with multiple risk factors; (2) long-term skill development that engages youth behaviorally, emotionally, and academically rather than a drop-in culture; (3) an emphasis on the critical ingredient of real-world applications through performance; (4) staff development and mentoring; (5) a strategic community-level plan for dropout prevention; (6) and program content reframed toward competencies that underlie better school performance and prosocial behavior, such as communication, initiative, problem solving, motivation, and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Parent-child attachment, academic performance and the process of high-school dropout: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdal, Gro; Bergvik, Svein; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Poor academic performance is a strong predictor of school dropout. Researchers have tried to disentangle variables influencing academic performance. However, studies on preschool and early care variables are seldom examined when explaining the school dropout process. We reviewed the literature on the relationship between caregiver-child attachment and academic performance, including attachment studies from preschool years, seeking out potential contributions to academic performance and the dropout process. The review was organized according to a model of four main mediating hypotheses: the attachment-teaching hypothesis, the social network hypothesis, the attachment-cooperation hypothesis, and the attachment self-regulation hypothesis. The results of the review are summed up in a model. There is some support for all four hypotheses. The review indicates that attachment and early care contribute substantially to dropout and graduation processes. Mediation effects should be given far more attention in future research.

  14. The Mayas of Yucatan, Mexico: Their Fight against School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos; Cardos-Dzul, Maria Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the strategies that a sample of Maya men and women of Yucatan, Mexico used to avoid dropping out of school. Data from in-depth interviews, focus groups and life stories were analyzed using grounded theory techniques through a non-essentialist gender approach. Among the Maya, statistics show that women drop out of school…

  15. School Dropout Prevention Pilot--First Follow-Up Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nancy; Tietjen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    From 2000 to 2011, the number of children out of school worldwide has decreased from 102 million to 57 million--a reduction of almost 50 percent (Millennium Development Goals Report, 2013). However, many children in developing countries do not complete primary or secondary cycles once they enroll; out of the 137 million children who entered first…

  16. One Foot out the School Door? Interpreting the Risk for Dropout upon the Transition to Post-Secondary Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elffers, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Many students drop out in the first year after a school transition. Most commonly used indicators of an increased risk for dropout reveal little of the mechanisms that push or pull students out of school. In this study, we look at the association of a set of common risk indicators with students' supportive resources and school experiences upon the…

  17. Dropout rates in medical students at one school before and after the installation of admission tests in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibnegger, Gilbert; Caluba, Hans-Christian; Ithaler, Daniel; Manhal, Simone; Neges, Heide Maria; Smolle, Josef

    2011-08-01

    Admission to medical studies in Austria since academic year 2005-2006 has been regulated by admission tests. At the Medical University of Graz, an admission test focusing on secondary-school-level knowledge in natural sciences has been used for this purpose. The impact of this important change on dropout rates of female versus male students and older versus younger students is reported. All 2,860 students admitted to the human medicine diploma program at the Medical University of Graz from academic years 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 were included. Nonparametric and semiparametric survival analysis techniques were employed to compare cumulative probability of dropout between demographic groups. Cumulative probability of dropout was significantly reduced in students selected by active admission procedure versus those admitted openly (P dropout were higher for females (P dropout hazard is highest during the second year of study. The introduction of admission testing significantly decreased the cumulative probability for dropout. In openly admitted students a significantly higher risk for dropout was found in female students and in older students, whereas no such effects can be detected after admission testing. Future research should focus on the sex dependence, with the aim of improving success rates among female applicants on the admission tests.

  18. Early school leavers and dropouts : A matter of educationalappeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugino Binanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este texto es analizar el complejo fenómeno de la dispersión escolar y contextualizarlo dentro del sistema escolar italiano, centrándose en el sur de Italia y en particular en la Puglia y en la provincia de Lecce. La primera parte se concentra en las tesis teóricas relacionadas con este fenómeno. La misma definición de dispersión escolar transmite la idea de multidimensionalidad de este problema que comprende una variedad de acontecimientos y comportamientos que conducen en último análisis a la dispersión, y por supuesto tiene que ser diferente al término «drop out» o abandono, que se refiere específicamente a los estudiantes que interrumpen sus cursos de estudios sin acabarlos. En la segunda parte el texto describe el sistema escolar italiano y evidencia los recientes cambios en la estructura educativa, demostrando como los poderes y las responsabilidades competenciales de la administración del Estado y del Ministerio de la educación pública ahora se han trasladado a las autoridades locales como las Regiones, las Provincias y los Ayuntamientos, en una óptica de descentralización y desregulación. La tercera parte se centra en la dispersión escolar prematura en el sur de Italia, donde este comportamiento es muy común, debido a factores socioeconómicos, pero también a la desmotivación personal.The purpose of this text is to analyse the complex phenomenon of early school-leaving and to contextualize it within the Italian school system, with a focus on Southern Italy and, in particular, on Apulia and the Province of Lecce. Part one concentrates on the theoretical assumptions linked to this phenomenon. The definition itself of school-leaving conveys the idea of the multidimensionality of this problem, which covers a variety of events and behaviours — i.e. lack of admission, failures, irregular attendance, etc. — ultimately leading to dispersion, and has to be necessarily distinguished from the term

  19. Cigarette Smoking Trajectories From Sixth to Twelfth Grade: Associated Substance Use and High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Lacy, Beth; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Dube, Shanta R; Song, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from sixth to twelfth grade and to characterize these trajectories by use of other drugs and high school dropout. The diverse sample for this analysis consisted of a cohort of 611 students from Northeast Georgia who participated in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Students completed seven yearly assessments from sixth through twelfth grade. We used semi-parametric, group-based modeling to identify groups of students whose smoking behavior followed a similar progression over time. Current smoking (past 30 day) increased from 6.9% among sixth graders to 28.8% among twelfth graders. Four developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking were identified: Abstainers/Sporadic Users (71.5% of the sample), Late Starters (11.3%), Experimenters (9.0%), and Continuous Users (8.2%). The Abstainer/Sporadic User trajectory was composed of two distinct groups: those who never reported any tobacco use (True Abstainers) and those who reported sporadic, low-level use (Sporadic Users). The True Abstainers reported significantly less use of alcohol and other drugs and lower dropout rates than students in all other trajectories, and Sporadic Users had worse outcomes than True Abstainers. Experimenters and Continuous Users reported the highest drug use. Over one-third of Late Starters (35.8%) and almost half of Continuous Users (44.4%) dropped out of high school. Cigarette smoking was associated with behavioral and academic problems. Results support early and continuous interventions to reduce use of tobacco and other drugs and prevent high school dropout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Associations between reasons to attend and late-high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Abar, Caitlin C; Lippold, Melissa; Powers, Christopher J; Manning, Alice E

    2012-12-01

    This study addressed (1) whether there were unique profiles of student self-reported reasons for attending school among 10(th) graders, (2) whether these profiles were differentially associated with late high-school dropout, and (3) whether parent characteristics differed across profiles. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (N = 15,362), five latent classes were found. The first class (49%) reported intrinsic, identified/introjected, and external motivations for attending school. The second class (32%) attended for identified/introjected and external reasons, while the third class (11%) reported intrinsic and identified/introjected reasons. The final two classes reported only identified/introjected (5%) or external (4%) motivations. Individuals in the identified/introjected and external classes were at greatest risk of dropping out between 10(th) and 12(th) grade. A host of parenting characteristics differed across class, with students in the intrinsic-identified/introjected-external class displaying the most favorable pattern of results. Implications for dropout prevention and academic promotion programs are discussed.

  1. Teachers' Views on the Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships on School Dropout: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Misrecognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…

  2. Analysis of Factors Causing Poor Passing Rates and High Dropout Rates among Primary School Girls in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzuza, Maureen Kapute; Yudong, Yang; Kapute, Fanuel

    2014-01-01

    Factors that cause poor examination passing rates and high dropout rates among primary school girls in Malawi were analysed. First hand data was collected by conducting a survey in all the three regions of Malawi. The respondents to the questionnaire were girls (402) who are repeating the last class in primary schools (Standard 8), primary school…

  3. Evaluating the Impact of a Summer Dropout Prevention Program for Incoming Freshmen Attending an Under-Resourced High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth; Shriberg, David; Alves, Alison; de Oca, Jessie Montes; Reker, Kassandra; Roche, Meghan; Salgado, Manuel; Stegmaier, Jessica; Viellieu, Lindsay; Karahalios, Vicky; Knoll, Michael; Adams, Kristen; Diaz, Yahaira; Rau, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Low high school completion rates are an ongoing challenge for educators. This study provides the results of an evaluation of a ninth-grade summer transition program offered at a large public school with a high freshman dropout rate. The evaluation consisted of preprogram and postprogram surveys and interviews with 64 incoming freshman…

  4. One foot out the school door? Interpreting the risk for dropout upon the transition to post-secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, L.

    2012-01-01

    Many students drop out in the first year after a school transition. Most commonly used indicators of an increased risk for dropout reveal little of the mechanisms that push or pull students out of school. In this study, we look at the association of a set of common risk indicators with students’

  5. An Empirical Assessment of Dropout Rate of Learners at Selected High Schools in King William’s Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Manona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and analysed factors responsible for high dropout rate of learners at selected high schools in King William’s Town District, Province of the Eastern Cape. The aim of the study is provide an understanding into inherent problems of early exit of learners in the education sector, which impede the long-term production of professionals with bright future. The main findings of this study revealed that multiple motives, associated with individual characteristics of dropouts and social problems emanating from their family background and influence of the community, prompted learners to dropout. Moreover, learner dropout is inter alia caused by social factors such as lack of resources, the effect of poverty, orphans at school, the distance between the school and the community, drug abuse, pregnancy and HIV and AIDS prevalence in schools, gangsterism and learning barriers. The results of this research suggest that the government should make resources available with regard to scholar transport, school nurses to provide education awareness programmes in relation to early pregnancies, HIV and AIDS infection to improve attendance rate. The Department of Social Development should provide information with regard to benefits available to orphaned learners. The government should ensure sustainable provision of the school nutrition programme to alleviate hunger and poverty. School management should effectively regulate the behaviour of learners to promote discipline in schools so that substance abuse is eliminated.

  6. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the Socio-Economic Factors That Contribute to Children School Dropout in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Dora Harrison; Ting, Zuo; Pesha, John Chrisostom

    2017-01-01

    In Tanzania, education has been earmarked as a priority area to stimulate socioeconomic development, however; the increasing number of school dropout cases is posing a huge hindrance to achieving this goal. To establish the major causes of school dropouts, this paper investigated different factors that explain the phenomena with special focus on…

  8. Relationship between school dropout and teen pregnancy among rural South African young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Factors associated with dropout in medical education: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised....

  10. High school dropout and long-term sickness and disability in young adulthood: a prospective propensity score stratified cohort study (the Young-HUNT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Karin A A; Pape, Kristine; Cuypers, Koenraad; Johnsen, Roar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Westin, Steinar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2013-10-09

    High school dropout and long-term sickness absence/disability pension in young adulthood are strongly associated. We investigated whether common risk factors in adolescence may confound this association. Data from 6612 school-attending adolescents (13-20 years old) participating in the Norwegian Young-HUNT1 Survey (1995-1997) was linked to long-term sickness absence or disability pension from age 24-29 years old, recorded in the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation registers (1998-2008). We used logistic regression to estimate risk differences of sickness or disability for school dropouts versus completers, adjusting for health, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, school problems, and parental socioeconomic position. In addition, we stratified the regression models of sickness and disability following dropout across the quintiles of the propensity score for high school dropout. The crude absolute risk difference for long-term sickness or disability for a school dropout compared to a completer was 0.21% or 21% points (95% confidence interval (CI), 17 to 24). The adjusted risk difference was reduced to 15% points (95% CI, 12 to 19). Overall, high school dropout increased the risk for sickness or disability regardless of the risk factor level present for high school dropout. High school dropouts have a strongly increased risk for sickness and disability in young adulthood across all quintiles of the propensity score for dropout, i.e. independent of own health, family and socioeconomic factors in adolescence. These findings reveal the importance of early prevention of dropout where possible, combined with increased attention to labour market integration and targeted support for those who fail to complete school.

  11. Latent profile analysis of sixth graders based on teacher ratings: Association with school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…

  13. Trajectories of Prosocial Behavior and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Adolescent School Dropout and Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Katja; Tremblay, Richard E.; Lacourse, Eric; Nagin, Daniel S.; Vitaro, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression between 6 and 12 years of age were identified for a sample (N=1,025) of males. The trajectories were then used to predict school dropout and physical violence at age 17. Using a group-based semi-parametric method, two trajectories of prosociality (low and moderate declining) and three…

  14. Characteristics and Education Outcomes of Utah High School Dropouts Who Re-Enrolled. REL 2017-206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, Vanessa X.; Berliner, BethAnn

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past two decades have examined the prevalence, causes, predictors, and prevention of high school dropout, but comparatively little is known about students who drop out and later re-enroll. This study contributes to an emerging body of research on re-enrollees that challenges the perception that when students drop out,…

  15. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S.-born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites,…

  16. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  17. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  18. The early onset of distress disorders and high school dropout: Prospective evidence from a national cohort of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana S

    2017-11-08

    Prior research examining whether depression and anxiety lead to high school dropout is limited by a reliance on retrospective reports, the assessment of mental health at a single point in time (often remote from the time of high school exit) and omission of important measures of the social and familial environment. The current study addresses these limitations by analyzsing 8 waves of longitudinal data from a cohort of Australian adolescents (n = 1,057) in the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey (2001-2008). Respondents were followed from the age of 15 years through to completion or exit from high school. Discrete time survival analysis assessed whether the early experience of a distress disorder (DD) (indicated by scores school dropout, having controlled for household and parental socio-economic characteristics, and smoking and alcohol consumption. Adolescents with a prior distress disorder had twice the odds of high school dropout compared to those without (OR = 1.99; 1.24, 3.17). This association was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in models including tobacco and alcohol consumption (OR = 1.74; 1.09, 2.78). These results suggest improving the mental health of high school students may promote better educational outcomes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2012. Compendium Report. NCES 2015-015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Patrick; Noel, Amber M.

    2015-01-01

    This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of rates in 2012, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last four decades (1972-2012), and examines the characteristics of high school…

  20. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2008. Compendium Report. NCES 2011-012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Chris; Laird, Jennifer; KewalRamani, Angelina

    2010-01-01

    This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of rates in 2008, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last three and a half decades (1972-2008), and examines the characteristics of high…

  1. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig

    2013-01-01

    This fourth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that for the first time the nation is on track to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020--if the pace of improvement from 2006 to 2010 is sustained over the next 10 years. The greatest gains have occurred for the students of color and…

  2. Low control beliefs in relation to school dropout and poor health: findings from the SIODO case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Hans; Theunissen, Marie-José; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2014-11-28

    There is cumulating evidence that health is compromised through adverse socioeconomic conditions negatively affecting how people think, feel, and behave. Low control beliefs might be a key mechanism. The reversed possibility that low control beliefs might set people on a pathway towards adverse socioeconomic and health-related outcomes is much less examined. A case-control design was used, consisting of 330 cases who dropped out of school in the 2010-2011 school year and 330 controls who still attended school at the end of that year. The respondents, aged between 18 and 23, came from Eindhoven and surrounding areas in the south-east of The Netherlands. A questionnaire asked for current health status, recalled socioeconomic and social background, and recalled control beliefs (mastery and general self-efficacy). Logistic regression analyses were used. Recalls of low mastery and low self-efficacy were strongly related to both dropout and less than good health. Low socioeconomic background was also associated to odds of dropout, but did not confound or moderate the associations of low control beliefs with dropout and health. Odds ratios of dropout and less than good health indicated at least twice the odds of a poor outcome with recalls of low control beliefs. Independent of the socioeconomic background, low control beliefs are related to heightened odds of both poor health and school dropout. Individual differences in control beliefs might thus be as fundamental as socioeconomic conditions in generating life-course socioeconomic and health-related pathways. Although the findings should first be cross-validated in prospective studies, public health professionals working with youth might already start considering early interventions in youth with all too fatalistic and powerless mind-sets.

  3. Examining the Impact of Policy and Practice Interventions on High School Dropout and School Completion Rates: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to systematically examine policy and practice intervention research and assess the impact of those interventions on high school dropout and school completion rates. This systematic review extends the literature by (a) describing both policy and practice interventions, (b) synthesizing findings from…

  4. Mental health and school dropout across educational levels and genders: a 4.8-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Cathrine F; Bilgrav, Line; Frandsen, Louise Sjørslev; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Nielsen, Berit; Bøggild, Henrik

    2016-09-15

    Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout). Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16-29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students), the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8-year period (1(st) March 2010-31(th) December 2014). Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753) of the participants, 29 % (n = 468) in females and 19 % (n = 285) in males (p Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124) of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0-3.2) and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-4.2). For males in higher education, poor mental health was a predictor of dropout (OR = 5.2, CI = 1.6-17.3), which was not seen females in higher education (OR = 1.2, CI = 0.5-3.1). Poor mental health was significantly associated to dropout among students in vocational and higher education. Males in higher education had five times the risk of dropout when reporting poor mental health, while no such association was found for females.

  5. ?Drop-out? in the Danish high school (gymnasium): An investigation of psychological, sociological and pedagogical factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Helge

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate characteristics differentiating high-school students who had dropped out of school from those who remained. The study examined the relationship between drop-out and the following three clusters: (1) the effect of family background factors; (2) the effect of social factors in the educational milieu; and (3) the effect of motivation, achievement and ability. It was concluded that neither the effect of family background nor exposure to factors in the educational milieu were significant in the decision to finish school. One of the main conclusions of the investigation was that drop-out was associated with lack of motivation and achievement of the students.

  6. The effect of school attendance and school dropout on incident HIV and HSV-2 among young women in rural South Africa enrolled in HPTN 068.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Marie C D; Pettifor, Audrey; Edwards, Jessie K; Aiello, Allison E; Halpern, Carolyn T; Julien, Aimée; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Hughes, James P; Wang, Jing; Agyei, Yaw; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; MacPhail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen

    2017-09-24

    To estimate the association between school attendance, school dropout, and risk of incident HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection among young women. We used longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa, to assess the association between school days attended, school dropout, and incident HIV and HSV-2 in young women aged 13-23 years. We examined inverse probability of exposure weighted survival curves and used them to calculate 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5-year risk differences and risk ratios for the effect of school attendance on incident HIV and HSV-2. A marginal structural Cox model was used to estimate hazard ratios for the effect of school attendance and school dropout on incident infection. Risk of infection increased over time as young women aged, and was higher in young women with low school attendance (school days) compared with high (≥80% school days). Young women with low attendance were more likely to acquire HIV [hazard ratio (HR): 2.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62, 5.45] and HSV-2 (HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.46, 4.17) over the follow-up period than young women with high attendance. Similarly, young women who dropped out of school had a higher weighted hazard of both HIV (HR 3.25 95% CI: 1.67, 6.32) and HSV-2 (HR 2.70; 95% CI 1.59, 4.59). Young women who attend more school days and stay in school have a lower risk of incident HIV and HSV-2 infection. Interventions to increase frequency of school attendance and prevent dropout should be promoted to reduce risk of infection.

  7. Seventh and Eighth Grade Dropouts in Ohio: Research on Who They Are, Why They Leave and How School Districts Count Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Susan C.; Hooper, Paula K.

    Despite the legal mandate for fulltime school participation between the ages of 6 and 18 and the mandate for high school completion, many youths do not fulfill these expectations and are viewed as dropouts. To investigate the characteristics of seventh and eighth grade students who leave school and the reasons why they do so, school personnel in…

  8. School and Family Predictors of Achievement and Dropout in Elementary Schools of a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    In 1973 a study of the national primary schools was begun in Ecuador to consider effects of school and non-school factors upon student flow and achievement, to examine the relative productivity of different types of schools, and to study the costs of primary education to the family and nation. Although other variables such as teacher preparation…

  9. The early identification of risk factors on the pathway to school dropout in the SIODO study: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Griensven van, Ilse; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans; Bosma, Hans

    2012-11-27

    School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This emphasises the importance of integrative research aimed at identifying children at risk for school dropout at an early stage, discovering how socioeconomic status and gender affect health-related pathways that lead to dropout and developing a prevention tool that can be used in public health services for youth. The SIODO study is a sequential mixed-methods study. A case-control study will be conducted among 18 to 24 year olds in the south of the Netherlands (n = 580). Data are currently being collected from compulsory education departments at municipalities (dropout data), regional public health services (developmental data from birth onwards) and an additional questionnaire has been sent to participants (e.g. personality data). Advanced analyses, including cluster and factor analyses, will be used to identify children at risk at an early stage. Using the quantitative data, we have planned individual interviews with participants and focus groups with important stakeholders such as parents, teachers and public health professionals. A thematic content analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data. The SIODO study will use a life-course perspective, the ICF-CY model to group the determinants and a mixed-methods design. In this respect, the SIODO study is innovative because it both broadens and deepens the study of health-related determinants of school dropout. It examines how these determinants contribute to socioeconomic and gender differences in health and contributes to the development of a tool that can be used in public health practice to tackle the problem of school dropout at its roots.

  10. The early identification of risk factors on the pathway to school dropout in the SIODO study: a sequential mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theunissen Marie-José

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This emphasises the importance of integrative research aimed at identifying children at risk for school dropout at an early stage, discovering how socioeconomic status and gender affect health-related pathways that lead to dropout and developing a prevention tool that can be used in public health services for youth. Methods/design The SIODO study is a sequential mixed-methods study. A case–control study will be conducted among 18 to 24 year olds in the south of the Netherlands (n = 580. Data are currently being collected from compulsory education departments at municipalities (dropout data, regional public health services (developmental data from birth onwards and an additional questionnaire has been sent to participants (e.g. personality data. Advanced analyses, including cluster and factor analyses, will be used to identify children at risk at an early stage. Using the quantitative data, we have planned individual interviews with participants and focus groups with important stakeholders such as parents, teachers and public health professionals. A thematic content analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data. Discussion The SIODO study will use a life-course perspective, the ICF-CY model to group the determinants and a mixed-methods design. In this respect, the SIODO study is innovative because it both broadens and deepens the study of health-related determinants of school dropout. It examines how these determinants contribute to socioeconomic and gender differences in health and contributes to the development of a tool that can be used in public health practice to tackle the problem of school dropout at its roots.

  11. Dropout Study, 1993-94. Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Richard N.; Quimper, Barry E.

    The School District of the City of Saginaw (Michigan) has annually reported on the rate and nature of the dropout population; this dropout report is the fourth edition of the State defined generation of dropout reports. Two hundred twenty-four, or 8% of Saginaw's 2,805 students in grades 9-12, voluntarily terminated their high school education…

  12. Need Satisfaction, Work-School Interference and School Dropout: An Application of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Genevieve; Lekes, Natasha; Gagnon, Hugo; Kwan, Lisa; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, it is common for secondary school students to be involved in part-time employment. Research shows that working can have a negative impact on school engagement. However, the majority of studies have focused on the amount of time that students spend working rather than on the "quality" of work experience and…

  13. The Reciprocal Links between School Engagement, Youth Problem Behaviors, and School Dropout during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Fredricks, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the self-system model, this study conceptualized school engagement as a multidimensional construct, including behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, and examined whether changes in the three types of school engagement related to changes in problem behaviors from 7th through 11th grades (approximately ages 12-17). In addition,…

  14. School quality, economic status and school dropout rates among Mexican teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.

  15. Mental health and school dropout across educational levels and genders: a 4.8-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine F. Hjorth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout. Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Methods Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16–29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students, the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8–year period (1st March 2010–31th December 2014. Odds ratios (OR and 95 % confidence intervals (CI were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Results Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753 of the participants, 29 % (n = 468 in females and 19 % (n = 285 in males (p < 0.0001. The prevalence differed from 19 to 39 % across educational levels (p < 0.0001. Females had a statistically significantly higher adjusted risk of poor mental health than males (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.5–2.2. Among the students the lowest risk was found at the elementary level (OR = 1.3, CI = 0.8–2.3, while students in higher education had a statistically significantly higher risk (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.2–2.9. The lowest-educated non-students had the highest OR of poor mental health (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.1–5.4. Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124 of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0–3.2 and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0–4.2. For males in higher

  16. High School Substance Use as a Predictor of College Attendance, Completion, and Dropout: A National Multi-cohort Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12 th -grade students from 1977-2003 were followed for seven years (modal ages 18-25; N =10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background. Substance use during high school predicted a greater likelihood of never attending (for cigarettes, illegal drugs), of graduating from a 2-year rather than a 4-year school (for cigarettes), and of dropping out versus graduating from a 4-year school (for cigarettes, marijuana, and other illegal drugs). High school binge drinking predicted lower college dropout, but only in models also controlling for cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use. This study provides a needed overview of adolescent predictors of patterns of college attendance among American young adults over the past three decades.

  17. The causes, processes and consequences of student drop-out from Junior Secondary School (JSS) in Ghana: the case of Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (K.E.E.A.) district.

    OpenAIRE

    Yokozeki, Yumiko

    1997-01-01

    Despite open access to both primary and junior secondary school (JSS), non-enrolment and dropout have been countrywide problems in Ghana. This thesis investigates the nature of student dropout from JSS in one district in the country, through four main questions. What is the relationship between drop-out rates and school characteristics of JSS in K.E.E.A. district? What are the factors causing students to drop out? What are the processes of dropping out? What are the consequences ...

  18. Student Perspectives of the Graduation Coach's Ethic of Care on the Dropout Epidemic in a Middle Georgia Alternative High School of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kimberly R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…

  19. Does school time matter? On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, S.J.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a

  20. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  1. A Public Health Perspective on School Dropout and Adult Outcomes: A Prospective Study of Risk and Protective Factors From Age 5 to 27 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to advance a public health perspective on links between education and health by examining risk and protective factors that might alter the relation between dropping out of high school and subsequent negative outcomes. A community sample (N = 585) was followed from age 5 to 27 years. Data included self and parent reports, peer sociometric nominations, and observed mother-teen interactions. High school dropouts were up to four times more likely to experience individual negative outcomes (being arrested, fired, or on government assistance, using illicit substances, having poor health) by age 27 years and 24 times more likely compared to graduates to experience as many as four or more negative outcomes. Links between dropout and negative outcomes were more pronounced for individuals who were in low socioeconomic status families at age 5 years, rejected by elementary school peers, and became parents at a younger age; the dropout effect was decreased for individuals who had been treated for a behavioral, emotional, or drug problem by age 24 years. Addressing school dropout as a public health problem has the potential to improve the lives of dropouts and reduce societal costs of dropping out. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Drug Use among Mexican-American Potential School Dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, James E.; Doscher, Lynn

    1979-01-01

    Studies a sample of Mexican-American students identified as potential dropouts and finds drug use is widespread. Cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol are used by the majority of students. "Social" drugs are used more often. Students do not think that general drug use causes social problems; however, girls' attitudes differ from boys'. (Author/BEF)

  3. A Case Control Study on School Dropouts in Children of Alcohol-Dependent Males Versus that in Abstainers/Social Drinkers′ Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet N Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study and compare in the children of alcohol-dependent males versus those in a socio-demographically similar control group, the occurrence of school dropouts, and to examine the link between certain factors like parental education and socioeconomic status on school dropout. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based case control study. The participants were 107 family units in both study group (alcohol-dependent male, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age and control group (abstainer/social drinker, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age. It was conducted in an urban slum community in Mumbai. Interview technique was used for data collection. The study was conducted for a period of 1 year. Statistical Analysis: Using software SPSS version 17.0, percentages, Chi-square test. Results and Conclusion: The number of school dropouts was significantly higher (45.31%, P < 0.001 in the children of alcohol-dependent males as compared to 22.47% in the abstainers/social drinkers′ children. In the study group, there was higher number of school dropouts among boys (52.73%, P < 0.05 as compared to girls (35.37%. There was a statistically significant association between parental illiteracy and school dropout in children in both the groups. In the control group, significantly higher number of school dropouts of socioeconomic class IV and V had dropped out as compared to those of socioeconomic class III and II.

  4. Can use of healthcare services among 15-16-year-olds predict an increased level of high school dropout? A longitudinal community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homlong, Lisbeth; Rosvold, Elin O; Haavet, Ole R

    2013-09-19

    To study associations between healthcare seeking in 15-16-year-olds and high school dropout 5 years later. Longitudinal community study. Data from a comprehensive youth health survey conducted in 2000-2004, linked to data from national registries up to 2010. 13 964 10th grade secondary school students in six Norwegian counties. Logistic regression was used to compute ORs for high school dropout. The total proportion of students not completing high school 5 years after registering was 29% (girls 24%, boys 34%). Frequent attenders to school health services and youth health clinics at age 15-16 years had a higher dropout rate (37/48% and 45/71%), compared with those with no or moderate use. Adolescents referred to mental health services were also more likely to drop out (47/62%). Boys with moderate use of a general practitioner (GP) had a lower dropout rate (30%). A multiple logistic regression analysis, in which we adjusted for selected health indicators and sociodemographic background variables, revealed that seeking help from the youth health clinic and consulting mental health services, were associated with increased level of high school dropout 5 years later. Frequent attenders (≥4 contacts) had the highest odds of dropping out. Yet, boys who saw a GP and girls attending the school health services regularly over the previous year were less likely than their peers to drop out from high school. Adolescents who seek help at certain healthcare services can be at risk of dropping out of high school later. Health workers should pay particular attention to frequent attenders and offer follow-up when needed. However, boys who attended a GP regularly were more likely to continue to high school graduation, which may indicate a protective effect of having a regular and stable relationship with a GP.

  5. Primary Education and Dropout in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…

  6. Is ADHD a Risk Factor for High School Dropout? A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Hyder, Laran L; Day, Helen; Biederman, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This study examined whether ADHD was an independent contributor to grade retention when adjusting for IQ, learning disorders, and social class. Outcome data was from participants in studies at Massachusetts General Hospital (n= 404 ADHD,n= 349 controls) who underwent psychiatric interviews, socioeconomic status measures, and IQ testing. 28% of individuals with ADHD repeated a grade compared with 7% of controls (pschool dropout or repeated grade. An interaction effect of ADHD and gender was also found with females with ADHD having a higher risk ratio for repeated grade/dropout compared with males with ADHD. Participants with ADHD were significantly more likely to repeat a grade, adjusting for all other variables indicating the critical importance of early identification of ADHD to help mitigate adverse educational outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Early school dropouts in developing countries: An integer approach to guide intervention. The case of Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rossana Patrón

    2008-01-01

    Are early leavers from the education system irrational or ill informed? They might be, but this approach shows that with underperforming education sectors – typical in developing countries – early dropout may be perfectly rational and well informed, even in the absence of liquidity constraints. This paper provides an integer approach to guide intervention in developing countries, though there are no clear-cut policies. Long-term measures should be aimed at improving the productivity of the ac...

  8. School Dropouts or Pushouts? Overcoming Barriers for the Right to Education. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anugula N.; Sinha, Shantha

    2010-01-01

    Persistently high dropout rates are one of the biggest challenges to fulfilling the right to education in India. This paper attempts to assess the magnitude of the problem of dropout. The paper critically reviews the evidence on some of the commonly cited reasons for dropout, including poverty, limited to access to credit, child labour, and…

  9. School Location, School Section and Students' Gender as Predictors to Secondary School Dropout Rate in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to underscore the extent the variables of school location, students' gender and school section can predict the rate of drop out of secondary school students. Ex post facto design was adopted and all data on students' enrollment, retention and completion were collected from available schools' records for two cohorts of…

  10. The Major Factors That Influence Basic School Dropout in Rural Ghana: The Case of Asunafo South District in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Saeed; Adom, Dickson; Bediako, Asare Baffour

    2016-01-01

    Education is a key to the realization of most of the goals and targets of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Education as a development tool is upheld by most development theorist as essential in the progression of every society. However, in recent times school dropout has become a serious canker in Ghanaian societies, especially in…

  11. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  12. Diabetes's 'health shock' to schooling and earnings: increased dropout rates and lower wages and employment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear.

  13. Connecting Dropouts to Career Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Sterling; Tyler, Tiffany G.; Maldonado, Cecilia; Cleveland, Roger; Thompson, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need to identify solutions to the unemployment of high school dropouts. When a student prematurely leaves school, the economic, social, and political impacts result in negative consequences for the individual and the community. Of the nearly 2.2 million students who drop out of high school every year in the United States,…

  14. The Annual Dropout Report 1986-87. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carla; Gampert, Richard

    Examination of dropout trends in New York City for 1986-87 reveals the following: (1) the annual dropout rate was 7.3 percent for the high schools, and 8.3 percent system-wide; (2) the estimated four-year dropout rate was 26.3 percent for the high schools, and 29.2 percent system-wide; (3) the 1986-87 four-year high school dropout rate was 6.2…

  15. Shaping the Social: design of a settings-based intervention study to improve well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in Danish vocational schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Holmberg, Teresa; Johansen, Christoffer; Stock, Christiane; Laursen, Bjarne; Zinckernagel, Line; Øllgaard, Anne Louise; Ingholt, Liselotte

    2015-06-20

    The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were selected to either implement the intervention or continue with normal practice for comparison. In the baseline survey conducted 2011-2012, 2,329 students from four intervention schools and 3,371 students from six comparison schools answered a computer-based questionnaire during class, representing 73% and 81% of eligible students, and 22% of all technical/agricultural vocational schools in Denmark. Follow-up assessment was conducted 10 weeks after baseline and at the same time teachers of the intervention classes answered a questionnaire about implementation. School dropout rates will be tracked via national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing appropriate evaluation strategies. To address difficulties in implementing settings-based interventions, as highlighted in prior research, the strategy was to involve intervention schools in the development of the intervention. Baseline differences will be included in the effectiveness analysis, so will the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. ISRCTN57822968. Date of registration: 16/01/2013.

  16. How can we strengthen students' social relations in order to reduce school dropout? An intervention development study within four Danish vocational schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan; Zinckernagel, Line; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Stock, Christiane; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2015-05-22

    This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. The development study was based on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four additional qualitative interviews and four group interviews were conducted with students 16-25 years old. The qualitative data collection resulted in seven major themes to be addressed in the intervention: social relations, sole focus on professional skills, institutionalized individualization, importance of the introduction period, physical surroundings and schedules, tobacco and cannabis use and communication about drug use. The program addressing these themes incorporates suggestions that are meant to improve how teachers welcome new students, to enable greater integration of social and educational activities and to enhance the capacity of teachers and counselors to deal with drug use problems among students. The development of new intervention programs might benefit from adopting a theoretical and methodological perspective that enables a closer exploration of the everyday social practices in which interventions are embedded. Thus, we aimed to create a comprehensive intervention that worked through organizational changes in everyday school practices. Intervention programs must be planned in

  17. The 9th Grade Shock and the High School Dropout Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Hirschman, Charles; Willhoft, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective questions on educational attainment in national surveys and censuses tend to over-estimate high school graduation rates by 15 to 20 percentage points relative to administrative records. Administrative data on educational enrollment are, however, only available at the aggregate level (state, school district, and school levels) and the recording of inter-school transfers are generally incomplete. With access to linked individual-level administrative records from a very large “West Coast metropolitan school district” we track patterns of high school attrition and on-time high school graduation of individual students. Even with adjustments for the omission of out-of-district transfers (estimates of omission are presented), the results of this study show that failure in high school, as indexed by retention and attrition, are almost as common as on-time high school graduation. In addition to the usual risk factors of disadvantaged background, we find that the “9th grade shock”—an unpredicted decline in academic performance upon entering high school—is a key mechanism behind the continuing crisis of high school attrition. PMID:23017804

  18. Puertorriquenos En Chicago: El Problema Educativo Del Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Isidro

    1974-01-01

    Article written in Spanish. Defines the term "dropout," discusses the characteristics and motivations of Puerto Rican school dropouts in Chicago, and outlines the problems in educating them. (Author/RJ)

  19. Research at the Margin: Mapping Masculinity and Mobility of African-American High School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James Earl

    2006-01-01

    Research on the intersection of racial and gender identities is important in understanding the processes of school engagement. This article focuses on how African-American male adolescents move in and out of schooling and make sense of those experiences. By examining how they construct meanings of masculinity a textured and complex trajectory of…

  20. Black Student Dropout Behavior: Disengagement from School Rejection and Racial Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Lawrence G.

    Using an exchange theory perspective, this study evaluates the degree to which school rejection policies and racial discrimination contribute to the decision of black students to disengage from the education exchange process and drop out of school. In the exchange theory perspective the student is viewed as a party in an exchange relationship with…

  1. A Consensual Qualitative Research Study of the Transformation from High School Dropout to Second Chance Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jayne E.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on understanding the perceived process of change, outcomes and influencing factors experienced by high school graduates of Urban Corps of San Diego County (UCO) from a bioecological theory of human development standpoint. UCO is a second chance high school diploma-job training program that offers students free mental health…

  2. Two Can Reduce School Dropout: A Live Student and a Wired Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    If today's schools were perfect in everything that they do, they would only be 70% effective in educating American students. That is because 30 out of every 100 students drop out of school before graduation. Research has suggested a number of factors as causes and offered recommendations for intervention. The causes are categorized into two…

  3. May new school models minimize status of drop-out rates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them.......Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them....

  4. Predicting secondary school dropout among South African adolescents: A survival analysis approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Hui (Jimmy); Caldwell, Linda L; Smith, Edward A; Weybright, Elizabeth H; Wegner, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    ...% of the age appropriate population remain enrolled. Survival analysis was used to identify the risk of dropping out of secondary school for male and female adolescents and examine the influence of substance use and leisure experience predictors...

  5. Identifying Characteristics of High School Dropouts: Data Mining with A Decision Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, William Robert.

    2004-01-01

    The notion that all students should finish high school has grown throughout the last century and continues to be an important goal for all educational levels in this new century. Non-completion has been related to all sorts of social, financial, and psychological issues. Many studies have attempted to put together a process that will identify…

  6. Construction and validation of students' dropout scale | Fehintola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study constructed and validated a measure for students' dropout from secondary school programme. The Students' Dropout Scale (SDS) is a 25-items instrument developed according to the frame work of the social sciences literature on concepts of dropout. Descriptive survey research design was employed.

  7. How can we strengthen students' social relations in order to reduce school dropout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four......, importance of the introduction period, physical surroundings and schedules, tobacco and cannabis use and communication about drug use. The program addressing these themes incorporates suggestions that are meant to improve how teachers welcome new students, to enable greater integration of social...... and educational activities and to enhance the capacity of teachers and counselors to deal with drug use problems among students. CONCLUSION: The development of new intervention programs might benefit from adopting a theoretical and methodological perspective that enables a closer exploration of the everyday...

  8. Influence of mental disorders on school dropout in Mexico Influencia de los trastornos mentales en el abandono escolar en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Borges

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of mental disorders on failure in educational attainment in Mexico. METHODS: Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 16 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-reports with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI during fieldwork in 2001-2002. Survival analysis was used to examine associations between early onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent school dropout or failure to reach educational milestones. RESULTS: More than one of two Mexicans did not complete secondary education. More than one-third of those who finished secondary education did not enter college, and one of four students who entered college did not graduate. Impulse control disorders and substance use disorders were associated with higher risk for school dropout, secondary school dropout and to a lesser degree failure to enter college. Anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk for school dropout, especially secondary school dropout and, to a lesser degree, primary school dropout. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneity of results found in Mexico may be due to the effect of mental disorders being diminished or masked by the much greater effect of economic hardship and low cultural expectations for educational achievement. Future research should inquire deeper into possible reasons for the better performance of students with anxiety disorders in developing countries.OBJETIVO: Estudiar la repercusión de los trastornos mentales en el fracaso escolar en México. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2001 a mayo del 2002, se evaluaron los diagnósticos y la edad de aparición para cada uno de los 16 trastornos del DSM-IV mediante autoinformes retrospectivos recogidos por medio de la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI. Se empleó el análisis de supervivencia para analizar las asociaciones entre los trastornos del DSM-IV/CIDI de aparición temprana y el subsiguiente abandono escolar o fracaso en el logro de los

  9. School dropout: a major public health challenge: a 10-year prospective study on medical and non-medical social insurance benefits in young adulthood, the Young-HUNT 1 Study (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Karin A A; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Westin, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2012-11-01

    School and work participation in adolescence and young adulthood are important for future health and socioeconomic status. The authors studied the association between self-rated health in adolescents, high school dropout and long-term receipt of medical and non-medical social insurance benefits in young adulthood. Self-rated health in adolescence was assessed in 8795 adolescents participating in the Norwegian Young-HUNT Study (1995-1997). Linkages to the National Education Database and the National Insurance Administration allowed identification of school dropout and receipt of long-term medical and non-medical benefits during a 10-year follow-up (1998-2007). The data were explored by descriptive statistics and by multinomial logistic regression. A total of 17% was registered as being high school dropouts at age 24. The predicted 5-year risk of receiving benefits between ages 24-28 was 21% (95% CI 20% to 23%). High school dropouts had a 5-year risk of receiving benefits of 44% (95% CI 41 to 48) compared with 16% (95% CI 15 to 17) in those who completed high school (adjusted for self-rated health, parental education and sex). There was a 27% school dropout rate in adolescents who reported poor health compared with 16% in those who reported good health. The predicted 5-year risk of receiving any long-term social insurance benefits in adolescents who reported poor health was 33% (95% CI 30 to 37) compared with 20% (95% CI 19 to 21) in those who reported good health. The strong association between poor self-rated health in adolescence, high school dropout and reduced work integration needs attention and suggests preventive measures on an individual as well as on a societal level.

  10. Selected determinants may account for dropout risks among medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The dropout level from the Danish medical schools is high, but we have only little insight into this problem. The purpose of this study was to qualify the ongoing discussions concerning dropout. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, relevant variables were....... CONCLUSION: The dropout rate has been decreasing during the past decade. Young people considering studying medicine could be advised to choose natural science subjects in high school, and a number of research questions concerning preparedness for medical school are worth pursuing. Leave or very low grades...... during their first year. The type of admission exam was a strong predictor of dropout in the pre-admission model, whereas previous higher education protected against dropout. Obtaining leave was a very strong predictor of dropout in the post-admission model, whereas high grades protected against dropout...

  11. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE SCHOOL IN HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective to establish the personal, economic and social causes and consequences that create school desertion of high school in Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS. The investigation took place in the high school located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, in the academic unit (UA of San Blas and its extensions The Constancia and The Higueras of the Natoches in 2013. A mixed approach was used to analyze qualitative and quantitative information; the studied population was 18 women and 17 men deserters of the school cycle 2011-2012, ten teachers, four directors and twenty non-deserting students. In the results one can see that the principal factor for school desertion was the personnel to be married and not approving classes. The main consequence was economic, highlighting that the poverty cycle is hard to break.

  12. Influence of cannabis use trajectories, grade repetition and family background on the school-dropout rate at the age of 17 years in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane; Obradovic, Ivana; Janssen, Eric; Spilka, Stanislas; Le Nézet, Olivier; Beck, François

    2010-04-01

    Research has shown that cannabis use contributes to school dropout, but few studies have distinguished the age at onset of use from the age at progression to daily use neither their interaction with grade repetition. This study is based on a French representative cross-sectional survey (N = 29,393 teenagers aged 17 years) and uses retrospective data. The influence of drug-use patterns family socio-economic status, early grade repetition, single-parent families and daily tobacco smoking (ORa > or = 2.6). The link with the move to daily cannabis use was more evident when it occurred or =15 years (ORa = 1.45 for both sexes). The onset of cannabis use was not significant when occurring <14 years of age, but was linked to school attainment when occurring at age 15-16 years (ORa = 0.80 for boys and 0.64 for girls). Results are similar for alcohol use. Repeating a grade before beginning to use cannabis increased the dropout rates compared with the opposite sequence. Girls were more affected by early grade repetition and by early and daily cannabis use. Cannabis use is rarely a trigger for grade repetition but can have either damaging or positive effects on school attainment depending of the level of use. Positive social competence reflected by peer initiation should be investigated to understand this paradoxical effect.

  13. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing Early Intervention Program to Prevent High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…

  14. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenberg, Fred C.; Potter, Les

    2011-01-01

    A high-performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  15. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenburg, Fred C.; Potter, Les

    2008-01-01

    A high performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  16. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  17. The Annual Dropout Report 1987-88. OREA Report. Accountability Section Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Prudence; Gampert, Richard D.

    Examination of dropout trends in New York City for 1987-88 reveals the following: (1) the annual dropout rate was 7.5 percent for the high schools, and 8.4 percent system-wide; (2) the estimated 4-year dropout rate was 26.8 percent for the high schools, and 29.7 percent system-wide; (3) the 1987-88 4-year high school dropout rate was 5.7…

  18. Higher Standards, More Dropouts? Evidence Within and across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Dean R.; DeCicca, Philip P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether state course graduation requirements affect high-school dropout decisions, using aggregate data on dropout rates, individual data from two time periods, and aggregate data on high-school completion rates over 15 years. Results strongly suggest that state-mandated minimum course requirements cause students to drop out.…

  19. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... evidence found in the research field comprised by the three review questions to be addressed. The aims of this systematic review can, thus, be summarized like this: Which answers can be offered from research in relation to the following questions: What is dropout from university studies? Why do...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  20. Just the Right Mix: Identifying Potential Dropouts in Montgomery County Public Schools Using an Early Warning Indicators Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Each school year, roughly a thousand students drop out of Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). However, unlike other large, urban school districts where students who drop out skip school and are suspended often (Balfanz & Byrnes, 2010), students who drop out of MCPS are present in school; they just are not doing well…

  1. Do Employment Subsidies Reduce Early Apprenticeship Dropout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Jan; Göbel, Christian; Maier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of the Apprenticeship Bonus, an employment subsidy programme, on early apprenticeship dropout. Eligibility for the programme is restricted to school leavers who have actively looked for an apprenticeship to start immediately after leaving school, but were unsuccessful in finding one. Our analysis is based on rich survey data…

  2. Citizen Guide to Children out of School: The Issues, Data, Explanations and Solutions to Absenteeism, Dropouts, and Disciplinary Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Susan C.

    This guide to children out of school is addressed mainly, but not exclusively, to school districts, school personnel, and concerned citizens in the State of Ohio. The greatest focus is on the educator's role in assuring that all children are served and on finding solutions when school participation problems exist. The basic position on attendance…

  3. Charter and Direct Run Schools of the Recovery School District (RSD) and Orleans Parish School Board (OPSB) Comparison of High Stakes Tests and Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, Beverly Guillory

    2011-01-01

    The city of New Orleans has embarked on an historic experiment reinventing its schools--once considered among the worst in the country--from a centralized, single district model of education to a two district model in which both the Recovery School District (RSD) and the preexisting Orleans Parish School Board (OPSB) both operate direct run and…

  4. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2013. Compendium Report. NCES 2016-117

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joel; Stark, Patrick; Cui, Jiashan

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of high school is related to a number of negative outcomes. For example, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who had not completed high school was roughly $26,000 in 2013. By comparison, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who completed their education with at least a high school credential (i.e., a regular…

  5. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  6. The Influence of the Trainer's Motivation and Cooperative Learning towards the Improvement of the Youth School Dropouts' Vocational Competences: "A Case Study of Life Skills Training at the Center for Social Empowerment of Youths ("Balai Pemberdayaan Sosial Bina Remaja") in the West Java Province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniati, Rina

    2013-01-01

    The fact that there are many children and youths dropping out of school in Indonesia cannot be denied. The number of dropouts in elementary schools, junior, and senior high schools, and combined with those abandoning school before finishing their higher education program each year remains high. To mitigate this situation, there has been an…

  7. The 12-for-Life Program: A Model for Mentoring and Success with Potential High School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Tamra W.; Hancock, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article presents second year evaluation results from a unique collaboration between a global corporation and a community school system in the southeastern United States. The purpose of the program was to help-at-risk students graduate from high school and develop responsible citizenship while increasing corporate employee retention. This…

  8. Beyond School Records: The Value of Cognitive and Affective Engagement in Predicting Dropout and On-Time Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Matthew D.; Reschly, Amy L.; Appleton, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning systems use school record data--such as attendance rate, behavior records, and course performance--to identify students at risk of dropping out. These are useful predictors of graduation-related outcomes, in large part because they indicate a student's level of engagement with school. However, these data do not indicate how invested…

  9. Assessing reasons for school/college dropout among young adults and implications for awareness about STDs and HIV/AIDS: findings from a population-based study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid-ul-Hasnain, Syed; Krantz, Gunilla

    2011-06-01

    Dropping out of school/college not only impedes economic prosperity but may also result in poor knowledge and awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study investigated, among young adults in Karachi, Pakistan, the risk factors associated with involuntary school/college dropout and the implications for awareness about HIV/AIDS and STDs. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1,650 young males and females, aged 17-21 years and living in Karachi, was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed separately for males and females. Females were twice as likely to drop out of school/college as males. Furthermore, migrant residential status, living in an extended family and lower socio-economic status were identified as risk factors for school/college dropout both for males and females. In the total sample, only 17% of males and 13% of females had heard of STDs (p = 0.020). Furthermore, 26.8% of males and 20.5% of females had not heard of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.003). The females exhibited a higher level of awareness on these matters than the males, irrespective of whether they had dropped out of school or not. While the males who dropped out were considerably less aware than those who remained at school, there was no such difference among females. Young adults from poor families are at increased risk of dropping out of school/college. Among the dropouts, males were clearly at risk of ignorance about STDs while females were somewhat better informed.

  10. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  11. Dropout Prevention: An EPI Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2010-01-01

    Tons of paper and thousands of gallons of ink, not to mention countless digits and bytes, have been devoted to the study of dropouts--much of it focused on the causes of dropping out of school and the complex factors that contribute to that decision. Despite the intensity of this investigation, little has changed, except that the consequences of…

  12. Influence of cannabis use trajectories, grade repetition and family background on the school-dropout rate at the age of 17 years in France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Legleye, Stéphane; Obradovic, Ivana; Janssen, Eric; Spilka, Stanislas; Le Nézet, Olivier; Beck, François

    2010-01-01

    ...%) are modelled with logistic regressions among boys and girls. The main factors associated with dropout were a low family socio-economic status, early grade repetition, single-parent families and daily tobacco smoking (ORa > or = 2.6...

  13. Dropout and Downward Mobility in the Educational Career : An Event-History Analysis of ethnic Schooling Differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2003-01-01

    While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an

  14. Dropout and downward mobility in the educational career: An event-history analysis of ethnic schooling differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an

  15. Communities in Schools' Performance Learning Centers: Utilizing Student Supports and Alternative Settings for Dropout Prevention. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    For more than thirty years, Communities in Schools (CIS) has been dedicated to giving every child a chance to graduate by targeting those factors that are most likely to cause a student to drop out, and providing what it sees as the "five basics" for student achievement: (1) a caring relationship with an adult; (2) a safe place to learn…

  16. The influence of ethnic segregation and school mobility in primary education on high school dropout : evidence from regression discontinuity at a contextual tipping point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.; de Witte, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of ethnic composition and school mobility at the primary school-level on the propensity to drop out of high school. Using rich school and neighbourhood administrative data, we observe that (i) frequent school movers have a 2.6 times higher likelihood of early

  17. High School Substance Use as a Predictor of College Attendance, Completion, and Dropout: A National Multi-cohort Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12th-grade students from 1977-2003 were followed for seven years (modal ages 18-25; N=10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background. Substance use during high school predicted a greater likelihood of never attending (for cigarettes, illegal drugs), of graduating from a 2-year rather than a...

  18. [Dropout behavior during inpatient psychotherapy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ute; Rempel, Irene; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Teufel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dropouts result in far-reaching consequences for the individual patient, fellow patients, therapists, and the clinic. This study was aimed at early identification of patients with a dropout risk. Data from patients of the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy of the Medical University Clinic of Tübingen (Germany) were analyzed retrospectively in a case-control study (matched). Differences in the results of various questionnaires (SCL-90-R, IIP-D, SF-36) regarding reasons for dropout and sociodemographic data were analyzed. A total of 59 dropouts, 50 females and 9 males, were included. They were split into 28 early dropouts and 31 late dropouts. The data were compared between early and late dropouts and control group. Early dropouts were significantly younger than late dropouts; they tended to live with their parents or on their own, and suffered more frequently from eating disorders. Late dropouts lived together with partners and suffered from somatoform disorders more frequently than early dropouts. The reasons given for dropout did not differ between the groups. No differences between dropouts and the controls were found with respect to psychopathology (SCL- 90-R) and quality of life (SF-36). Late dropouts did show significantly lower scores on the scale "autocracy/dominance" than the controls (IIP). Therapy dropout is a multifactorial occurrence. It is generally not predictable, though it may be predicted with different instruments on the basis of a diagnosis, especially with respect to interpersonal behavior patterns. In further studies, targeted interventions should be developed and tested which enable procedures to minimize the risk of dropout and to achieve complete treatment according to patients' intentions.

  19. Keeping Kids in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Discuss several research reports on dropout prevention. Focuses on Teachers College, Columbia University, study that identified several reasons for low student dropout in new Coalition of Essential Schools Project (CCSP) schools in New York City, Includes selected references on dropouts and dropout prevention. (PKP)

  20. Dropouts and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terry

    1984-01-01

    Exploring the uses of human capital theory to an analysis of effective adult education, the author tests several hypotheses. Focusing on teacher characteristics, he examines whether trained teachers are better than untrained and whether dropout rates are affected by adult education teacher training. (SK)

  1. The Rural Dropout Problem: An Invisible Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty; Madden, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews high school dropout rates and related factors in rural high schools throughout 15 Southern and Southwestern states. These schools are in districts that are among the 800 rural districts with the highest student poverty rate nationally. Seventy-seven percent of the "Rural 800" districts and 87 percent of the students in them are…

  2. Dropout and Violence Needs Assessment: A Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltich, Aimee P.; Hunt, Mary Helen; Meyers, Joel

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated a needs assessment survey designed to measure perceptions of causes of dropout and school violence and related interventions. The needs assessment was conceptualized as a first step to be taken by schools to facilitate program planning, school-based implementation and acceptability of programs designed to prevent…

  3. Six Pillars of Effective Dropout Prevention and Recovery: An Assessment of Current State Policy and How to Improve It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cheryl; Steinberg, Adria; Santos, Janet; Le, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Solving America's dropout crisis requires immediate, drastic action. Intractable as the dropout problem may seem, recognition of its magnitude has created an environment ripe for action. Most notably, federal regulations adopted in 2008 require states to use more accurate ways of counting dropouts and holding districts and schools more accountable…

  4. Individual, Social, and Family Factors Associated with High School Dropout among Low-SES Youth: Differential Effects as a Function of Immigrant Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Dupéré, Véronique; Brault, Marie-Christine; Andrew, Marie Mc

    2017-01-01

    Background: In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background. Aims: The first aim of…

  5. Leadership to Success: A Study of the Leadership Behaviors of Dropout Recovery Program Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the leadership practices and behaviors of the building leaders of dropout recovery schools and how these behaviors correlate with the ability of their student population to pass state-required standardized tests. This study analyzed the responses of 8 building leaders of dropout recovery schools regarding their leadership…

  6. Partners in Prevention: The Role of School-Community Partnerships in Dropout Prevention. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on School-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Today's society is global, multicultural, multilingual, and digitally connected. Learning no longer occurs just in the classroom, delivered by teachers. At the same time, research has repeatedly shown that no single strategy or approach will turn around low-performing schools and reengage students. As a result, districts and schools are reaching…

  7. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND SCHOOL DROPOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious problems of the contemporary world, fact which is expressed not only by all European statistics, statistics showing a growing number of unemployed, despite the consistent concern of the governments of all developed countries. Worse is that the unemployment is the highest among young people up to 25 years, many of them being university graduates. This way the trend of young people to stop attending studies appeared ... seeing as useless their efforts to invest in their future through university studies, the chances of finding a job are minimal despite their diplomas. Hence the name of "the lost generation" - the way that young people are called nowadays. The market economy, based mainly on private property is not considering social issues, it pursues just one goal: profit, more exactly the profit maximization.

  8. Dropout in vocational education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    For the last ten years drop out of vocational education has increased strongly in Denmark. Only half of the students, who take up a vocational programme on upper secondary level, complete it. Like in other European countries the low completion rates has caused considerable alarm on the political...... level (Lamb and Markussen 2011). Continuing high dropout rates will make it very hard for the government to reach its target for educational completion, and the government has launched a series of measures to increase retention including the obligation for all colleges to make plans for retention...

  9. The Return to College: Selection Bias and Dropout Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lutz; Leukhina, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    We study two long-standing questions: (i) What part of the measured return to education is due to selection? (ii) The ex post return to schooling is higher than the return to most financial assets. How large are the contributions of various frictions to the "high" return to schooling? We focus in particular on the roles of college dropout risk, borrowing constraints, and learning about ability. We develop and calibrate a model of school choice. Key model features are: (i) ability heterogeneit...

  10. Final Evaluation Report on the Texarkana Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean C.; Roberts, Lawrence H.

    The Texarkana Dropout Prevention Program is an educational innovation in which (1) a private company was placed under contract to set up special, remedial instruction in the public schools, and (2) the company was to be paid according to the results produced under a performance contract. Dorsett Educational Systems operated six rapid learning…

  11. Children's educational completion rates and dropouts in the context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a young Lives project data3, a combination of quantitative and qualitative method was used to analyse the determinants of school completion/dropout of children from primary education. A Cox box proportional hazard model was used to analyse the survival of children in primary education. The findings have ...

  12. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  13. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  14. Shifting problems and shifting policies to reduce student drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2016-01-01

    vocational programmes. Consequently, lowering the drop-out rate is high on a policy maker’s agenda. This chapter examines the education policies designed to reduce the prevalence of drop-out in Denmark’s vocational system. First, the chapter reviews the international research on the phenomenon of drop......-out, as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... the problem with the educational system. This study of Danish vocational education policy examines both (i) how student attrition has been framed in different periods, and (ii) the solutions that have been prescribed in accordance with shifting conceptualisations of early school leaving. The author’s inquiry...

  15. A Comparative Study of Dropout Rates and Causes for Two Different Distance Education Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pierrakeas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to examine the root causes leading to student dropout at a Greek distance education university. Data was gathered from two different courses – an undergraduate course leading to a Bachelors degree in Informatics (characterized by high dropout rates, and a postgraduate course leading to a Masters degree in education (characterized by low dropout rates. A comparative analysis of these two different courses revealed important similarities in dropout percentages and the reasons cited by students for dropping out. Our analysis also revealed important differences as well. This paper presents the results of a survey designed to investigate the relationship between dropout with intrinsic (student-related factors such as sickness, work/ school conflict etc., and extrinsic (institutional-related factors such as study methods and materials, educational approach, and tutor influence.

  16. Cushing Public Schools Comprehensive Local Education Plan. Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing Public Schools, OK.

    The Cushing (Oklahoma) Public Schools have had an annual dropout rate of 3.3% in recent years (40 students in 1995-96), but their goal is to decrease the number of dropouts by at least 50%. The school district has had several alternative programs for dropout reduction in place. Needs assessment has shown that all of Cushing's dropouts were in high…

  17. Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....

  18. Examining the Multiple Trajectories Associated with Dropping out of High School: A Growth Mixture Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Sprott, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Historically, students who fail to graduate from secondary school are considered as a single category of school dropouts. However, emerging literature indicates that there may be multiple subgroups of high school dropouts, termed a "dropout typology". The authors' purpose was to assess the extent to which a typology of dropouts was present in a…

  19. Immunization Dropout Rates: Some Issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaccination from BCG ‑ Measles first dose has a distinct advantage. DTP1–DTP3 dropout rate measures the ability of the immunization system to reach a child multiple times with the same antigen(s).[3] It also measures the same delivery system multiple times; thereby giving insight into factors that may hinder caregivers to ...

  20. Escuela media y abandono escolar en Argentina: aproximaciones a un debate pendiente Middle school and dropout in Argentina: approaches to an unresolved debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Otero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tiene como objetivo exponer panorámicamente un recuento del surgimiento histórico de la educación media en Argentina, para avanzar luego en la evolución de la expansión matricular hasta la actualidad, contemplando los rasgos fundamentales de la misma. A partir de allí, se expondrán factores incidentes en la problemática del abandono escolar, prestando énfasis a las características de la modalidad técnica. Se retomarán puntos centrales de un debate escasamente explorado que es aquel que aborda la intersección específica entre abandono escolar y los estudiantes de modalidad técnica. Se subraya que las condiciones del mercado laboral actual, como la amplitud de la precarización, el avance del sector servicios y la estrechez en materia de industrialización tornan aún más acuciante el contorno de discusiones sobre esta problemática. Este panorama marcha en paralelo a cambios de envergadura en el sistema educativo nacional, enmarcados en sucesivas modificaciones a las normativas jurídicas que lo orientan.This text aims to expose panoramically a recount of the historical emergence of secondary education in Argentina, to advance later in the evolution of the expansion currently watching enrolling until the fundamental features of it. From there, it will expose the factors which affect the dropout problem giving particular emphasis to the characteristics of the technical arrangement. Focal points will resume in a little explored that debate is one that addresses the specific intersection between ESL students and technical arrangement. It emphasizes that current labor market conditions, as the amplitude of the precarious, the advance of the service sector and the narrowness in industrialization becomes even more pressing the outline of discussions on this issue. Panorama marching in parallel with major changes in the national education system, surrounded by successive amendments to legal regulations that guide the system.

  1. Accelerating the Learning of Low-Achieving Students: The Transformation of a Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnan, Christine; Chasin, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Anthony, a stocky, muscular, young African American man with a smile that exudes warmth and enthusiasm, chose a path taken by far too many of his peers: he became a high school dropout. He started down this path long before he entered his urban high school in Wisconsin in 1997. Throughout his years in school, he had never been pushed to excel, and…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Dropout Prevention Outcomes and Strategies. A Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Shanan L.; O'Connor, Patrick; Withington, Cairen; Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2015-01-01

    Almost from the start of the public schools system in America, students have been leaving school without high school diplomas. However, the dropout issue did not rise to the level of significance it has today until the early 1980s, when social pressures, along with business leaders, leveraged their influence on educators to address the dropout…

  3. Patterns, Consequences, and Possible Causes of Dropout in Upper Secondary Education in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Bentaouet Kattan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a detailed analysis of upper secondary education dropout patterns in Mexico, exploring its consequences and possible causes. To perform the analysis we combine different databases and statistical methods ranging from the use of surveys with information on specific individuals to data aggregated at the municipal and state level. The main value added is the simultaneous analysis of the influence of individual-family, community, and macroaggregate factors, on school dropout in the country.

  4. Teenage Drug Use: Uncertain Linkages with Either Pregnancy or School Dropout. Report to the Chairman, Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The study reported in this document is a follow-up to earlier reviews of drugs and other youth problems. It addressed the current status of and the recent trends in teenage drug use, pregnancy, and dropping out of school, and the post-1987 research about the relationship between teenage drug use and either pregnancy or dropping out. Statistics…

  5. "Drop-Outs" or "Heritage Learners"? Competing Mentalities of Governmentality and Invested Meanings at a Weekend Japanese Language School in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2012-01-01

    Based on fieldwork at a weekend Japanese language school in the USA in 2007-2009, this article illustrates the ways in which different regimes of government arise from an activity depending on meanings individuals invest in it. We examine how two students in the same classroom experienced two different regimes of government: one of a low-track…

  6. Ending to What End? The Impact of the Termination of Court-Desegregation Orders on Residential Segregation and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, David D.

    2018-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Supreme Court established standards to facilitate the release of school districts from racial desegregation orders. Over the next two decades, federal courts declared almost half of all districts under court order in 1991 to be "unitary"--that is, to have met their obligations to eliminate dual systems of…

  7. Effectiveness of a girls' empowerment programme on early childbearing, marriage and school dropout among adolescent girls in rural Zambia: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Mudenda, Mweetwa; Zulu, Joseph; Munsaka, Ecloss; Blystad, Astrid; Makasa, Mpundu C; Mæstad, Ottar; Tungodden, Bertil; Jacobs, Choolwe; Kampata, Linda; Fylkesnes, Knut; Svanemyr, Joar; Moland, Karen Marie; Banda, Richard; Musonda, Patrick

    2016-12-09

    Adolescent pregnancies pose a risk to the young mothers and their babies. In Zambia, 35% of young girls in rural areas have given birth by the age of 18 years. Pregnancy rates are particularly high among out-of-school girls. Poverty, low enrolment in secondary school, myths and community norms all contribute to early childbearing. This protocol describes a trial aiming to measure the effect on early childbearing rates in a rural Zambian context of (1) economic support to girls and their families, and (2) combining economic support with a community intervention to enhance knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and supportive community norms. This cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) will have three arms. The clusters are rural schools with surrounding communities. Approximately 4900 girls in grade 7 in 2016 will be recruited from 157 schools in 12 districts. In one intervention arm, participating girls and their guardians will be offered cash transfers and payment of school fees. In the second intervention arm, there will be both economic support and a community intervention. The interventions will be implemented for approximately 2 years. The final survey will be 4.5 years after recruitment. The primary outcomes will be "incidence of births within 8 months of the end of the intervention period", "incidence of births before girls' 18th birthday" and "proportion of girls who sit for the grade 9 exam". Final survey interviewers will be unaware of the intervention status of respondents. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat and adjusted for cluster design and confounders. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. This is the first CRCT to measure the effect of combining economic support with a community intervention to prevent adolescent childbearing in a low- or middle-income country. We have designed a programme that will be sustainable and feasible to scale up. The findings will be relevant for programmes for adolescent reproductive health in

  8. The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.

  9. College Enrollment, Dropouts and Option Value of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Trachter; Ali Ozdagli

    2008-01-01

    Psychic costs are the most important component of the papers that are trying to match empirical facts related with college enrollment and dropout decisions of high school graduates. The absense of psychic cost requires very high levels of risk aversion to duplicate the same facts. However, psychic costs lack any economic meaning and treated as an obscure idiosyncratic component of utility function in influential papers such as Keane and Wolpin (1997) and Carneiro, Hansen, Heckman (2003). In t...

  10. Dynamic Education Signaling with Dropout, Second Version

    OpenAIRE

    Francesc Dilme; Fei Li

    2012-01-01

    We study students' dropout behavior and its consequences in a dynamic signaling model. Workers pay an education cost per unit of time and cannot commit to a fixed education length. Workers face an exogenous dropout risk before graduation. Since low-productivity students' cost is high, pooling with early dropouts helps them to avoid a high education cost. In equilibrium, low-productivity students choose to endogenously drop out over time, so the productivity of students in college increases al...

  11. ENHANCED PREDICTION OF STUDENT DROPOUTS USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM AND LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting college and school dropouts is a major problem in educational system and has complicated challenge due to data imbalance and multi dimensionality, which can affect the low performance of students. In this paper, we have collected different database from various colleges, among these 500 best real attributes are identified in order to identify the factor that affecting dropout students using neural based classification algorithm and different mining technique are implemented for data processing. We also propose a Dropout Prediction Algorithm (DPA using fuzzy logic and Logistic Regression based inference system because the weighted average will improve the performance of whole system. We are experimented our proposed work with all other classification systems and documented as the best outcomes. The aggregated data is given to the decision trees for better dropout prediction. The accuracy of overall system 98.6% it shows the proposed work depicts efficient prediction.

  12. The new dropout challenge: bridging gaps among students, parents, and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeland, John M

    2010-01-01

    Interview and survey data reveal significant disconnects among the insights and perspectives of dropouts, parents, teachers, and administrators on the causes and solutions to the dropout challenge. Many educators, for example, do not see boredom as a factor for most dropouts, while young people who drop out see it as the central cause. The author argues that if these disconnects are not more fully understood and bridged, they will continue to set back efforts to keep more students in school and on track to graduate ready for postsecondary education. Models for how communities can engage these constituencies in productive dialogue and transformative action are included in reports and in Grad Nation, a guidebook that helps communities tackle their dropout crises.

  13. Preventing Dropouts: The Important Role of Afterschool. Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, high school dropout rates have declined to single digits nationally. However, the U.S. only ranks 22nd in high school graduation rates and 14th in college attainment among industrialized countries. Furthermore, graduation gaps persist among students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and minority racial groups. Reducing…

  14. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  15. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. AIMS: To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health...

  16. Academic dropout or academic success: a model for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1986-09-01

    Why do some students who qualify for admission to optometry school become academic dropouts while others succeed? This question was addressed in a study which compared the admission records of 21 academic dropouts from three classes at the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) with 269 retained students. Academic dropouts were found to have significantly lower preoptometry grades, lower Optometry College Admission Test (OCAT) scores, attended less competitive (i.e., less selective) undergraduate institutions, scored lower on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and were older than retained students. When these differentiating admission variables, excepting age, were applied to a new entering class, prediction of subsequent academic dismissal or serious academic difficulty was highly accurate. However, it was found that such prediction must take into account not only areas of weakness, i.e., academic and psychological factors which place a student at risk, but also areas of strength which give the student an advantage. For all students, regardless of age, sex, or ethnic origin, it was the ratio of "advantage" factors to "risk" factors which gave the most valid prediction of academic success or failure.

  17. Permanência e evasão na educação técnica de nível médio em Minas Gerais Persistence and dropout in the vocational education high school in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Dore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta algumas considerações sobre os múltiplos contextos de realização da pesquisa Educação profissional e evasão escolar em Minas Gerais. A investigação propõe, entre seus principais objetivos, identificar fatores que contribuem para a permanência ou evasão dos estudantes na educação profissional técnica de nível médio no Estado de Minas Gerais. Inicialmente, discutem-se algumas análises sobre as condições que favorecem a permanência ou evasão escolar. Em seguida, aborda-se o contexto da política educacional brasileira e a relação entre a educação básica e a educação técnica e profissional, destacando-se, também, a escassez de informações teóricas e empíricas sobre a questão. Para ilustrar o problema da evasão, mostram-se alguns dados empíricos relativos a um Programa de Educação Profissional em Minas Gerais, que são brevemente analisados. Finalmente, apresentam-se algumas conclusões preliminares.This article focuses on some considerations concerning the multiple contexts of carrying out the research Vocation education and school dropout in Minas Gerais. Amongst its main objectives, this inquiry tries to identify the factors that contribute to the student's persistence (continuation or dropout in vocational and technical education in the State of Minas Gerais. To begin with, it discusses some analysis of the conditions which favours student's persistence or dropout. Next is examined the context of Brazilian educational policies and the relationship between basic education and vocational education. It also points out the scarcity of theoretical and empirical information on the question. To illustrate the problem of the school dropout, it gives some empirical data related to a Program of Vocational Education in Minas Gerais, and briefly analyses them. Finally, it presents some preliminary conclusions.

  18. Technologies for a content and language integrated approach to dropout problems in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjolein Simons; Dr. Hajer Maaike; Ton Koenraad; Rintse van der Werf

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre ‘Teaching in Multicultural Schools’, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The project’s main objective is to develop a model for the

  19. Children's educational completion rates and dropouts in the context of Ethiopia's national poverty reduction strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.

    2008-01-01

    Using a young Lives project data, a combination of quantitative and qualitative method was used to analyse the determinants of school completion/dropout of children from primary education. A Cox box proportional hazard model was used analyse the survival of children in primary education. The

  20. Why Did the Black-White Dropout Gap Widen in the 2000s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Suhyun; Malchow, Ashley; Suh, Jingyo

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates causes of the widening Black-White gap in dropout rates during the 2000s using two cohorts of National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, NLSY79 and NLSY97. The authors found four factors which contributed to the widening of the Black-White gap: school suspension policies, peer impact, fatherless households, and the…

  1. Factors influencing high dropout rates of girl child from education: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and mothers, achieving gender equality and empowerment of women, curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS and other diseases and improving environmental sustainability. The objectives of the study were to assess the magnitude of school dropout and identify factors influencing this tendency in the North West province.

  2. Development of a Program to Reduce Dropout Rates of Pregnant and Parenting Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a program to reduce the dropout rate for pregnant and parenting teens at York Vocational-Technical School (Pennsylvania) for the second semester of 1985-86. One successful feature was a "caring class" providing information about pregnancy, childcare, nutrition, and other subjects. The program retained most of its enrollees. Includes 1…

  3. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  4. The Peer Relations of Dropouts: A Comparative Study of At-Risk and Not At-Risk Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Chamberland, Claire

    1997-01-01

    Compared the characteristics of friends, the environments of the friendship network, and the nature of peer relations of students (N=191) at-risk and not at risk of leaving high school. Results indicate that at risk students had more dropout friends, more working friends, fewer school friends, and fewer same-sex friends. (RJM)

  5. Juventude, escola e trabalho: permanência e abandono na educação profissional técnica de nível médio Youth, school and work: attendance and dropout in technical professional secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ribeiro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a temática das relações entre juventude e escolarização, propondo-se a discutir as razões de permanência e abandono no âmbito da educação profissional técnica de nível médio. Inicialmente, apresenta uma discussão conceitual sobre juventude, escola e trabalho para, em seguida, expor os resultados de duas pesquisas empíricas que se ocuparam de analisar o que levam os jovens a abandonar ou a permanecer na escola. Os dois cursos investigados foram definidos por possuírem, ambos, elevada procura, sendo que em um deles há alto índice de abandono, ao passo que o outro apresenta uma permanência acima da média se comparada a outras escolas de ensino médio. A análise sinaliza que a grande procura pelos cursos técnicos nas áreas pesquisadas deve-se ao fato de os jovens buscarem encontrar formação de qualidade superior, profissionalização em áreas que representam certo status ou, ainda, garantia de empregabilidade. Em uma das situações, ao se frequentar a escola, as ilusões iniciais dissolvem-se, problemas para acompanhar a realização do curso evidenciam-se e a relação entre a escola e o jovem mantém-se distante, o que leva ao abandono. Contrariamente, em outra situação, a permanência é explicada devido ao grau de experiências positivas que os jovens podem viver enquanto estão matriculados em uma instituição de tempo integral, interna e bem estruturada.The article deals with the theme of the relations between youth and schooling, proposing a discussion of the reasons for the attendance and dropout within the technical professional secondary education. Initially, it presents a conceptual discussion about youth, school and work, and then it puts forward the results of two empirical researches that analyzed the reasons why youngsters drop out from, or remain at, the school. The two courses investigated were chosen because they were both in high demand, with one of them displaying a high level of

  6. Juventude, escola e trabalho: permanência e abandono na educação profissional técnica de nível médio Youth, school and work: attendance and dropout in technical professional secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ribeiro da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a temática das relações entre juventude e escolarização, propondo-se a discutir as razões de permanência e abandono no âmbito da educação profissional técnica de nível médio. Inicialmente, apresenta uma discussão conceitual sobre juventude, escola e trabalho para, em seguida, expor os resultados de duas pesquisas empíricas que se ocuparam de analisar o que levam os jovens a abandonar ou a permanecer na escola. Os dois cursos investigados foram definidos por possuírem, ambos, elevada procura, sendo que em um deles há alto índice de abandono, ao passo que o outro apresenta uma permanência acima da média se comparada a outras escolas de ensino médio. A análise sinaliza que a grande procura pelos cursos técnicos nas áreas pesquisadas deve-se ao fato de os jovens buscarem encontrar formação de qualidade superior, profissionalização em áreas que representam certo status ou, ainda, garantia de empregabilidade. Em uma das situações, ao se frequentar a escola, as ilusões iniciais dissolvem-se, problemas para acompanhar a realização do curso evidenciam-se e a relação entre a escola e o jovem mantém-se distante, o que leva ao abandono. Contrariamente, em outra situação, a permanência é explicada devido ao grau de experiências positivas que os jovens podem viver enquanto estão matriculados em uma instituição de tempo integral, interna e bem estruturada.The article deals with the theme of the relations between youth and schooling, proposing a discussion of the reasons for the attendance and dropout within the technical professional secondary education. Initially, it presents a conceptual discussion about youth, school and work, and then it puts forward the results of two empirical researches that analyzed the reasons why youngsters drop out from, or remain at, the school. The two courses investigated were chosen because they were both in high demand, with one of them displaying a high level of

  7. Relative age-related participation and dropout trends in German youth sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph; Kurz, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Relative age describes a youth's age within their age group cohort. Compared to relatively younger peers, relatively older youth in an annual age group cohort have been found more likely to be selected to sports teams, and to receive higher grades in education. This study examined the influence of youth sport participants' relative age on participation and dropout. Using data from the 1995 German Youth Sport Survey (N total=2612), comparisons (stratified by gender and sport type) were made between the relative age of current and former participants. Analyses also considered the type of school youths were enrolled in while exploring the influence of relative age on sport participations. No relative age effects for dropout emerged among males in team or individual sport contexts. Female dropouts were more likely to be relatively older (Q1, OR adjusted: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34-0.80; Q2, OR adjusted: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.84; Q3, OR adjusted: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.89), an effect that was mirrored among 'artistic' sport participants. Boys and girls in schools that were for children of higher academic proficiency were more likely to be currently participating in sport. Findings suggest that relative age-related dropout effects may be context sensitive and different for males and females. For the most part, relative age did not appear to have any relationship with dropout in this sample, with some notable exceptions for females. Overall, factors such as the type of school youths were enrolled in appear to be a more salient influence on sport participation than relative age.

  8. Parental Background and University Dropout in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data drawn from the European Community Household Panel, this paper examines Italian university entry and dropout rates in the context of specific parental and family characteristics. We are interested in the effects of the household's cultural and financial conditions on shaping investment in tertiary education and its failure,…

  9. A Comprehensive Needs Assessment To Facilitate Prevention of School Drop Out and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mary Ellen; Meyers, Joel; Davies, Gwen; Meyers, Barbara; Grogg, Kathryn Rogers; Neel, John

    2002-01-01

    Study addresses school violence and dropout and proposes that the underlying factor of school connectedness/school climate should guide preventive and intervention efforts. Principal components analysis revealed five distinct factors: school connectedness/positive school climate, causes of violence, causes of school dropout, interventions for drop…

  10. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  11. American Indians out of School: A Review of School-Based Causes and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, Jon

    1992-01-01

    Based on dropout research, testimony from task force hearings, and the theoretical framework of school-home cultural discontinuity, school-based causes of Indian dropouts are identified: large schools, uncaring or untrained teachers, passive teaching methods, culturally inappropriate curriculum and testing, tracked classes, and lack of parent…

  12. Socio-ecological predictors of participation and dropout in organised sports during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D

    2014-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-ecological determinants of participation and dropout in organised sports in a nationally-representative sample of Australian children. Data were drawn from Waves 3 and 4 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. In total, 4042 children aged 8.25 (SD = 0.44) years at baseline were included, with 24-months between Waves. Socio-ecological predictors were reported by parents and teachers, while cognitive and health measures were assessed by trained professionals. All predictors were assessed at age 8, and used to predict participation and dropout by age 10. Seven variables at age 8 were shown to positively predict participation in organised sports at age 10. These included: sex (boy); fewer people in household; higher household income; main language spoken at home (English); higher parental education; child taken to a sporting event; and, access to a specialist PE teacher during primary school. Four variables predicted dropout from organised sports by age 10: lower household income; main language spoken at home (non-English); lower parental education; and, child not taken to a sporting event. The interplay between child sex, socioeconomic indicators, and parental support is important in predicting children's participation in organised sports. Multilevel and multicomponent interventions to promote participation and prevent dropout should be underpinned by the Socio-Ecological Model and targeted to high risk populations using multiple levels of risk.

  13. Socio-ecological predictors of participation and dropout in organised sports during childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-ecological determinants of participation and dropout in organised sports in a nationally-representative sample of Australian children. Methods Data were drawn from Waves 3 and 4 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. In total, 4042 children aged 8.25 (SD = 0.44) years at baseline were included, with 24-months between Waves. Socio-ecological predictors were reported by parents and teachers, while cognitive and health measures were assessed by trained professionals. All predictors were assessed at age 8, and used to predict participation and dropout by age 10. Results Seven variables at age 8 were shown to positively predict participation in organised sports at age 10. These included: sex (boy); fewer people in household; higher household income; main language spoken at home (English); higher parental education; child taken to a sporting event; and, access to a specialist PE teacher during primary school. Four variables predicted dropout from organised sports by age 10: lower household income; main language spoken at home (non-English); lower parental education; and, child not taken to a sporting event. Conclusions The interplay between child sex, socioeconomic indicators, and parental support is important in predicting children’s participation in organised sports. Multilevel and multicomponent interventions to promote participation and prevent dropout should be underpinned by the Socio-Ecological Model and targeted to high risk populations using multiple levels of risk. PMID:24885978

  14. Impact of Dupoto-e-Maa education project on dropout rate and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Ouda

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The study recommended that there is need to increase the number of non-governmental organisations modelled around the Dupoto-e-Maa education project so as to reduce dropout rate and improve pupil academic performance. The findings could also inform government policy in terms of recruitment and placement of teachers in schools in arid and semi-arid lands. Project funding could be increased to improve visibility and sustainability of project activities.

  15. Shooting for the Stars and Failing: College Dropout and Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Hoeschler; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between unfulfilled educational aspirations and self-esteem. Classifications of education relying on completed years of schooling or degree attainment are not able to distinguish between college dropouts with unfulfilled aspirations and graduates with fulfilled aspirations. To separate the two groups, we develop a classification of education combining the highest type of college enrolled in (aspiration) and the highest degree obtained (realization of aspiration...

  16. New Governance: Pitfalls of Activation Policies for Young Migrant Dropouts in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Gerritsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrant youth are at a disadvantage in the Netherlands when it comes to schooling and work: many drop out of school and are unemployed. We will use concepts of new governance to discuss the complexities surrounding the execution of policies to reintegrate dropouts back into school or the labour market from the perspectives of professionals (street level bureaucrats working in activation programmes. The results show that cooperation is difficult. The most difficult youngsters are beyond the reach of most policy initiatives. Furthermore, many professionals perceive educational requirements as unrealistic for some youngsters. Finally, new requirements for employability may stigmatize youngsters as unwilling and unmotivated.

  17. School Climate Associated with School Dropout Among Tenth Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Orpinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El estudio evaluó la asociación entre los desertores de bachillerato y seis dimensiones de ambiente escolar. Método. La muestra consistía en 638 estudiantes de décimo grado quienes participaron en el Estudio Longitudinal de Adolescentes Saludables. Los estudiantes iban al colegio al Noreste de Georgia, Estados Unidos; eran encuestados aún si desertaban del colegio. La información relacionada con la deserción se obtiene en grado doce. Se utilizó la regresión logística para identificar indicadores de deserción. Resultados. Más niños (22.1% que niñas (14.4% desertaron del colegio. Comparado con los estudiantes que permanecieron en el colegio, los que desertaron mostraron un alto nivel de muestra de victimización relacional con sus pares y menos relaciones positivas con estos, poca conexión con el colegio, menos relación con un adulto protector dentro del mismo y menos participación significativa. En el modelo de logística regresiva, el género masculino (AOR = 1.68 y victimización relacional (AOR = 1.51 aumentaron las probabilidades de desertar, mientras que la conexión con el colegio (AOR = 0.78 y la presencia de una adulto protector (AOR = 0.73 disminuyen las posibilidades de la deserción. Conclusión. Las dimensiones del ambiente escolar en décimo grado fueron asociadas con la decisión de abandonar o persistir en el colegio. Sus múltiples dimensiones pueden llevar a los educadores a desarrollar programas y prácticas para reducir la deserción en bachillerato.

  18. Dynamic Education Signaling with Dropout Risk, Third Version

    OpenAIRE

    Francesc Dilme; Fei Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes a dynamic education signaling model with dropout risk. Workers pay an education cost per unit of time and face an exogenous dropout risk before graduation. Since low-productivity workers’ cost of education is high, pooling with early dropouts helps them avoid a high education cost. In equilibrium, low-productivity workers choose to endoge- nously drop out over time, so the productivity of workers in college increases as the education process progresses. We find that the ex...

  19. Dropout in VET – institutional selection and social exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    Dropout – institutional selection and social exclusion For the last ten years dropout of vocational education has increased strongly in Denmark. The questions addressed in this paper are why and how dropout in VET takes place. The objective is to provide more detailed and qualified knowledge...... of the complex processes of dropping out. The present study is part of a large national research project on retention in VET. The paper aims to understand dropout as a result of the interplay of students’ agentic actions and social interactions and the opportunities for participation afforded by the colleges...

  20. The Medical School Retention Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout.1 Recently Urlings-Strop et al. found the relative risk of dropout to be 2.6 times lower for ‘selected students’ than for ‘lottery admitted controls’.2 The main aim of our study was to evaluate...... the predictive validity of admission testing versus grade-based admission on dropout. METHOD This prospective cohort study followed 6 cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at University of Southern Denmark (USD) in 2002-2007 (N=1544). Half the students were admitted based on highest prior....... The outcome of interest was students’ dropout status 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. RESULTS Quota 2 (admission tested) students had a lower relative risk of dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission compared to quota 1 students...

  1. Dropout from Outpatient Mental Health Care in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Mojtabai, Ramin; Sampson, Nancy A.; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Although mental health treatment dropout is common, patterns and predictors of dropout are poorly understood. This study explores patterns and predictors of mental health treatment dropout in a nationally representative sample. Methods Data come from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative household survey. Respondents in mental health treatment in the 12 months (n=1,664) before interview were asked about dropout defined as quitting treatment before the provider wanted. Cross-tabulation and discrete-time survival analyses were used to identify predictors. Results Approximately one-fifth (22.4%) of patients quit treatment prematurely. The highest dropout rate was from the general medical sector (31.6%) and the lowest was from psychiatrists (15.1%). Dropout rates were intermediate in the human service sector (19.7%) and among patients seen by non-psychiatrist mental health professionals (18.9%). Over 70% of all dropout occurred after the first or second visits. Mental health insurance was associated with low odds of dropout (0.6, 0.4–0.9). Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with a trend towards dropout. Several patient characteristics differentially predicted dropout across treatment sectors and in early and later phases of treatment. Conclusions Roughly one-fifth of adults in mental health treatment each year drop out before completing the recommended course of treatment. Dropout is most common in the general medical sector and varies by patient characteristics across treatment sectors. Interventions focused on high-risk patients and sectors will likely be required to reduce the high proportion of patients who prematurely terminate treatment. PMID:19564219

  2. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy.

  3. Abandono do atendimento em uma clínica-escola de psicologia infantil: variáveis associadas Abandono en una clínica-escuela de psicología infantil Dropout in a school-clinic of child psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cella Panaia Mantovani

    2010-09-01

    menor y la familia estaba más expuesta a estrés psicosocialThis retrospective study aimed at investigating the rates of treatment nonattendance and dropout at a university-affiliated child guidance clinic and identifying socio demographic, clinical and family risk factors that contribute to them. We obtained archival data of 258 children. Sixteen percent of the families did not return after their intake interview. Among families that returned, forty-nine percent dropped out of treatment. Groups were compared with respect to risk factors for self-termination: nonattenders (clients who did not return after intake versus attenders (clients who returned; dropouts (clients that attended at least one session before interrupting treatment versus completers (clients that persisted until treatment conclusion. Children from nonnattender families attended earlier school grades and had less behavior problems. Children in the dropout group had lower scores in intelligence assessment, their fathers were younger and their families were more exposed to psychosocial stress, as compared to completers.

  4. Policy and participant perspectives on the drop-out problem in secondary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle

    In this paper we compare the way the drop-out problem in secondary education is constructed in Danish official and public policy discourse with the way it is experiences and interpreted by young people trying to get an education. As regards the student's perspective we will use interviews...... with students in production schools. This is an interim form of schooling for young people who have for some reason not entered secondary education directly but are still trying to find their way into (most often) vocational education....

  5. Factors Influencing Migrant High School Students to Drop Out or Graduate from High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Ira; Gallo, Kathleen

    Factors influencing migrant students in decisions to drop out or graduate from high school were determined in interviews with 24 dropouts and potential dropouts and 22 students who had graduated. Profiles were compiled on each group. Data were collected from twelfth grade migrant students in northern California. The main appeal of school to the…

  6. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  7. Drop out From School among Girls in Edo State: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drop out from school among girls is a global phenomenon. In Nigeria, girl's dropout from school for various reasons like early marriage, pregnancy, religious factors, socio-economic factors, school related factors and ill health. The focus of this paper is to investigate why girls dropout from school in Edo State. The descriptive ...

  8. Reflexiones sobre la deserción escolar en Finlandia y Puerto Rico Reflections about school dropout in Finland and Puerto Rico Reflexões sobre a evasão escolar na Finlândia e em Porto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Viana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta reflexiones sobre algunos factores claves que ayudan a comprender porque en Finlandia la deserción escolar es prácticamente inexistente mientras que en Puerto Rico es un problema significativo. Se encontraron varias razones que explican el hecho. Finlandia tiene buenos servicios de apoyo al estudiante, sus maestros cuentan con mayor libertad de cátedra, la desigualdad social existe en menor escala, la educación escolar y universitaria, y los servicios de salud son gratuitos y la preparación de los maestros es más rigurosa. En base a los datos de este estudio, se consideró apropiado formular un modelo para ayudar a entender la problemática de la deserción escolar como sistema social complejo. Para la formulación de ese modelo se utilizó un diagrama causal, que es una herramienta proveniente de la teoría de dinámica de sistemas.

    This work presents reflections about some key factors that help to understand the reasons why in Finland school dropouts are practically nonexistent, while in Puerto Rico they are a significant problem. Several reasons that explain this situation were found. Finland has good student support services, teachers have more academic freedom, social inequalities exist in a smaller scale, schooling including university, and health services are free, and teacher training is more rigorous. Based on the findings of this study, we developed a model to understand school dropout as a complex social system. To develop this model we used a causal diagram, a tool from the theory of dynamic systems.
    Este trabalho apresenta reflexões sobre alguns fatores importantes que ajudam a entender porque na Finlândia a evasão escolar é praticamente inexistente, enquanto em Porto Rico é um problema significativo. Há várias razões para explicar essa situação. A Finlândia tem bons serviços de apoio ao aluno; os professores têm mais liberdade acadêmica; a desigualdade social existe em menor

  9. Model-Free Adaptive Control Algorithm with Data Dropout Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Bu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of model-free adaptive control (MFAC algorithm can be guaranteed when the system is subject to measurement data dropout. The system output convergent speed gets slower as dropout rate increases. This paper proposes a MFAC algorithm with data compensation. The missing data is first estimated using the dynamical linearization method, and then the estimated value is introduced to update control input. The convergence analysis of the proposed MFAC algorithm is given, and the effectiveness is also validated by simulations. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can compensate the effect of the data dropout, and the better output performance can be obtained.

  10. Causes of early school leaving in southern nations nationalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, the study unveiled the prevalence of high rate of primary school dropout in the region. The main attributes of the dropout can roughly be classified into such three broad categories as household related, those of which associated to societal conviction and school linked setbacks. The study has also portrayed ...

  11. The Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort born in 1958 - dropout analysis and overview at 36-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, U; Lundell, S; Barnekow-Bergkvist, M; Jansson, E; Westerståhl, M

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of the Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort study (SPAF-1958) was to describe physical fitness, physical activity, health, and lifestyle across part of the lifespan, and to assess the influences on these factors from the environment, personal factors, and genetics. There is inevitable dropout from longitudinal studies, and it may be systematic. The aim of this first paper of the second follow-up of SPAF-1958 was to provide a dropout analysis to consider to what extent the participants, at 52 years of age, remain a representative sample of the original adolescent study population. Additional aims were to provide an overview of the study protocol and the ongoing study population. Ongoing study participants in SPAF born in 1958 were, at the second follow-up at the age of 52, still representative of the study cohort in terms of sex, adolescent geographical area, upper secondary school program, adolescent body composition, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. However, a higher physical activity and, among women, a higher aerobic capacity in adolescence decreased the risk for dropout. It is important when interpreting results from longitudinal studies to adjust for the systematic dropout that could bias the conclusions drawn from the results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. School Extracurricular Activity Participation as a Moderator in the Development of Antisocial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined antecedents and moderators of antisocial behavior among children interviewed annually through high school and in early adulthood. Analyses identified four configurations differing in early school dropout and criminal arrests. School extracurricular activity participation related to reduced rates of early dropout and criminal arrest among…

  13. High School Employment, School Performance, and College Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Orazem, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of U.S. high school students working during the school year ranges from 23% in the freshman year to 75% in the senior year. This study estimates how cumulative work histories during the high school years affect probability of dropout, high school academic performance, and the probability of attending college. Variations in…

  14. Reduzierbarkeit der Abbrecherquote im Humanmedizinstudium durch das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Possible reduction of the medical school dropout number by the Hamburg Assessment test for Medicine - part Natural sciences (HAM-Nat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Since 2005 German medical faculties are allowed to select 60% of their freshmen. Nevertheless, many faculties stick to a selection based merely on the grade point average assigned by the secondary school (Abiturnote which is the best known predictor of success in German medical schools. Methods: In order to improve selection with respect to medical school dropout numbers we developed the HAM-Nat (Hamburg Admission test for Medicine - part Natural sciences, a test consisting of 52 multiple-choice questions from the topics of chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics, and assessed its difficulty with pupils of 6 different schools. Then the HAM-Nat was administered to 333 first-year students just before the start of their courses in October 2006. After the first academic year the power of the HAM-Nat to predict individual study success was compared to that of the grade point average. Study success was measured by the number of passed exams. Outcomes: The HAM-Nat was found to correlate better with study success than the grade point average. A projection based on data from older student cohorts shows that student selection with the HAM-Nat can reduce the number of students dropping out compared with a selection based on the grade point average alone. Other parameters like chosen natural science subjects at school or an industrial training in medicine or other areas do not predict academic success. Conclusions: The HAM-Nat is a valuable tool to predict student success at medical school. Based on this study Hamburg’s medical faculty has decided to introduce the HAM-Nat to select its entrants in 2008. [german] Zielsetzung: Seit das Hochschulrahmengesetz 2005 den Hochschulen ermöglicht, 60% der Medizinstudienanfänger selbst auszuwählen, sind die Medizinischen Fakultäten auf der Suche nach dem optimalen Auswahlverfahren. Viele tun sich schwer, ein Auswahlkriterium zu definieren. Noch schwieriger ist es, einen Test für die Auswahl

  15. Unconditionally Stable Low Dropout Regulators for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a low dropout (LDO) regulator using a patented MESFET transistor technology that can be manufactured in commercial CMOS foundries with no changes...

  16. Impact of Dupoto-e-Maa education project on dropout rate and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Ouda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study conducted in the Kajiado Central District of Kenya in 2006 showed that there was a high dropout rate among primary schoolgoing children and that their academic performance was poor. The Dupoto-e-Maa education project was implemented in 2007 to address issues related to drop out rate and academic performance.Objectives: The evaluation therefore investigated the extent to which the project had influenced dropout rate and academic performance in the public primary schools in Kajiado Central District.Method: The evaluation adopted a mixed methods approach: cross-sectional survey and case study designs. The benefit of the approach is the richness of information obtained through triangulation. The respondents included head teachers, school management committees, teachers, pupils, quality assurance and standards officer and project staff. A sample size of 183 respondents was selected using purposive sampling and stratified random sampling procedures. Head teachers of the sampled schools participated as key informants. The instruments of data collection included questionnaires, an interview guide, a document analysis guide, a focus group discussion guide and an observation guide. Results: The findings indicate that the Dupoto-e-Maa education project had influenced dropout rates. The direction of the findings seems to suggest that academic performance trends are unpredictable since fluctuations are evident, though the programme could have encountered some challenges that may have limited its achievement on this variable.Conclusion: The study recommended that there is need to increase the number of non-governmental organisations modelled around the Dupoto-e-Maa education project so as to reduce dropout rate and improve pupil academic performance. The findings could also inform government policy in terms of recruitment and placement of teachers in schools in arid and semi-arid lands. Project funding could be increased

  17. 'He is the one who is providing you with everything so whatever he says is what you do': A Qualitative Study on Factors Affecting Secondary Schoolgirls' Dropout in Rural Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Oruko

    Full Text Available Education is an effective way to improve girls' self-worth, health, and productivity; however there remains a gender gap between girls' and boys' completion of school. The literature around factors influencing girls' decision to stay in school is limited. Seven focus group discussions took place among 79 girls in forms 2 to 4 at secondary schools in rural western Kenya, to examine their views on why girls absent themselves or dropout from school. Data were analysed thematically. Lack of resources, sexual relationships with boyfriends, and menstrual care problems were reported to lead directly to dropout or school absence. These were tied to girls increased vulnerability to pregnancy, poor performance in school, and punishments, which further increase school absence and risk of dropout. Poverty, unmet essential needs, coercive sexual relationships, and an inequitable school environment collude to counter girls' resolve to complete their schooling. Lack of resources drive girls to have sex with boyfriends or men who provide them with essentials their family cannot afford, such as sanitary pads and transport to school. While these improve quality of their school life, this dynamic increases their exposure to sexual risk, pregnancy, punishment, and dropout. Evaluation of interventions to ameliorate these challenges is warranted, including provision of pocket money to address their needs.

  18. Building relationships between school, family and community to enhance students' school persistence and avoid Early School Leaving (ESL)

    OpenAIRE

    Poncelet, Débora; Billa, Jean; Schürnbrand, Carmen; Kerger, Sylvie; Dierendonck, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Dropout is a multidimensional phenomenon, resulting from a combination of personal, family and school factors that interact with each other. The combination of risk factors (or protective factors) is an event or a condition that increase (or reduce) the likelihood of an individual experience of emotional or behavioural problems, that may contribute to school dropout. The decision to stop school education is the result of a long evolutionary process that is characterized by an accumulation of ...

  19. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay

    2017-04-01

    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  20. Demand- and supply-side determinants of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus nonvaccination and dropout in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2017-02-15

    Although 93% of 12- to 23-month-old children in India receive at least one vaccine, typically Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, only 75% complete the recommended three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT, also referred to as DTP) vaccine. Determinants can be different for nonvaccination and dropout but have not been examined in earlier studies. We use the three-dose DPT series as a proxy for the full sequence of recommended childhood vaccines and examine the determinants of DPT nonvaccination and dropout between doses 1 and 3. We analyzed data on 75,728 6- to 23-month-old children in villages across India to study demand- and supply-side factors determining nonvaccination with DPT and dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3, using a multilevel approach. Data come from the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08). Individual- and household-level factors were associated with both DPT nonvaccination and dropout between doses 1 and 3. Children whose mothers had no schooling were 2.3 times more likely not to receive any DPT vaccination and 1.5 times more likely to drop out between DPT doses 1 and 3, compared with children whose mothers had 10 or more years of schooling. Although supply-side factors related to availability of public health facilities and immunization-related health workers in villages were not correlated with dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3, children in districts where 46% or more villages had a healthcare subcentre were 1.5 times more likely to receive at least one dose of DPT vaccine compared with children in districts where 30% or fewer villages had subcentres. Nonvaccination with DPT in India is influenced by village- and district-level contextual factors over and above individuals' background characteristics. Dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3 is associated more strongly with demand-side factors than with village- and district-level supply-side factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  2. DIMENSIONS OF BASIC SCHOOL DROPOUTS IN RURAL GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    world invest heavily in the development of edu- cation because it is .... investment in their children's education in terms of good ..... ness in the students. The fact that the number of candidates passing the promotion examination increased immediately after a drastic fall of. 1,066 from 2001 to 2003 suggest that with time, more ...

  3. A Career School-Within-a-School for Ethnically Diverse, At-Risk High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Jeanne E.; Shorr, Abbe

    1997-01-01

    To counter low test scores, a rising dropout rate, and teacher apathy, a small group of teachers at Hollywood (California) High School developed a career academy, an interdisciplinary school-within-a-school stressing small classes and business speakers. The program recruited interested students and promoted a career theme with good employment…

  4. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop......-out when the amount of DNA was greater than 125 pg for 29 cycles of PCR and greater than 62 pg for 30 cycles of PCR. With the use of a logistic regression model, we estimated the allele specific probability of drop-out in heterozygote systems based on the signal strength of the observed allele...

  5. A Semiparametric Marginalized Model for Longitudinal Data with Informative Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a marginalized joint-modeling approach for marginal inference on the association between longitudinal responses and covariates when longitudinal measurements are subject to informative dropouts. The proposed model is motivated by the idea of linking longitudinal responses and dropout times by latent variables while focusing on marginal inferences. We develop a simple inference procedure based on a series of estimating equations, and the resulting estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal with a sandwich-type covariance matrix ready to be estimated by the usual plug-in rule. The performance of our approach is evaluated through simulations and illustrated with a renal disease data application.

  6. Back-dropout Transfer Learning for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Kanhabua, Nattiya; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    transfer learning being a promising approach, it is still an open question how to adapt the model learned from the source dataset to the target dataset. One big challenge is to prevent the impact of category bias on classification performance. Dataset bias exists when two images from the same category......, but from different datasets, are not classified as the same. To address this problem, we propose a transfer learning algorithm which takes advantage of misclassified images and applies back-dropout strategy to punish errors. We call this Negative Back-dropout Transfer Learning (NB-TL). Experimental results...

  7. Socioeconomic Determinants of Primary School Drop Out: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the socioeconomic determinants of primary school dropout in Uganda with the aid of a logistic model analysis using the 2004 National Service Delivery Survey data. The Objectives were to establish the household socioeconomic factors that influence dropout of pupils given free education ...

  8. Transition from School-Based Training in VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehlen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the drop-out rate among disadvantaged students within vocational education and training. The purpose of this paper is to examine the probability of dropping out after school-based training for child welfare clients--a particularly disadvantaged group of youth. Child welfare clients' drop-out rate is compared with…

  9. Negative Social Experiences and Dropping Out of School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Larocque, Denis; Janosz, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates a prediction model of early withdrawal from school, using a sample of low socio-economic status (SES) boys (n=751), with emphasis on the role of peer-related variables. Reports that power of early disruptiveness and early academic performance predicted dropout; but the effects of these variables depended upon the dropout age. (CMK)

  10. Therapeutic relationship and dropout in youth mental health care with ethnic minority children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, A.M.; Boon, A.E.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Geluk, C.A.M.L.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dropout in youth psychotherapy is high, especially for ethnic minority patients. An important determinant of dropout is the quality of the therapeutic relationship. This study evaluated the association between the therapeutic relationship and dropout in therapy with ethnic minority youth.

  11. Is Drop-Out from University Dependent on National Culture and Policy? The Case of Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelsen, Rie; Laursen, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    National cultures are known to influence educational institutions and practices in many ways. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that drop-out from university is also influenced by differences in national cultures. In this article, we compare drop-out from Danish universities with drop-out from European universities. Based on Danish national…

  12. Closing the Gap: Keeping Students in School. The Achievement Gap: Keeping Students in School. Info Brief. Number 46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The nation's dropout problem has been making national headlines with more and more frequency and more and more urgency. Although certainly not a new problem, the failure to earn a high school diploma is receiving heightened attention because the causes and effects of dropping out have changed significantly. No longer is a dropout simply a young…

  13. Information Management Processes for Extraction of Student Dropout Indicators in Courses in Distance Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Abrantes Baracho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the use of information management processes in order to extract student dropout indicators in distance mode courses. Distance education in Brazil aims to facilitate access to information. The MEC (Ministry of Education announced, in the second semester of 2013, that the main obstacles faced by institutions offering courses in this mode were students dropping out and the resistance of both educators and students to this mode. The research used a mixed methodology, qualitative and quantitative, to obtain student dropout indicators. The factors found and validated in this research were: the lack of interest from students, insufficient training in the use of the virtual learning environment for students, structural problems in the schools that were chosen to offer the course, students without e-mail, incoherent answers to activities to the course, lack of knowledge on the part of the student when using the computer tool. The scenario considered was a course offered in distance mode called Aluno Integrado (Integrated Student

  14. Personal and Social Contributors to Dropout Risk for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how personal characteristics (e.g., loneliness, interpersonal competence) and social characteristics (e.g., marginality) contributed to dropout risk among undergraduate students. The respondents (n=127 undergraduates) completed a questionnaire packet to assess all of the variables. Regression…

  15. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Corpeleijn, E.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Original Article European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 1141–1147; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.74; published online 18 May 2011 Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study C Roumen1, E J M Feskens2, E Corpeleijn1, M Mensink2, W H M Saris1 and E E Blaak1 1Department

  16. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C; Feskens, E J M; Corpeleijn, E; Mensink, M; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 4.1-year (range 3-6 years) lifestyle intervention according to general public health recommendations on glucose tolerance and dropout in a Dutch population with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Study on Lifestyle

  17. Teacher professionalisation and dropout rates in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    in by the teachers, interviews with the teachers, and by the teachers’ written logbooks. The preliminary conclusion is that it is the general attitude in the teacher groups towards the importance of improving retention that is of significance for the documented effects on the drop-out rates....

  18. Access, pass, throughput and dropout rates: Review of a problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access, pass, throughput and dropout rates: Review of a problem-based learning BPharm curriculum at a previously disadvantaged university in South Africa. ... Access, pass and throughput rates, and failure to complete the course, were determined for a cohort of students (n=458). Results. All applications from 1999 to ...

  19. Repeated retention or dropout? Disputing Hobson's choice in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa, like many developing countries, is heavily burdened by high dropout and unemployment rates and an undersupply of skilled workers. Grade retention is a common practice when learners do not meet the specific requirements – especially in countries with limited socio-economic resources. In South Africa, 52% ...

  20. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  1. The Challenge for Career Development: Preventing Special Education Dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Jane A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses characteristics and behavior patterns of students with disabilities who are most likely to drop out. Explores the impact of educational reform's emphasis on academics and on preparing all student with disabilities for employment and independent living, and identifies strategies to overcome the special education dropout problem. (CR)

  2. Comparison of urban and rural dropout rates of distance students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a country, it also has a history of forced location and the withholding of resources, including quality education, from certain rural areas. This study investigates, the effect of urbanisation (of the area in which a student resides) on the dropout rate of distance students in an introductory taxation course. Using Kember's ...

  3. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic dro...

  4. Immunization Dropout Rates in Ihe, Awgu Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunization against childhood diseases is one of the most important ways of preventing childhood morbidity and mortality. Aims: The objective of this study is to review the dropout rates of immunization of children in a health center using a single dose of diphtheria‑pertussis‑tetanus (DPT1) and three doses of ...

  5. Factors Affecting Students' Enrolment and Dropout at The Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identified dropout problems were related to social, personal, financial, academic, students support services and cultural factors. It is recommended that raising ... OUT should upgrade to College level, the Regional centres and decentralize them to District levels with the help from the Government. Females need to be ...

  6. Trend And Causes Of Female Students Dropout From Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the state of female students' enrollment and dismissal rate and major factors that cause them to dropout from the higher learning institutions. Data were collected from the drop out students, instructors, gender officers and guidance and counseling office of the University through questionnaires, interview ...

  7. A retrospective transversal study of enlargement and college dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lidia; Bethencourt Benítez, José Tomás; Miriam GONZÁLEZ AFONSO; Pedro ÁLVAREZ PÉREZ

    2006-01-01

    At present leaving and prolonging studies constitutes a serious problem at the university level. This report pre-sents the results of a retrospective transversal study which purpose was to identify risk factors related with dropout. The methodology design used can be for help

  8. Emotional variables, dropout and academic performance in Spanish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther

    2016-02-01

    The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... (Plasmapause); indicating a combination of electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode waves as the contributing ... density known as the slot (Van-Allen 1959). Elec-.

  10. Drop-out from parenting training programmes: a retrospective study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:Parent training programmes are a well-established treatment approach for children and adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. However, dropout from treatment is a common problem that confounds research on the efficacy of this approach, and wastes important mental health resources. This study ...

  11. Immunization Dropout Rates in Ihe, Awgu Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of them lived in rural China, India, Indonesia or Nigeria.[17]. The dropout rates obtained in this study are very minimal. These low levels can be explained. It is seen that these villagers. Figure 1: A graphical representation of immunization coverage rate over 1 year period. Table 1: Immunization coverage using DPT. Month.

  12. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  13. Predicting dropout in outpatient dialectical behavior therapy with patients with borderline personality disorder receiving psychiatric disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Sara J; Chalker, Samantha A; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2016-01-01

    Rates of treatment dropout in outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in the community can be as high as 24 % to 58 %, making dropout a great concern. The primary purpose of this article was to examine predictors of dropout from DBT in a community mental health setting. Participants were 56 consumers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who were psychiatrically disabled participating in a larger feasibility trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy- Accepting the Challenges of Exiting the System. The following variables were examined to see whether they predicted dropout in DBT: age, education level, baseline level of distress, baseline level of non-acceptance of emotional responses, and skills module in which a consumer started DBT skills group. These variables were chosen based on known predictors of dropout in consumers with BPD and in DBT, as well as an interest in what naturally occurring variables might impact dropout. The dropout rate in this sample was 51.8 %. Results of the logistic regression show that younger age, higher levels of baseline distress, and a higher level of baseline non-acceptance of emotional responses were significantly associated with dropout. The DBT skills module in which an individual started group did not predict dropout. The implications of these findings are that knowledge of consumer age and pretreatment levels of distress and non-acceptance of emotional responses can impact providers' choice of commitment and treatment strategies to reduce dropout. Future research should examine these strategies, as well as the impact of predictor variables on outcome and reasons for dropout.

  14. How states can reduce the dropout rate for undocumented immigrant youth: the effects of in-state resident tuition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnick, Stephanie

    2014-05-01

    As of December 2011, 13 states have adopted an in-state resident tuition (IRT) policy that provides in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants and several other states are considering similar legislation. While previous research focuses on how IRT policies affect college entry and attainment, this study examines the effect these policies have on high school dropout behavior. Using the Current Population Survey (CPS) and difference-in-difference models, this paper examines whether IRT policies reduce the likelihood of dropping out of high school for Mexican foreign-born non-citizens (FBNC), a proxy for undocumented youth. The policy is estimated to cause an eight percentage point reduction in the proportion that drops out of high school. The paper develops an integrated framework that combines human capital theory with segmented assimilation theory to provide insight into how IRT policies influence student motivation and educational attainment at the high school level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. School Security: For Whom and with What Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoss, Timothy J.; Finn, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized school-level data from several combined national databases to address two questions regarding school security policy: (1) What are the school characteristics related to levels of security? (2) How does security relate to school suspension, dropout, and college attendance rates? Among the predictors of school security, having a…

  16. School Plus Home = Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Nancy; Santos, Ricardo Sotelo

    This handbook was developed to serve as a point of reference in identifying potential dropout problems. Included are several crucial recommendations for establishing an effective partnership between home and school that will help children succeed in school. Recommendations focus on preventive action in the classroom and at home. Artwork and…

  17. Physical exercise in treatment of AUDs – a dropout study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    understanding of lived lives of dropouts from The Healthy Lifestyle Study, a qualitative interview study was conducted. Objective: This interview study aims to gain better understanding of and more in depth knowledge about how alcohol patients experience, think and feel about physical exercise when...... they are in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Methods: 15 semi structured interviews conducted with dropout patients from the Healthy Lifestyle Study. An interview guide with a phenomenological approach has been used. The interviews are taped and transcribed. Interpretative reading and systematic coding will be used...... as analytical tools. Results: We are in the process of analyzing, why results will be presented at the conference. Discussion: Patients drop out from intervention studies for several reasons. In this study we will categorize different types of reasons. Furthermore we will gain knowledge about how patients...

  18. Data-driven system to predict academic grades and dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona. PMID:28196078

  19. Back-dropout Transfer Learning for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Kanhabua, Nattiya; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Transfer learning aims at adapting a model learned from source dataset to target dataset. It is a beneficial approach especially when annotating on the target dataset is expensive or infeasible. Transfer learning has demonstrated its powerful learning capabilities in various vision tasks. Despite...... transfer learning being a promising approach, it is still an open question how to adapt the model learned from the source dataset to the target dataset. One big challenge is to prevent the impact of category bias on classification performance. Dataset bias exists when two images from the same category......, but from different datasets, are not classified as the same. To address this problem, we propose a transfer learning algorithm which takes advantage of misclassified images and applies back-dropout strategy to punish errors. We call this Negative Back-dropout Transfer Learning (NB-TL). Experimental results...

  20. A multinomial logit model of college stopout and dropout behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, Leslie Sundt; O'Toole, Dennis M.; James N. Wetzel

    2005-01-01

    Studies of college attrition typically assume that all attrition is permanent. We use data from the 1990/94 Beginning Postsecondary Survey to distinguish between long-term dropout and short-term stopout behavior in order to test that assumption. We find significant differences between those who stop out and those who drop out in the first year. Failure to recognize these differences biases the results of standard attrition models and hence may cause policy makers to pursue inappropriate polic...

  1. Dropout of a multidisciplinary treatment program for women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rehder Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the dropout of a multidisciplinary treatment program in fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: An observational study conducted during the period of April 2000 to December 2005, including 133 women with fibromyalgia, participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Those who had left the treatment for two weeks or more were classified as inactive and contacted by telephone to record the reasons for their noncompliance, which were divided into four groups: 1 Family; 2 Occupations; 3 Medical; 4 Other Reasons. Results: When collecting data, 92 (69.4% women were considered inactive. There was no significant difference between noncompliance before and after six months of treatment. Of the total number of inactive women, 54 (40.8% participants left for medical reasons, 30 (22.6% for other reasons, 26 (19.4% for family reasons and 23 (17.2% due to occupation. There was no statistical difference between the motives of dropout according to the length of stay in the program (p> 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that the multidisciplinary program for women with fibromyalgia had high levels of noncompliance, half of them occurred in the first six months. Among the main reasons reported for dropout, the medical reasons were more frequent.

  2. The Cohort Report: Four-Year Results for the Class of 1990 and Follow-Ups of the Classes of 1987, 1988, and 1989, and The 1989-90 Annual Dropout Rate. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampert, Richard D.; And Others

    In 1986, the New York City Public Schools adopted a cohort methodology for determining dropout and graduation rates. The Class of 1990 was the primary cohort studied in this report; it was the fifth cohort to be studied for at least 4 years using this methodology. Follow-ups are reported for three preceding classes. The 1990 cohort, who entered…

  3. A Five-Year Follow-Up on the Role of Educational Support in Preventing Dropout From Upper Secondary Education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Airi M; Holopainen, Leena K; Savolainen, Hannu K

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the role of word reading and mathematical difficulties measured in 9th grade as factors for receiving educational support for learning in upper secondary education in Grades 10 to 12 (from ages 16 to 19) and furthermore as predictors of dropout from upper secondary education within 5 years after compulsory education. In addition, we studied the role of school achievement in Grades 9 and 11 in this prediction. The participants of this study were members of one age group of 16-year-old ninth graders (N = 595, females 302, males 293) in a midsized Finnish city, who were followed for 5 years after completing compulsory education. The path model results, where the effects of gender, educational track, and SES were controlled, showed, first, that students with academic learning difficulties received educational support for learning particularly in the 11th grade. Second, academic learning difficulties directly affected school achievement in the 9th grade, but no longer in the 11th grade. Third, mathematical difficulties directly predicted dropout from upper secondary education, and difficulties in both word reading and mathematics had an indirect effect through school achievement in Grades 9 and 11 on dropout. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  4. Self-Control Themes in the Reflective Writings of At-Risk High School Students' as Indicators of Post-Prevention Behavioral and Academic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, David

    2017-01-01

    In 2010-2011, urban high schools across New Jersey reported suspension rates that ranged between 10 and 20%. This rate translated into increased dropout rates and low graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influenced suspension rates, dropout rates and graduation rates of an urban New Jersey high school. More…

  5. Recruitment and Retention in an Alcohol Prevention Program at Two Inner-City Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Deborah M.; Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined student recruitment into an alcohol prevention program within neighborhood and magnet inner-city middle schools, noting student retention through one-month posttest and one-year followup. At one month, dropouts were more at risk for alcohol use initiation than nondropouts. At one year, dropouts were more likely to initiate alcohol and…

  6. Learners' retention: A case of two primary schools in East London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... framework for teacher knowledge that upholds the relationship between the two main components of a learning environment: retaining and learner dropout. The data is systematically categorized and analysed thematically. Keywords: Learner Retention, Gross Enrolment Ratio, School Drop-Out, East London, South Africa ...

  7. Meaningful Education for Returning-to-School Students in a Comprehensive Upper Secondary School in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir; Bjarnadóttir, Valgerður S.

    2016-01-01

    Dropout from upper secondary education in Iceland is higher than in the neighboring countries, but varied options to re-enter school have also been on offer. This article focuses on how students, who had returned to a selected upper secondary school after having quit in one or more other schools, benefited from an innovative pedagogical approach…

  8. Student progression in upper secondary education: The effect of academic ability, gender, and schools

    OpenAIRE

    Torberg Falch; Bjarne Stroem

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how students’ prior academic ability, gender, and family background affect performance in upper secondary schools in terms of lack of progression and dropout probability. The link between dropout and lack of progression in post-compulsory schooling is important as graduating from upper secondary school is a prerequisite to attend universities and other higher education institutions. Using an extremely rich data set from Norway covering all students starting upper secondary ...

  9. Teachers' Opinions of Student Dropout from Formal Music Education Centres of the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…

  10. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  11. Meta-Analyses of Ethnic Match as a Predictor of Dropout, Utilization, and Level of Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Gloria Gia; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    2002-01-01

    Meta-analyses were performed on seven studies of ethnic match and psychotherapy. Results reveal a small dropout and utilization effect sizes, indicating that ethnic match is not a significant clinical predictor of decreasing dropout after the first session or increasing number of sessions attended. (Contains references and tables.) (GCP)

  12. Factors associated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: a comprehensive literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomba Elena

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dropout (DO is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009 were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient and from 29% to 73% (outpatient. Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness are related to dropout. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.

  13. Factors associated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Pierò, Andrea; Tomba, Elena; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni

    2009-10-09

    Dropout (DO) is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs), but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009) were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient) and from 29% to 73% (outpatient). Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity) and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness) are related to dropout. Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others) as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.

  14. Treatment Dropout in Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Patients with Eating Disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.D.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment dropout is an important concern in eating disorder treatments as it has negative implications for patients’ outcome, clinicians’ motivation, and research studies. Our main objective was to conduct an exploratory study on treatment dropout in a two-part web-based cognitive behavioral

  15. Treatment dropout in web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Treatment dropout is an important concern in eating disorder treatments as it has negative implications for patients' outcome, clinicians’ motivation, and research studies. Our main objective was to conduct an exploratory study on treatment dropout in a two-part web-based cognitive behavioral

  16. A Systematic Review of Dropout from Organized Sport among Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jeff; Temple, Viviene

    2015-01-01

    Leisure constraints theory was used as a framework to systematically review factors associated with dropout of organized sport among children and adolescents. Keyword searches for the population, context and construct of interest (i.e. dropout) identified articles from the entire contents of the following databases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC,…

  17. Investigating the Impact of Financial Aid on Student Dropout Risks: Racial and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in college student dropout behavior among racial/ethnic groups. We employ event history methods and data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) and National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) surveys to investigate how financial aid may differentially influence dropout risks among these student…

  18. A PILOT PROJECT TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM OF OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING FOR SCHOOL ALIENATED YOUTH. INTERIM REPORT AND STATISTICAL EVALUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    A TOTAL OF 272 SCHOOL ALIENATED YOUTH--DROPOUTS AND POTENTIAL DROPOUTS--WERE SERVED BY THE CENTER BETWEEN NOVEMBER 1965 AND JUNE 1967 IN THE FOLLOWING VOCATIONAL AREAS--AUTOMOTIVE SERVICES, CHILD CARE, FOOD SERVICES, HEALTH SERVICES, RETAILING SERVICES, OFFICE OPERATIONS, MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR, AND LANDSCAPING AND…

  19. Longitudinal drop-out and weighting against its bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steffen C E; Woll, Alexander

    2017-12-08

    The bias caused by drop-out is an important factor in large population-based epidemiological studies. Many studies account for it by weighting their longitudinal data, but to date there is no detailed final approach for how to conduct these weights. In this study we describe the observed longitudinal bias and a three-step longitudinal weighting approach used for the longitudinal data in the MoMo baseline (N = 4528, 4-17 years) and wave 1 study with 2807 (62%) participants between 2003 and 2012. The most meaningful drop-out predictors were socioeconomic status of the household, socioeconomic characteristics of the mother and daily TV usage. Weighting reduced the bias between the longitudinal participants and the baseline sample, and also increased variance by 5% to 35% with a final weighting efficiency of 41.67%. We conclude that a weighting procedure is important to reduce longitudinal bias in health-oriented epidemiological studies and suggest identifying the most influencing variables in the first step, then use logistic regression modeling to calculate the inverse of the probability of participation in the second step, and finally trim and standardize the weights in the third step.

  20. Program specific admission testing and dropout for sports science students: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Vonsild, Maria Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that program specific admission testing could have a protective effect against early dropout. Little is known about the effect of program specific admission testing on dropout in other areas of higher education. The aim of this paper was to examine if......-based admission. This result may fit with elements of previous dropout theory, student-environment fit theory and perhaps also with self-efficacy theory....... was multivariate logistic regression and predictors examined were: admission group (grade-based or admission tested) as well as educational and socio-demographic variables. The outcome was dropout within 2 years of study start. Admission testing offered superior protection against dropout compared to grade...

  1. The analysis of longitudinal quality of life measures with informative drop-out : A pattern mixture approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.J.; Buijs, C.; Stolk, R.P.; de Vries, E.G.E.; le Cessie, S.

    The analysis of longitudinal health-related quality of life measures (HRQOL) can be seriously hampered due to informative drop-out. Random effects models assume Missing At Random and do not take into account informative drop-out. We therefore aim to correct the bias due to informative drop-out.

  2. Dropout is a problem in lifestyle intervention programs for overweight and obese infertile women : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Mol, B. W.; Land, J. A.; Hoek, A.

    What are the dropout rates in lifestyle intervention programs (LIPs) for overweight and obese infertile women and can intervention- or patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout be identified in these women? The median dropout rate was 24 in overweight and obese infertile women who

  3. Cassin Educational Initiative Foundation Funds Model Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Describes an educational foundation that offers financial support to those wishing to institute a San Miguel/Nativity or Cristo Rey model school. Reports that these schools must strive to reduce dropout rates, increase number of students prepared for college, and increase number of students receiving Catholic education. (NB)

  4. School Quality Signals and Attendance in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes school dropout in rural Guatemala using event history data and unusually detailed data on schools and teachers. Significant results for language of instruction, teacher education and fighting between students demonstrate the importance of accounting for school context influences on an outcome that has, historically, been…

  5. Prevalence of refractive errors in pre-school and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment due to refractive errors in pre-school and school children aged 5 to 15 years in two .... assessment of causes of blindness were carried out in the Southwestern part of the ... already considerable early school dropouts (8). Therefore, we strongly believe that the.

  6. Asthma Status and Severity Affects Missed School Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz A.; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry; Castro, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Excessive school absence disrupts learning and is a strong predictor of premature school dropout. School-aged children with asthma are absent more often compared to their healthy peers without asthma; yet, the causes are inadequately documented. We sought to determine the difference in mean absence days between children with and without asthma,…

  7. Creating sustainable learning environments in schools by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many schools in South Africa are dysfunctional, or at least do not function optimally. This statement could be substantiated by just citing statistics about failure rates, school dropout rates, school violence, matric pass rates, learner absenteeism, educator absenteeism or the incidence of discipline problems and the effect ...

  8. Transforming an Urban School System: Progress of New Haven School Change and New Haven Promise Education Reforms (2010-2013). Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Daugherty, Lindsay; Scherer, Ethan; Singh, Reema; Suárez, Mónica Jacobo; Ryan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…

  9. Transforming an Urban School System: Progress of New Haven School Change and New Haven Promise Education Reforms (2010-2013). Technical Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ethan; Ryan, Sarah; Daugherty, Lindsay; Schweig, Jonathan David; Bozick, Robert; Gonzalez, Gabriella C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…

  10. [Differential aspects of treatment dropout risk in cocaine dependent patients with and without personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, José Miguel; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Lozano-Rojas, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between psychosocial adjustment, impulsivity and comorbid Axis II psychopathology, and the risk of treatment dropout in cocaine dependent patients. The sample consisted of 95 cocaine dependent participants, 53.7% of whom had been diagnosed with Axis II personality disorders. We utilised a descriptive methodology, which allowed us to examine correlations between the different variables, group differences in these variables, and their ability to predict different dimensions associated with the risk of dropout. Results show that the risk of dropout during the first two months of treatment is not associated with the existence of comorbid personality disorders. With regard to the cognitive profiles of personality disorders, we show that the antisocial profile is associated with higher risk of dropout. The profile of patients at higher risk of treatment dropout is characterised by lower levels of perceived quality of life and elevated levels of impulsivity, especially the experience of strong impulses under positive affect. Therefore, the presence of psychological dimensions tightly associated with emotions, affects and subjective feelings are the more relevant to estimate the risk of treatment dropout in cocaine dependent patients. This study stresses the variables that need to be specifically addressed during early phases of cocaine addiction treatment, since they are associated with higher risk of treatment dropout.

  11. An Imputation Model for Dropouts in Unemployment Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Petra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete unemployment data is a fundamental problem when evaluating labour market policies in several countries. Many unemployment spells end for unknown reasons; in the Swedish Public Employment Service’s register as many as 20 percent. This leads to an ambiguity regarding destination states (employment, unemployment, retired, etc.. According to complete combined administrative data, the employment rate among dropouts was close to 50 for the years 1992 to 2006, but from 2007 the employment rate has dropped to 40 or less. This article explores an imputation approach. We investigate imputation models estimated both on survey data from 2005/2006 and on complete combined administrative data from 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. The models are evaluated in terms of their ability to make correct predictions. The models have relatively high predictive power.

  12. Student engagement in two Singaporean secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yuen Teng

    2016-01-01

    Student engagement is important to prevent school dropout and enhance school experiences. Engagement of secondary 2 and 3 students in Singapore was studied with Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) and its relation to burnout. The SEI measured students’ cognitive and affective engagement while burnout was examined using School Burnout Inventory (SBI). An electronic survey was administered to 335 students from two secondary schools. The engagement and burnout across grades, streams, gender, aca...

  13. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  14. Predicting Dropout from Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder Using Pre-treatment Characteristics: A Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Maartje S; Wiersma, Femke E; Lammers, Mirjam W; Noorthoorn, Eric O

    2016-11-01

    Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An exploratory logistic regression was performed using eating disorder variables, general psychopathology, personality and demographics to identify predictors of dropout. Binge eating pathology, preoccupations with eating, shape and weight, social adjustment, agreeableness, and social embedding appeared to be significant predictors of dropout. Also, education showed an association to dropout. This is one of the first studies investigating pre-treatment predictors for dropout in BED treatment. The total explained variance of the prediction model was low, yet the model correctly classified 80.6% of cases, which is comparable to other dropout studies in eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF MALADJUSTMENT AT SCHOOL IN GTASKS OF CONTEMPORARY ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARANFIL Narcisa Gianina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the challenges which face contemporary adolescents in their schooling trajectory. For the last decades, have been observed in many countries several undesirable phenomena, such as decrease in school of motivation among un¬dergraduates, academic underachievement, school failure, and early school dropout. A wide range of factors accounts for these phenomena. Knowing and understanding the complexity of academic underachievement, school failure, and school dropout is one of the most important strategic tasks for professionals working in education.

  16. An Investigation of the Relationship among Wellness, Perceived Stress, Mattering, and At-Risk Status for Dropping out of High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Jan Cummins

    2010-01-01

    High school dropout continues to be an issue of national concern, and the inability of educators and researchers to find means of effectively reducing the dropout rate may be grounded in their approach to understanding this issue. Because there is limited prior research in addressing wellness, perceived stress, and mattering in relationship to…

  17. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  19. CBC in Rural Schools: Preliminary Results of a Randomized Trial. CYFS Working Paper 2013-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Holmes, Shannon R.; Coutts, Michael J.; Smith, Tyler E.; Kunz, Gina M.; Witte, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit disruptive behavior often do so across multiple settings (e.g., home and school) and are vulnerable to many negative outcomes, including low achievement scores and academic grades, high school dropout, and increased school suspensions. Family-school partnership interventions, which are grounded in ecological theory, are highly…

  20. Promoting Gypsy Children's Behavioural Engagement and School Success: Evidence from a Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Vallejo, Guillermo; Azevedo, Raquel; Pereira, Raquel; Moreira, Tânia; Fuentes, Sonia; Valle, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Low schooling, high non-attendance and school dropout rates are critical phenomena within disadvantaged groups, especially among the Gypsy community. For example, in the UK, 10%-25% of Gypsy children do not attend school regularly and have significantly higher levels of overall absence from school (percentage of half-day sessions missed) than…

  1. Prediction of Student Dropout in E-Learning Program Through the Use of Machine Learning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Tan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of dropout is a serious problem in E-learning program. Thus it has received extensive concern from the education administrators and researchers. Predicting the potential dropout students is a workable solution to prevent dropout. Based on the analysis of related literature, this study selected student’s personal characteristic and academic performance as input attributions. Prediction models were developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Decision Tree (DT and Bayesian Networks (BNs. A large sample of 62375 students was utilized in the procedures of model training and testing. The results of each model were presented in confusion matrix, and analyzed by calculating the rates of accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. The results suggested all of the three machine learning methods were effective in student dropout prediction, and DT presented a better performance. Finally, some suggestions were made for considerable future research.

  2. "Who am I supposed to let down?" The caring work and emotional labor of vocational teachers working with potential drop-out students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena

    Because of high drop-out rates among the students entering vocational education in Denmark retention of students has become pivotal to the Danish educational policy. Thus vocational educational training colleges have been asked to work on implementing different kinds of retention initiatives...... and amongst others most colleges have established extended basic courses aimed at students with personal, social and/or academic difficulties. A lot of those students are young people, whom, due to their experiences in primary and secondary school, see themselves and are seen by others as being demotivated...

  3. No-shows, drop-outs and completers in psychotherapeutic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2011-01-01

    A primary challenge in mental health services is a high rate of non-attendance (i.e. no-show and drop-out) for patients referred to treatment for psychiatric disorders.......A primary challenge in mental health services is a high rate of non-attendance (i.e. no-show and drop-out) for patients referred to treatment for psychiatric disorders....

  4. Reducing dropout among traumatized alcohol patients in detoxification treatment : A pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dropout rates from detoxification treatment are high. We tested whether high trauma event load was related to a higher dropout from alcohol detoxification. Furthermore, we studied the feasibility and effects of a short psychoeducational tool to increase retention among traumatized alcohol in-patients. Retention and treatment length were compared between treatment as usual (TAU) and standard therapy plus a psychoeducational group intervention on alcohol drinking related to stress and trauma (P...

  5. Bayesian informative dropout model for longitudinal binary data with random effects using conditional and joint modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jennifer S K

    2016-05-01

    Dropouts are common in longitudinal study. If the dropout probability depends on the missing observations at or after dropout, this type of dropout is called informative (or nonignorable) dropout (ID). Failure to accommodate such dropout mechanism into the model will bias the parameter estimates. We propose a conditional autoregressive model for longitudinal binary data with an ID model such that the probabilities of positive outcomes as well as the drop-out indicator in each occasion are logit linear in some covariates and outcomes. This model adopting a marginal model for outcomes and a conditional model for dropouts is called a selection model. To allow for the heterogeneity and clustering effects, the outcome model is extended to incorporate mixture and random effects. Lastly, the model is further extended to a novel model that models the outcome and dropout jointly such that their dependency is formulated through an odds ratio function. Parameters are estimated by a Bayesian approach implemented using the user-friendly Bayesian software WinBUGS. A methadone clinic dataset is analyzed to illustrate the proposed models. Result shows that the treatment time effect is still significant but weaker after allowing for an ID process in the data. Finally the effect of drop-out on parameter estimates is evaluated through simulation studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. PROXIMAL AND DISTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DROPOUT VERSUS MAINTAINED PARTICIPATION IN ORGANIZED SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C.S. Boiché

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate a large number of determinants of sport dropout among French adolescents, in order to reveal proximal and distal factors of dropout. 261 current and 106 dropout athletes (M = 14.6 participated to the study. The data were collected by a questionnaire assessing demographic information, athletes' perceptions on their experience, their parents, teammates and coach. t-tests revealed that current and former athletes were distinct on numerous variables. A discriminant function analysis showed three proximal predictors of sport dropout (perceived value of the activity, satisfaction, parents' investment. Subsequent regression analyses showed that perceived value was positively predicted by perceived competence, the value of the activity for teammates, coach's investment, and negatively by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates; satisfaction was positively predicted by the coach's mastery climate, but negatively predicted by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates and with the coach; parents investment was negatively predicted by the goal conflicts with them. This study permitted to discriminate between proximal and more distal psychological antecedents of the dropout behaviour. It brings information relative to the possible targets of interventions aiming at preventing dropout from organized sport

  7. Predictors of drop-out in an Internet study of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Ross, Michael W

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have suggested the rising use of Internet to look for sexual partners is an important contributor to the resurgence in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM). Web-based samples of this population reflect good geographical diversity for research, but a high drop-out rate creates a significant potential for bias, misrepresentation of population, and misinterpretation of data. This study aims to describe the demographics of an Internet sample of MSM and the differences between the completers and drop-outs. We analyzed data obtained from a cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire for males, 18 years or older, who were current U.S. residents, and who had sex with men. Of 850 eligible participants, 404 (47.5%) were labeled as drop-outs. The completers and drop-outs differed significantly in age, education, country of birth, health insurance, time spent on Internet, location of computer access, types of sites visited, profile information, last homosexual experience, methods used to determine safety of partners, and type of sexual activities on real meets. Almost half of the participants dropped out before completion. Although the two groups did not differ in many of the items, high drop-out rates are a threat to the validity of such data. Drop-out constitutes a significant bias in Internet sexuality research and must be considered while interpreting the results of such studies.

  8. Therapist effects on dropout from a college counseling center practice research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Henry; Castonguay, Louis G; Janis, Rebecca A; Youn, Soo Jeong; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D

    2017-07-01

    Dropout has been a pervasive and costly problem in psychotherapy, particularly for college counseling centers. The present study examined potential predictors of dropout using a large data set (N = 10,147 clients, 481 therapists) that was gathered through a college counseling center practice research network as a replication and extension of recent findings regarding therapist effects on dropout. The final model resulted in a dropout rate of 15.9% and a therapist effect of 9.51% on dropout variance. Therapist demographic variables were investigated, though none were found to be significant. Variables found to be predictive of increased likelihood of dropping out included higher levels of general presenting concerns, alcohol-related distress, and current financial stress. Ultimately, this study showed that therapists may play an important role in the likelihood of client dropout, and that additional research should be conducted to identify additional predictors, particularly at the therapist and center level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Baseline Motivation Type as a Predictor of Dropout in a Healthy Eating Text Messaging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coa, Kisha; Patrick, Heather

    2016-09-29

    Growing evidence suggests that text messaging programs are effective in facilitating health behavior change. However, high dropout rates limit the potential effectiveness of these programs. This paper describes patterns of early dropout in the HealthyYou text (HYTxt) program, with a focus on the impact of baseline motivation quality on dropout, as characterized by Self-Determination Theory (SDT). This analysis included 193 users of HYTxt, a diet and physical activity text messaging intervention developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Descriptive statistics were computed, and logistic regression models were run to examine the association between baseline motivation type and early program dropout. Overall, 43.0% (83/193) of users dropped out of the program; of these, 65.1% (54/83; 28.0% of all users) did so within the first 2 weeks. Users with higher autonomous motivation had significantly lower odds of dropping out within the first 2 weeks. A one unit increase in autonomous motivation was associated with lower odds (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.81) of early dropout, which persisted after adjusting for level of controlled motivation. Applying SDT-based strategies to enhance autonomous motivation might reduce early dropout rates, which can improve program exposure and effectiveness.

  10. Student-Teacher Relationships As a Protective Factor for School Adjustment during the Transition from Middle to High School

    OpenAIRE

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura E.; Marengo, Davide; Settanni, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified school transitions during adolescence, and in particular the transition from middle to high school, as one of the riskiest phases for school failure, being characterized by significant social, emotional and behavioral changes. This transition is critical even with respect to academic achievement: in Italy, the highest frequency of school dropout can be observed in the 9th and 10th grades, partly as a consequence of poor adjustment to the new school con...

  11. [Prediction and Prevention of Dropouts in Vocational Retraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, R

    2016-06-01

    Principal objective: To verify if a psychological intervention targeting individuals with high resignation tendency prevents dropouts in vocational retraining. For individuals with high resignation tendency a high risk of dropping out was assumed under regular conditions. Data was collected at 2 adult education institutes. At the beginning of vocational training the occupational inventory Work-related Behaviour and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used. The questionnaire allows to classify 4 types of coping behaviour. G: healthy-ambitious, S: unambitious, A: excessively ambitious, B: resigned. Using a quasi-experimental design, the effect of resilience building was verified by comparing a treatment group with a control group. Control group was offered the usual treatment of the education institute. The treatment group was additionally offered two individual meetings and a work-related group treatment focussing on coping behaviour. Given a very high resignation tendency in both groups, dropping out of rehabilitation was less frequent in the treatment group. Other individuals tended to drop out more frequently, but this is not statistically significant. The study shows that work-related resilience building helps to minimize risk of dropping out of vocational rehabilitation in the case of extremely resigned coping behaviour. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Bariatric surgery insurance requirements independently predict surgery dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kaitlin M; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Safavian, Dana; Schirmer, Bruce; Malin, Steven K; Hallowell, Peter T; Kirby, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    Many insurance companies have considerable prebariatric surgery requirements despite a lack of evidence for improved clinical outcomes. The hypothesis of this study is that insurance-specific requirements will be associated with a decreased progression to surgery and increased delay in time to surgery. Retrospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing bariatric surgery evaluation from 2010-2015. Patients who underwent surgery (SGY; n = 827; mean body mass index [BMI] 49.1) were compared with those who did not (no-SGY; n = 648; mean BMI: 49.4). Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify specific co-morbidity and insurance specific predictors of surgical dropout and time to surgery. A total of 1475 patients using 12 major insurance payors were included. Univariate analysis found insurance requirements associated with surgical drop out included longer median diet duration (no-SGY = 6 mo; SGY = 3 mo; Prequirement (odds ratio [OR] .88, Prequirements were associated with lack of patient progression to surgery in this study. In addition, delays in surgery were associated with preoperative weight gain. Although prospective and multicenter studies are needed, these findings have major policy implications suggesting insurance requirements may need to be reconsidered to improve medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Musings in the Wake of Columbine: What Can Schools Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne; Oshiyama, Libby

    2000-01-01

    As suggested by standard indicators--truancy, dropout rates, graffiti, vandalism, violence--youngsters in small schools rarely display the anger at the institution and its inhabitants that typifies Columbine and many other comprehensive high schools. Educators must cultivate learning communities and qualities (like empathy and compassion)…

  14. Stricter Standards Passed for State High School Diploma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The New Jersey State Board of Education General Educational Development Test requirements are outlined; stricter regulations are to ensure that school districts meet student needs. The state board resolution to study high school student dropout causes is discussed, as recommended by the New Jersey Education Association. (CM)

  15. Understanding Why Students Drop Out of High School, According to Their Own Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jacob Doll

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on school dropout extends from early 20th-century pioneers until now, marking trends of causes and prevention. However, specific dropout causes reported by students from several nationally representative studies have never been examined together, which, if done, could lead to a better understanding of the dropout problem. Push, pull, and falling out factors provide a framework for understanding dropouts. Push factors include school-consequence on attendance or discipline. Pull factors include out-of-school enticements like jobs and family. Finally, falling out factors refer to disengagement in students not caused by school or outside pulling factors. Since 1966, most nationally representative studies depicted pull factors as ranking the highest. Also, administrators in one study corroborated pull out factors for younger dropouts, not older ones, while most recent research cites push factors as highest overall. One rationale for this change is a response to rising standards from No Child Left Behind (NCLB, which can be ultimately tested only by future dropout research.

  16. The Relationship between Correlates of Effective Schools and Social Emotional Learning within Single Gender Schools Serving Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Curt R.

    2013-01-01

    Urban school districts throughout the United States are creating single gender classrooms or schools to improve student achievements for their lowest performing subgroups (Noguera, 2009). It is hoped that separating the sexes will improve domains such as discipline, attendance and academic performance, while decreasing the dropout rate. If single…

  17. Creating Safer and More Nurturing Schools: Expanding the Capacity of Schools in the Era of Future National Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tammy L.; Fenning, Pamela A.; Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Reddy, Linda A.

    2017-01-01

    Positive academic performance is a strong indicator of subsequent positive life course outcomes (e.g., employment) as well as underrepresentation in psychiatric populations, drug use, school dropout, and subsequent legal trouble (A. Farn & J. Adams, 2016). As such, helping all children to be successful in school is a top priority for parents,…

  18. Enhanced low-template DNA analysis conditions and investigation of allele dropout patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Dufva, Charlotte; Ansell, Ricky; Mostad, Petter; Hedman, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Forensic DNA analysis applying PCR enables profiling of minute biological samples. Enhanced analysis conditions can be applied to further push the limit of detection, coming with the risk of visualising artefacts and allele imbalances. We have evaluated the consecutive increase of PCR cycles from 30 to 35 to investigate the limitations of low-template (LT) DNA analysis, applying the short tandem repeat (STR) analysis kit PowerPlex ESX 16. Mock crime scene DNA extracts of four different quantities (from around 8-84 pg) were tested. All PCR products were analysed using 5, 10 and 20 capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection seconds. Bayesian models describing allele dropout patterns, allele peak heights and heterozygote balance were developed to assess the overall improvements in EPG quality with altered PCR/CE settings. The models were also used to evaluate the impact of amplicon length, STR marker and fluorescent label on the risk for allele dropout. The allele dropout probability decreased for each PCR cycle increment from 30 to 33 PCR cycles. Irrespective of DNA amount, the dropout probability was not affected by further increasing the number of PCR cycles. For the 42 and 84 pg samples, mainly complete DNA profiles were generated applying 32 PCR cycles. For the 8 and 17 pg samples, the allele dropouts decreased from 100% using 30 cycles to about 75% and 20%, respectively. The results for 33, 34 and 35 PCR cycles indicated that heterozygote balance and stutter ratio were mainly affected by DNA amount, and not directly by PCR cycle number and CE injection settings. We found 32 and 33 PCR cycles with 10 CE injection seconds to be optimal, as 34 and 35 PCR cycles did not improve allele detection and also included CE saturation problems. We find allele dropout probability differences between several STR markers. Markers labelled with the fluorescent dyes CXR-ET (red in electropherogram) and TMR-ET (shown as black) generally have higher dropout risks compared with those

  19. Modeling the Magnetopause Shadowing Loss during the October 2012 Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    The relativistic electron flux in Earth's outer radiation belt are observed to drop by orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hours, which is called radiation belt dropouts. Where do the electrons go during the dropouts? This is one of the most important outstanding questions in radiation belt studies. Radiation belt electrons can be lost either by precipitation into the atmosphere or by transport across the magnetopause into interplanetary space. The latter mechanism is called magnetopause shadowing, usually combined with outward radial diffusion of electrons due to the sharp radial gradient it creates. In order to quantify the relative contribution of these two mechanisms to radiation belt dropout, we performed an event study on the October 2012 dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes. First, the precipitating MeV electrons observed by multiple NOAA POES satellites at low altitude did not show evidence of enhanced precipitation during the dropout, which suggested that precipitation was not the dominant loss mechanism for the event. Then, in order to simulate the magnetopause shadowing loss and outward radial diffusion during the dropout, we applied a radial diffusion model with electron lifetimes on the order of electron drift periods outside the last closed drift shell. In addition, realistic and event-specific inputs of radial diffusion coefficients (DLL) and last closed drift shell (LCDS) were implemented in the model. Specifically, we used the new DLL developed by Cunningham [JGR 2016] which were estimated in realistic TS04 [Tsyganenko and Sitnov, JGR 2005] storm time magnetic field model and included physical K (2nd adiabatic invariant) or pitch angle dependence. Event-specific LCDS traced in TS04 model with realistic K dependence was also implemented. Our simulation results showed that these event-specific inputs are critical to explain the electron dropout during the event. The new DLL greatly improved the model performance at low L* regions (L*<3

  20. Predictive Influence of Factors Predisposing Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive Influence of Factors Predisposing Secondary School Adolescents Dropouts to Sexual Risk Behaviour in Ogun State. ... Parent/peer approval of condom use (r = .114; p> .05), , attitude about personal use of condoms (r = .638; p>.05), gender (r = .555; p>.05). However, there is negative correlation between ...

  1. Alternative High School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Many educators across the nation are struggling to teach and inspire students who are susceptible to school drop-out. These specific students are commonly dealing with poor parental involvement, low socioeconomic status, substance abuse issues, teenage pregnancy, behavioral infractions, and/ or mental health issues, which can affect them socially,…

  2. Burnout Factories: The Challenge of Retaining Great Teachers in Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In its well-intentioned effort to create alternatives to public school dropout factories, the charter school sector has created teacher burnout factories. But it does not have to be this way. Charter schools can continue to maintain high standards while creating a more sustainable work environment for teachers. This article examines the teacher…

  3. It Takes a Native Community: Educators Reform Schools in an Era of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The problems many Indian children experience in schools-- low academic achievement, absenteeism, high drop-out rates-- cannot be solved by any one individual. Instead, it requires action by the entire school system and, especially, greater leadership by Indians themselves. Tribes must become partners in the process of school reform and become…

  4. Mexican Students' Identities in Their Language Use at a U.S. High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Micah

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the Mexican population in the U.S. Midwest has also been reflected in the public school population. Mexican students face many hardships in school such as language difficulties and cultural issues. Due to these hardships, their dropout rate from school is high and their attendance of postsecondary institutions is low. Using critical…

  5. Stereotype confirmation concerns predict dropout from cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne; Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-08-19

    There are high attrition rates observed in efficacy studies for social anxiety disorder, and research has not identified consistent nor theoretically meaningful predictors of dropout. Pre-treatment symptom severity and demographic factors, such as age and gender, are sometimes predictive of dropout. The current study examines a theoretically meaningful predictor of attrition based on experiences associated with social group membership rather than differences between social group categories--fear of confirming stereotypes. This is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing two cognitive behavioral treatments for social anxiety disorder: virtual reality exposure therapy and exposure group therapy. Participants (N = 74) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who were eligible to participate in the parent study and who self-identified as either "African American" (n = 31) or "Caucasian" (n = 43) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns (SCC) and social anxiety symptoms as part of a pre-treatment assessment battery. Hierarchical logistic regression showed that greater stereotype confirmation concerns were associated with higher dropout from therapy--race, age, gender, and pre-treatment symptom severity were not. Group treatment also was associated with higher dropout. These findings urge further research on theoretically meaningful predictors of attrition and highlight the importance of addressing cultural variables, such as the experience of stereotype confirmation concerns, during treatment of social anxiety to minimize dropout from therapy.

  6. Modeling and Output Feedback Control of Networked Control Systems with Both Time Delays; and Packet Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of modeling and output feedback controller design for a class of discrete-time networked control systems (NCSs with time delays and packet dropouts. A Markovian jumping method is proposed to deal with random time delays and packet dropouts. Different from the previous studies on the issue, the characteristics of networked communication delays and packet dropouts can be truly reflected by the unified model; namely, both sensor-to-controller (S-C and controller-to-actuator (C-A time delays, and packet dropouts are modeled and their history behavior is described by multiple Markov chains. The resulting closed-loop system is described by a new Markovian jump linear system (MJLS with Markov delays model. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI method, sufficient conditions of the stochastic stability and output feedback controller design method for NCSs with random time delays and packet dropouts are presented. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Gender, Success, and Drop-Out during a Resistance Exercise Program in Community Dwelling Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Geirsdottir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Resistance exercise training can be effective against sarcopenia. We identified predictors of drop-out and compared physical outcomes between men and women after such training. Methods. Subjects (N=236, 73.7±5.7 years participated in a 12-week resistance exercise program. Outcome variables were measured at baseline and endpoint. Results. Drop-out was 11.9% and not significantly different between genders. Drop-outs were significantly older and had poorer strength and physical function in comparison to completers. Anthropometrics, QoL, and cognitive function were not related to drop-out. According to multivariate analysis, gait speed and physical activity were the strongest predictors of drop-out. After the training, gains in lean mass or appendicular muscle were significantly higher in men than women; however relative gains in appendicular muscle as well as absolute improvements in strength and function were similar in men and women, respectively. Conclusions. Participants who drop out are older, have poorer physical function, and are less physically active. Old women do not drop out more frequently than men and show meaningful improvements in relevant outcomes similar to men after such a training program. The trial is registered at the US National Library of Medicine (NCT01074879.

  8. Los Angeles Tries Luring Back Dropouts via Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that education leaders in Los Angeles, faced with unrelenting pressure to raise anemic high school graduation rates, are turning to YouTube, MySpace, text messaging, and the radio waves to reach students at risk of dropping out of school and lure back thousands who have already left. The Los Angeles Unified School…

  9. School truancy among Turkish high school students: A test of General Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Solakoglu; Ugur Orak

    2016-01-01

    School absenteeism is a complicated problem with a variety of causes. It has been shown to be one of the main predictors of school drop-outs as well as leading to delinquency and criminal behavior in adulthood. This study examines the applicability of General Strain Theory on educational factors by considering truancy as a risk behavior. In this empirical study, we test the explanatory powers of certain kinds of strain, including school strain, economic deprivation, negative life events, ange...

  10. Drop-out during a randomized trial with adolescents with intellectual disability was associated with participant burden, while drop-out at study exit was associated with carer and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Robert S; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas G

    2017-12-01

    People with intellectual disability are difficult to retain in longitudinal studies. Research on determinants of study retention for individual-carer dyads, and their reasons for drop-out, are limited. To investigate characteristics associated with drop-out, and to investigate whether characteristics varied by stage of drop-out. Data are from an Australian randomized trial with adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. Characteristics of both the adolescent and their nominated carer were collected at baseline. Carers were sent an exit questionnaire approximately two years after enrolment. Baseline information was available for 566 adolescents: 72(13.0%) withdrew during the study, and 96(17.3%) didn't return exit questionnaires. Characteristics associated with drop-out during the study were being in the intervention group, the carer being younger, and the carer not being one of the adolescent's parents. Characteristics associated with withdrawal at exit were carer having lower education and carer having lower socioeconomic status. No adolescent characteristic was associated with drop-out. Characteristics of drop-outs weren't related to the adolescent and differed according to timing. Drop-out during the study was associated with study burden, whereas characteristics of drop-outs at exit interview were associated with lower social position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Bridget M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011 and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779 in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p  Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies. Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All

  12. What predicts outcome, response, and drop-out in CBT of depressive adults? a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Amrei; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The efficacy of CBT for unipolar depressive disorders is well established, yet not all patients improve or tolerate treatment. To identify factors associated with symptomatic outcome, response, and drop-out in depressive patients under naturalistic CBT. 193 patients with major depression or dysthymia were tested. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were entered as predictors in hierarchical regression analyses. A higher degree of pretreatment depression, early improvement, and completion of therapy were identified as predictors for symptomatic change and response. Drop-out was predicted by concurrent personality disorder, less positive outcome expectancies, and by failure to improve early in treatment. Our results highlight the importance of early response to predict improvement in routine CBT. Attempts to refine the quality of treatment programs should focus on avoiding premature termination (drop-out) and consider motivational factors in more depth. Routinely administered standardized assessments would enhance symptom monitoring and help to identify persons at risk of not improving under therapy.

  13. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  14. Simulations of Lateral Transport and Dropout Structure of Energetic Particles from Impulsive Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Tooprakai, P.; Seripienlert, A.; Chuychai, P.

    2016-12-01

    We simulate trajectories of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares for 2D+slab models of magnetic turbulence in spherical geometry to study dropout features, i.e., sharp, repeated changes in the particle density, and the particles' lateral transport. Among random-phase realizations of 2D turbulence, a spherical harmonic expansion can generate homogeneous turbulence over a sphere, but a 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) locally mapped onto the lateral coordinates in the region of interest is much faster computationally, and we show that the results are qualitatively similar. We then use the 2D FFT field as input to a 2D MHD simulation, which dynamically generates realistic features of turbulence such as coherent structures. The magnetic field lines and particles spread non-diffusively (ballistically) to a patchy distribution reaching up to 25° from the injection longitude and latitude at r 1 AU. This dropout pattern in field line trajectories has sharper features in the case of the more realistic 2D MHD model, in better qualitative agreement with observations. The initial dropout pattern in particle trajectories is relatively insensitive to particle energy, though the energy affects the pattern's evolution with time. We make predictions for future observations of solar particles near the Sun (e.g., at 0.25 AU), for which we expect a sharp pulse of outgoing particles along the dropout pattern, followed by backscattering that first remains close to the dropout pattern and later exhibits cross-field transport to a distribution that is more diffusive, yet mostly contained within the dropout pattern found at greater distances. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund (Grants BRG5880009 and RTA5980003), the U.S. NSF (AGS-1063439), NASA (NNX14AI63G & NNX15AB88G), and the Solar Probe Plus/ISIS project.

  15. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons During a Rapid Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on 1 May 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L > 4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolutions and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L > 4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate shows strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The improved temporal and spatial resolutions of electron precipitation rates provided by multiple low-altitude observations can resolve fast-varying electron loss during rapid electron dropouts (over a few hours), which occur too fast for a single low-altitude satellite. The capability of estimating the fast-varying electron lifetimes during rapid dropout events is an important step in improving radiation belt model accuracy.

  16. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Estimating the Expected Dropout Rates in Randomized Controlled Trials on Yoga Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reasonable estimation of expected dropout rates is vital for adequate sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Underestimating expected dropouts rates increases the risk of false negative results while overestimating rates results in overly large sample sizes, raising both ethical and economic issues. To estimate expected dropout rates in RCTs on yoga interventions, MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, IndMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched through February 2014; a total of 168 RCTs were meta-analyzed. Overall dropout rate was 11.42% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.11%, 12.73% in the yoga groups; rates were comparable in usual care and psychological control groups and were slightly higher in exercise control groups (rate = 14.53%; 95% CI = 11.56%, 17.50%; odds ratio = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.98; p=0.03. For RCTs with durations above 12 weeks, dropout rates in yoga groups increased to 15.23% (95% CI = 11.79%, 18.68%. The upper border of 95% CIs for dropout rates commonly was below 20% regardless of study origin, health condition, gender, age groups, and intervention characteristics; however, it exceeded 40% for studies on HIV patients or heterogeneous age groups. In conclusion, dropout rates can be expected to be less than 15 to 20% for most RCTs on yoga interventions. Yet dropout rates beyond 40% are possible depending on the participants’ sociodemographic and health condition.

  17. The Influence of Computer Technology Learning Program on Attitudes toward Computers and Self-Esteem among Arab Dropout Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo; Zoabi, Houssien

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the attitudes of Arab dropout youth in Israel toward the use of computer technology and the influence of this use on their self-esteem. Results supported the assumptions that exposure to computer technology would change the attitudes of dropout adolescents toward computers to positive ones. (Contains 43 references.)…

  18. Predicting dropout from intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder using pre-treatment characteristics: A naturalistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Wiersma, F.E.; Lammers, M.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Method: Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An

  19. Academic Fatalism: Applying Durkheim's Fatalistic Suicide Typology to Student Drop-Out and the Climate of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godor, Brian P.

    2017-01-01

    Student drop-out remains a critical issue facing educational professionals. For higher education, the vast research in the past 40 years has been influenced by the work of Tinto and his model of student persistence. In this model are several elements that have proven to sharpen the focus of student drop-out research such as the concept of…

  20. Reducing dropout of contact lens wear with Biotrue multipurpose solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rah MJ

    2014-01-01

    week. Keywords: multipurpose solution, contact lens, dropout

  1. Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: An exploration in Dhaka urban slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khurshid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs

  2. Deep Retinal Layer Microvasculature Dropout Detected by the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Min Hee; Zangwill, Linda M; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel C; Belghith, Akram; Yarmohammadi, Adeleh; Medeiros, Felipe A; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Saunders, Luke J; Weinreb, Robert N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate factors associated with dropout of the parapapillary deep retinal layer microvasculature assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in glaucomatous eyes. Cross-sectional study. Seventy-one eyes from 71 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with β-zone parapapillary atrophy (βPPA) enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout was defined as a complete loss of the microvasculature located within the deep retinal layer of the βPPA from OCTA-derived optic nerve head vessel density maps by standardized qualitative assessment. Circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) within the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) also was calculated using OCTA. Choroidal thickness and presence of focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects were determined using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Presence of parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout. Parameters including age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, axial length, intraocular pressure, disc hemorrhage, cpVD, visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD), focal LC defects βPPA area, and choroidal thickness were analyzed. Parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout was detected in 37 POAG eyes (52.1%). Eyes with microvasculature dropout had a higher prevalence of LC defects (70.3% vs. 32.4%), lower cpVD (52.7% vs. 58.8%), worse VF MD (-9.06 dB vs. -3.83 dB), thinner total choroidal thickness (126.5 μm vs. 169.1 μm), longer axial length (24.7 mm vs. 24.0 mm), larger βPPA (1.2 mm2 vs. 0.76 mm2), and lower diastolic blood pressure (74.7 mmHg vs. 81.7 mmHg) than those without dropout (P microvasculature dropout in glaucomatous eyes. Longitudinal studies are required to elucidate the temporal relationship between parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout and systemic and ocular factors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  4. Segmentation of intracranial arterial calcification with deeply supervised residual dropout networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortsova, Gerda; van Tulder, Gijs; Dubost, Florian

    2017-01-01

    convolutional neural network that we extend with two regularization techniques. Firstly, we use deep supervision to encourage discriminative features in the hidden layers. Secondly, we augment the network with skip connections, as in the recently developed ResNet, and dropout layers, inserted in a way that skip...... connections circumvent them. We investigate the effect of skip connections and dropout. In addition, we propose a simple problem-specific modification of the network objective function that restricts the focus to the most important image regions and simplifies the optimization. We train and validate our model...

  5. An exploration of students’ own explanations about dropout in vocational education in a danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    is considered in terms of two very different, but intersecting broad explanations voiced by students themselves: (1) as something created in educational institutions in various situations, such as when teachers spend more time and resources on the more affluent, quick-witted and clever students or when......The present paper addresses the phenomenon of student dropout from vocational education in Denmark. It does so by addressing the need to critically discuss the term ‘drop-out’ taking the perspective of students’ own reflections on the topic. The empirical findings indicate that dropout...... interviews with students in eight different basic vocational educational courses in Denmark....

  6. Explaining the Rise in Danish Vocational Education System Dropouts: The Effect of a Youth Unemployment Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Park, Do-Yeun

    This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake...... an education. If the Youth Unemployment Program incentivized less capable/ambitious students to enter vocational education, it would increase the dropout rates via selection. This project investigates whether the program had an effect on the population characteristics of incoming VET students and the resulting...

  7. Allelic Dropout in the ENG Gene, Affecting the Results of Genetic Testing in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Kjeldsen, A.D.; Ousager, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder with three disease-causing genes identified to date: ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4. We report an HHT patient with allelic dropout that on routine sequence analysis for a known mutation in the family (c.817......-3T>G in ENG) initially seemed to be homozygous for the mutation. Aim: To explore the possibility of allelic dropout causing a false result in this patient. Methods: Mutation analysis of additional family members was performed and haplotype analysis carried out. New primers were designed to reveal...

  8. A Coherent Approach to High School Improvement: A District and School Self-Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Lindsay; Johnson, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High school improvement initiatives often focus on specific intervention strategies, programs, or priority topics (e.g., dropout intervention, dual enrollment, freshman academies). However, research shows that systemic and sustainable improvement can be achieved only when initiatives are implemented with consideration for the broader education…

  9. Factors associated with non-participation and drop-out in a lifestyle intervention for workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; Proper, Karin I.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Hildebrandt, Vincent H.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Non-response and drop-out are problems that are commonly encountered in health promotion trials. Understanding the health-related characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs and the reasons for non-participation and drop-out may be beneficial for future intervention trials. Male construction

  10. Factors associated with non-participation and drop-out in a lifestyle intervention for workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Non-response and drop-out are problems that are commonly encountered in health promotion trials. Understanding the health-related characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs and the reasons for non-participation and drop-out may be beneficial for future intervention trials.

  11. (Almost) a slam dunk: Assessing the experiences and opinions of participants in a National Basketball Association (NBA)-funded dropout prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tray J; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    Researchers conducted an evaluation of participants' perceptions of a dropout prevention program - the NBA High School program - involving a National Basketball Association (NBA) team, a high school located in downtown [City], and the College of Education (COE) at the local State University (SU). The program targeted "at-risk" high school students while utilizing student-teachers as tutors and mentors. Researchers utilized mixed methods to assess student, student-teacher, and high school teacher participants' experiences with and opinions of the program. Researchers found (1) students enjoyed the program, especially given the involvement of the student-teachers; (2) students believed the program helped improve their grades; (3) student-teachers enjoyed working with their students, although student-teachers found some of the expectations surrounding their positions and roles as tutors/mentors within the high school to be unclear and frustrating; (4) high school teachers felt significantly better about the program than the student-teachers; and (5) overall, all sets of respondents categorically supported the program and its benefits. Findings indicated that the involvement of mentors or role models matters to students, and clear and organized logistics, planning, and communication are integral for program success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evasão e avaliação institucional no ensino superior: uma discussão bibliográfica Dropout rates and institutional evaluation in higher education: a bibliographical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida Dos Santos Baggi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A evasão escolar no ensino superior é um fenômeno complexo e, portanto, não pode ser analisado fora de um contexto histórico mais amplo, pois é reflexo da realidade de níveis anteriores de ensino, influenciando de diversas maneiras para o abandono de um curso superior. A avaliação institucional permeia todos esses processos e pode auxiliar na identificação dos sinais da evasão, reduzindo-a ou mesmo evitando-a. Este artigo analisa a produção teórica que aborda a evasão e a sua relação com a avaliação a partir da Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD entre 2008-2009. A metodologia baseia-se na pesquisa bibliográfica, denominada estado da arte ou estado do conhecimento, que contribui para a discussão e o mapeamento da produção acadêmica tanto em termos de análise qualitativa, quanto quantitativa. Vimos que a relação entre evasão e avaliação ainda é pouco estudada, sendo mais restrita ainda que a reflexão sobre a evasão no ensino superior.The dropout rate of undergraduate students is a complex phenomenon that cannot be analyzed without taking into consideration a wider historical context for it is a consequence of previous educational levels, which influence in several different ways higher education dropout rates. School evaluation permeates all these processes and can help to identify dropout signs, reducing or even preventing it. This article analyzes the theoretical production contained in Digital Library of Thesis and Dissertations which analyzes the dropout issue and its relationship with evaluation between 2008-2009. The methodology is based on bibliographical survey denominated state of the art or state of knowledge, which contributes to the discussion and mapping out of the academic production both in terms of qualitative and quantitative analyses. We found that the relationship between dropout rates and evaluation has received little scholarly attention, being even more scarce than the studies

  13. Changing School – Changing Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika

    2017-01-01

    minority teenage girls. The article conceptualizes this challenging time as a ‘vital conjuncture’ – a critical life period in which both different futures and different identities are at stake – and shows how a school change could alleviate personal pressures, and avert the impending danger of school drop-out...... of a critical time period in early adolescence where such young women’s dreams of upward social mobility were threatened. In the ‘contact zone’ of their local school classes, the proximity to ethnic majority pupils’ experiments with alcohol and cigarettes challenged the educational aspirations of the ethnic...

  14. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  15. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weberg, Micah J. [PhD Candidate in Space Science, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2134A Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Lepri, Susan T. [Associate Professor, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2429 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Zurbuchen, Thomas H., E-mail: mjweberg@umich.edu, E-mail: slepri@umich.edu, E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu [Professor, Space Science and Aerospace Engineering, Associate Dean for Entrepreneurship Senior Counselor of Entrepreneurship Education, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2431 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

  16. LED Current Balance Using a Variable Voltage Regulator with Low Dropout vDS Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I Hsieh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective light-emitting diode (LED current balance strategy using a variable voltage regulator (VVR with low dropout vDS control is proposed. This can regulate the multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs of the linear current regulators (LCR, maintaining low dropout vDS on the flat vGS-characteristic curves and making all drain currents almost the same. Simple group LCRs respectively loaded with a string LED are employed to implement the theme. The voltage VVdc from a VVR is synthesized by a string LED voltage NvD, source voltage vR, and a specified low dropout vDS = VQ. The VVdc updates instantly, through the control loop of the master LCR, which means that all slave MOSFETs have almost the same biases on their flat vGS-characteristic curves. This leads to all of the string LED currents being equal to each other, producing an almost even luminance. An experimental setup with microchip control is built to verify the estimations. Experimental results show that the luminance of all of the string LEDs are almost equal to one another, with a maximum deviation below 1% during a wide dimming range, while keeping all vDS of the MOSFETs at a low dropout voltage, as expected.

  17. Resistances to Scientific Knowledge Production of Comparative Measurements of Dropout and Completion in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlhed, Carina

    2017-01-01

    The article is a critical sociological analysis of current transnational practices on creating comparable measurements of dropout and completion in higher education and the consequences for the conditions of scientific knowledge production on the topic. The analysis revolves around questions of epistemological, methodological and symbolic types…

  18. Ethnic minority youth in youth mental health care : utilization and dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Anna Marte de

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on differences between ethnic groups in youth mental health care (YMHC). Three subjects are elaborated: utilization of YMHC, given diagnoses in YMHC, and premature termination (dropout) of therapy in YMHC. The utilization of YMHC services is unequally distributed over different

  19. Pseudo-empirical Likelihood-Based Method Using Calibration for Longitudinal Data with Drop-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baojiang; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary

    2015-01-01

    In observational studies, interest mainly lies in estimation of the population-level relationship between the explanatory variables and dependent variables, and the estimation is often undertaken using a sample of longitudinal data. In some situations, the longitudinal data sample features biases and loss of estimation efficiency due to non-random drop-out. However, inclusion of population-level information can increase estimation efficiency. In this paper we propose an empirical likelihood-based method to incorporate population-level information in a longitudinal study with drop-out. The population-level information is incorporated via constraints on functions of the parameters, and non-random drop-out bias is corrected by using a weighted generalized estimating equations method. We provide a three-step estimation procedure that makes computation easier. Some commonly used methods are compared in simulation studies, which demonstrate that our proposed method can correct the non-random drop-out bias and increase the estimation efficiency, especially for small sample size or when the missing proportion is high. In some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. Finally, we apply this method to an Alzheimer's disease study.

  20. Joint partially linear model for longitudinal data with informative drop-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehee; Zeng, Donglin; Taylor, Jeremy M G

    2017-03-01

    In biomedical research, a steep rise or decline in longitudinal biomarkers may indicate latent disease progression, which may subsequently cause patients to drop out of the study. Ignoring the informative drop-out can cause bias in estimation of the longitudinal model. In such cases, a full parametric specification may be insufficient to capture the complicated pattern of the longitudinal biomarkers. For these types of longitudinal data with the issue of informative drop-outs, we develop a joint partially linear model, with an aim to find the trajectory of the longitudinal biomarker. Specifically, an arbitrary function of time along with linear fixed and random covariate effects is proposed in the model for the biomarker, while a flexible semiparametric transformation model is used to describe the drop-out mechanism. Advantages of this semiparametric joint modeling approach are the following: 1) it provides an easier interpretation, compared to standard nonparametric regression models, and 2) it is a natural way to control for common (observable and unobservable) prognostic factors that may affect both the longitudinal trajectory and the drop-out process. We describe a sieve maximum likelihood estimation procedure using the EM algorithm, where the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are considered to select the number of knots. We show that the proposed estimators achieve desirable asymptotic properties through empirical process theory. The proposed methods are evaluated by simulation studies and applied to prostate cancer data. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.