WorldWideScience

Sample records for school drop-out rates

  1. Dropping out of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teneva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern technological society needs educated people who, through their high professionalism, are called upon to create its progress. In this aspect, a serious problem stands out – the dropout from school of a large number of children, adolescents and young people. The object of the research is the premature interruption of training for a large number of Bulgarian students. The subject of the study is the causes that provoke the students’ dropping out of school. The aim is to differentiate the negative factors leading to dropping out of school, and to identify the motivating factors that encourage the individual to return to the educational environment. In order to realize the so set target, a specially designed test-questionnaire has been used. The survey was conducted among students attending evening courses who have left their education for various reasons and are currently back to the school institution. The contingent of the study includes 120 students from the evening schools. The results indicate that the reasons which prompted the students to leave school early differentiate into four groups: family, social, economic, educational, personal. The motivation to return to school has been dictated in the highest degree by the need for realization of the person on the labor market, followed by the possibility for full social functioning.

  2. May new school models minimize status of drop-out rates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them.......Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them....

  3. School drop out in Bangladesh: Insights using panel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, R.; Hossain, A.; Lewin, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relative strength of different factors associated with school drop out using data collected between 2007 and 2009 in Bangladesh. A sample of 9046 children, aged 4-15, was selected across six districts for a household survey focusing on children's school access and experiences. Two groups of children were identified: those…

  4. Emotional Competence and Drop-Out Rates in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…

  5. Drop-out rate and drop-out reasons among promising Norwegian track and field athletes: a 25 year study

    OpenAIRE

    Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-01-01

    © Eystein Enoksen, 2011 The aim of the present study was to identify the total drop-out rate and drop-out reasons for a group of promising track and field athletes. 202 males and 98 females, aged 16 ±2 years, took part in this study. Questionnaires were administrated in 1975, 1983, and 1989. In-depth interviews were conducted in 1989 and in 2000. A chi-square test was administrated to test the difference between males and females dropping out and to test the most significant reasons influe...

  6. Drop Out or Self-Exclusion? An Analysis of drop out causes in Mexico’s Sonoran High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Abril Valdez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The scholar drop out is not an individual decision. It is conditioned by contextual factors which are identified and analyzed in this research paper among high school students. A survey was applied to 147 high school students to know their family situation, scholar history, reasons why they drop out and their future plans, among other relevant reasons. The results indicated that 86% of the surveyed students abandoned the school between the first and the third semester. Their grade average during the last semester studied was 7.49. The main reasons of the desertion of these students were: economic factors, failure in some subjects, and the lack of interest in their studies. 93% of the participants were not satisfied with the academic level they reached. Nonetheless, they did not plan to resume their studies. The results demonstrated the necessity of an intervention model based on educational policies with higher incentives to add to the school system, flexibility of the transit among subsystems and restructuration of the communication network among the principal actors.

  7. Can a Public Scholarship Program Successfully Reduce School Drop-Outs in a Time of Economic Crisis? Evidence from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role played by Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program in reducing school drop-out rates during the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and drop-out rates would be high. The scholarships are found to have been effective in…

  8. Exposing the Myth: Advanced Math Does Not Increase Drop out Rates. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    A common argument against raising math course-taking requirements for all students is that it will cause more students to drop out of high school. But most students who drop out for academic reasons do so not because they are being "too challenged," but rather because they are not being challenged enough. It is important to raise the rigor and…

  9. Why girls of Syuta drop out of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A

    1998-01-01

    In India, the Center for Science and the Environment analyzed barriers to girls' schooling in a Himalayan village with a population of 213 where households farm narrow terraces of poor soil that must be heavily supplemented each season with cow-dung and leaf manure. This requires transportation of tons of biomass material in addition to the collection of tons of firewood for cooking. Of the 92 workers in the village, 50 are women, and women assume the role of "main worker" at a younger age than men. Because of their agricultural chores, much domestic work is delegated to girls, and of the 39 children aged 5-10 years, the work of 1 boy and 4 girls was important to the household economy. Depending upon the season, women may work 9-15 hours/day, and women put in 52% of total work hours as compared to 26% by children and 15% by men. Even excluding household chores, children work 1.4 times more than the men. The village has its own primary and secondary schools, but the recorded high rate of literacy includes many with very low levels of education, and school attendance is less than 50%. Children may begin schooling as late as age 10 and stop by age 15. As the population of the village grows, the men will increasingly migrate for work, and increased environmental pressure will intensify the women's agricultural chores. Girls will be the first to be removed from school to provide extra labor. Until economies are reorganized, the demands on women of living in a subsistence economy will supersede their ability to take advantage of educational opportunities.

  10. School Climate and Dropping Out of School in the Era of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotok, Stephen; Ikoma, Sakiko; Bodovski, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09)--a large nationally representative sample of US high school students--we employed multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationship between school characteristics and the likelihood that a student will drop out of high school. We used a multifaceted…

  11. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

  12. Socioeconomic Determinants of Primary School Drop Out: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the socioeconomic determinants of primary school dropout in Uganda with the aid of a logistic model analysis using the 2004 National Service Delivery Survey data. The Objectives were to establish the household socioeconomic factors that influence dropout of pupils given free education ...

  13. DROP OUT FROM SCHOOL AMONG GIRLS IN EDO STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    this paper is to investigate why girls dropout from school in Edo State. The descriptive survey ... women. It allows them greater control of their lives and provides them with skills to ... in an attempt to protect their teenage daughters, give them out to wealthy old friends. .... Counselling intervention for gender equality. A paper.

  14. The effects of the bologna process on college enrollment and drop-out rates

    OpenAIRE

    Horstschräer, Julia; Sprietsma, Maresa

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the short-term effects of the introduction of the Bachelor degree in the framework of the Bologna Process on college enrollment and drop-out rates. We use variation in the timing of the Bachelor implementation at the department level to identify the effect of the reform based on longitudinal administrative student data from Germany. We find no significant effects on college enrollment or drop-out rates for most subjects.

  15. [School refusal and dropping out of school: positioning regarding a Swiss perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitza, Susanne; Melfsen, Siebke; Della Casa, André; Schneller, Lena

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with refusal to attend school and dropping out of school from the point of view of child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, in German speaking countries and from the perspective of Swiss schools and their administrative bodies. General epidemiological data on refusal to attend school show that approximately 5% of children and adolescents are likely to try to avoid attending school at some point. There is very little data available on the frequency of school drop-out. In the past two years (2011 and 2012), approximately 2% of all patients seen for the first time at the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Zurich, were referred because of failure to attend school, making this phenomenon one of the most common reasons for referral in child and adolescent psychiatry. After a discussion of the epidemiology, symptomatology, causes and its risk factors, the article presents examples drawn from practice and guidelines for intervention in cases of refusal to attend school, and discusses ways of preventing school drop-out from the point of view of schools, hospitals and bodies such as educational psychology services in Switzerland.

  16. Back to school: drop-out and return to school among youth in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Blanco Bosco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the return to school among youngsters in Mexico City that had dropped out of school at some point between the beginning of elementary school and the end of upper secondary level. More than a quarter of these youngsters returned to school, which supports the idea that quitting school does not equal to the end of the educational career. There is a significant association between the socioeconomic origin and the probability of an individual returning to school, although weaker (and in the opposite direction than correlation with the probability of dropping out. Complex, non-linear patterns were found between the return and the moment when the drop out occurred, which questions mainstream theories about educational decisions. It was also found that an important proportion of those who returned to school completed upper secondary education, particularly remarkable among youngsters of lower social origins. The evidence supports the idea of considering both the effects of the social structure and the individual agency, and particularly to take into account the actors’ rationality.

  17. Violence, schools, and dropping out: racial and ethnic disparities in the educational consequence of student victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A

    2011-12-01

    Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in life. The educational consequence of exposure to violence and victimization at school is uncertain for racial and ethnic minority students. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel modeling techniques to examine the impact of violence and victimization at school on dropping out. The results indicate Black/African Americans and Latino American students who are victimized at school are at higher risk of dropping out. The implications of the evident racial and ethnic disparities in the relationship between victimization and dropping out within the U.S. school system are discussed.

  18. Educational Exclusion: Drop Out, Push Out, and School-to-Prison Pipeline among LGBTQ Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Educational Exclusion: Drop Out, Push Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline among LGBTQ Youth" provides an in-depth look at the conditions that effectively push LGBTQ youth out of school and potentially into the criminal justice system. The report provides specific, real world guidance to address the hostile school climates and…

  19. Influence of Peer Pressure on Secondary School Students Drop out in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omollo, Atieno Evaline; Yambo, Onyango J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of peer pressure on secondary school students' drop out in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya. The statement of the problem showed that the sub-county had a dropout rate of 43 percent as compared to the neighboring sub counties like Uriri, Awendo, Nyatike, Kuria and Migori which had 25,…

  20. Drop-out and admission cancel rate among the students in a selected medical college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahed, F; Latif, S A; Mahamud, M M; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Sultana, S Z; Hossain, M B

    2011-04-01

    A record based descriptive type of study was carried out among the under-graduate students of Mymensingh Medical College from the session 1966-67 to 2006-07. The academic years were divided into four decades and admission was followed into three categories such as retained, cancellation and drop-out. Total number of the students was 5892. Among them 3848(65.30%) were male and 2044(34.69%) were female. Out of 5892 students drop-out was 282(4.78%) and admission cancel was 304(5.15%). It was also found that drop-out in male was 232(6.02%) and in female was 50(2.44%) and admission cancel in male was 266(5.87%) and in female was 78(3.81%). The difference was found statistically significant (pcancel rate is decreasing from the very beginning to till now. It was also observed that all drop-out and admission cancellation were in first & second year students. There was no continuation of their class roll numbers in third year registration.

  1. Education Exclusion and Dropping out in Public Schools of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Jiménez-Asenjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings obtained from a study conducted in 2009: “Exclusión educativa y abandono (deserción escolar en la enseñanza secundaria en Costa Rica” [Education Exclusion and Dropping out in Costa Rica], focused on the students from the 7th to the 11th grades of the General Basic Education. For this research, fieldwork was carried out in 22 institutions, in different educational regions of the country. Interviews were conducted with the school principals and counselors in each of the institutions visited. Focal groups were organized with students and parents in order to –as naturalism and qualitative focus suggest –understand the meaning of education exclusion and dropping out from the point of view of the different agents involved– principals, counselors, students, parents. A relevant conceptual aspect included in this study is the analysis of the problems related to dropping out and exclusion, generally, in a nonjudgmental way, to characterize this phenomenon.

  2. Change from within. How communities can be involved in preventing children from dropping out of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Derksen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Change from within. How communities can be involved in preventing children from dropping out of schoolIn this article, based on a social work graduation project carried out at a primary school in Douglas, Northern Cape, South Africa, the issue of young children dropping out of primary education is outlined, as well as its causes. Solutions that address the direct causes seem hard to find. Such solutions should address deep-rooted assumptions and a lack of awareness of the importance of education on the part of many individuals, it is suggested. The author proposes that social workers seek to involve the community in solving their own problems, such as drop-outs. A bottom-up approach should be used to change incorrect assumptions about education and the importance of education should be emphasized. An example is given of how empowering and educating the right people to take responsibly for their community can benefit that community and also help relieve social workers of their massive workloads, which is a significant problem in South Africa.Verandering van binnenuit. Hoe de gemeenschap betrokken kan worden in het voorkomen van schooluitval bij kinderenIn dit artikel, gebaseerd op een Social work afstudeeronderzoek op een basisschool in Douglas, Noord Kaap, Zuid Afrika, wordt uitleg geven over (de oorzaken van het probleem van kinderen die het primaire onderwijs vroegtijdig verlaten. Eventuele directe oplossingen voor dit probleem lijken moeilijk te vinden. Diepgewortelde aannames en onwetendheid wat betreft het belang van educatie zullen moeten worden aangepakt. De auteur vindt dat Social workers meer moeten proberen de gemeenschap te betrekken bij het oplossen van problemen die de hele gemeenschap aangaan, zoals de schooluitval. Een “bottom-up” aanpak kan nuttig zijn in het veranderen van verkeerde aannames en onwetendheid over (het belang van educatie. Er wordt een voorbeeld gegeven waarin duidelijk wordt hoe je door “empowerment” en

  3. Management Of Boy Child School Drop Out In South-East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    out in the south eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria and used available statistics to show that there is high incidence of male child drop out in the south eastern states of Nigeria. Furthermore, it examined the causes of male-child drop out to ...

  4. Statistical Modelling for Dropped Out School Children (DOSC) in East Nusa Tenggara Province Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, R. D.; Lobo, M.

    2017-02-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the characteristics of reasons for DOSC and to determine the statistical model explaining factors which influence on the DOSC in the age group 7 - 18 years in East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) Province. Primary data of out of school children had been collected throughout interviews using prepared questionnaires in three selected districts. Data was then analysed using descriptive and logistic regression method. The analysis shows that from the 341 samples, there were 194DOSC. The majority of them were males, lived in the countryside, had farmer parents, had family size of 5, and had mothers with only primary education level. The main reasons of children to drop out from the primary and junior education levels were the inabilities of paying the school fees and the willingness to work in the farms to help their parents. For senior education level, it was because of the unaffordable school tuitions and no desire of children in having good education. Both partial and simultaneous parameter tests in the logistic regression model show that children who lived in countryside, from poor families, males were the three factors that significantly affected the number of DOSC in the group age with odds ratio values 2.48; 2.37; 1.97 respectively.

  5. Drop-out rate among patients treated with omalizumab for severe asthma: Literature review and real-life experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminati, M; Senna, G; Stefanizzi, G; Bellamoli, R; Longhi, S; Chieco-Bianchi, F; Guarnieri, G; Tognella, S; Olivieri, M; Micheletto, C; Festi, G; Bertocco, E; Mazza, M; Rossi, A; Vianello, A

    2016-08-25

    In patients with asthma, particularly severe asthma, poor adherence to inhaled drugs negatively affects the achievement of disease control. A better adherence rate is expected in the case of injected drugs, such as omalizumab, as they are administered only in a hospital setting. However, adherence to omalizumab has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to review the omalizumab drop-out rate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and real-life studies. A comparative analysis was performed between published data and the Italian North East Omalizumab Network (NEONet) database. In RCTs the drop-out rate ranged from 7.1 to 19.4 %. Although the reasons for withdrawal were only occasionally reported, patient decision and adverse events were the most frequently reported causes. In real-life studies the drop-out rate ranged from 0 to 45.5 %. In most cases lack of efficacy was responsible for treatment discontinuation. According to NEONet data, 32 % of treated patients dropped out, with an increasing number of drop outs observed over time. Patient decision and lack of efficacy accounted for most treatment withdrawals. Treatment adherence is particularly crucial in patients with severe asthma considering the clinical impact of the disease and the cost of non-adherence. The risk of treatment discontinuation has to be carefully considered both in the experimental and real-life settings. Increased knowledge regarding the main reasons for patient withdrawal is important to improve adherence in clinical practice.

  6. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  7. What happens after you drop out? Transition to adulthood among early school-leavers in urban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Utomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of young people dropping out of school prior to completing secondary schooling remains a nationwide problem in Indonesia. While it is commonly assumed that early school-leavers will become child workers, in fact little is known about their transition to adulthood. Objective: Using retrospective data from a sample of 799 young adults (ages 20-34 in Greater Jakarta who dropped out of school by age 16, this paper investigates their patterns of activity and employment in the adolescent years following their exit from the school system, the timing and patterns of reaching various markers of adulthood, and their current life situations. Results: Less than a quarter of early school-leavers worked in the immediate year following school exit. Instead about 30Š neither worked nor studied between the ages of 12-18. The likelihood of experiencing idleness was highest at age 13 and was relatively higher for females than males. Among those with early work experience the majority worked in the manufacturing industry, as domestic servants, or as informal traders. Early school-leavers left their parental home, married, and became parents at a younger age compared to those who left school at ages 17-19. Conclusions: Female early school-leavers are likely to spend a longer time economically and educationally inactive during their formative years, progress faster to their markers of adulthood, and are less likely to return to school, relative to their male counterparts. Qualitative insights suggest that adolescent dropouts who enter employment early are better off in their young adulthood than those who experience inactivity prior to adulthood.

  8. Reducing the drop-out rate of a technical oriented course by introducing Problem Based Learning – a first concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Applied Sciences (UAS Technikum Wien one of the most difficult courses in the Bachelor degree program of Computer Science is “Database Systems and Database Design”. Together with “Advanced Computer Programming”, this course accounts for the high drop-out rate in the degree program. For this reason, this course was chosen for a redesign, in line with the research project QUADRO (Measures to increase quality of teaching and to reduce drop-out rates promoted by the City of Vienna – MA 27 (EU strategy and promote economic development. As the authors have already gained experience in Problem Based Learning (PBL, they saw an opportunity to improve students’ database knowledge by changing the teaching method to Problem Based Learning (PBL. The proposed paper first explains the current situation, identifies its drawbacks and difficulties. In a second step, it describes the new method, shows the students’ feedback after the first semester and the resulting changes in the concept.

  9. Understanding Why Students Drop Out of High School, According to Their Own Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jacob Doll

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on school dropout extends from early 20th-century pioneers until now, marking trends of causes and prevention. However, specific dropout causes reported by students from several nationally representative studies have never been examined together, which, if done, could lead to a better understanding of the dropout problem. Push, pull, and falling out factors provide a framework for understanding dropouts. Push factors include school-consequence on attendance or discipline. Pull factors include out-of-school enticements like jobs and family. Finally, falling out factors refer to disengagement in students not caused by school or outside pulling factors. Since 1966, most nationally representative studies depicted pull factors as ranking the highest. Also, administrators in one study corroborated pull out factors for younger dropouts, not older ones, while most recent research cites push factors as highest overall. One rationale for this change is a response to rising standards from No Child Left Behind (NCLB, which can be ultimately tested only by future dropout research.

  10. Leaving School and Its Outcomes on Health-related Fitness Among Drop-out Algerian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Schools are ideal venues for the implementation of healthy behaviors allied to the levels of physical activities as the physical and mental health correlate to psychosocial well-being of scholars. Whereas, this advantage is not reliable with dropout students. Support through psychological studies via time structure unconnected to self-efficacy relative to self-physical activity motivation among this social class, especially with the economic crisis as challenges imposed for Algerian society, concerning the high unemployment rates in line with high school dropouts. Method. This controlled study tested 104 high-school Male adolescent students aged around 17 years for academic years 2015–2016 and those under 18 years for academic years 2016–2017. Built on the ALPHA-Fitness test battery accompanied by questionnaire relevant to their physical and social time for both years. Results. Based on the design, the tests practised and the statistical processes applied within the search limitation, the results support, on one hand, the benefits of school venue as an ideal implementation of health and levels of physical activities and well-being among our scholars, and on the other, we confirmed the leaving school as a negative time trend via dropout students, poorly correlate with times physically and socially inactive. This study inspected that inactive lifestyle relate to body image disorders and disturbances concomitant to energy-expending relative to missing recreational time and sporting endeavours. Conclusions. Leaving school in the Algerian communities is a stress-related biological pathway that links physical disorders and depression virtual to social time structure proceeded to manage the relevant tasks, goals and objectives. Indicated in similar as best when individuals are clear about what it is they are expected to achieve.

  11. An Analysis of the Role of Social Safety Net Scholarships in Reducing School Drop-Out during the Indonesian Economic Crisis. Innocenti Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa A.

    This paper uses regression and matching techniques to evaluate Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Programme. The scholarships program was developed to try to prevent large numbers of children from dropping out of school as a result of the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their…

  12. A Review of Recruitment, Adherence and Drop-Out Rates in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials in Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Meyer, Barbara; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been

  13. Irregular and incomplete primary schooling in rural Ghana. A case-study of late enrolment and early drop-out in the eastern region

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, Beth Cathrine Fagerlid

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a closer look at the issue of late enrolment and early drop out in a rural area in Eastern Region in Ghana. Children enrolling in school later than the recommended age of six, is a persistent problem in Ghana in spite of a fee free public school. Using qualitative methodology through household interviews in two villages, interviews with teachers and staff at Ghana Educational Service, a registration scheme and diaries the study seeks to unravel some of the stor...

  14. The Effect of Significant International Sports Events on Qualified Detoxification Treatment Outcome - Do Drop-Out Rates Change during UEFA European Championship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sofin

    Full Text Available No previous studies have evaluated the influence of significant international sports events on qualified detoxification treatment outcome. This prospective study examines the impact of the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship on inpatient treatment outcome of alcohol dependent patients. Hospital admission and premature drop-out rates of consecutively admitted alcohol dependent patients were determined before, during and immediately after the UEFA Championship in the year 2012. The admission rate of male patients increased significantly after the European Football Championship had ended whereas for female patients, no change in admission rate was found. Daily average discharge rate was calculated. No statistically relevant differences between the treatment days before, during and after the UEFA Championship was found for the discharges. During the tournament, exclusively male patients dropped out. Our results are consistent with an interpretation of an association between European Football Championship and detoxification treatment outcome. Further research to replicate and extend our findings is necessary.

  15. University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

    2010-01-01

    University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

  16. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  17. Out of This Nettle, Drop-Out, We Pluck This Flower, Opportunity: Re-Thinking the School Foreign Language Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The assumption that the "purpose" of school foreign language teaching is to serve "instrumental" ends may largely underlie the present adolescent dropout. In this article the author proposes a two-stage foreign language apprenticeship. A two-stage apprenticeship would include a carefully planned diagnostic element, preparing…

  18. Application of Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model in physical education to improve self-efficacy for adolescents at risk of dropping-out of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartí, Amparo; Gutiérrez, Melchor; Pascual, Carmina; Marín, Diana

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluated improvement in self-efficacy and personal and social responsibility among at-risk of dropping-out of school adolescents participating in a program in which Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model was applied in physical education classes during the course of an academic year. Thirty at-risk adolescents aged 13-14 years old (23 boys, 7 girls) were assigned to an intervention group (12 boys and 3 girls) or a comparison group (11 boys, 4 girls), the latter of which did not participate in the program. Quantitative results showed a significant improvement in the students' self-efficacy for enlisting social resources and in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Qualitative results showed an improvement in responsibility behaviors of participants in the intervention group. This suggests that the model could be effective for improving psychological and social development in at-risk adolescents, and that physical education classes may be an appropriate arena for working with these young people.

  19. Why Did They Not Drop Out? Narratives from Resilient Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Anne; Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2009-01-01

    There is much to be learned from students who were at-risk for dropping out of school but persevered and graduated. The purpose of the study on which this article is based, was to describe how students who were at-risk for dropping out of school persevered and graduated. The voices of two students are introduced, highlighting the challenges they…

  20. Staffing Up and Dropping Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fetler

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing public school enrollment and the need to maintain or improve service to students has increased the demand for teachers, perhaps more rapidly than existing sources can accommodate. While some schools recruit well qualified teachers by offering higher salaries or better working conditions, others may satisfy their need for staff by relaxing hiring standards or assigning novice teachers to difficult classrooms. Schools' hiring policies have consequences for student success. Dropout rates tend to be higher where faculties include a greater percentage of minimally educated teachers or teachers with little experience. The relationship between dropout rate and teacher qualifications is independent of student poverty, school size, and location. A proposed strategy to reduce dropout rates is to encourage higher preparation and employment standards, and to provide appropriate classroom assignments, mentoring, and support for new teachers.

  1. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  2. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  3. Infodemiological data of high-school drop-out related web searches in Canada correlating with real-world statistical data in the period 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siri

    2016-12-01

    Examining the data broken down by gender, the correlations were higher and statistically significant in males than in females. GT-based data for drop-out resulted best modeled by an ARMA(1,0 model. Considering the cross correlation of Canadian regions, all of them resulted statistically significant at lag 0, apart from for New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and the Prince Edward island. A number or cross-correlations resulted statistically significant also at lag −1 (namely, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan.

  4. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  5. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.

  6. Taking the Easy Way Out: How the GED Testing Program Induces Students to Drop Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric; LaFontaine, Paul A.; Rodríguez, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    The option to obtain a General Education Development (GED) certificate changes the incentives facing high school students. This paper evaluates the effect of three different GED policy innovations on high school graduation rates. A six point decrease in the GED pass rate due to an increase in passing standards produced a 1.3 point decline in overall dropout rates. The introduction of a GED certification program in high schools in Oregon produced a four percent decrease in graduation rates. Introduction of GED certificates in California increased dropout rates by 3 points. The GED program induces high school students to drop out. PMID:24634564

  7. Predicting Drop-Out from Social Behaviour of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jaroslav; Bydzovska, Hana; Geryk, Jan; Obsivac, Tomas; Popelinsky, Lubomir

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on predicting drop-outs and school failures when student data has been enriched with data derived from students social behaviour. These data describe social dependencies gathered from e-mail and discussion board conversations, among other sources. We describe an extraction of new features from both student data and behaviour…

  8. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  9. Predicting students drop out : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, G.W.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Vleeshouwers, J.M.; Barnes, T.; Desmarais, M.; Romero, C.; Ventura, S.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their

  10. Taking the Easy Way Out: How the GED Testing Program Induces Students to Drop Out. NBER Working Paper No. 14044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.

    2008-01-01

    We exploit an exogenous increase in General Educational Development (GED) testing requirements to determine whether raising the difficulty of the test causes students to finish high school rather than drop out and GED certify. We find that a six point decrease in GED pass rates induces a 1.3 point decline in overall dropout rates. The effect size…

  11. Early Identification and Characterization of Students Who Drop out in the First Year at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, G. J. A.; Arnold, I. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    At Erasmus School of Economics about 40% of the students in the bachelor program Economics and Business drop out in the first academic year. We examined whether it is feasible (a) to identify on the basis of their participation and achievement in the first 2 (out of 10) examinations students who drop out in the first year, and (b) to characterize…

  12. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavera C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders – the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89 was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.Keywords: MCMI-II, abandonment, personality disorder, homeless

  13. GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Rachel E; Hodson, Randy; McLoud, Laura

    2013-02-01

    For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system.

  14. A "lei da vida": confirmação, evasão escolar e reinvenção da identidade entre os pomeranos The "law of life": confirmation, school drop out and reinvention of identity among Pomeranians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Bahia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o significado do índice de evasão escolar na vida de uma comunidade de pequenos produtores rurais, imigrantes vindos da região da Pomerânia, norte da Alemanha. A população do município escolhido é composta por 90% de descendentes de pomeranos, que lá chegaram no ano de 1847. Embora o Espírito Santo não receba mais alemães desde a década de 1870, essas comunidades mantiveram o uso de seu dialeto, suas festas, seus costumes culturais e maritais, a continuidade da narrativa da tradição oral camponesa, enfim, o modo de vida camponês. No contexto da imigração brasileira, nenhuma outra etnia se concentrou tanto em áreas homogêneas e compactas como esta, concorrendo para modificar a estrutura fundiária e a vida rural dos estados onde se estabeleceu. Este trabalho aborda a relação entre o uso de várias línguas (portuguesa, alemã e pomerana e a religiosidade luterana no cotidiano do grupo, os padrões de transmissão da herança da terra e a consequente valorização destes elementos no ensino confirmatório empreendido pela igrejas Luterana e Missouri, como pontos que permitem compreender os valores sociais e educacionais mais importantes para o grupo na reprodução da sua condição campesina. São examinadas as representações do grupo acerca do papel social desempenhado pela escola, pelo professor e pelo pastor, e sua relação com os elementos mantenedores de seu ethos camponês: a obediência às regras de reciprocidade, a conformidade com os princípios de hierarquia (autoridade paterna e pastoral e a solidariedade com parentes e vizinhos.The article deals with the meaning of school drop out in the life of a small comunity of rural workers descendants of Pomeranians - immigrants originally from the northern German. Ninety percent of the district population descend of Pomeranians that arrived in 1847. Although the state of Espírito Santo did not receive any more Germans after the 1870s, these

  15. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy.

  16. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic drop-out...... is occurring. With this discussion, we hope to improve the drop-out model, so that it can be used for practical forensic genetics and stimulate further discussions. We discuss how to estimate drop-out probabilities when using a varying number of PCR cycles and other experimental conditions....

  17. No-shows, drop-outs and completers in psychotherapeutic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2011-01-01

    A primary challenge in mental health services is a high rate of non-attendance (i.e. no-show and drop-out) for patients referred to treatment for psychiatric disorders.......A primary challenge in mental health services is a high rate of non-attendance (i.e. no-show and drop-out) for patients referred to treatment for psychiatric disorders....

  18. Shifting problems and shifting policies to reduce student drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2016-01-01

    , as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... finds that the rate of student drop-out has been a cause for ongoing concern among policy makers for more than a century, and that the framing of the problem has shifted considerably over time. The problem has variously been placed with the individual apprentice, the basic structure of vocational......Education policy generally places a premium on raising the level of education attained by the young generation ultimately heading towards the labour market. While the rate of enrolment in post-compulsory education has risen in most countries, so too has the rate of drop-out, in particular from...

  19. School Location, School Section and Students' Gender as Predictors to Secondary School Dropout Rate in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to underscore the extent the variables of school location, students' gender and school section can predict the rate of drop out of secondary school students. Ex post facto design was adopted and all data on students' enrollment, retention and completion were collected from available schools' records for two cohorts of…

  20. Drop-out from a drug treatment clinic and associated reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinie, Leila; Gholami, Zhaleh; Shadloo, Behrang; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess drop-out rates and associated reasons among patients at the Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) clinic. In a one-year period (April 2014 to March 2015), all patients with drug dependence who had been referred for treatment and attended for a first assessment were included in this study (N=242). Those who received treatment were followed until March 2016. Survival analysis showed that 70.2% had dropped out from treatment. Log rank test showed that treatment drop-out rates differed between the different approaches used (P < 0.001), with the lowest slope inbuprenorphine maintenance treatment and the highest in the detoxification programme. Drop-out rates within the first three months was 62% (SE= 0.05) and 82.4% (SE=0.03) for opioids and stimulants dependence, respectively. Analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 21.0) and STATA software, (version 13.0). From the patients' perspective, motivational inconsistencies were considered as the main reason for not starting or leaving treatment. The findings of this study could give service providers a better grasp of drop-out rates and the associated reasons.

  1. Vocational training for students with a drop out risk: An alternative educational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Rokkones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A dropout discourse has emerged; highlighting the economic risk that leaving secondary school before graduation poses to those who drop out and to society as a whole. Many initiatives aim to reduce the dropout rate. One such project, “The Third Way”, was established in 2012 with the aim of reducing dropouts in one secondary school among students on a vocational track - particularly in the programs Restaurant and food-processing and Health care, childhood and youth development. We have followed this project for two years through classroom observation and interviews with teachers and school management. "The Third Way" works at the interfaces of students, teachers, schools, and in cooperation with workplaces connected to the students’ vocational training in practical studies. Based on our analyses we see that flexibility among all actors in alternative vocational education, both in school and workplace practice, is crucial for the reduction of dropout rates. By adapting the curriculum within these alternative structures, we see that at-risk students have an increased likelihood of finishing their secondary education.

  2. Dropping Out of Further Education: A Fresh Start? Findings from a German Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesser, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In the labour market, formal qualifications--both school and vocational or university degrees--are of increasing importance. This may be especially true in Germany, where formal qualifications are highly valued. Dropping out of vocational or university training is therefore regarded as a risk for young people in the process of entering the labour…

  3. The Relationships among the Fine Arts, School Culture, and High School Graduation Rates in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    High school graduation is the single largest hurdle that students must achieve to prepare for college and career (National Governor's Association, 2011). Fleischman & Heppen (2009) agree that American high schools must address the problem of declining graduation rate. Approximately 1.28 million students drop out of high school annually (Amos,…

  4. Higher Education Drop-out in Spain--Particular Case of Universities in Galicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Maria Elena; Crespo, Barbara; Míguez-Álvarez, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a high university dropout rate in Spain is undeniable. Data shows that approximately one out of five students drop out from college. During the economic expansion period (2001-2007) more students abandoned their studies than during the crisis period (2007-2011). This situation also affects unemployment rates due to the fact that…

  5. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop-out...... of true alleles is possible. As part of the validation of the IrisPlex assay in our ISO17025 accredited, forensic genetic laboratory, we estimated the probability of drop-out of specific SNP alleles using 29 and 30 PCR cycles and 25, 50 and 100 Single Base Extension (SBE) cycles. We observed no drop-out...... when the amount of DNA was greater than 125 pg for 29 cycles of PCR and greater than 62 pg for 30 cycles of PCR. With the use of a logistic regression model, we estimated the allele specific probability of drop-out in heterozygote systems based on the signal strength of the observed allele...

  6. Degree Flexibility and University Drop-out: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio; Cutillo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    How to reduce university drop-out is a topic of increasing concern. Although several measures have been the subject of numerous debates, little attention has been given to those impacting on the duration, structure and content of the supply of university education. This paper looks at the Italian experience to see what can be learnt about the…

  7. High School Graduation Rates through Two Decades of District Change: The Influence of Policies, Data Records, and Demographic Shifts. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Healey, Kaleen; Gwynne, Julia A.; Crespin, René

    2016-01-01

    High school graduation rates in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) have shown remarkable improvements over the past 16 years. Students used to be about as likely to drop out as they were to graduate; now they are three times as likely to graduate as to drop out. Moreover, recent large improvements in the percentage of students on-track to graduate…

  8. Comparison of Personal, Social and Academic Variables Related to University Drop-out and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ana; Esteban, María; Fernández, Estrella; Cervero, Antonio; Tuero, Ellián; Solano, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university's control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10, and 2010/11 cohorts). The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree drop-out and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice), variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/peers and value of the living environment) financial status and performance during university studies (in terms of compliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance). Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop-out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon.

  9. Factors Predicting Achievement, Drop Out And High School Enrolment In A Sample Of Peruvian Rural Students Abstract Factores Predictivos del Rendimiento Escolar, Deserción e Ingreso a Educación Secundaria en una Muestra de Estudiantes de Zonas Rurales del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cueto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational system in Peru has many challenges to conquer, among them providing student populations in high poverty areas with quality service. Rural students are one of the groups that represent an important challenge, because they often speak an indigenous language and study in classrooms that combine a wide variety of ages and grades under a single teacher. This study used a longitudinal design to follow a group of students in 20 public schools in two rural areas. The first measurements were carried out in 1998, when all the students where in fourth grade. Tests of reading comprehension and mathematics were administered at the end of the school year, and again in 2000. Background information included anthropometric measures, questionnaires for the students, teachers, and schools. We went back to the schools in 2001 to record the grade reached by the students. We found that 43% of the students were in high school, while 20% had dropped out; the rest had repeated a grade one or more times. Educational achievement in 2000 was best explained by achievement in 1998, but dropping out was not associated with achievement. Dropping out was associated with gender (women were more likely to drop out, age (older students were more likely to drop out, height for age (positive association and not living with both parents. We found no in-school support programs for students that fall behind their peers or are at risk of dropping out. In a way we could describe the observed schools as "Darwinian" in the sense that it is expected that students will adapt to the school. The performance of Factores Predictivos del Rendimiento Escolar 3 students has no consequences for their teachers. In terms of policy implications, we suggest considering interventions that account for not only educational variables, but also other needs of the students and families that are served by these schools. El sistema educativo peruano tiene una serie de retos que superar, entre

  10. Potential risk factors associated with risk for drop-out and relapse during and following withdrawal of opioid prescription medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiwe, Susanne; Lönnquist, Ingeborg; Källmén, Håkan

    2011-10-01

    Withdrawal of opioid medication in patients with chronic pain has a drop-out and relapse problem. To evaluate if depressive symptoms, anxiety and pain intensity are potential risk factors for drop-out or relapse during the withdrawal process. Further, to assess internal consistency of scales for assessment of these potential risk factors. Twenty-nine patients were included. After 2 years 28 of these were followed-up. Those with depressive symptoms at baseline had a significant risk for drop-out from the withdrawal program (odds ratio 1.37) and relapse into use of opioids at follow-up (odds ratio 1.44). Drop-outs rated depressive symptoms significantly higher before detoxification. Those who relapsed rated significantly higher for pain intensity, depressive symptoms and abstinence prior to withdrawal. All scales had high reliability. To avoid drop-out and relapse clinical practice need to screen for depressive symptoms, pain intensity, and abstinence. This article presents significant reliability of scales useful within dependency centers. They can be used to identify these risk factors for drop-out and relapse, respectively, when initiating the withdrawal process. Taking these risk factors into consideration could improve the outcome of the withdrawal process by preventing drop-out and relapse. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal drop-out and weighting against its bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen C. E. Schmidt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bias caused by drop-out is an important factor in large population-based epidemiological studies. Many studies account for it by weighting their longitudinal data, but to date there is no detailed final approach for how to conduct these weights. Methods In this study we describe the observed longitudinal bias and a three-step longitudinal weighting approach used for the longitudinal data in the MoMo baseline (N = 4528, 4–17 years and wave 1 study with 2807 (62% participants between 2003 and 2012. Results The most meaningful drop-out predictors were socioeconomic status of the household, socioeconomic characteristics of the mother and daily TV usage. Weighting reduced the bias between the longitudinal participants and the baseline sample, and also increased variance by 5% to 35% with a final weighting efficiency of 41.67%. Conclusions We conclude that a weighting procedure is important to reduce longitudinal bias in health-oriented epidemiological studies and suggest identifying the most influencing variables in the first step, then use logistic regression modeling to calculate the inverse of the probability of participation in the second step, and finally trim and standardize the weights in the third step.

  12. Exploiting Academic Records for Predicting Student Drop Out: a case study in Brazilian higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Allan; Balby, Leandro; Cajueiro, Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    Students’ dropout is a major concern of the Brazilian higher education institutions as it may cause waste of resources and decrease graduation rates. The early detection of students with high probability of dropping out, as well as understanding the underlying causes, are crucial for defining more effective actions toward preventing this problem. In this paper, we cast the dropout detection problem as a classification problem. We use a large sample of academic records of students across 76 co...

  13. Policy and participant perspectives on the drop-out problem in secondary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle

    In this paper we compare the way the drop-out problem in secondary education is constructed in Danish official and public policy discourse with the way it is experiences and interpreted by young people trying to get an education. As regards the student's perspective we will use interviews...... with students in production schools. This is an interim form of schooling for young people who have for some reason not entered secondary education directly but are still trying to find their way into (most often) vocational education....

  14. Inequality in Social Capital: Social Capital, Social Risk and Drop-out in the Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemalcilar, Zeynep; Göksen, Fatos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of social capital on the likelihood of dropping out from the compulsory education system (Grades One through Eight) in Turkey. It focuses on the question of whether school-related social capital can provide the means to stay in school in the presence of risk factors such as socioeconomic status, race, or gender…

  15. Newcomers to Al-Anon family groups: Who stays and who drops out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Laudet, Alexandre; Moos, Rudolf H

    2014-06-01

    Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon), a 12-step mutual-help program for people concerned about another's drinking, is the most widely used form of help for concerned others (COs) in the US. This study assessed the prevalence of dropout, and predictors of dropout, in the six months following newcomers' initial attendance at Al-Anon meetings. Al-Anon's World Service Office mailed a random sample of groups, which subsequently yielded a sample of 251 newcomers who completed surveys at baseline and 6 months later. At the 6-month follow-up, 57% of newcomers at baseline had dropped out (had not attended any Al-Anon meetings during the past month). At baseline, individuals who later dropped out of Al-Anon were less likely to have been referred to Al-Anon by their drinker's health care provider, and reported less severe problems than individuals who continued to attend, but dropouts were more often concerned about their drinker's psychological health; newcomers with these concerns may have found them incompatible with Al-Anon's philosophy. Dropouts reported high rates of problems, suggesting that COs who drop out of Al-Anon would benefit from ongoing help and support. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 家庭結構對子女學校中輟行為的影響:一個後設分析研究 Disentangle the Effects of Family Structure on Kids Dropping out of School – A Meta-Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章勝傑 Simon Chang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究採用後設分析的方法,試圖回答「家庭結構在子女中途輟學歷程中是否扮演了重要而獨特的角色?」此一問題。搜尋了多個國內外期刊論文索引資料庫後,我們共計蒐集了41篇採用邏輯迴歸方法分析中輟預測變項的研究,並登錄了71個模型分析結果,再就其中14個獨立的資料源(包含超過343,789名獨立樣本)所得到的15個分析結果進行後設分析。研究結果顯示,家庭結構對於中輟的影響,並非來自社經地位變項的外溢效果,而是有其獨特的影響力。此外,家庭結構對於中輟的影響似乎也非由學童學業成就所中介。研究者認為,社會資本等構念可能是重要的中介變項,但有待更多研究進一步檢視。最後,則針對中輟預防與中輟研究提出三點建議。 The authors conducted this meta-analytical study to examine the associations between family structure and dropping out behavior. Forty-one studies employed logistic regression method were searched and retrieved from various academic databases and 71 models were coded. The final 15 models meta-analyzed included 343,789 subjects from 14 data sources. We found that the impact of non-intact family structure on dropout behavior cannot be attributed to the spurious effects of family’s socioeconomic status. Besides, the impact of family structure on dropping out of school might not be intervened by students’ academic achievement. Three suggestions about dropout research and prevention were then proposed.

  17. Why do patients drop out during radiation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyu Chan; Chong, Won A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Wu, Hong Gyun

    1998-01-01

    This study is to see how much proportion of the patients receiving radiation therapy drop out during radiation therapy and to analyze the reason for the incomplete treatment. The base population of this study was 1,100 patients with registration numbers 901 through 2,000 at Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Authors investigated the incidence of incomplete radiation therapy, which was defined as less than 95% of initially planned radiation dose, and the reasons for incomplete radiation therapy. One hundred and twenty eight patients (12%) did not complete the planned radiation therapy. The performance status of the incompletely treated patients was generally poorer than that of the base population, and the aim of radiation therapy was more commonly palliative. The most common reason for not completing the planned treatment was the patients' refusal of further radiation therapy because of the distrust of radiation therapy and/or the poor economic status. Careful case selection for radiation therapy with consideration of the socioeconomic status of the patients in addition to the clinical indication would be necessary for the reduction of incomplete treatment, especially in the palliative setting

  18. Is Drop-Out from University Dependent on National Culture and Policy? The Case of Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelsen, Rie; Laursen, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    National cultures are known to influence educational institutions and practices in many ways. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that drop-out from university is also influenced by differences in national cultures. In this article, we compare drop-out from Danish universities with drop-out from European universities. Based on Danish national…

  19. Significance of personality disorders in the face of drop-outs from psychiatric hospitalizations. The case of selected psychiatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biała, Maja; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2017-06-18

    The World Health Organization's estimations indicate that about 50% of patients in well-developed countries may not adhere to long-term therapies. In the field of psychiatry, drop-outs from psychiatric treatment are particularly important. Personality disorders are a significant part of this sphere. The aim of this research was to empirically verify the hypothesis regarding the relation between comorbid personality disorders and drop-outs from treatment among patients of psychiatric wards. This study was a prospective cohort study. 110 patients, hospitalized in 3 different psychiatric wards, were included. Personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). The research was financed by the Polish National Science Center (DEC-2011/01/N/NZ5/05364). The response rate was 89.1%. 72.56% of patients suffered from personality disorders (SCID-II) (among them the most prevalent were: personality disorder - not otherwise specified - 40.7% and borderline personality disorder - 12.38%; 22.95% of patients dropped out from treatment). However, occurrence of personality disorders was not relevant for those drop-outs. On the other hand, relationships at the level of certain criteria of borderline personality disorders and passive-aggressive personality have been revealed. These relationships became stronger when considered from the perspective of differences in the organization of treatment at individual wards. Some personality disorders may play an important role in drop-outs from psychiatric treatment. Presented results require further research.

  20. Estudio Exploratorio Sobre la Visión de Salud de un Grupo de Adolescentes Hombres Desertores del Sistema Escolar de la Comuna de Santiago, Chile: Sus Necesidades, Aspiraciones, Prioridades y Propuestas Exploratory Study About the View of Health in a Group of Male Adolescents Who Have Dropped Out of School in Santiago, Chile: Their Needs, Aspirations, Priorities, and Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Boetto

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da luces sobre los desafíos que plantea abordar a los adolescentes hombres desertores del sistema escolar desde la salud, considerando que éstos por décadas han quedado desplazados como foco de atención. Resulta relevante poder comprender sus propias dinámicas para desarrollar estrategias efectivas de promoción y prevención. Se utilizó un diseño descriptivo-analítico relacional, haciendo uso de metodología cualitativa, con una muestra intencionada de 41 adolescentes hombres. Se usó la entrevista semi-estructurada con áreas temáticas focalizadas y el modelo de la Grounded Theory para la recolección y análisis de la información. Los resultados ayudan a comprender la visión de salud de un grupo de adolescentes hombres, construyendo un modelo comprensivo general sustentado en su vivencia de la salud escindida.The article provides some insights regarding the challenges involved in approaching male adolescents who have dropped out of school, from the perspective of health, considering that for decades they have been ignored as a focus of attention. It is relevant to understand their own dynamics in order to develop effective promotion and prevention strategies. A relational descriptive-analytical design was chosen, using a qualitative approach, with an intentional sample of 41 male adolescents. A semistructured interview with focused thematic areas was designed and the Grounded Theory model was used to gather and analyze the data. The results contribute to an understanding of the way a group of male adolescents view health, constructing a comprehensive general model based on their split health experience.

  1. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression--Further considerations and practical implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic drop-out...... is occurring. With this discussion, we hope to improve the drop-out model, so that it can be used for practical forensic genetics and stimulate further discussions. We discuss how to estimate drop-out probabilities when using a varying number of PCR cycles and other experimental conditions....

  2. The Drop-Out Problem in Primary Education: Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific--Some Case Studies: China, India, Peninsular Malaysia, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The ways in which six developing countries in Asia are dealing with the problem of children dropping out of elementary school are discussed in these essays. One of the persistent problems that has deterred universalization of primary education is the early dropping out of children from schools. Case studies describing the magnitude and causes of…

  3. The PhD track: who succeeds, who drops out?

    OpenAIRE

    Groenvynck, Hans; Vandevelde, Karen; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral completion rates are an indicator of successful doctoral programmes and of a region's potential of highly skilled workforce. The Human Resources in Research - Flanders (HRRF) database contains data of all academic staff appointments, doctoral student registrations, and doctoral degrees of all Flemish universities from 1990 onwards. Previous research has identified the following factors as affecting successfully completing the PhD: cohort, scientific discipline, type of scholarship or...

  4. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS): program efficacy and personality features as predictors of drop-out -- an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesiani, Roberta; Boccalon, Silvia; Giarolli, Laura; Blum, Nancee; Fossati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In this study we present a clinical application of the STEPPS model in an Italian sample of severely affected patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or personality disorder (PD) with prominent borderline features in comorbidity with a mood disorder. The aims of this work are: 1) to confirm our preliminary results in a larger sample and at a 12-month follow-up, and 2) to identify predictors of drop-out vs completion of STEPPS in order to understand which characteristics of patients make them suitable or not for this treatment. The sample is composed of 32 subjects recruited from a population of inpatients of the Mood Disorders Center, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hospital San Raffaele-Turro, Milan. To confirm STEPPS efficacy at 12-month follow-up, we selected the following outcome criteria: reduction in the number of hospitalizations related to self-harm acts; reduction in the number of suicidal attempts; reduction of perceived emotional intensity levels; changes in cognitive filter scores; changes in the scores on self-report questionnaires. To identify predictors of drop-out vs completion, we analysed the following variables: demographic features (sex, marital status, school level achieved, and job status); Axis-I diagnosis; Axis-II categorical and dimensional diagnosis; and personality features. Seventeen (53%) subjects completed the treatment successfully. The drop-out rate was 47%. Patients who completed the program show a significant decrease in the number of hospitalizations, both at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up. Friedman ANOVA test shows a significant decrease in suicidal attempts during and after STEPPS, and at 12-month follow-up. Analysis of drop-outs showed no significant differences with regard to sex, marital status, school level and job status between the two groups. Axis-I and Axis-II categorical diagnoses did not discriminate between the two groups. Those patients who dropped differ significantly from

  5. How ants drop out: ant abundance on tropical mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longino, John T; Branstetter, Michael G; Colwell, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops.

  6. How ants drop out: ant abundance on tropical mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Longino

    Full Text Available In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops.

  7. Patient Profile of Drop-Outs From a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Pavón Masa, María; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Muñiz Rodríguez, Ana Mirian; Tallón Moreno, Rodrigo; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-05-01

    While the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programs (PR) in COPD have been demonstrated, poor adherence, related with worse clinical outcomes, is common. The purpose of this study was to examine causes for drop-out during a 12-week multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program and to investigate the characteristics of patients with poor adherence, with special emphasis on functional and clinical characteristics. A prospective study was performed between February and November 2015in 83 COPD patients enrolled in an outpatient program of 36 strength +resistance training sessions. Ambulances were provided to facilitate access to the clinic. Patients were divided into: adherent (A) (attended at least 70% of the program) or non-adherent (NA) (at least one session). A total of 83 patients were evaluated and 26 excluded; 15.7% refused to participate. The drop-out rate was 38.5%. The main causes were low motivation and transport problems. Lower forced vital capacity (NA, 58.9% vs A, 67.8%; P=.03), worse results on submaximal exercise test (NA, 6.2minutes vs A, 9.2minutes; P=.02), in total distance walked (NA, 42.6 vs A, 56.5; P=.03) and VO 2 in ml/min/kg (NA, 11.4 vs A, 13.6; P=.03) and in ml/min (NA, 839 vs A, 1020; P=.04) were found in the non-adherent group. This group also showed higher use of oral steroids (NA, 23.8% vs A, 2.9%; P=.01). More than 1/3 of patients leave programs. The main causes are related to motivation and transport. The patients who dropout are those with worse functional tests, more exacerbations, steroids and smoking habit. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender, Success, and Drop-Out during a Resistance Exercise Program in Community Dwelling Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Geirsdottir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Resistance exercise training can be effective against sarcopenia. We identified predictors of drop-out and compared physical outcomes between men and women after such training. Methods. Subjects (N=236, 73.7±5.7 years participated in a 12-week resistance exercise program. Outcome variables were measured at baseline and endpoint. Results. Drop-out was 11.9% and not significantly different between genders. Drop-outs were significantly older and had poorer strength and physical function in comparison to completers. Anthropometrics, QoL, and cognitive function were not related to drop-out. According to multivariate analysis, gait speed and physical activity were the strongest predictors of drop-out. After the training, gains in lean mass or appendicular muscle were significantly higher in men than women; however relative gains in appendicular muscle as well as absolute improvements in strength and function were similar in men and women, respectively. Conclusions. Participants who drop out are older, have poorer physical function, and are less physically active. Old women do not drop out more frequently than men and show meaningful improvements in relevant outcomes similar to men after such a training program. The trial is registered at the US National Library of Medicine (NCT01074879.

  9. Personality predicts drop-out from therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders. Results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Högdahl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT seems a promising way of delivering eating disorder treatment. However, treatment drop-out is a common problem and little is known about the correlates, especially in clinical settings. The study aimed to explore prediction of drop-out in the context of a randomized controlled trial within specialized eating disorder care in terms of eating disorder symptomatology, personality traits, comorbidity, and demographic characteristics. 109 outpatients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or similar eating disorder were randomized to two types of ICBT. Participants were assessed with several clinical- and self-ratings. The average drop-out rate was 36%. Drop-out was predicted by lower scores in the personality traits Dutifulness and Assertiveness as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory Revised, and by higher scores in Self-affirm as measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour. Drop-out was also predicted by therapist factors: one therapist had significantly more drop-outs (82% than the other three (M = 30%. Theoretical and clinical implications of the impact of the predictors are discussed.

  10. The effect of mining data k-means clustering toward students profile model drop out potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Windania; Tamba, Saut; Saragih, Jepronel

    2018-04-01

    The high of student success and the low of student failure can reflect the quality of a college. One of the factors of fail students was drop out. To solve the problem, so mining data with K-means Clustering was applied. K-Means Clustering method would be implemented to clustering the drop out students potentially. Firstly the the result data would be clustering to get the information of all students condition. Based on the model taken was found that students who potentially drop out because of the unexciting students in learning, unsupported parents, diffident students and less of students behavior time. The result of process of K-Means Clustering could known that students who more potentially drop out were in Cluster 1 caused Credit Total System, Quality Total, and the lowest Grade Point Average (GPA) compared between cluster 2 and 3.

  11. Deliberate practice predicts performance over time in adolescent chess players and drop-outs: a linear mixed models analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B H; Smits, Niels; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the longitudinal relation between deliberate practice and performance in chess was examined using a linear mixed models analysis. The practice activities and performance ratings of young elite chess players, who were either in, or had dropped out of the Dutch national chess training, were analysed since they had started playing chess seriously. The results revealed that deliberate practice (i.e. serious chess study alone and serious chess play) strongly contributed to chess performance. The influence of deliberate practice was not only observable in current performance, but also over chess players' careers. Moreover, although the drop-outs' chess ratings developed more slowly over time, both the persistent and drop-out chess players benefited to the same extent from investments in deliberate practice. Finally, the effect of gender on chess performance proved to be much smaller than the effect of deliberate practice. This study provides longitudinal support for the monotonic benefits assumption of deliberate practice, by showing that over chess players' careers, deliberate practice has a significant effect on performance, and to the same extent for chess players of different ultimate performance levels. The results of this study are not in line with critique raised against the deliberate practice theory that the factors deliberate practice and talent could be confounded.

  12. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2014. NCES 2018-117

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joel; Cui, Jiashan; Stark, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This report draws on an array of nationally representative surveys and administrative datasets to present statistics on high school dropout and completion rates. The report includes estimates of the percentage of students who drop out in a given 12-month period (event dropout rates), the percentage of young people in a specified age range who are…

  13. Dropping out of outpatient psychiatric treatment: a preliminary report of a 2-year follow-up of 1500 psychiatric outpatients in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Rezaie, Leeba; de Jong, Desiree M

    2013-01-01

    Outpatient psychiatric treatment provides both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for a large portion of psychiatric patients. Dropping out, or early termination of treatment, may be considered a common barrier to outpatient's psychiatric treatment. There are limited studies on this issue in Iran. The current study aimed to examine rates, predictors and reasons of dropping out of an outpatient psychiatric treatment. In this 6-month cohort study, 1500 outpatients who visited 10 psychiatrist's offices in the Iranian city of Kermanshah were recruited and followed for 2 years (2009-2011) for recommended treatments including admission to hospital, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and a combination of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Characteristics of patients who dropped out of the current study were collected, and reasons for dropping out were collected via phone or in person interview. Dropouts were prevalent in prescribed treatments. Pretreatment (primary) dropout rates in psychotherapy treatment were 4 times greater than dropout rates in pharmacotherapy treatment (80% and 20%, respectively). There were significance differences between dropouts and non-dropouts of pharmacotherapy with respect to patient characteristics; younger age, male gender, low level of education, unemployment, lack of insurance, new cases and divorce were more prevalent among dropouts (Preasons for dropping out included overslept and too ill to attend treatment and fear of becoming addicted to prescribed psychotropic medication (30% and 18%, respectively). Lack of confidence in therapist ability and lack of confidence in the efficacy of the treatment were more prevalent in patients who dropped out of psychotherapy (Preasons for dropping out and strategies to reduce rates of dropouts is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer OZER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predicting factors the drop out the counseling process. Methods: The study group consists of 555 college students admitted to a Counseling and Guidance Center (CGC and participated in at least one session of counseling after the first view in the 2013-2014 academic year. As a data collection tool, an “Application Form” on the demographic information and the “Brief Symptom Inventory” was applied to the students; and independent samples t-test and binary logistic regression techniques were used in the analysis of the collected data. Results: According to the analysis results, the age of the students attending the counseling process was found to be higher than those who drop out, but no significant difference was found in their psychometric properties in terms of continuation of the counseling process. Only the age of clients and their previous psychiatric help history was found to predict the dropping out counseling process early. Conclusion: Drop outs are less frequently observed in clients having a previous psychiatric help experience. In addition, it was determined that older clients less frequently drop out the counseling process

  15. [Eating Disorder Treatment in Iceland - Treatment adherence, psychiatric co-morbidities and factors influencing drop-out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Gudrun Mist; Palsson, Sigurdur Pall; Thorsteinsdottir, Gudlaug

    2015-05-01

    Treatment adherence in patients with eating disorders (ED) in Iceland is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate treatment drop-out and explore factors that influence premature termination of treatment in a specialized ED treatment unit, at the University Hospital of Iceland, during the period of September 1, 2008 - May 1, 2012. The study is retrospective and naturalistic. Hospital records of referred patients were examined. Those meeting the ICD 10 criteria of anorexia nervosa (AN) (F50.0, F50.1), bulimia nervosa (BN) (F50.2, F50.3) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (F50.9) were included. The total sample was 260 and 182 patients met inclusion criteria. No-shows were 7%. Drop-out was defined as premature termination of treatment without formal discharge. The sample consisted of 176 women and 6 men, mean age 26.3 years. BN was diagnosed in 52.7% of patients, EDNOS in 36.8% AN in 10.4%. 74.7% had one or more co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety- and/or depression were diagnosed in 72.5%, Attention hyperactivity deficiency disorder in 15.4% and personality disorders in 8.2%. Lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) was 30.8%. Drop-out from treatment occurred in 54.4% of cases (with approximately 1/3 returning to treatment), 27.5% finished treatment and 18.1% were still in treatment at the end of the follow up period. Treatment adherence was significantly higher in patients who had a university degree, in those who had themselves taken the initiative to seek ED treatment and in those with higher anxiety scores at assessment. AN patients did better than other ED patients while patients with SUDs showed a tendency for higher drop-out (p=0.079). The drop-out rates were similar to what has been reported from other western countries. Follow-up time was longer and AN patient did better than expected. Higher education, initiative in seeking treatment and higher anxiety scores on questionnaires were protective.

  16. Reading and writing in order not to drop out of university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giohanny Olave Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.38folios45.59 This text investigates the relationships between dropping out of university and difficulties in reading and writing, in accordance with the recent overview of both phenomena. After a general review of the studies on dropping out of university, in which their importance for the continued development of Colombia’s professionalization is gauged, the practices of reading comprehension and producing texts are problematized specifically in the field of higher education and are then causally related to the phenomenon of dropping out of university. Finally, the current processes of literacy at university, based on recognition of its relevance in the educational mission of higher education, are discussed.

  17. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  18. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L.; Kelbæk, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before...... years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry. Results: The drop-out rate from acute CMR was 28% (n = 92). These patients had a significantly worse clinical risk profile upon admission...... as evaluated by the TIMI-risk score (3.7 (± 2.1) vs 4.0 (± 2.6), p = 0.043) and by left ventricular ejection fraction (43 (± 9) vs. 47 (± 10), p = 0.029). CMR drop-outs had a higher incidence of known hypertension (39% vs. 35%, p = 0.043), known diabetes (14% vs. 7%, p = 0.025), known cardiac disease (11% vs...

  19. Reasons for dropping out from a waiting list for in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Angelique J. C. M.; Verhagen, Tamara E. M.; Dumoulin, John C. M.; Land, Jolande A.; Evers, Johannes L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of couples dropping out of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) waiting list and to describe the couples' reasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Fertility center in an academic hospital. Patient(s): 674 women placed consecutively on the IVF waiting list

  20. Coping with Medical Training Demands: Thinking of Dropping Out, or in It for the Long Haul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy; Nicholls, Serena L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical trainees are at risk of psychological distress due to training workload demands. Dropping out of medicine has hidden and real costs to both the public and the individual. Using quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this study assessed differences in stress and coping strategies between those serious and not serious about dropping out…

  1. Clinical outcomes of psychotherapy dropouts: does dropping out of psychotherapy necessarily mean failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo T. Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A large proportion of psychotherapy patients remain untreated, mostly because they drop out. This study compares the short- and long-term outcomes of patients who dropped out of psychotherapy to those of therapy completers. Methods: The sample included 63 patients (23 dropouts and 40 completers from a controlled clinical trial, which compared narrative therapy vs. cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder. Patients were assessed at the eighth session, post-treatment, and at 31-month follow-up. Results: Dropouts improved less than completers by the last session attended, but continued to improve significantly more than completers during the follow-up period. Some dropout patients improved with a small dose of therapy (17% achieved a clinically significant change before abandoning treatment, while others only achieved clinically significant change after a longer period (62% at 31-month follow-up. Conclusion: These results emphasize the importance of dealing effectively with patients at risk of dropping out of therapy.Patients who dropped out also reported improvement of depressive symptoms without therapy, but took much longer to improve than did patients who completed therapy. This might be attributable to natural remission of depression. Further research should use a larger patient database, ideally gathered by meta-analysis.

  2. Robustness of crossover trials against subject drop-out - Examples of perpetually connected designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, P J; Godolphin, E J

    2017-01-01

    When performing a repeated measures experiment, such as a clinical trial, there is a risk of subject drop-out during the experiment. If one or more subjects leave the study prematurely, a situation could arise where the eventual design is disconnected, implying that very few treatment contrasts for both direct effects and carryover effects are estimable. This paper aims to identify experimental conditions where this problem with the eventual design can be avoided. It is shown that in the class of uniformly balanced repeated measurement designs consisting of two or more Latin squares, there are planned designs with the following useful property. Provided that all subjects have completed the first two periods of study, such a design will not be replaced by a disconnected eventual design due to drop-out, irrespective of the type of drop-out behaviour that may occur. Designs with this property are referred to as perpetually connected. These experimental conditions are identified and examined in the paper and an example of at least one perpetually connected uniformly balanced repeated measurement design is given in each case. The results improve upon previous contributions in the literature that have been confined largely to cases in which drop-out occurs only in the final periods of study.

  3. Characteristics of patients in an eating disorder sample who dropped out: 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés; Vellisca Gonzalez, María Yolanda; González Gómez, Jana; Latorre Marín, José Ignacio; Carral-Fernández, Laura; Orejudo Hernandez, Santos; Madrazo Río-Hortega, Inés; Moreno Malfaz, Laura

    2017-07-17

    This manuscript explores the characteristics of individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder who dropped out of treatment, compared with those who completed it. The participants were 196 patients diagnosed with eating disorders (according to DSM-IV-TR criteria) who consecutively began treatment for the first time in an eating disorders unit. They were assessed at baseline with a set of questionnaires evaluating eating habits, temperament, and general psychopathology. During the follow-up period, patients who dropped out were re-assessed via a telephone interview. In the course of a 2-year follow-up, a total of 80 (40.8%) patients were labeled as dropouts, and 116 (59.2%) remaining subjects were considered completers. High TCI scores in the character dimensions of Disorderliness (NS4) (p out of treatment. Level III: Cohort Study.

  4. Risk status for dropping out of developmental followup for very low birth weight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Catlett, A T; Thompson, R J; Johndrow, D A; Boshkoff, M R

    1993-01-01

    Not keeping scheduled visits for medical care is a major health care issue. Little research has addressed how the interaction of demographic and biomedical parameters with psychosocial processes has an impact on appointment keeping. Typical factors are stress of daily living, methods of coping, social support, and instrumental support (that is, tangible assistance). In this study, the authors examine the role of these parameters and processes in the risk status for dropping out of a developme...

  5. Disadvantageous decision-making as a predictor of drop-out among cocaine-dependent individuals in long-term residential treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eStevens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI is substantially challenged by high drop-out rates, raising questions regarding contributing factors. Recently, a number of studies have highlighted the potential of greater focus on the clinical significance of neurocognitive impairments in treatment-seeking cocaine users. In the present study, we hypothesized that disadvantageous decision-making would be one such factor placing CDI at greater risk for treatment drop-out. Methods: In order to explore this hypothesis, the present study contrasted baseline performance (at treatment onset on two validated tasks of decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Cambridge Gamble Task (CGT in CDI who completed treatment in a residential Therapeutic Community (TC (N=66 and those who dropped out of TC prematurely (N=84. Results: Compared to treatment completers, CDI who dropped out of TC prematurely did not establish a consistent and advantageous response pattern as the IGT progressed and exhibited a poorer ability to choose the most likely outcome on the CGT. There were no group differences in betting behavior.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that neurocognitive rehabilitation of disadvantageous decision-making may have clinical benefits in CDI admitted to long-term residential treatment programs.

  6. Drop-Outs from Swiss Universities: An Empirical Analysis of Data on All Students between 1975 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Stefan C.; Diem, Andrea; Messer, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This study presents in-depth empirical analyses of drop-outs from all Swiss universities for the entire student population between 1975 and 2008. The results show that most identifiable factors associated with a greater or lesser probability of dropping out are identical to those found in a recent Systematic Review (Larsen et?al., 2013). The main…

  7. Academic Fatalism: Applying Durkheim's Fatalistic Suicide Typology to Student Drop-Out and the Climate of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godor, Brian P.

    2017-01-01

    Student drop-out remains a critical issue facing educational professionals. For higher education, the vast research in the past 40 years has been influenced by the work of Tinto and his model of student persistence. In this model are several elements that have proven to sharpen the focus of student drop-out research such as the concept of…

  8. Power conditioning accessories. Construction of a delayed drop-out relay and test of constant voltage transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroe, E.; Kaufmann, H.; Koeck, J.; Scarpatetti, R.; Vuister, P.

    1983-10-01

    A delayed drop-out relay aimed to protect electronic measuring equipment during voltage fluctuations and power failures and transients is described. The results of a test on the performance of three resonant voltage transformers (GOULD GT 3000, CVT Isoreg 15-025 and Philips 1412/00) coupled with this relay, are presented. It is found that with this set-up, instrument malfunction and breakdown can be effectively prevented under the normal power conditions met in European countries or the USA. Under more severe conditions, usually met in the developing countries, a more careful selection has to be made; the test recommends the Philips transformer. It is also recommended that for best results the constant voltage transformers should be used at 75-80% of their rated power

  9. Effects of different types of progress indicators on drop-out rates in web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, U.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Horst, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes whether and how different types of progress indicators affect the tendency of respondents to continue filling out a web survey, focusing on whether the progress indicators’ effects depend on the position of the respondent in the questionnaire. Using a sample of 2460

  10. Risk status for dropping out of developmental followup for very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlett, A T; Thompson, R J; Johndrow, D A; Boshkoff, M R

    1993-01-01

    Not keeping scheduled visits for medical care is a major health care issue. Little research has addressed how the interaction of demographic and biomedical parameters with psychosocial processes has an impact on appointment keeping. Typical factors are stress of daily living, methods of coping, social support, and instrumental support (that is, tangible assistance). In this study, the authors examine the role of these parameters and processes in the risk status for dropping out of a developmental followup program for very low birth weight infants. The findings suggest that the stress of daily living is a significant predictor for the mother's return when the infant is 6 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The predictors for return at 24 months corrected age include marital status, race, gestational age of the infant, maternal intelligence, and efficacy expectations. Providing transportation was found to be a successful intervention strategy for a subgroup at very high risk for dropping out due to a constellation of biomedical, demographic, and psychosocial factors.

  11. Analysis of the obstacles related to treatment entry, adherence and drop-out among alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsi Elbreder, Márcia; Carvalho De Humerez, Dorisdaia; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex syndrome involving social, psychological and individual factors in addition to a series of obstacles regarding treatment entry, adherence, and drop-out. These obstacles contribute negatively to both clinical evolution and prognosis of the patients, affecting their quality of life and raising the social costs. This is a bibliographical study in which we address this theme as well as other experiences observed in our daily practice in the Alcohol and Drug Research Unit (UNIAD) based at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). The analysis of the obstacles related to treatment entry, attendance, and drop-out among alcoholic patients shows that systemic, social, cultural, and individual factors are all involved, including the structural ones. Women have more obstacles compared to men, and what is thought to be a barrier to one patient may be a factor motivating another patient to search for help. We conclude that several factors at different levels exist that prevent the patient from overcoming these treatment obstacles.

  12. School quality, economic status and school dropout rates among Mexican teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.

  13. Developing the early warning system for identification of students at risk of dropping out using a collaborative action research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Olja 0000-0001-8860-6717

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents findings of collaborative action research aimed at exploring and describing the process of the development of the early warning system for identification of students at risk of dropping (EWS. The study has been conducted in collaboration between practitioners from five vocational agriculture and food science schools and research team with expertise in the field of educational psychology. Study employed one cycle of collaborative action research including planning, acting, observing, reflecting and revising phase. During the planning and action phase, Instrument for identification of students at risk of dropping out has been developed and implemented on the sample of 485 first grade students. The collected data has been used to highlight the students who are beginning to exhibit warning signs that could become obstacles to graduation, as well as to craft meaningful prevention and intervention measures. Observations regarding the implementation of proposed methodology and reflections on collected data and ongoing processes have been systematically recorded through regular monthly meetings between researchers and practitioners. Analysis of 73 documents, collected during observation and reflection phase, resulted in 18 categories, grouped into two broad themes: pitfalls and strengths of EWS. Based on the findings, the methodology for identification of students at risk was revised to fit the needs and strengths of the specific school. The study offers valuable lessons regarding development of EWS through researchers-practitioners collaboration.

  14. Factors associated with dropping out of medical school: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2010-01-01

    literature on medical education is ongoing. Inclusion criteria are: Study population=medical students, outcome=dropout, follow up period=minimum 1 year, study designs=cohort/case-control/experimental. An experienced research librarian performed a primary search of the databases PubMed, ERIC, Psyc...

  15. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    more evidence of a negative side of the quest for improved academic performance. When dropout rates increase, the performance composites in subsequent years increase. Accountability systems need to remove any indirect benefit a school may receive from increasing its dropout rate. Schools should be held accountable for those who drop out of school. Given the personal and social costs of dropping out, accountability systems need to place more emphasis on dropout prevention. Such an emphasis could encompass increasing the dropout age and having the school's performance composite include scores of zero on end-of-grade tests for those who leave school.

  16. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find more evidence of a negative side of the quest for improved academic performance. When dropout rates increase, the performance composites in subsequent years increase. Conclusions/recommendations Accountability systems need to remove any indirect benefit a school may receive from increasing its dropout rate. Schools should be held accountable for those who drop out of school. Given the personal and social costs of dropping out, accountability systems need to place more emphasis on dropout prevention. Such an emphasis could encompass increasing the dropout age and having the school’s performance composite include scores of zero on end-of-grade tests for those who leave school. PMID:24013958

  17. Drop App: give voice to youngsters through new technologies to fight drop-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gandullo Recio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available IES Valle de Aller is part of a european project Erasmus+ KA2 cooperation and innovation of good practices. IES Valle de Aller is working together on this project with other educational organizations from different European countries. In 2012, early school leavers (ESL affects 5,500,000 young europeans aged between 18 and 24 years, either because they had not completed compulsory secondary education or because they did not follow higher education studies, both high school and vocational training. They were not in the labor market. The objective of the EU2020 is to reduce the rate of ESL by 10 %. All inquiries about so far show that ESL is caused by a mixture of individual circumstances, educational and socioeconomic conditions. In the last five years we have developed many educational interventions by the different national systems and regional educational policies to curb the rate of ESL. What is innovative in this project, and that means added value, is the fact that the approach is focused on finding the student in his own world. Young people between 14 and 18 would be much more motivated to continue education programs if they use the languages of the new information and communications technology (ICT, because they are really the digital natives.

  18. Dropping out of Vocational Education in the State of Kuwait: A Case Study of Industrial Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Almutairi, Yousef B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine, in retrospect, trainees' perceptions of the reasons some of their peers dropped out of the vocational education at the Industrial Institute-Shuwaikh (IIS), Kuwait. Using the descriptive-analytical method, a reliable questionnaire was developed to achieve this purpose. Results show that: (a) the…

  19. Individual Differences in the Effects of Academic Motivation on Higher Education Students' Intention to Drop Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rump, Markus; Esdar, Wiebke; Wild, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated individual differences in the effects of academic motivation based on self-determination theory (SDT), particularly intrinsic motivation, as well as identified, introjected, and external regulation on higher education students' intention to drop out. Based on previous research, we challenged the assumption of a…

  20. Theory of Planned Behavior: Sensitivity and Specificity in Predicting Graduation and Drop-Out among College and University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Amsel, Rhonda; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Budd, Jillian; King, Laura; Jorgensen, Shirley; Asuncion, Jennison

    2016-01-01

    We examined sensitivity and specificity when using the three theory of planned behavior (TPB) scales (Perceived Behavioral Control, Subjective Norms, Attitude) to predict graduation and drop-out in a longitudinal study of 252 college and university students with disabilities and in a separate cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1380…

  1. [Use of filgrastim, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), in radiotherapy to reduce drop-outs because of radiogenic leukopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, A; Bertossi, L; Ferrarese, F; Coghetto, F; Marazzato, G; Andrulli, A D; Zorat, P L

    1998-03-01

    Radiotherapy patients are at risk of developing leukopenia, which risk depends on the irradiated volume, the rate of irradiated bone marrow and the radiation dose. Radiogenic leukopenia may cause radiotherapy drop-out, with consequent effects, on local tumor control and clinical outcome. The introduction of granulocyte growth factors, such as filgrastim, has permitted to accelerate normal neutrophil count recovery in irradiation-related neutropenia both in vitro and animal models; clinical experience in humans is still lacking, relative to both indications and scheduling. In the Oncologic Radiotherapy Department of Treviso Hospital, 31 patients irradiated for Hodgkin disease, rectal cancer and other malignancies, who presented leukopenia requiring treatment discontinuation, were given filgrastim to assess its actual effect in avoiding further drop-outs and to compare two administration schedules (2 or 3 vials, 30 MIU, weekly). Filgrastim treatment was continued throughout the radiotherapy cycles, for 1 to 5 weeks. Eighteen patients had received previous chemotherapy and 11 were undergoing concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy-irradiation. A mean 203% increase in leukocyte count was observed (136% in the patients treated with 2 vials/week and 274% in those receiving 3 vials/week); this increase was more apparent in women that in men (256% versus 91%) and slightly higher in patients 50 years old and with target volumes < 5000 ml. Filgrastin treatment was well tolerated by all patients, with no discontinuations due to adverse effects; 9 patients (29%) reported skeletal pain, which was marked in 2 of them only. Eighty percent of patients completed all the radiotherapy cycles with no discontinuation, while 6 patients dropped out because leukopenia persisted. Biweekly filgrastim administration was effective to prevent unscheduled radiotherapy discontinuation in 75% of patients and triweekly administration was effective in 86% of patients. In our experience, filgrastim

  2. Drop App: give voice to youngsters through new technologies to fight drop-out

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Gandullo Recio

    2016-01-01

    IES Valle de Aller is part of a european project Erasmus+ KA2 cooperation and innovation of good practices. IES Valle de Aller is working together on this project with other educational organizations from different European countries. In 2012, early school leavers (ESL) affects 5,500,000 young europeans aged between 18 and 24 years, either because they had not completed compulsory secondary education or because they did not follow higher education studies, both high school and vocational t...

  3. Characteristics of gay and bisexual men who drop out of a web survey of sexual behaviour in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alison Ruth; Wiggins, Richard Donovan; Bolding, Graham; Elford, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    An invitation to take part in a web survey of sexual behaviour appeared on two popular websites for gay men in the UK in May and June 2003. As soon as men began the survey, their responses were recorded. If they quit before the end, the point at which they stopped was identified. Men clicked into the survey a total of 4,271 times and 2,752 (64%) respondents completed it. The median last question reached by respondents who dropped out was question number 20 out of 158. Multivariate analysis indicated that drop out was related to ethnic group, openness about sexual orientation and age. The results suggest that MSM who use the Internet to seek sexual partners may be younger, more likely to be from an ethnic minority and less open about their sexuality than web surveys indicate. This has implications for the development of online HIV and STI interventions.

  4. Factors associated with non-participation and drop-out in a lifestyle intervention for workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Beek Allard J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-response and drop-out are problems that are commonly encountered in health promotion trials. Understanding the health-related characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs and the reasons for non-participation and drop-out may be beneficial for future intervention trials. Methods Male construction workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD were invited to participate in a lifestyle intervention study. In order to investigate the associations between participation and CVD risk factors, and drop-out and CVD risk factors, crude and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The reasons for non-participation and drop-out were assessed qualitatively. Results 20% of the workers who were invited decided to participate; 8.6% of the participants dropped out before the first follow-up measurement. The main reasons for non-participation were 'no interest', 'current (para-medical treatment', and 'feeling healthy', and for drop-out they were 'lack of motivation', 'current (para-medical treatment', and 'disappointment'. Participants were 4.2 years older, had a higher blood pressure, higher total cholesterol, and lower HDL cholesterol than non-participants, and were more likely to report 'tiredness and/or stress' and 'chest pain and/or shortness of breath'. After adjusting for age, most risk factors were not significantly associated with participation. Drop-outs were 4.6 years younger than those who completed the study. The prevalence of smoking was higher among non-participants and drop-outs. Conclusion Participants had a worse CVD risk profile than non-participants, mainly because of the difference in age. Non-participants and drop-outs were younger and more likely to be smokers. The main reasons for non-participation and drop-out were health-related. Investigators in the field of health promotion should be encouraged to share comparable information. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN

  5. Dropping out of Ethiopia’s Community Based Health Insurance scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLow contract renewal rates have been identified as one of the challenges facing the development of community based health insurance schemes (CBHI). This paper uses longitudinal household survey data to examine dropout in the case of Ethiopia’s pilot CBHI scheme, which saw enrolment

  6. Doctoral Students’ Social Support Profiles and Their Relationship to Burnout, Drop-Out Intentions, and Time to Candidacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni A Peltonen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to better understand the individual variations in supervisory and researcher community support among doctoral students by analyzing the social support profiles of Finnish doctoral students. The differences among the profiles, in terms of satisfaction with supervision, experienced burnout, time to candidacy and disciplinary background were also examined. Background: This study explores social support profiles and their association with the experienced burnout, satisfaction with supervision, drop-out intentions, disciplinary background, and form of dissertation among doctoral students by employing a person-oriented approach. Methodology: In total, 402 doctoral students from a Finnish university completed a Doctoral Experience survey. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA was used to group doctoral students according to social support from supervisors and the researcher community. Contribution: The present study is among the first quantitative studies to explore doctoral student social support profiles and their association with burnout, drop-out intentions, and time to candidacy. It brings into focus the importance of supervisory and researcher community support as one of the most crucial assets of doctoral education in researcher communities. Findings: Two social support profiles, a sufficient support from supervisor and researched community, and b insufficient support from both of these, were identified. Further investigation suggested that the doctoral students who received sufficient support were less likely to suffer from burnout and were less likely to develop drop-out intentions than students who received insufficient support from their supervisor and the researcher community. Recommendations for Practitioners: A recommendation deriving from this research is to identify students at risk as early as possible and assist them with sufficient support.

  7. Characterization of dropping out and design defector early warning system: Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Betancur, Juan Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has increased the interest of the Government of Colombia for education as a tool for reducing the social gap; as a recognized part of the problem to dropping out in Higher Education. The Facultad de Minas- FM , is part of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia -UN, this has 12 undergraduate programs, which are responsible for much of the training in the engineering of the region and the country; This training process is not unrelated to the problem of dropping out, for 2011 the headquarters of the UN Medellin was at 50.1% attrition cohort and FM on average 47.4% , a figure that is above the national target , 40% proposed by the Colombian state for 2010 (Ministerio de Educación Nacional-MEN, 2006. This article aims to present a methodology to mitigate attrition levels based on the characterization of possible deserter and a system to alert early -SAT , which is designed based on the analysis of factors and components rotated on academic and socioeconomic data of students They defected from the first period of 2009 and the second period of 2013.

  8. "Analyzing the Longitudinal K-12 Grading Histories of Entire Cohorts of Students: Grades, Data Driven Decision Making, Dropping out and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Bowers

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available School personnel currently lack an effective method to pattern and visually interpret disaggregated achievement data collected on students as a means to help inform decision making. This study, through the examination of longitudinal K-12 teacher assigned grading histories for entire cohorts of students from a school district (n=188, demonstrates a novel application of hierarchical cluster analysis and pattern visualization in which all data points collected on every student in a cohort can be patterned, visualized and interpreted to aid in data driven decision making by teachers and administrators. Additionally, as a proof-of-concept study, overall schooling outcomes, such as student dropout or taking a college entrance exam, are identified from the data patterns and compared to past methods of dropout identification as one example of the usefulness of the method. Hierarchical cluster analysis correctly identified over 80% of the students who dropped out using the entire student grade history patterns from either K-12 or K-8.

  9. DECREASING SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT. THEORETICAL INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and social empowerment in Romania are unconcievable in the absence of a modern education system, which needs both economic and financial investments and social, political, cultural measures to increase the inclusion of young people in school system. In this particular context, given that Romania faces a high degree rate of school dropout, and moreover there are few chances that Romania reach its goals, we try in this paper to look inside the real situation. Indeed, school dropout present serious negative consequences both on individual level and for the whole society. Recognising this fact, next step is to investigate and reveal the determining factors for this situation, and we are particularly interested in the economic and systemic factors. Consequently, we present in this paper first a brief literature review on the fenomenon of school dropping out, including reviewing main studies related to factors, effects, causes etc. In the second part, starting from several statistical data provided by INS, EUROSTAT and UNICEF studies, we propose some theoretical models and policy reccomendations in order to decrease the school dropout rate and especially the early school dropout rate.

  10. Disappointment and drop-out rate after being allocated to control group in a smoking cessation trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, D; Sundberg-Petersson, I; Adami, J

    2010-01-01

    If a patient agrees to take part in a randomised trial it is reasonable to presume that the patient would prefer to be allocated into the intervention. This study's aim was to investigate how patients react after they have been randomised into control group....

  11. Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…

  12. At the edge of the school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Lars Stubbe; Hansen, Britt Blaabjerg; Højholdt, Andy

    The rate of pupils dropping out of school and the fact that weak school affiliation correlates with lower job opportunities is of major concern in Europe (Solag, 2002, EACEA, 2012). Participation in education is also considered pivotal to lowering the probability of youth involvement in crime...

  13. Creating Sustainable Learning Environments in Schools by Means of Strategic Planning: The Experience of Engagement by a Comparative Education Team at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, H.; Wolhuter, C.

    2010-01-01

    Many schools in South Africa are dysfunctional, or at least do not function optimally. This statement could be substantiated by just citing statistics about failure rates, school drop-out rates, school violence, matric pass rates, learner absenteeism, educator absenteeism or the incidence of discipline problems and the effect thereof on educators.…

  14. Factors influencing the decision to drop out of health insurance enrolment among urban slum dwellers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinga, Roger A; Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Kuganab-Lem, Robert Bella

    2015-03-01

    To identify the factors influencing dropout from Ghana's health insurance scheme among populations living in slum communities. Cross-sectional data were collected from residents of 22 slums in the Accra Metropolitan Assembly. Cluster and systematic random sampling techniques were used to select and interview 600 individuals who had dropped out from the scheme 6 months prior to the study. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models were computed to account for sample characteristics and reasons associated with the decision to dropout. The proportion of dropouts in the sample increased from the range of 6.8% in 2008 to 34.8% in 2012. Non-affordability of premium was the predominant reason followed by rare illness episodes, limited benefits of the scheme and poor service quality. Low-income earners and those with low education were significantly more likely to report premium non-affordability. Rare illness was a common reason among younger respondents, informal sector workers and respondents with higher education. All subgroups of age, education, occupation and income reported nominal benefits of the scheme as a reason for dropout. Interventions targeted at removing bottlenecks to health insurance enrolment are salient to maximising the size of the insurance pool. Strengthening service quality and extending the premium exemption to cover low-income families in slum communities is a valuable strategy to achieve universal health coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2013. Compendium Report. NCES 2016-117

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joel; Stark, Patrick; Cui, Jiashan

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of high school is related to a number of negative outcomes. For example, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who had not completed high school was roughly $26,000 in 2013. By comparison, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who completed their education with at least a high school credential (i.e., a regular…

  16. Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high school dropout rates. Analyses controlled for school demographics of school enrollment size, percentage of low-income students, percentage of minority students, and urbanicity. Consistent with authoritative school climate theory, moderation analyses found that when students perceive their teachers as supportive, high academic expectations are associated with lower dropout rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Two Years of Case Management: Final Findings from the Communities in Schools Random Assignment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Leigh M.; Corrin, William; Granito, Kelly; Haider, Zeest; Somers, Marie-Andrée; Cerna, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    While high school graduation rates are on the rise nationwide, too many students still never reach that milestone, with 7,000 on average dropping out every day. Recognizing that many students need additional support to succeed in school, Communities In Schools (CIS) works to provide and connect students with integrated support services to keep…

  18. Psychopathological features of anorectic patients who dropped out of inpatient treatment as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorexia nervosa often requires inpatient treatment that includes psychotherapeutic intervention in addition to physical and nutritional management for severe low body weight. However, such patients sometimes terminate inpatient treatment prematurely because of resistance to treatment, poor motivation for treatment, unstable emotions, and problematic behaviors. In this study, the psychopathological factors related to the personality of anorexic patients that might predict discontinuation of inpatient treatment were investigated using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. Methods Subjects were 75 consecutive anorectic inpatients who received cognitive behavioral therapy with a behavior protocol governing privileges in a university hospital based general (not psychiatric ward. The MMPI was done on admission for all patients. A comparison was done of patients who completed the process of inpatient treatment, including attainment of target body weight (completers, and patients who dropped out of inpatient treatment (dropouts. Results: No significant differences between completers (n = 51 and dropouts (n = 24 were found in the type of eating disorder, age of onset, duration of illness, age, or BMI at admission. Logistic regression analysis found the MMPI scales schizophrenia (Sc, hypomania (HYP, deviant thinking and experience, and antisocial attitude to be factors predicting completion or dropout. Conclusion Dropouts have difficulty adapting to inpatient treatment protocols such as our behavior protocol governing privileges because they have social and emotional alienation, a lack of ego mastery (Sc, emotional instability (HYP and an antisocial attitude. As a result, they have decreased motivation for treatment, leave the hospital without permission, attempt suicide, or shoplift, which leads them to terminate inpatient treatment prematurely. Treatments based on cognitive behavioral therapy with a behavior

  19. Guided online treatment in routine mental health care: an observational study on uptake, drop-out and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenter Robin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to limited resources patients in the Netherlands often have to wait for a minimum of six weeks after registration for mental health care to receive their first treatment session. Offering guided online treatment might be an effective solution to reduce waiting time and to increase patient outcomes at relatively low cost. In this study we report on uptake, drop-out and effects of online problem solving treatment that was implemented in a mental health center. Methods We studied all 104 consecutive patients aged 18–65 years with elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or burnout who registered at the center during the first six months after implementation. They were offered a five week guided online treatment. At baseline, five weeks and twelve weeks we measured depressive (BDI-II, anxiety (HADS-A and burnout symptoms (MBI. Results A total of 55 patients (53% agreed to start with the online treatment. Patients who accepted the online treatment were more often female, younger and lower educated than those who refused. There were no baseline differences in clinical symptoms between the groups. There were large between group effect sizes after five weeks for online treatment for depression (d = 0.94 and anxiety (d = 1.07, but not for burnout (d = −.07. At twelve weeks, when both groups had started regular face-to-face treatments, we no longer found significant differences between the groups, except for anxiety (d = 0.69. Conclusion The results of this study show that the majority of patients prefer online guided online treatment instead of waiting for face-to-face treatment. Furthermore, online PST increases speed of recovery and can therefore be offered as a first step of treatment in mental healthcare.

  20. Cardiac patients who completed a longitudinal psychosocial study had a different clinical and psychosocial baseline profile than patients who dropped out prematurely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    drop-outs may have a different cardiovascular risk. We studied a cohort of 1132 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). At baseline, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Type D Scale (DS14). At 12 months follow-up, 70.8% (n...... cardiovascular medications, including calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, as compared with completers. Drop-outs more often had depression, anxiety, and negative affectivity, as compared with completers (all p-values......Non-response is a serious threat to the external validity of longitudinal psychosocial studies. Little is known about potential systematic differences between patients with coronary artery disease who complete a psychosocial study and those who drop out prematurely due to non-response, or whether...

  1. DIMENSIONS OF BASIC SCHOOL DROPOUTS IN RURAL GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    of teaching and learning in the rural environment was directly linked to the high rate of drop- out. Although some ... tion that leaving school after the completion of basic school ...... There are several ways by which the informal apprenticeship ...

  2. Re-Engaging School Dropouts with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams

    2015-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have the highest dropout rates of any student group--about 40%. The outcomes for students who drop out of school are dire but are particularly bleak for students with poor academic, interpersonal, and decision-making skills. Helping students earn a high school diploma and gain the skills needed to…

  3. The Impacts of Philadelphia's Accelerated Schools on Academic Progress and Graduation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates the impacts of Philadelphia’s accelerated schools—alternative high schools serving students at high risk of dropping out—on enrollees’ graduation rates and on rates of credit accumulation for recent enrollees.

  4. Drop-Out Prevention: Parents Play a Key Role. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c114

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2006

    2006-01-01

    What can parents do to make sure their children with disabilities stay in school and graduate? Be involved. Research shows that one of the most essential strategies for promoting school completion and achievement is family involvement. When families remain involved in their children's middle and high school education, students are more likely to…

  5. A Phenomenological Study of What Black Male TRiO Student Support Services Program Members Attribute to Their Decision to Drop out of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, LaTonya S.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other races, the college achievement gap is largest between Black men and women where females earn twice as many degrees as their male counterparts (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010, Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities). Many Black men attempt college and eventually drop out forfeiting their…

  6. Just the Right Mix: Identifying Potential Dropouts in Montgomery County Public Schools Using an Early Warning Indicators Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Each school year, roughly a thousand students drop out of Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). However, unlike other large, urban school districts where students who drop out skip school and are suspended often (Balfanz & Byrnes, 2010), students who drop out of MCPS are present in school; they just are not doing well…

  7. Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…

  8. An extended Herschel drop-out source in the center of AS1063 : a normal dusty galaxy at z = 6.1 or SZ substructures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, F.; Clément, B.; Richard, J.; Schaerer, D.; Lutz, D.; Weiß, A.; Zemcov, M.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T.; Walth, G.; Kneib, J.; Combes, F.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A.; Altieri, B.; Blain, A.; Chapman, S.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Ivison, R.; Knudsen, K.; Omont, A.; Pelló, R.; Pérez-González, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Werf, van der P.P.; Zamojski, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of our 870 {$μ$}m APEX/LABOCA follow-up of the Herschel Lensing Survey we have detected a source in AS1063 (RXC J2248.7-4431) that has no counterparts in any of the Herschel PACS/SPIRE bands, it is a Herschel ''drop-out'' with S$_{870}$/S$_{500}$ {ge} 0.5. The 870 {$μ$}m emission is

  9. Beyond School Records: The Value of Cognitive and Affective Engagement in Predicting Dropout and On-Time Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Matthew D.; Reschly, Amy L.; Appleton, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning systems use school record data--such as attendance rate, behavior records, and course performance--to identify students at risk of dropping out. These are useful predictors of graduation-related outcomes, in large part because they indicate a student's level of engagement with school. However, these data do not indicate how invested…

  10. The High School to College Transition: Minding the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The value of a college degree is well documented. College graduates earn at least 60% more than high school graduates. Beyond the economic value, college graduates show higher rates of civic participation, engage in volunteer work and even have a much higher likelihood of being "happy." Students who drop out without attaining a college…

  11. Drop-out and mood improvement: a randomised controlled trial with light exposure and physical exercise [ISRCTN36478292

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining bright light exposure and physical exercise may be an effective way of relieving depressive symptoms. However, relatively little is known about individual factors predicting either a good response or treatment failure. We explored background variables possibly explaining the individual variation in treatment response or failure in a randomised trial. Methods Participants were volunteers of working-age, free from prior mental disorders and recruited via occupational health centres. The intervention was a randomised 8-week trial with three groups: aerobics in bright light, aerobics in normal room lighting, and relaxation/stretching in bright light. Good response was defined as a 50% decrease in the symptom score on either the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS or 8-item scale of atypical symptoms. Background variables for the analysis included sex, age, body-mass index, general health habits, seasonal pattern, and sleep disturbances. Results Complete data were received from 98 subjects (11 men, 87 women. Of them, 42 (5 men, 37 women were classified as responders on the HDRS. Overall, light had a significant effect on the number of responders, as assessed with the HDRS (X2 = .02. The number needed to treat (NNT for light was 3.8. Conclusions We investigated the effect of bright light and exercise on depressive symptoms. Problems with sleep, especially initial insomnia, may predict a good response to treatment using combined light and exercise. Bright light exposure and physical exercise, even in combination, seem to be well tolerated and effective on depressive symptoms.

  12. Predictors for good therapeutic outcome and drop-out in technology assisted guided self-help in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and bulimia like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Penelo, Eva; Nobis, Gerald; Mayrhofer, Anna; Wanner, Christian; Schau, Johanna; Spitzer, Marion; Gwinner, Paulina; Trofaier, Marie-Louise; Imgart, Hartmut; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Karwautz, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Technology assisted guided self-help has been proven to be effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to determine predictors of good long-term outcome as well as drop-out, in order to identify patients for whom these interventions are most suitable. One hundred and fifty six patients with BN were assigned to either 7 months internet-based guided self-help (INT-GSH) or to conventional guided bibliotherapy (BIB-GSH), both guided by e-mail support. Evaluations were taken at baseline, after 4, 7, and 18 months. As potential predictors, psychiatric comorbidity, personality features, and eating disorder psychopathology were considered. Higher motivation, lower frequency of binge eating, and lower body dissatisfaction at baseline predicted good outcome after the end of treatment. Lower frequency of binge eating predicted good outcome at long-term follow-up. Factors prediciting drop-out were higher depression and lower self-directedness at baseline. Technology assisted self-help can be recommended for patients with a high motivation to change, lower binge-eating frequency and lower depression scores. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. "Who am I supposed to let down?": The caring work and emotional practices of vocational educational training teachers working with potential drop-out students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena

    2012-01-01

    initiatives and as a result, most colleges have established extended basic courses aimed at students with personal, social and/or academic difficulties. This paper aims to explore the emotional aspects of vocational educational teachers’ work and present a preliminary analysis of the notion of care....... Findings – The paper provides empirical insights into the emotional practices and the management of emotions related to prevention of dropout within an educational setting. It shows how emotional practices can provide both teachers and students with positive identities and make out a productive force...... that prevents students from dropping out. However the management of emotions also involves a range of dilemmas and ambivalences revealing the difficult limitations related to an institutionalization and professionalization of human care. Research limitations/implications – Because of the chosen research design...

  15. A Comparison of Teacher Stress and School Climate across Schools with Different Matric Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Karen; Khoza, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate differences in teacher stress and perceptions of school climate among teachers from schools with differing matriculation success rates in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Two schools with matric pass rates of 100% and two schools with matric pass rates of less than 25% were selected from a list of schools provided…

  16. High School Graduation Rates:Alternative Methods and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Miao; Walt Haney

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has brought great attention to the high school graduation rate as one of the mandatory accountability measures for public school systems. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate the high school graduation rate given the lack of longitudinal databases that track individual students. This study reviews literature on and practices in reporting high school graduation rates, compares graduation rate estimates yielded from alternative methods, and estimates d...

  17. The Relationship of Math Anxiety and Mathematics Comprehension in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Shannon Rae

    2010-01-01

    The high school dropout rate in a southern U.S. state is 22.1% and students who fall behind in reading and math in middle school are more likely to fail 9th grade. This specific failure is one of the strongest predictors that a student will ultimately drop out of school. The research questions of this study addressed the relationship between math…

  18. The Effects Multiple Intervention and Prevention Programs Have on the Graduation and Dropout Rates of Two Major Urban School Districts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Ernestina M.; Jones, Don; Challoo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, seven thousand students drop out of school every day (Alliance for Excellence Education, 2010); that is more than one million per year (Balfanz & Bridgeland, 2014). Administrators, former educators and private entities have taken an interest in the dropout epidemic and have developed numerous dropout prevention and…

  19. ALDO: A radiation-tolerant, low-noise, adjustable low drop-out linear regulator in 0.35 μm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present ALDO, an adjustable low drop-out linear regulator designed in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is specifically tailored for use in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector in order to improve the power supply noise for the front end readout chip (CLARO). ALDO is designed with radiation-tolerant solutions such as an all-MOS band-gap voltage reference and layout techniques aiming to make it able to operate in harsh environments like High Energy Physics accelerators. It is capable of driving up to 200 mA while keeping an adequate power supply filtering capability in a very wide frequency range from 10 Hz up to 100 MHz. This property allows us to suppress the noise and high frequency spikes that could be generated by a DC/DC regulator, for example. ALDO also shows a very low noise of 11.6 μV RMS in the same frequency range. Its output is protected with over-current and short detection circuits for a safe integration in tightly packed environments. Design solutions and measurements of the first prototype are presented.

  20. ALDO: A radiation-tolerant, low-noise, adjustable low drop-out linear regulator in 0.35 μm CMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carniti, P., E-mail: paolo.carniti@mib.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In this work we present ALDO, an adjustable low drop-out linear regulator designed in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is specifically tailored for use in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector in order to improve the power supply noise for the front end readout chip (CLARO). ALDO is designed with radiation-tolerant solutions such as an all-MOS band-gap voltage reference and layout techniques aiming to make it able to operate in harsh environments like High Energy Physics accelerators. It is capable of driving up to 200 mA while keeping an adequate power supply filtering capability in a very wide frequency range from 10 Hz up to 100 MHz. This property allows us to suppress the noise and high frequency spikes that could be generated by a DC/DC regulator, for example. ALDO also shows a very low noise of 11.6 μV RMS in the same frequency range. Its output is protected with over-current and short detection circuits for a safe integration in tightly packed environments. Design solutions and measurements of the first prototype are presented.

  1. ALDO: A radiation-tolerant, low-noise, adjustable low drop-out linear regulator in 0.35 μm CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present ALDO, an adjustable low drop-out linear regulator designed in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is specifically tailored for use in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector in order to improve the power supply noise for the front end readout chip (CLARO). ALDO is designed with radiation-tolerant solutions such as an all-MOS band-gap voltage reference and layout techniques aiming to make it able to operate in harsh environments like High Energy Physics accelerators. It is capable of driving up to 200 mA while keeping an adequate power supply filtering capability in a very wide frequency range from 10 Hz up to 100 MHz. This property allows us to suppress the noise and high frequency spikes that could be generated by a DC/DC regulator, for example. ALDO also shows a very low noise of 11.6 μV RMS in the same frequency range. Its output is protected with over-current and short detection circuits for a safe integration in tightly packed environments. Design solutions and measurements of the first prototype are presented.

  2. The History of Actual School Lives and the Perspectives of "Learners"--Sickness of Secondary Students and Their Dropping out, in the Age that Lafcadio Hearn Observed--

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Numerous historical studies have been done regarding education in modern Japan from a great diversity of viewpoints. It is true that studies of educational systems and history of educational policies have made considerable progress. Still, there remains great room for improvement in terms of both quantity and quality for studies of everyday…

  3. High School Graduation Rates:Alternative Methods and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Miao

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The No Child Left Behind Act has brought great attention to the high school graduation rate as one of the mandatory accountability measures for public school systems. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate the high school graduation rate given the lack of longitudinal databases that track individual students. This study reviews literature on and practices in reporting high school graduation rates, compares graduation rate estimates yielded from alternative methods, and estimates discrepancies between alternative results at national, state, and state ethnic group levels. Despite the graduation rate method used, results indicate that high school graduation rates in the U.S. have been declining in recent years and that graduation rates for black and Hispanic students lag substantially behind those of white students. As to graduation rate method preferred, this study found no evidence that the conceptually more complex methods yield more accurate or valid graduation rate estimates than the simpler methods.

  4. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  5. Graduation Rates in South Carolina Public High Schools: The Effect of School Size and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…

  6. 14 CFR 141.11 - Pilot school ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot school ratings. 141.11 Section 141.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND... rating course. (x) Aircraft type rating course. (2) Special preparation courses. (Appendix K). (i) Pilot...

  7. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  8. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  9. A comparison of teacher stress and school climate across schools with different matric success rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Milner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate differences in teacher stress and perceptions of school climate among teachers from schools with differing matriculation success rates in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Two schools with matric pass rates of 100% and two schools with matric pass rates of less than 25% were selected from a list of schools provided by the province's Educational District Circuit. The schools were matched in terms of area, size, resources, and equipment. Thirty-three teachers from the high performing schools and forty-two teachers from the poor performing schools participated in the study. Student's t tests were used to assess the differences between the schools on the variables under investigation, and the results showed the teachers' experience of stress across the different schools was not significantly different, but significant differences did emerge with regard to school climate. The implications of these findings for the study population are discussed.

  10. The american high school graduation rate : trends and levels

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multiple data sources and a unified methodology to estimate the trends and levels of the U.S. high school graduation rate. Correcting for important biases that plague previous calculations, we establish that (a) the true high school graduation rate is substantially lower than the official rate issued by the National Center for Educational Statistics; (b) it has been declining over the past 40 years; (c) majority/minority graduation rate differentials are substantial and have n...

  11. How Did Successful High Schools Improve Their Graduation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janna Siegel; Smith, Robert W.; Rinka, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The researchers surveyed 23 North Carolina high schools that had markedly improved their graduation rates over the past five years. The administrators reported on the dropout prevention practices and programs to which they attributed their improved graduation rates. The majority of schools reported policy changes, especially with suspension. The…

  12. Determinants of Graduation Rate of Public Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Masashi; Shen, Jianping; Xia, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated determinants of the graduation rate of public alternative schools by analyzing the most recent, nationally representative data from Schools and Staffing Survey 2007-2008. Based on the literature, we built a series of three regression models via successive block entry, predicting the graduate rate first by (a) student…

  13. Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity Rates by Elementary School in a Predominantly Hispanic School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Richard; Huerta, Gabriel; Karki, Menuka; Cantarero, Andrea

    This study analyzes the social determinants associated with the overweight or obesity prevalence of 85 elementary schools during the 2010-11 academic year in a predominantly Hispanic school district. A binomial logistic regression is used to analyze the aggregate overweight or obesity rate of a school by the percent of Hispanic students in each school, selected school and neighborhood characteristics, and its geographical location. The proportion of Hispanic enrollment more readily explains a school's aggregate overweight or obesity rate than social determinants or spatial location. Number of fast food establishments and the academic ranking of a school appear to slightly impact the aggregate prevalence rate. Spatial location of school is not a significant factor, controlling for other determinants. An elementary school's overall overweight or obesity rate provides a valuable health indicator to study the social determinants of obesity among Hispanics and other students within a local neighborhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CARRIAGE RATE OF ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOLS ( RRIAGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Almajiri schools in Kano using cluster sampling. The collect ed for the presence of N. meningitides using standard cultural a further identified using latex agglutination technique. Also, Blo cts was carried out. A questionnaire was similarly administered iated with carriage status. The results of the study revealed th ldren were ...

  15. An Analysis of Primary School Dropout Patterns in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…

  16. Can use of healthcare services among 15-16-year-olds predict an increased level of high school dropout? A longitudinal community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homlong, Lisbeth; Rosvold, Elin O; Haavet, Ole R

    2013-09-19

    To study associations between healthcare seeking in 15-16-year-olds and high school dropout 5 years later. Longitudinal community study. Data from a comprehensive youth health survey conducted in 2000-2004, linked to data from national registries up to 2010. 13 964 10th grade secondary school students in six Norwegian counties. Logistic regression was used to compute ORs for high school dropout. The total proportion of students not completing high school 5 years after registering was 29% (girls 24%, boys 34%). Frequent attenders to school health services and youth health clinics at age 15-16 years had a higher dropout rate (37/48% and 45/71%), compared with those with no or moderate use. Adolescents referred to mental health services were also more likely to drop out (47/62%). Boys with moderate use of a general practitioner (GP) had a lower dropout rate (30%). A multiple logistic regression analysis, in which we adjusted for selected health indicators and sociodemographic background variables, revealed that seeking help from the youth health clinic and consulting mental health services, were associated with increased level of high school dropout 5 years later. Frequent attenders (≥4 contacts) had the highest odds of dropping out. Yet, boys who saw a GP and girls attending the school health services regularly over the previous year were less likely than their peers to drop out from high school. Adolescents who seek help at certain healthcare services can be at risk of dropping out of high school later. Health workers should pay particular attention to frequent attenders and offer follow-up when needed. However, boys who attended a GP regularly were more likely to continue to high school graduation, which may indicate a protective effect of having a regular and stable relationship with a GP.

  17. Moving down the Track: Changing School Practices during the Second Year of "Diplomas Now"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanik, Susan; Corrin, William; Roy, David; Gray, Aracelis; Fernandez, Felix; Briggs, Ashley; Wang, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Too many students in high-poverty, urban communities drop out of high school, and too few graduate prepared for college and careers. Three national organizations--Talent Development Secondary, City Year, and Communities In Schools--have formed "Diplomas Now" in an effort to transform urban secondary schools so fewer students drop out and…

  18. High School Dropout in Proximal Context: The Triggering Role of Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Leventhal, Tama; Archambault, Isabelle; Crosnoe, Robert; Janosz, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents who drop out of high school experience enduring negative consequences across many domains. Yet, the circumstances triggering their departure are poorly understood. This study examined the precipitating role of recent psychosocial stressors by comparing three groups of Canadian high school students (52% boys; M age  = 16.3 years; N = 545): recent dropouts, matched at-risk students who remain in school, and average students. Results indicate that in comparison with the two other groups, dropouts were over three times more likely to have experienced recent acute stressors rated as severe by independent coders. These stressors occurred across a variety of domains. Considering the circumstances in which youth decide to drop out has implications for future research and for policy and practice. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Tasas de deserción en la Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica / Drop-outs from the Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Sánchez, Mario

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La pretensión fundamental del presente trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la deserción estudiantil en la UNED; si bien es cierto, la deserción afecta directamente al estudiante, también es un síntoma de fallos en el sistema. El cambio que conlleva el ingresar a una universidad no es fácil y sobre todo cuando es a distancia, se observa en los resultados que los primeros años es la etapa más difícil de superar, es así como en los primeros 6 meses el 35% de los estudiantes han hecho abandono de sus estudios. A los 12 meses el 50% de los estudiantes han abandonado la UNED. En cuanto al género, se observa que las mujeres mantienen una menor tasa de deserción a lo largo de todo el periodo, sin embargo, independientemente del género las tasas alcanzadas son altas. En cuanto al hecho de tener pareja, pareciera que es un factor que determina un incremento en las tasas de deserción. En relación a los estudios previos, se observa como los estudiantes que han tenido una experiencia universitaria completa, tienen tasas altas de abandono, un 79% a los 36 meses. Otro factor importante en las tasas de abandono es el número de materias matriculadas, los estudiantes que matriculan 4 materias o más presentan tasas altas de abandono del 68% a los 36 meses. La edad parece indicar que a mayor edad mayor tasa de abandono, así los estudiantes con más de 30 años alcanzan una tasa de abandono de 74% a los 36 meses.Abstract: The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of the frequent desertion of students in one of the four public universities of Costa Rica, the UNED. Although, it is true that desertion affects directly to students, it is caused by mistakes in the system. The impact that brings with it the change from high school to college is not easy, and even more if the dynamic of the college is not the usual—distance learning. Our results show that the first years of adaptation are the most difficult ones for the

  20. Editorial: Schools as enabling environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    prejudice, and disability. Although ... learning. When students feel emotionally unsafe, they may also avoid school and drop out or exhibit avoidance ... Emotional safety includes the feeling of belonging and connection, as well as feeling.

  1. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences......The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...... tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four...

  2. U.S. High School Graduation Rates: Patterns and Explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Murnane

    2013-01-01

    I survey the evidence on patterns in U.S. high school graduation rates over the period 1970–2010 and report the results of new research conducted to fill in holes in the evidence. I begin by pointing out the strengths and limitations of existing data sources. I then describe six striking patterns in graduation rates. They include stagnation over the last three decades of the twentieth century, significant race-, income-, and gender-based gaps, and significant increases in graduation rates o...

  3. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  4. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Lafontaine, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps.

  5. New Approach to reduce High School Dropout Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.

  6. Gone for Good? Determinants of School Dropout in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    O'Higgins, Shane Niall; D'Amato, Marcello; Caroleo, Floro Ernesto; Barone, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Dropping out of school has recently become an issue of major policy concern in Italy. A series of reforms of secondary school objectives, programmes and organizational design have been proposed to adapt the public school system to evolutions in the labour market and to increase overall educational attainment. The aim of the present paper is to gain some insight into the causes of dropping out of school and, more generally, of the factors that induce parents to review their choices about their...

  7. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  8. GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    DWYER, RACHEL E.; HODSON, RANDY; MCLOUD, LAURA

    2012-01-01

    For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college ...

  9. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sekine

    Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.

  10. Delayed high school start times later than 8:30am and impact on graduation rates and attendance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Pamela Malaspina; Clark, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate changes in high school graduation rates with a delayed school start time of later than 8:30am. The second aim of the study was to analyze the association between a delayed high school start time later than 8:30am and attendance rates. In the current study, a pre-post design using a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in attendance and graduation rates 2 years after a delayed start was implemented. Public high schools from 8 school districts (n=29 high schools) located throughout 7 different states. Schools were identified using previous research from the Children's National Medical Center's Division of Sleep Medicine Research Team. A total membership of more than 30,000 high school students enrolled in the 29 schools identified by the Children's National Medical Center's Research Team. A pre-post design was used for a within-subject design, controlling for any school-to-school difference in the calculation of the response variable. This is the recommended technique for a study that may include data with potential measurement error. Findings from this study linked a start time of later than 8:30am to improved attendance rates and graduation rates. Attendance rates and graduation rates significantly improved in schools with delayed start times of 8:30am or later. School officials need to take special notice that this investigation also raises questions about whether later start times are a mechanism for closing the achievement gap due to improved graduation rates. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. School Dropout Indicators, Trends, and Interventions for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors are expected to develop programs that promote academic success for all students, including those at risk for dropping out of school. Knowledge of key indicators of potential dropouts and current trends in dropout prevention research may assist school counselors in better understanding this complex issue. Implementing recommended…

  12. Misleading Measurements: How Ohio School Ratings Foster False Comparisons. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Policy Matters Ohio looked at schools rated the highest over a two-year period in each of Ohio's eight largest urban districts. State, school, and district data were used to examine schools--district-run and charter--that were rated Excellent or higher for either the 2010-11 or the 2011-12 school year or both. The number of schools examined ranged…

  13. Improving completion rates in adult education through social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... of reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  14. Sexting Rates and Predictors From an Urban Midwest High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, David; Somers, Cheryl L; Pernice, Francesca Maria; Hillman, Stephen B; Kernsmith, Poco

    2018-06-01

    Risks associated with teen sexting draw increasing concern from teachers and communities as developments in communication software and devices make sharing private content faster and simpler each year. We examined rates, recipients, and predictors of teen sexting to better plan education and preventative policies and strategies. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the most likely predictors of teen sexting using prior survey studies and theoretical conceptions. We surveyed 314 high school students in an urban area of a large Midwestern city. Males were found to more frequently report sexting. Impulsivity, frequency of electronic communication, peer pressure, peer sexting, and social learning significantly predicted sexting beyond age, race, and sex. Self-esteem did not moderate the effect of peer pressure to sext. Structural predictive models attained good fit to the data, and neither were moderated by sex. Sexting was highly associated with reported peer pressure, perceived norms, and impulsive decision making. Adolescents in relationships may be at particular risk of sexting. These findings will help parents, teens, and educators take appropriate measures to inform about and encourage the safe use of technology. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  15. Do School Budgets Matter? The Effect of Budget Referenda on Student Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Gon; Polachek, Solomon W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes how changes in school expenditures affect dropout rates based on data from 466 school districts in New York during the 2003/04 to the 2007/08 school years. Past traditional regression approaches show mixed results in part because school expenditures are likely endogenous, so that one cannot disentangle cause and effect. The…

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  17. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It…

  18. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  19. Switching Schools: Reconsidering the Relationship Between School Mobility and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706

  20. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Raising High School Graduation Rates. Annual Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John

    2016-01-01

    The nation has achieved an 82.3 percent high school graduation rate--a record high. Graduation rates rose for all student subgroups, and the number of low-graduation-rate high schools and students enrolled in them dropped again, indicating that progress has had far-reaching benefits for all students. This report is the first to analyze 2014…

  1. Predictors of school dropout among adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.

  2. Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying—A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    School ethos refers to the school leadership’s purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere) were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students’ attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students. PMID:29236039

  3. Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying-A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara B; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-12-13

    School ethos refers to the school leadership's purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere) were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students' attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students.

  4. Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying—A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitte Modin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available School ethos refers to the school leadership’s purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students’ attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students.

  5. The Relationships between a Freshman Transition Academy, Student WESTEST Scores, and Student Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roy G.

    2013-01-01

    High school administrators in the United States find students dropping out of school problematic. The federal government created the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandate to provide a system of accountability to public schools and school systems, while stressing the importance of teaching research-based lessons. According to the mandate, schools and…

  6. Building a Grad Nation. Executive Brief: Overview of 2012-13 High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civic Enterprises, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Over the past dozen years, schools, districts, and states have begun to focus increased attention on boosting high school graduation rates. During this period, the nation has seen more evidence-based educational reforms in low-performing schools, more support for struggling students, and better data and stronger accountability to chart progress…

  7. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  8. Metabolic rate and clothing insulation data of children and adolescents during various school activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    2007-01-01

    Data on metabolic rates (n = 0;81) and clothing insulation (n = 96) of school children and adolescents (A, primary school: age 9-10; B, primary school: age 10-11 year; C, junior vocational (technical) education: age 13-16 (lower level); D, same as C but at advanced level; and E, senior vocational

  9. Cohort Graduation Rate: Policy and Technical Manual. 2016-17 Graduation Rates Based on Students First Entering High School during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    High School graduation rates are key indicators of accountability for high schools and school districts in Oregon. Beginning with the 2008-09 school year, the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) implemented the cohort method of calculating graduation rates. The cohort method identifies the year the student entered high school for the first time…

  10. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-02-01

    Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school policies on smoking rates among youth in Florida. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a multiple regression analysis were used to determine whether the comprehensiveness and enforcement of tobacco-free school policies affect the youth smoking rates within Florida public school districts. The 2010 and 2014 youth smoking rates were calculated based on the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey results. The 2010 youth smoking rate and the inclusion of the enforcement component with provision of cessation resources were statistically significant predictors of the 2014 youth smoking rate. However, the comprehensiveness level of a policy and the inclusion of an enforcement component were not statistically significant predictors. The inclusion of an enforcement component with provision of cessation resources is important in efforts to reduce youth smoking rates. The content of the tobacco-free school policies seems to be less relevant to their effectiveness than the enforcement of the policies. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  11. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  13. Contextualising Inequalities in Rates of School Exclusion in English Schools: Beneath the "Tip of the Ice-Berg"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeley, Louise; Marrable, Tish; Brown, Chris; Boddy, Janet

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing emphasis internationally on better understanding the links between inequalities and processes within school systems. In England there has been a particular focus on rates of school exclusion because the national data has consistently highlighted troubling patterns of over-representation. This paper argues that a move away…

  14. Increasing the admission rate to upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoest, A.; Jensen, V.M.; Nielsen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies investigate the effects of school resources on student performance, these studies tend to focus more on intervention effect sizes than on their cost-effectiveness. Exploiting policy-induced variation in Denmark and using high-quality administrative data, we investigate...... to upper secondary school between 4.0 and 6.3 percentage points for immigrants, but shows at best small improvements for the native students....

  15. National High School Graduation Rate: Are Recent Birth Cohorts Taking More Time to Graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Myungkook; Kim, Jeounghee

    2016-01-01

    Debates about the national high school graduation rate have heated up as various national high school graduation estimates based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) do not coincide with one another partially due to different assumptions about graduation age. This study found that (a) while graduation rate by…

  16. The Effect of Selected Nonmusical Factors on Adjudicators' Ratings of High School Solo Vocal Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of differentiated performance attire and stage deportment on adjudicators' ratings of high school solo vocal performances. High school choral students (n = 153) and undergraduate (n = 97) and graduate music majors (n = 32) served as adjudicators (N = 282). Adjudicators rated recorded solo vocal…

  17. What explains between-school differences in rates of sexual experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Lisa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools have the potential to influence their pupils' behaviour through the school's social organisation and culture, as well as through the formal curriculum. This paper provides the first attempt to explain the differences between schools in rates of reported heterosexual sexual experience amongst 15 and 16 year olds. It first examined whether variations in rates of sexual experience remained after controlling for the known predictors of sexual activity. It then examined whether these residuals, or 'school effects', were attributable to processes within the school, or were more likely to reflect characteristics of the neighbourhood. Methods Longitudinal survey data from 4,926 pupils in 24 Scottish schools were linked to qualitative and quantitative data on school processes including quality of relationships (staff-pupil, etc, classroom discipline, organisation of Personal and Social Education, school appearance and pupil morale. Multi-level modelling was used to test a range of models and the resulting 'school effects' were then interpreted using the process data. Results Overall, 42% of girls and 33% of boys reported experience of sexual intercourse, with rates by school ranging from 23% to 61%. When individual socio-economic and socio-cultural factors were taken into account the school variation dropped sharply, though pupils' attitudes and aspirations had little effect. There was very little correlation between boys' and girls' rates of sexual experience by school, after controlling for known predictors of sexual activity. Girls were more influenced by individual socio-economic factors than boys. School-level socio-economic factors were predictive even after taking account of individual socio-cultural factors, suggesting that the wider socio-economic environment further influenced young people's sexual experience. Conclusion Importantly, school processes did not explain the variation between schools in sexual experience

  18. Finishing high school: alternative pathways and dropout recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John H; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    John Tyler and Magnus Lofstrom take a close look at the problems posed when students do not complete high school. The authors begin by discussing the ongoing, sometimes heated, debate over how prevalent the dropout problem is. They note that one important reason for discrepancies in reported dropout rates is whether holders of the General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school graduates. The authors also consider the availability of appropriate student data. The overall national dropout rate appears to be between 22 and 25 percent, but the rate is higher among black and Hispanic students, and it has not changed much in recent decades. Tyler and Lofstrom conclude that schools are apparently doing about as well now as they were forty years ago in terms of graduating students. But the increasingly competitive pressures associated with a global economy make education ever more important in determining personal and national well-being. A student's decision to drop out of school, say the authors, is affected by a number of complex factors and is often the culmination of a long process of disengagement from school. That decision, not surprisingly, carries great cost to both the student and society. Individual costs include lower earnings, higher likelihood of unemployment, and greater likelihood of health problems. Because minority and low-income students are significantly more likely than well-to-do white students to drop out of school, the individual costs fall unevenly across groups. Societal costs include loss of tax revenue, higher spending on public assistance, and higher crime rates. Tyler and Lofstrom go on to survey research on programs designed to reduce the chances of students' dropping out. Although the research base on this question is not strong, they say, close mentoring and monitoring of students appear to be critical components of successful programs. Other dropout-prevention approaches associated with success are family

  19. Routes and Reasons Out, Paths Back: The Influence of Push and Pull Reasons for Leaving School on Students' School Reengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Rebecca L.; Renzulli, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a major issue facing our country's schools; however, many students who drop out of school later go on to finish their degree either by returning to high school or by earning a General Education Development (GED) credential. Despite this, there has been relatively little research on these students who "stopout" of high school.…

  20. High School Dropouts: Interactions between Social Context, Self-Perceptions, School Engagement, and Student Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Anna-Maria; Roberts, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students' engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development…

  1. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Waiving Away High School Graduation Rate Accountability? Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011, eleven states submitted applications to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) for waivers from key provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act. Although the waiver process presents an opportunity to strengthen college and career readiness among the nation's high school students, this analysis by the Alliance for Excellent…

  3. Does School Choice Increase the Rate of Youth Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Russell S.; King, Kerry A.

    2008-01-01

    Because entrepreneurial activity is a key source of economic growth, promoting youth entrepreneurship has become a priority for policymakers. School choice programs force administrators and teachers to be more entrepreneurial in their jobs by encouraging innovation and by creating competition and a more business-like environment in K-12 education.…

  4. The influence of ethnic segregation and school mobility in primary education on high school dropout : evidence from regression discontinuity at a contextual tipping point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.; de Witte, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of ethnic composition and school mobility at the primary school-level on the propensity to drop out of high school. Using rich school and neighbourhood administrative data, we observe that (i) frequent school movers have a 2.6 times higher likelihood of early

  5. Healthier Standards for School Meals and Snacks: Impact on School Food Revenues and Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards went into effect in Massachusetts. This study evaluated the impact of these updated school meal standards and Massachusetts' comprehensive competitive food standards on school food revenues and school lunch participation. Revenue and participation data from 11 Massachusetts school districts were collected from 2011 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015 using multilevel modeling. The association between the change in compliance with the competitive food standards and revenues/participation was assessed using linear regression. Schools experienced declines in school food revenues of $15.40/student in Year 1 from baseline (p=0.05), due to competitive food revenue losses. In schools with 3 years of data, overall revenues rebounded by the second year post-implementation. Additionally, by Year 2, school lunch participation increased by 15% (p=0.0006) among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Better competitive food compliance was inversely associated with school food revenues in the first year only; an absolute change in compliance by 10% was associated with a $9.78/student decrease in food revenues over the entire school year (p=0.04). No association was seen between the change in compliance and school meal participation. Schools experienced initial revenue losses after implementation of the standards, yet longer-term school food revenues were not impacted and school meal participation increased among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Weakening the school meal or competitive food guidelines based on revenue concerns appears unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence-Based Adequacy Model for School Funding: Success Rates in Illinois Schools that Meet Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explores the 2010 recommendation of the Educational Funding Advisory Board to consider the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding in Illinois. This school funding model identifies and costs research based practices necessary in a prototypical school and sets funding levels based upon those practices. This study…

  7. The effect of school dismissal on rates of influenza-like illness in New York City schools during the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Joseph R; Konty, Kevin J; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris

    2012-03-01

    The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Active disease surveillance data collected by the New York City Health Department on rates of ILI in schools were used to evaluate the impact. Sixty-four schools that met the Health Department's criteria for considering dismissal were included in the analysis. Twenty-four schools that met criteria subsequently dismissed all classes for approximately 1 school week. A regression model was fit to these data, estimating the effect of school dismissal on rates of in-school ILI following reconvening, adjusting for potential confounders. The model estimated that, on average, school dismissal reduced the rate of ILI by 7.1% over the entire average outbreak period. However, a large proportion of in-school ILI occurred before dismissal criteria were met. A separate model estimated that school absenteeism rates were not significantly affected by dismissal. Results suggest that individual school dismissal could be considered in situations where schools have a disproportionate number of high-risk students or may be unable to implement recommended preventive or infection control measures. Future work should focus on developing more sensitive indicators of early outbreak detection in schools and evaluating the impact of school dismissal on community transmission. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  8. The Impact of Low, Moderate, and High Military Family Mobility School District Transfer Rates on Graduating Senior High School Dependents' Achievement and School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that there were no significant differences in the academic performance of military dependents' with low (n = 20), moderate (n = 20), and high (n = 20) mobility school district transfer rates compared to non-military control students (n = 20) before completing high school. The findings were not consistent with…

  9. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  10. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  11. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  12. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  13. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  14. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  15. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  16. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  17. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  18. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  19. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  20. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  1. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  2. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  3. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  4. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  5. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  6. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  7. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  8. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  9. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  10. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  11. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  12. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  13. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  14. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  15. High School Diploma Options That Meet Federal Graduation Rate Calculation Requirements. Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Federal requirements stipulate that states and local education agencies annually calculate and report an Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate, disaggregated by student group. The ACGR includes all students who graduate from high school in four years with a regular high school diploma, plus all students with the most significant cognitive disabilities…

  16. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  17. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  18. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  19. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  20. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  1. Explaining the Gap in Charter and Traditional Public School Teacher Turnover Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data to examine why charter school teachers are more likely to turnover than their traditional public school counterparts. We test whether the turnover gap is explained by different distributions of factors that are empirically and theoretically linked to turnover risk. We find that the turnover rate of charter…

  2. Sickness Absenteeism Rate in Iranian Schools during the 2009 Epidemic of Type a Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study.…

  3. 78 FR 51597 - Modernizing the E-Rate Program for Schools and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... this goal would be benchmarking the performance of schools' and libraries' broadband connections... Modernizing the E-Rate Program for Schools and Libraries; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Libraries AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the...

  4. The Prevalent Rate of Problem-Solving Approach in Teaching Mathematics in Ghanaian Basic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…

  5. An Analysis of a Plan to Improve Graduation Rates in Johnston County Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrow, David Ross

    2015-01-01

    There have been limited qualitative case studies exploring effective strategies designed to improve graduation rates in rural school districts. Specifically, few studies have presented information based solely upon the voices of practitioners themselves in solving the graduation crisis in America's public schools. This study will add to the…

  6. Transitioning to the New High School Graduation Rate. Policy on Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    For nearly a decade, states have had flexibility in collecting and reporting graduation rate data for state and federal accountability purposes. But in 2008, the U.S. Department of Education issued new guidelines that require all states to report a new rate--the four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate--beginning in the 2011-2012 school year.…

  7. Some Further Evidence on the Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Randall H.

    1980-01-01

    The business cycle has a strong impact on calculated rates of return to schooling. Cross-sectional rates of return are positively related to the unemployment rate in the year the cross-section is taken. The sensitivity of the relationship was not found to be substantially different among the races. (CT)

  8. The Impact of High School Exit Exams on Graduation Rates and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Katherine; Balestra, Simone

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the short- and long-term effects of high school exit exams (HSEEs) on graduation rates and achievement using an interrupted time series approach. There is a positive overall effect of HSEE introduction for graduation rate trends, which is heterogeneous over time. HSEEs have a negative impact on graduation rates in the year of…

  9. The Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle: Additional Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniesner, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates that the business cycle does indeed disturb relative Black/White rates of return to schooling. Blacks fare relatively poorly in times of high unemployment. Data tables and formulas are presented to support the argument. (CT)

  10. A Comparison of Satisfaction Ratings of School Psychologists in RTI versus Non-RTI School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade-White, Priscilla A.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' satisfaction with school psychological services has been studied for more than 30 years. Few to no studies, however, are available that provide data about the perceptions of school psychologists regarding their perceived value within different service delivery models, particularly those involving Response to Intervention (RTI) models.…

  11. Bringing Street Art to School: Open to Include

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Varandas, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive Education values differences by reducing barriers to learning and promoting active participation and positive interactions between all members of school community. Nowadays, school faces numerous children/adolescents who for several reasons have developed challenging behaviours and high risk of dropping out school. They come often from…

  12. Neighborhood design and rates of walking and biking to elementary school in 34 California communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braza, Mark; Shoemaker, Wendy; Seeley, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between neighborhood design and rates of students walking and biking to elementary school. Pairwise correlations and multiple regression models were estimated based on a cross-sectional study of elementary schools and their surrounding neighborhoods. Setting and Subjects. Thirty-four (23%) of 150 California public elementary schools holding October 1999 Walk to School Day events participated in the study. Teachers asked fifth-grade students how they arrived to school 1 week before Walk to School Day. 1990 U.S. Census data measured population density and number of intersections per street mile, whereas 1998-1999 California Department of Education data measured school size, the percentage of students receiving public welfare, and the percentage of students of various ethnicities. Population density (p = .000) and school size (p = .053) were significantly associated with walking and biking rates in regression models controlling for number of intersections per street mile, the percentage of students receiving public welfare, and the percentage of students of various ethnicities. The number of intersections per street mile was associated with walking and biking rates in pairwise correlations (p = .003) but not in regression models. The results support the hypothesis that the walking and biking rates are higher in denser neighborhoods and to smaller schools but do not support the hypothesis that rates are higher in neighborhoods with a high number of intersections per street mile. We suggest that detailed data for a larger sample of students would allow statistical models to isolate the effect of specific design characteristics.

  13. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  14. Revisiting the Link Between Depression Symptoms and High School Dropout: Timing of Exposure Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Nault-Brière, Frédéric; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Lesage, Alain

    2018-02-01

    Recent reviews concluded that past depression symptoms are not independently associated with high school dropout, a conclusion that could induce schools with high dropout rates and limited resources to consider depression screening, prevention, and treatment as low-priority. Even if past symptoms are not associated with dropout, however, it is possible that recent symptoms are. The goal of this study was to examine this hypothesis. In 12 disadvantaged high schools in Montreal (Canada), all students at least 14 years of age were first screened between 2012 and 2015 (N screened  = 6,773). Students who dropped out of school afterward (according to school records) were then invited for interviews about their mental health in the past year. Also interviewed were matched controls with similar risk profiles but who remained in school, along with average not at-risk schoolmates (N interviewed  = 545). Interviews were conducted by trained graduate students. Almost one dropout out of four had clinically significant depressive symptoms in the 3 months before leaving school. Adolescents with recent symptoms had an odd of dropping out more than twice as high as their peers without such symptoms (adjusted odds ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.14-4.12). In line with previous findings, adolescents who had recovered from earlier symptoms were not particularly at risk. These findings suggest that to improve disadvantaged youths' educational outcomes, investments in comprehensive mental health services are needed in schools struggling with high dropout rates, the very places where adolescents with unmet mental health needs tend to concentrate. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. U.S. High School Graduation Rates: Patterns and Explanations. NBER Working Paper No. 18701

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    I survey the evidence on patterns in U.S. high school graduation rates over the period 1970-2010 and report the results of new research conducted to fill in holes in the evidence. I begin by pointing out the strengths and limitations of existing data sources. I then describe six striking patterns in graduation rates. They include stagnation over…

  16. NCLB Implementation Report: State Approaches for Calculating High School Graduation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    This review investigated the state accountability Workbooks provisionally approved and publicly reported by the U.S. Department of Education (DOE) as of June 2003. These documents were obtained from the DOE Web site. This report examines state definitions of high school graduation rates and strategies for constructing graduation rate indicators. A…

  17. "Teachers Should Be like Second Parents": Affectivity, Schooling and Poverty in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2004-01-01

    The paper highlights the importance of affectivity in school retention in public secondary schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, in a socioeconomic context where the students themselves often decide whether to stay in school or to drop out. In such contexts, students' feelings towards the school and the teachers can become crucial in deciding whether to…

  18. A Peer-Led High School Transition Program Increases Graduation Rates Among Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Valerie L; Simon, Patricia; Mun, Eun-Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a manualized high school transition program, the Peer Group Connection (PGC) program, on the graduation rate at a low-income, Mid-Atlantic high school. The program utilized twelfth grade student peer leaders to create a supportive environment for incoming ninth grade students. Results of a randomized control trial demonstrated that male students who participated in the program during ninth grade were significantly more likely to graduate from high school within four years than male students in the control group (81% versus 63%). Findings suggest that peers can be effective in delivering a school-based, social emotional learning intervention and that it is possible to intervene in the ninth grade to influence the probability of high school graduation.

  19. Sickness absenteeism rate in Iranian schools during the 2009 epidemic of type a influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study. The number of days of absenteeism, since the beginning of the school year until the end of the epidemic was recorded. Two hundred and thirteen students missed school during the disease epidemic because of related causes. In other words, 581 person day absences were reported during this period. The influenza pandemic has led to an increase in the absenteeism rate and may negatively affect the academic performance of the students. Teaching precautionary measures is an effective tool in reducing the number of days of sickness.

  20. Oregon's On-Time High School Graduation Rate Shows Strong Growth in 2014-15. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Oregon continues to make gains in its on-time high school graduation rate. The rate increased to 74% for the 2014-15 school year--up from 72% the year before. The graduation rate for almost all student groups rose, led by Hispanic students (2.4 percentage points) and Black students (2.4 percentage points). The rate for economically disadvantaged…

  1. Increasing the admission rate to secondary school: The case of primary school student career guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Anders; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj

    Although several studies investigate the effects of school resources on student performance, these studies tend to focus more on intervention effect sizes than on their cost-effectiveness. Exploiting policy-induced variation in Denmark and using high-quality administrative data, we investigate...

  2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis of primary school children in Geoje island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jin; Lee, Bo Young; Chung, Hyun Kee; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Chung, Hae Jin

    2003-01-01

    The status of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) egg positive rate of primary school children in Geoje island was investigated by using adhesive cellotape anal swap method, in September, 2002. Total egg positive rates of E. vermicularis were 9.8% (74/754) and those of male and female were 10.8% and 8.7%, respectively. Among three schools examined, Myeongsa primary school showed the highest egg positive rate (12.6%) followed by Yeoncho [9.8% (26/266)] and Geoje [9.1% (35/385)]. As for the age groups, the 2nd grade had the highest egg positive rate (15.3%), whereas the 5th grade showed the lowest egg positive rate (2.6%). The above result led us to confirm that the egg positive rates of E. vermicularis in primary school children in Geoje island were not significantly different from the those in the whole country including urban and rural areas, showing more than 10%. PMID:12666734

  4. Differences in Primary School Students’ Ratings about Themselves and the School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Habók

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available L2L is a frequently used concept, which can be approached from different perspectives. In our theoretical background we provide an overview of the early and current research trends, then we approach the issue from the perspective of the Finnish framework, the second order learning and the learning how to learn approaches. Next, we present the results of the ’Me and the school’ questionnaire from the Finnish framework. Our participants were 5th and 6th grade primary school students. We found that this online questionnaire is a reliable tool for the Hungarian sample. Comparing the results of Grades 5 and 6, we did not register significant relationships between the grades, except for their ‘use of computer’. The most important differences were discovered between the genders, where significantly higher mean values were observed for girls. We also analysed the effects of mathematics and literature school results on some variables. It can be concluded that school results have a significant effect on students’ performance and attitude. While the effect of attitudes on students’ performance was not substantial, there was a stronger effect on students’ evaluation of own competencies in maths for both genders and in reading for boys.

  5. Promoting Educational Resiliency in Youth with Incarcerated Parents: The Impact of Parental Incarceration, School Characteristics, and Connectedness on School Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.

  6. Trends in Personal Belief Exemption Rates Among Alternative Private Schools: Waldorf, Montessori, and Holistic Kindergartens in California, 2000–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Richards, Jennifer L.; Allen, Kristen E.; Warraich, Gohar J.; Omer, Saad B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. Methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Results. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Conclusions. Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed. PMID:27854520

  7. Trends in Personal Belief Exemption Rates Among Alternative Private Schools: Waldorf, Montessori, and Holistic Kindergartens in California, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Julia M; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Richards, Jennifer L; Allen, Kristen E; Warraich, Gohar J; Omer, Saad B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed.

  8. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  9. Academic Vulnerability and Resilience during the Transition to High School: The Role of Social Relationships and District Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkamp, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to high school is a critical stage in students' academic trajectories and can be especially difficult for middle school students who struggle academically. Starting high school on a low academic track and with low academic performance often leads to dropping out of high school. This study investigates what might protect academically…

  10. An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…

  11. Nasal congestion in relation to low air exchange rate in schools. Evaluation by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C

    1997-09-01

    Upper airway symptoms are common, but there is little information available on clinical findings in relation to indoor air pollution. This pilot study was conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools may correlate to a swelling of the nasal mucosa. The assumption was made that the degree of swelling could be related to the degree of decongestive effect of xylometazoline, and measured by acoustic rhinometry. The study was performed among 15 subjects in a school with low air exchange rate (0.6 air changes/h) and 12 subjects in a school with high air exchange rate (5.2 air changes/h). Hygienic measurements were performed in both schools. Acoustic rhinometry was performed for each individual under standardized forms. Cross-sectional areas and volumes of the nasal cavity were measured before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. Absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation. The decongestive effect of xylometazoline was significantly higher in the school with low air exchange, when correction for the influence of age was made. A diminished decongestive effect was seen with increasing age. The exposure measurements showed that indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds, bacteria and moulds were higher in the school with low ventilation. In conclusion, raised levels of indoor air pollutants due to inadequate ventilation in schools may affect the upper airways and cause a swelling of the nasal mucosa, and acoustic rhinometry could be a useful objective method to measure human nasal reactions to the indoor environment.

  12. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  13. Accountability for Alternative Schools in California. Continuous Improvement Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Jorge Ruiz; Gonzales, Daisy

    2017-01-01

    California's alternative education options for youth vulnerable to dropping out of school have been established at different historical points and for different student age and target populations. For purposes of this brief, "alternative school" is defined as belonging to one of six legislatively authorized types of public (non-charter)…

  14. Staying on Track for High School Graduation: Promoting Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen E.; Christenson, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Students' engagement at school has emerged as a critical factor across hundreds of dropout prevention and recovery programs in the United States. By supporting and improving academic, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement, we can mitigate the risk of dropping out. This article describes the history of school dropout, predictors of…

  15. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Marchant; Sharon E. Paulson

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., r...

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Jersey's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Hampshire's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Mexico's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting New York's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Residential Property Composition of School Districts: Its Effect on Tax Rate and Per Pupil Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Virginia; And Others

    This study related tax rate and per pupil revenue to residential assessed valuation, percent residential of total assessed valuation, and selected socioeconomic independent variables for school districts in Cook, DeKalb, DuPage, Kane, and Lake counties in Illinois. Findings suggest that for homeowners and the students of these counties in 1976,…

  1. National- and State-Level High School Graduation Rates for English Learners. Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topic for this report on English Learners (ELs) are national- and state-level high school graduation rates for English Learners. The following data are presented: (1)…

  2. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student-Generated Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…

  3. Substance Use among Middle School Students: Associations with Self-Rated and Peer-Nominated Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana…

  4. The Use of Gap Analysis to Increase Student Completion Rates at Travelor Adult School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Blanca Estela

    2013-01-01

    This project applied the gap analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008) in order to help develop strategies to increase completion rates at Travelor Adult School. The purpose of the study was to identify whether the knowledge, motivation and organization barriers were contributing to the identified gap. A mixed method approached…

  5. The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates in North Carolina. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    North Carolina has a dropout crisis--only two thirds of North Carolina high school students graduate. One reason this crisis has not received the attention it deserves is because the state was reporting badly inflated graduation rates (supposedly as high as 97 percent) until it finally adopted a more realistic reporting method earlier this year.…

  6. Predicting High School Outcomes in the Baltimore City Public Schools. The Senior Urban Education Research Fellowship Series. Volume VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study of high school outcomes in the Baltimore City Public Schools builds on substantial prior research on the early warning indicators of dropping out. It sought to investigate whether the same variables that predicted a non-graduation outcome in other urban districts--attendance, behavior problems, and course failure--were also significant…

  7. Institutional Violence in the Everyday Practices of School: The Narrative of a Young Lesbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of institutionalized violence in one young lesbian's decision to drop out of high school. Casting this young woman as a school failure masks the school's unwillingness to interrupt everyday practices (errors of alienation, omission, and repression) that diminished her sense of self and learning capacity. (29 references) (MLH)

  8. Reducing the Teen Birth Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Teen childbearing affects young people at both ends of childhood. When teens have children, their own health may be jeopardized and their chances to build productive lives are often diminished. Compared to women who postpone childbearing until they are older, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and to live in poverty. At the same…

  9. School burnout and heart rate variability: risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Seibert, Gregory S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2018-05-01

    Emerging research documents the relationship between school burnout and some indicators of increased cardiovascular risk. Indicators of cardiovascular functioning assessed via ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) have not been thoroughly explored in this research domain. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between school burnout and indicators of cardiac functioning via 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram monitoring in a sample of young adult female undergraduates (N = 88). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that independent of related negative affective symptomology (depression and anxiety), increased school burnout would be related to greater systolic and diastolic BP, higher low frequency (LF) HRV and lower very low frequency (VLF) HRV, and (2) that lower VLF would be related to greater school burnout independently of LF HRV. Hierarchical multiple regression analyzes showed that school burnout was significantly related to elevated ambulatory BP (systolic and diastolic) and HRV markers of increased cardiac sympathovagal tone. These findings support the hypotheses and suggest that school burnout might be implicated in the development of pre-hypertension or early cardiovascular disease. Study limitations and the need for future longitudinal research are discussed.

  10. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.

  11. Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle

  12. Interrater Reliability of the ENERGY Photo-Rating Instrument for School Environments Related to Physical Activity and Eating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.; te Velde, S.; Chiu, K.-J.; Moschonis, G.; Manios, Y.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Vik, F.N.; Lien, N.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.

    Background: The school environment can play an important role in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Photos of the school environment may contribute to more adequate measurement of the school environment, as photos can be rated by different assessors. We aimed to examine the

  13. Appropriateness of Dropout Layers and Allocation of Their 0.5 Rates across Convolutional Neural Networks for CIFAR-10, EEACL26, and NORB Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Romanuke Vadim V.

    2017-01-01

    A technique of DropOut for preventing overfitting of convolutional neural networks for image classification is considered in the paper. The goal is to find a rule of rationally allocating DropOut layers of 0.5 rate to maximise performance. To achieve the goal, two common network architectures are used having either 4 or 5 convolutional layers. Benchmarking is fulfilled with CIFAR-10, EEACL26, and NORB datasets. Initially, series of all admissible versions for allocation of DropOut layers are ...

  14. A Comparative Study of Dropout Rates and Causes for Two Different Distance Education Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pierrakeas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to examine the root causes leading to student dropout at a Greek distance education university. Data was gathered from two different courses – an undergraduate course leading to a Bachelors degree in Informatics (characterized by high dropout rates, and a postgraduate course leading to a Masters degree in education (characterized by low dropout rates. A comparative analysis of these two different courses revealed important similarities in dropout percentages and the reasons cited by students for dropping out. Our analysis also revealed important differences as well. This paper presents the results of a survey designed to investigate the relationship between dropout with intrinsic (student-related factors such as sickness, work/ school conflict etc., and extrinsic (institutional-related factors such as study methods and materials, educational approach, and tutor influence.

  15. School Motivation and High School Dropout: The Mediating Role of Educational Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research…

  16. Learning styles in Higher Education: facing drop out and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Matos dos Santos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dropout and retention have been configured today as one of the greatest challenges for Higher Education, not only in Brazil, but worldwide. In this sense, this article presents the results obtained using the learning styles methodology in the development of educational audiovisuals based on the four different styles proposed by Alonso, Gallego and Honey (2007, which are: active, reflexive, theoretical and pragmatic. It is reported in this text the course developed by the group that worked on the project, which surpassed the goals initially outlined in qualitative and quantitative terms, and revealed important and innovative nuances regarding the educational process based on the students’ engagement. It is mainly highlighted here the fact that styles are not labels for student cataloging but rather a teaching methodology that implies a specific didactics.

  17. Drop-out from parenting training programmes: a retrospective study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:Parent training programmes are a well-established treatment approach for children and adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. However, dropout from treatment is a common problem that confounds research on the efficacy of this approach, and wastes important mental health resources. This study ...

  18. Why Students Drop out of the Bachelor of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestan, Kemran

    2016-01-01

    Attrition, which courses in the humanities and social sciences particularly suffer from, is a major problem for universities and students. This paper investigates the reasons students give for prematurely discontinuing studying the Bachelor of Arts. This is a qualitative study that thematically analyses semi-structured interviews. The sample…

  19. Latent profile analysis of sixth graders based on teacher ratings: Association with school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behavior in residency training 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The authors designed the present study to examine the association between individuals' scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, & M. Magee, 2003; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, T. J. Nasca, S. Mangione, M. Vergare, & M. Magee, 2002; M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, M. J. M. Cohen, J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, J. J. Veloski, & M. Magee, 2001), a self-report empathy scale, during medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs 3 years later. Participants were 106 physicians. The authors examined the relationships between scores on the JSPE (with 20 Likert-type items) at the beginning of the students' 3rd year of medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs. Top scorers on the JSPE in medical school, compared to Bottom scorers, obtained a significantly higher average rating of empathic behavior in residency 3 years later (p prosocial and helping behavior, it is important for investigators to further enhance our understanding of its correlates and outcomes among health professionals.

  1. State-level high school completion rates: Concepts, measures, and trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Warren

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1970s the national rate at which incoming 9th graders have completed high school has fallen slowly but steadily; this is also true in 41 states. In 2002, about three in every four students who might have completed high school actually did so; in some states this figure is substantially lower. In this paper I review state-level measures of high school completion rates and describe and validate a new measure that reports these rates for 1975 through 2002. Existing measures based on the Current Population Survey are conceptually imperfect and statistically unreliable. Measures based on Common Core Data (CCD dropout information are unavailable for many states and have different conceptual weaknesses. Existing measures based on CCD enrollment and completion data are systematically biased by migration, changes in cohort size, and/or grade retention. The new CCD-based measure described here is considerably less biased, performs differently in empirical analyses, and gives a different picture of the dropout situation across states and over time.

  2. Health and schooling: evidence and policy implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-neto, J B; Hanushek, E A; Leite, R H; Frota-bezzera, R C

    1997-01-01

    Health and education are typically viewed as distinct topics from both the research and policy perspectives. Accordingly, the direct interactions between health status and education have been neglected in both research and policy making. The authors use survey data collected from students during the 1980s in Piaui, Ceara, and Pernambuco states as part of an evaluation of a major educational intervention program, EDURURAL, to investigate the complementarities of health with school attainment and cognitive achievement. A series of anthropometric measures for individual students in rural northeast Brazil are used in educational performance models. The promotion models and value-added achievement models both demonstrate the importance of students' visual acuity. Poor vision systematically leads to higher drop-out rates, more grade repetition, and lower achievement. The achievement models also point to the role of good nutrition.

  3. Social factors outside of family and school related to student dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović-Ilić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematisation of broader social factors affecting student dropout in Serbia from the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s approach. Although recognised by authors and commonly related to community and education as a system, these factors are rarely investigated. Starting from our previous research into dropout, focused primarily on family and school, this study is aimed at investigating community and systemic factors. The data were compiled by semi-structured interviews with respondents from the following groups (including relevant public statistical data: students who dropped out/are at risk and their parents; school principals and counsellors from schools with high and low attrition rates; teachers’, parents’ and students’ representatives from schools with high dropout rates; social workers in charge of schools with a low attrition rate; representatives of national educational institutions. The findings reveal that factors with a negative impact on children’s education dominate over supportive ones which could have a preventive effect on attrition. Negative influences exist in all social niches: in microsystems (peers prone to risky behaviour, poor neighbourhoods, in weak mesosystem connections of school and family with local institutions, in exosystems (undeveloped regions, up to the macrosystem level (legislative inefficiency, lack of cooperation within educational institutions and between governmental departments. Productive features were observed in mesosystem connections of schools as examples of good practice, as well as at macrosystem level in the form of recognising the dropout problem at the national level. Although preliminary, the obtained results provide useful guidelines for future investigations.

  4. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  5. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  6. Effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates in Vikarabad town: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadde Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The school dental screening program has been in existence from the beginning of 20 th century. Its value in encouraging attendance among school children is not fully established. Aim: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates among school children in Vikarabad town. Objectives: (a To compare the dental attendance rates between 6-9 and 10-13 years old age groups, among male and female school children in Vikarabad town. (b To identify the type of dental treatment received by the school children. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among school children aged 6-13 years old from 16 schools that were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Eight schools had a dental screening program (study group = 300 children and had blanket referral cards and 8 schools that did not have the intervention (control group = 300. The dental attendance rates were determined after 3 months of follow-up period by evaluating the blanket referral cards for the study group and by an oral questionnaire for the control group. Results: The dental attendance rate was 27% for the study group and 18% for the control group which is statistically significant. The attendance rate was higher among 10-13 years of children both in test group and control groups. Among the children who visited the dentist, 53% in the control group and 69% from the test group got simple amalgam and glass ionomer cement restorations. Conclusion: The dental attendance rates were improved following school dental screening.

  7. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  8. [Tobacco use rate and associated factors in middle school students in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, L; Feng, G Z; Jiang, Y; Zhang, J R; Liu, L X

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand tobacco use rate and explore the factors associated with tobacco use in middle school students in China. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 155 117 eligible middle students selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 31 provinces of China. The questionnaire consists of the following topics: tobacco use and cessation, passive smoking, access to tobacco products, tobacco control and tobacco advertisement, and knowledge about and attitudes to tobacco. Software SAS 9.3 was used for sample weighting and data analysis. Results: Current tobacco use rate was 6.9 % in middle school students in China. The rate was higher in boys (11.2 % ) than in girls (2.2 % ), and in rural area (7.8 % ) than in urban area (4.8 % ). Students in western area had the highest tobacco use rate (10.3 % ), followed by the students in middle area (6.4 % ), and the rate in students in eastern area was lowest (4.5 % ). Parent smoking (especially mother smoking), friend smoking, teacher smoking, pocket money for a week>20 yuan, tobacco advertisement or promotion, passive smoking, misconception of tobacco addiction, active attitude to smoking behavior were the risk factors for tobacco use. Conclusions: Smoking rate in boys in China was higher than the average global level. A comprehensive intervention strategy by Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be used to reduce tobacco use in adolescents, including health education, increasing cigarette price, banning tobacco advertisement and promotion, and smoke-free legislation.

  9. Public High School Four-Year On-Time Graduation Rates and Event Dropout Rates: School Years 2010-11 and 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2014-391

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetser, Marie C.; Stillwell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for two separate measures of 4-year on-time graduation rates as well as event dropout rates for school year (SY) 2010-11 and SY 2011-12. Specifically this report provides the following: (1) Four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) data reported by…

  10. A large scale study of the assessment of the social environment of middle and secondary schools: the validity and utility of teachers' ratings of school climate, cultural pluralism, and safety problems for understanding school effects and school improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young adolescents. Teachers' climate ratings exhibited a robust dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability over 1-and 2-year time spans. Teachers' climate ratings were also found to be related consistently with students' ratings. In three large-scale samples of schools, teachers' climate ratings were associated significantly and consistently with students' performance on standardized tests of academic achievement, and with indexes of their academic, behavioral, and socio-emotional adjustment.

  11. Evolving an Accelerated School Model through Student Perceptions and Student Outcome Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Donna L.; Gable, Robert K.; Billups, Felice D.; Vieira, Mary; Blasczak, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    A mixed methods convergent evaluation informed the redesign of an innovative public school that uses an accelerated model to serve grades 7-9 students who have been retained in grade level and are at risk for dropping out of school. After over 25 years in operation, a shift of practices/policies away from grade retention and toward social…

  12. A School/Curricular Intervention Martial Arts Program for At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    Statistics clearly demonstrate the need to assist students who may drop out of school or who may graduate with inadequate academic, social, and emotional skills. This paper describes efforts at one elementary school to address some of the needs of at-risk students. The program revolves around a structured martial arts class designed to develop…

  13. High School Dropout in Proximal Context: The Triggering Role of Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Leventhal, Tama; Archambault, Isabelle; Crosnoe, Robert; Janosz, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents who drop out of high school experience enduring negative consequences across many domains. Yet, the circumstances triggering their departure are poorly understood. This study examined the precipitating role of recent psychosocial stressors by comparing three groups of Canadian high school students (52% boys; M[subscript…

  14. Lessons for Teachers: What Lower Secondary School Students Tell Us about Learning a Musical Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study I set out to investigate why many students drop out from elective instrument programmes, particularly in lower secondary school. I examined the values and beliefs a sample of students in their first year in secondary school attach to learning an instrument, and the impact of the instrument lesson upon these values and beliefs.…

  15. Stuck in the Middle: Career Progress, Motivation, and Engagement among Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Deirdre T.

    2010-01-01

    The process of educational and vocational development does not occur at a single point in time. Many indicators of dropping out of high school, for example, are present by middle school (Alexander et al., 1997; Balfanz et al., 2007). Yet, research and practice focus almost exclusively on enriching the learning and work experiences of high school…

  16. Minimum Wages and School Enrollment of Teenagers: A Look at the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Duncan D.; Turner, Mark D.; Pape, Andreas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates the effects of higher minimum wages on school enrollment using the Common Core of Data. Controlling for local labor market conditions and state and year fixed effects, finds some evidence that higher minimum wages reduce teen school enrollment in states where students drop out before age 18. (23 references) (Author/PKP)

  17. WCPSS High School Graduation Rates: 4-Year and 5-Year Cohort Rates 2011-12. Measuring Up. D&A Report No. 13.04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) four-year cohort graduation rate declined slightly to 80.6% in 2011-12 from 80.9% in the previous year. Disaggregated graduation rates for most racial and ethnic groups stayed nearly the same or declined slightly in 2011-12, but the rate for African-American students rose from 67.9% to 69.6%. The other…

  18. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  19. Assessing U.S. Public School Quality: The Advantages of Combining Internal "Consumer Ratings" with External NCLB Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    The school quality assessment process under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is criticized for oversimplifying and overemphasizing standardized test results and unfairly targeting diverse, urban schools. There has been much development in alternative test score evaluations, especially value-added models. These developments have tilted the public…

  20. A Review of Greene (2002 High School Graduation Rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The - Greene Method- of calculating school - graduation rates- and the Manhattan Institute (MI criticisms of official graduation and completion statistics are outlined and scrutinized. The methodology fails to recognize the complexity of the issue and appears to ignore the considerable efforts that have been undertaken by education statisticians to remediate the problems inherent to these types of data. The Greene method for calculating completion ratios is simulated and found to have little to no reliability. It is recommended that anyone intent on reporting valid and reliable education indicators avoid use of the Greene Method.

  1. Educational Progression in Ghana: Gender and Spatial Variations in Longitudinal Trajectories of Junior High School Completion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, David; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child's educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in…

  2. Young migrants’ transition from school to work : obstacles and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zenderen, K.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the unfavourable position of migrant youth in education and on the labour market, in particular concerning them dropping out of school or becoming unemployed. This leads to a great proliferation of policies and measures to tackle these problems. In this thesis the

  3. Labour Market Performance and School Careers of Low Educated Graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edzes, Arjen; Hamersma, Marije; Venhorst, Viktor; van Dijk, Jouke

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that those with lower levels of education and school drop-outs are less successful in the labour market. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the determinants to continue in education to at least the minimum level defined by the Lisbon Treaty 2000, the so-called starting

  4. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  5. In Their Voice: Lower Secondary School Students' Beliefs about Playing Musical Instruments, and the Impact of the Instrument Lesson upon Those Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    Many young West Australians learn musical instruments through school based elective programs. However, many students drop out from these programs, particularly in lower secondary school. This paper reports on a study I conducted into the motives of 48 lower secondary school students for playing a musical instrument, and the role of the instrument…

  6. Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (MASS in intermediate vocational education schools: design of a controlled before-and-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon K Van der Vlis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School absenteeism, including medical absenteeism, is associated with early school dropout and may result in physical, mental, social and work-related problems in later life. Especially at intermediate vocational education schools, high rates of medical absenteeism are found. In 2012 the Dutch intervention ‘Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students’ (MASS, previously developed for pre-vocational secondary education, was adjusted for intermediate vocational education schools. The aim of the study outlined in this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the MASS intervention at intermediate vocational education schools in terms of reducing students’ medical absenteeism and early dropping out of school. Additionally, the extent to which biopsychosocial and other factors moderate the effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed. Methods A controlled before-and-after study will be conducted within Intermediate Vocational Education schools. Schools are allocated to be an intervention or control school based on whether the schools have implemented the MASS intervention (intervention schools or not (control schools. Intervention schools apply the MASS intervention consisting of active support for students with medical absenteeism provided by the school including a consultation with the Youth Health Care (YHC professional if needed. Control schools provide care as usual. Data will be collected by questionnaires among students in both groups meeting the criteria for extensive medical absenteeism (i.e. ‘reported sick four times in 12 school weeks or for more than six consecutive school days’ at baseline and at 6 months follow-up. Additionally, in the intervention group a questionnaire is completed after each consultation with a YHC professional, by both the student and the YHC professional. Primary outcome measures are duration and cumulative incidence of absenteeism and academic performances. Secondary outcome

  7. Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (MASS) in intermediate vocational education schools: design of a controlled before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vlis, Madelon K; Lugtenberg, Marjolein; Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Berends, Wenda; Mulder, Wico; Bannink, Rienke; Van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein; de Kroon, Marlou L A

    2017-06-29

    School absenteeism, including medical absenteeism, is associated with early school dropout and may result in physical, mental, social and work-related problems in later life. Especially at intermediate vocational education schools, high rates of medical absenteeism are found. In 2012 the Dutch intervention 'Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students' (MASS), previously developed for pre-vocational secondary education, was adjusted for intermediate vocational education schools. The aim of the study outlined in this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the MASS intervention at intermediate vocational education schools in terms of reducing students' medical absenteeism and early dropping out of school. Additionally, the extent to which biopsychosocial and other factors moderate the effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed. A controlled before-and-after study will be conducted within Intermediate Vocational Education schools. Schools are allocated to be an intervention or control school based on whether the schools have implemented the MASS intervention (intervention schools) or not (control schools). Intervention schools apply the MASS intervention consisting of active support for students with medical absenteeism provided by the school including a consultation with the Youth Health Care (YHC) professional if needed. Control schools provide care as usual. Data will be collected by questionnaires among students in both groups meeting the criteria for extensive medical absenteeism (i.e. 'reported sick four times in 12 school weeks or for more than six consecutive school days' at baseline and at 6 months follow-up). Additionally, in the intervention group a questionnaire is completed after each consultation with a YHC professional, by both the student and the YHC professional. Primary outcome measures are duration and cumulative incidence of absenteeism and academic performances. Secondary outcome measures are biopsychosocial outcomes of the students. It

  8. ESTATÍSTICAS DE DESEMPENHO ESCOLAR: O LADO AVESSO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT RATES: THE OTHER SIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pinto de Carvalho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas das principais políticas para a educação no País, hoje, centram-se sobre a "correção do fluxo escolar", isto é, a diminuição dos índices de evasão e repetência, assim como as diversas práticas de "aceleração". Os resultados dessas políticas são avaliados por meio de estatísticas de desempenho escolar, que vêm sendo alardeadas pelos governos federal e do estado de São Paulo como grandes vitórias. Este artigo pretende olhar o avesso da produção desses dados, isto é, buscar como eles vêm sendo produzidos e utilizados no cotidiano das escolas, suas interações com a cultura escolar e seus efeitos sobre a aprendizagem das crianças. Com esses objetivos, está baseado em dados obtidos em observações, entrevistas e consultas a documentos de uma escola pública de 1ª a 4ª séries do ensino fundamental, de um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo. Essa experiência de pesquisa relatada reforça a importância de nos posicionarmos a favor da permanência das crianças e jovens na escola, mas contra a maquiagem estatística da ignorância e do fracasso do sistema em ensinar.In Brazil, some of the most important educational policies are nowadays centered on reducing school failure rates. Their results are measured through academic achievement statistics that both The Federal Government and The State of São Paulo Government announce as great accomplishments. This paper looks at the other side of the production of these rates. It looks on how they are produced in the school day-to-day life. Based on classroom observations and interviews with the staff of a public elementary school in São Paulo, it concludes on the importance of reinforcing the school achievement of children and young people but, at the same time, of denouncing the statistical make up of school failure.

  9. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulfrost Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1 fast food restaurants, 2 convenience stores, and 3 supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. Methods We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. Results The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36. Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Conclusions Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also

  10. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between school dropout and teen pregnancy among rural South African young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Lifestyle and Food Habits in Japanese High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Osera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH, a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16–18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time, five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia, and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR: 2.13; confidence interval (CI: 1.07–4.24 and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27–7.65 than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.

  13. Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Lifestyle and Food Habits in Japanese High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osera, Tomoko; Awai, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Misako; Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka

    2017-10-18

    Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast) are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16-18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time), five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia), and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR): 2.13; confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.24) and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27-7.65) than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.

  14. Publication Rates of Social and Administrative Sciences Pharmacy Faculty in Non-Research Intensive Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Trenna; Unni, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Objective. To assess the level of publication rates from 2011 through 2015 by Social and Administrative Sciences (SAS) faculty at non-research intensive pharmacy schools. Methods. The Web of Science database was searched using faculty names identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty and professional staff roster. Publication rates of SAS faculty were calculated and compared using several demographic subcategories such as public/private school, part of an academic health center, schools with PhD program, funding status, etc. Results. The 208 SAS faculty members from 59 colleges contributed to 478 publications with a mean of 95.6 publications per year and 1.62 publications per institution per year. The number of publications increased 45% over the five years from 67 publications in 2011 to 122 in 2015.The average number of publications was 0.92 per year per SAS faculty compared to 0.82 publications per year per faculty from other basic pharmaceutical sciences divisions. The most commonly published research was research articles in the area of scholarship of teaching and learning. The significant predictors of publications were being part of an academic health center, having a PhD program, and higher percent of faculty members who are SAS faculty. Conclusion. Despite being affiliated with institutions with missions less targeted on research, this study showed SAS faculty members at non-research intensive institutions consistently contribute to published literature. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the lack of publishing by almost half of the SAS faculty and ways to increase research and publication in the field of SAS.

  15. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods. We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using

  16. Against Schooling: Viewpoints of Tribal Students of Kanavu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena AUGUSTINE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Achieving what we believe to be the true purpose of education is a challenge in any society, particularly so in a society as diverse as contemporary India. Most attempts in this field are focussed on improving the access of children to education, but substantive questions such as: What is a school to a child? Does he/she enjoy learning? are seldom addressed prior to drafting any curriculum or policy. Even where they are, the exploration tends to be qualitatively poor and devoid of stake holders views. Alternative educational organisations might offer a perspective on the crisis education seems to be in today, with children lacking lifeskills, governments grappling with retention, disparities across gender and caste and declining standards of education. Kanavu is an educational organisation managed by tribal youth in Cheengode village of Wayanad, a hilly district in the southern state of Kerala, India. These are children who dropped out of mainstream schooling. In the light of efforts to mainstream tribal students into government schools and to control escalating dropout rates, this paper tries to understand the perspectives of the tribal students of Kanavu on schooling and their reasons for resisting mainstream schooling. This paper is a result of a 4 day visit and extensive correspondence the authors have had with this alternative learning organisation.

  17. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6% were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners. Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. The majority of young people reported irregular school trajectory, with 39% enrolled in school at the time of the study. Nearly half of those who had interrupted their studies at least once reported a teenage pregnancy. The main reasons for interrupting their studies were pregnancy and children for women and work for men. School dropout due to teenage pregnancy was mentioned by 40.1% of women for whom the outcome of pregnancy was a child. However, 20.5% had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant.

  18. The Influence of the Trainer's Motivation and Cooperative Learning towards the Improvement of the Youth School Dropouts' Vocational Competences: "A Case Study of Life Skills Training at the Center for Social Empowerment of Youths ("Balai Pemberdayaan Sosial Bina Remaja") in the West Java Province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniati, Rina

    2013-01-01

    The fact that there are many children and youths dropping out of school in Indonesia cannot be denied. The number of dropouts in elementary schools, junior, and senior high schools, and combined with those abandoning school before finishing their higher education program each year remains high. To mitigate this situation, there has been an…

  19. A Second Chance to Dream: Initiating ODeL in Secondary School Re-Entry Programs for Young Adult Secondary School Dropouts the Case of Mumias District, Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musita, Richard; Ogange, Betty O.; Lugendo, Dorine

    2018-01-01

    The Kenyan education system has very limited re-entry options for learners who drop out before attaining secondary school certificate. It is very difficult to access training and or secure a job that requires at least secondary school education. This study examined the prospects of initiating Open and Distance e-Learning(ODeL) in re-entry…

  20. Data Collaboration in New York City: The Challenges of Linking High School and Post-Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Shani; Brohawn, Kathryn; Mevs, Pascale; Lee, Jaein

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders across the country confront a growing challenge: too many students are not college ready when they leave high school. Although indicators exist to identify students at risk of dropping out of high school, few indicators of students' college readiness are currently in place, and few districts have linked indicators to practices…

  1. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  2. One foot out the school door? Interpreting the risk for dropout upon the transition to post-secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, L.

    2012-01-01

    Many students drop out in the first year after a school transition. Most commonly used indicators of an increased risk for dropout reveal little of the mechanisms that push or pull students out of school. In this study, we look at the association of a set of common risk indicators with students’

  3. Parent/Guardian Perspectives on Chronic Absenteeism and the Factors That Influence Decisions to Send Their Children to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 10-15% of students miss an entire month of school each year. Past research on students who are chronically absent finds that, relative to their peers who consistently attend school, chronically absent students are more likely to experience negative academic outcomes (e.g., grade retention, dropping out), to be under- and unemployed,…

  4. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. An Empirical Assessment of Dropout Rate of Learners at Selected High Schools in King William’s Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Manona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and analysed factors responsible for high dropout rate of learners at selected high schools in King William’s Town District, Province of the Eastern Cape. The aim of the study is provide an understanding into inherent problems of early exit of learners in the education sector, which impede the long-term production of professionals with bright future. The main findings of this study revealed that multiple motives, associated with individual characteristics of dropouts and social problems emanating from their family background and influence of the community, prompted learners to dropout. Moreover, learner dropout is inter alia caused by social factors such as lack of resources, the effect of poverty, orphans at school, the distance between the school and the community, drug abuse, pregnancy and HIV and AIDS prevalence in schools, gangsterism and learning barriers. The results of this research suggest that the government should make resources available with regard to scholar transport, school nurses to provide education awareness programmes in relation to early pregnancies, HIV and AIDS infection to improve attendance rate. The Department of Social Development should provide information with regard to benefits available to orphaned learners. The government should ensure sustainable provision of the school nutrition programme to alleviate hunger and poverty. School management should effectively regulate the behaviour of learners to promote discipline in schools so that substance abuse is eliminated.

  6. Every Student Succeeds Act High School Graduation Rate: Non-Regulatory Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Student graduation from high school with a regular high school diploma is an important indicator of school success and one of the most significant indicators of student college and career readiness. In addition, there are substantial economic benefits to high school completion. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Education's National…

  7. Youth Walking and Biking Rates Vary by Environments around 5 Louisiana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Richards, Katherine; Rice, Janet; Andersen, Lori; Parker-Karst, Kathryn; Cole, Shalanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity in children is high, and many do not meet physical activity recommendations. The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program encourages school-aged children to walk and bike to school. We assessed the condition of the walking/biking environment around schools in Louisiana prior to the state's first SRTS program.…

  8. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  9. Appropriateness of Dropout Layers and Allocation of Their 0.5 Rates across Convolutional Neural Networks for CIFAR-10, EEACL26, and NORB Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanuke Vadim V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique of DropOut for preventing overfitting of convolutional neural networks for image classification is considered in the paper. The goal is to find a rule of rationally allocating DropOut layers of 0.5 rate to maximise performance. To achieve the goal, two common network architectures are used having either 4 or 5 convolutional layers. Benchmarking is fulfilled with CIFAR-10, EEACL26, and NORB datasets. Initially, series of all admissible versions for allocation of DropOut layers are generated. After the performance against the series is evaluated, normalized and averaged, the compromising rule is found. It consists in non-compactly inserting a few DropOut layers before the last convolutional layer. It is likely that the scheme with two or more DropOut layers fits networks of many convolutional layers for image classification problems with a plenty of features. Such a scheme shall also fit simple datasets prone to overfitting. In fact, the rule “prefers” a fewer number of DropOut layers. The exemplary gain of the rule application is roughly between 10 % and 50 %.

  10. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school…

  11. Work environment and school dropout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas

    Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...

  12. Effect of the rate of chest compression familiarised in previous training on the depth of chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jinkun; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Je, Sang Mo

    2016-02-12

    To assess how the quality of metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was affected by the chest compression rate familiarised by training before the performance and to determine a possible mechanism for any effect shown. Prospective crossover trial of a simulated, one-person, chest-compression-only CPR. Participants were recruited from a medical school and two paramedic schools of South Korea. 42 senior students of a medical school and two paramedic schools were enrolled but five dropped out due to physical restraints. Senior medical and paramedic students performed 1 min of metronome-guided CPR with chest compressions only at a speed of 120 compressions/min after training for chest compression with three different rates (100, 120 and 140 compressions/min). Friedman's test was used to compare average compression depths based on the different rates used during training. Average compression depths were significantly different according to the rate used in training (ptraining at a speed of 100 compressions/min and those at speeds of 120 and 140 compressions/min (both pCPR is affected by the relative difference between the rate of metronome guidance and the chest compression rate practised in previous training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Self-rated health and wellbeing among school-aged children with and without special educational needs: Differences between mainstream and special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Vockert, Theres; Bilz, Ludwig; Gebhardt, Markus; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2018-05-11

    Studies among students with special educational needs (SEN) in separate special schools (SSS) and mainstream schools (MS) are particularly applicable to educational attainment and social participation. However, indicators of health and wellbeing have rarely been considered. This study investigates two related topics: first, health and wellbeing differences between students with SEN in special schools (SSS) and students without SEN in regular schools, and second, the rarely considered question whether health and wellbeing among students with SEN differ between school settings (i.e. MS vs. SSS). Bivariate and multilevel analyses are applied with data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) with 5267 students (grade 7). After having controlled for background characteristics, students in SSS report higher likelihoods of poor self-rated health compared to students in higher track schools. Self-rated health of students with SEN does not significantly differ between MS vs. SSS. For life satisfaction, students with SEN show higher likelihoods of low life satisfaction when attending MS. Teachers in inclusive settings are encouraged to establish class work and teaching that support a real change from class placement to inclusive culture in order to suitably support students with SEN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  15. Social and Emotional Learning through a Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Based After-School Program for Disengaged Middle-School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barrie; Jacobs, Jenn M.; Wright, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a long-term afterschool leadership program situated in a Midwestern university town in the US. The activity-based program for boys considered to be disengaged with school and at risk for dropping out of education, was based on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model. The program curriculum was strongly…

  16. Boys starting school disadvantaged: implications from teachers' ratings of behaviour and achievement in the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G; McKay, M

    2001-06-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that low socio-economic status (SES) acts as an important stressor and vulnerability factor for children's school learning. However, specific mechanism(s) of this process are still not well understood. This study was a follow-up of the classroom learning behaviour and perceived achievement of low and middle income children after two years at school, who had previously been rated soon after starting school. It examined whether teachers' ratings displayed predictive stability over that period, and whether significant differences evident at age 5 in SES and gender were still operative at age 7. Two samples, of low income (N = 85) and middle income (N = 63) children, were rated following school entry (mean age 5 years 3 months) and rated again after two years at school. The children were rated at both points by their regular classroom teachers using the Learning Behaviours Scale (Stott et al., 1998) with subscales of Distractible, Apprehensive and Uncooperative, together with ratings of academic achievement and their personal perception of each child. SES was found to be a very limited predictor for the learning behaviour subscale ratings and for teachers' personal perceptions at both ages 5 and 7. SES did significantly predict expected Academic Achievement at age 5, but this effect disappeared completely by age 7. Conversely, within the two defined groups, Low Income boys were found to display significantly poorer learning behaviours at age 5, especially in terms of distractible behaviour, compared with Middle Income boys and with girls generally. This pattern was maintained over the next two years of their schooling. The effect of SES was thus demonstrated more powerfully in between-group differences than by means of regression. The findings emphasised the persistence of teachers' initial negative impressions about distractible 'hard to manage' boys from low SES families. The outcomes of this study suggest that low SES boys commenced

  17. Do High Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Lower Rates of Illegal Drug and Alcohol Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastable, Eoin; Kittelman, Angus; McIntosh, Kent; Hoselton, Rob

    2015-01-01

    School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) is a systems-level framework for improving social and academic outcomes for students in schools through the use of integrated evidence-based practices. Although the effects of SWPBIS are well-documented in elementary schools, there is increasing interest in implementing SWPBIS in…

  18. The Effects of Intradistrict School Mobility and High Student Turnover Rates on Early Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have identified school mobility as one form of school disengagement that is disproportionately harmful for young children enrolled in large urban districts. However, there is substantial variation in these findings, with some studies actually evidencing positive associations between school mobility and academic outcomes (Mehana…

  19. High School Graduate Participation Rates: Proportions of Sacramento Area High School Graduates Enrolled in Los Rios Community College District, Fall 1998-Fall 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Planning and Research.

    This report profiles the enrollment patterns of recent high school graduates of the Greater Sacramento Metropolitan Area who attend Los Rios colleges (California). This summary and the full data report provide the District and its colleges with research information on rates of participation by students who graduated from Los Rios Community College…

  20. How different contexts of social capital are associated with self-rated health among Lithuanian high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Štefan, Lovro; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents' self-rated health is related to a number of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors, health-related behaviors, and their social environment. The impact of the latter is still not well explored. An adolescent's social environment is represented by the social capital, i.e. social resources that they can access. The relationships between various contexts of social capital (family, neighborhood, peers, and school) and self-rated health among adolescents are still unclear. This study aims to examine the relationships between various social capital contexts and self-rated health in Lithuanian adolescents. The current cross-sectional study includes a nationally representative sample of 1863 adolescents (51.4% were girls) aged 14-18 years. The indicators of self-rated health as well as indicators of social capital in family, neighborhood, and school contexts were assessed. The results of the relationships between self-rated health and contexts of social capital were calculated controlling for the following covariates: physical activity, psychological distress, gender, body mass index, and family socioeconomic status. Results indicate that there are significant relationships between good self-rated health and a higher level of family support, neighborhood trust, and vertical school trust. In the final logistic regression model, while controlling for all covariates, a higher level of family support and neighborhood trust remain significant predictors of good self-rated health. Family support and neighborhood trust are important correlates of self-rated health in adolescents.

  1. The Effect of Graduation Coaches and Credit Recovery Programs on the Dropout Rate of At-Risk Grade 9 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of effective graduation coaches (GCs) and credit recovery programs and explain the influence of a GC and a credit recovery program on Grade 9 students at risk of dropping out. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high school GC and enrollment in a credit recovery…

  2. Pushing and Pulling Sara: A Case Study of the Contrasting Influences of High School and University Experiences on Engineering Agency, Identity, and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports a longitudinal case study of how one woman, Sara, who had previously considered dropping out of high school, authored strong mathematics and science identities and purposefully exhibited agency through her experiences in high school science. These experiences empowered her to choose an engineering major in college; however,…

  3. "Why Wait Years to Become Something?" Low-Income African American Youth and the Costly Career Search in For-Profit Trade Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Megan M.; DeLuca, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of low-income and minority youth are now pursuing shorter-duration sub-baccalaureate credentials at for-profit trade and technical schools. However, many students drop out of these schools, leaving with large debts and few job prospects. Despite these dismal outcomes, we know very little about students' experiences in for-profit…

  4. Parental Support and High School Students' Motivation in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics: Understanding Differences among Latino and Caucasian Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Price, Chara D.; Garcia, Krystal

    2015-01-01

    Individuals are at an increased risk to drop out of the STEM pipeline if they are female or Latino, and during certain periods including high school. Families are a potential untapped resource of support for high school students. Based on the expectancy-value model, we examined if a variety of parental behaviors predicted students' ability…

  5. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Grade Point Average (GPA) in North-Norway: A Particular Analysis of Cognitive/School-Related and Literacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Sørlie, Tore; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Ottosen, Karl-Ottar; Goll, Charlotte Bjørnskov; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of students drop out from Norwegian upper secondary schools. Academic achievement, as indexed by grade point average (GPA), is one of the strongest predictors of dropout. The present study aimed to examine the role of cognitive, school-related and affective/psychological predictors of GPA. In addition, we examined the…

  6. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Ability, Parental Valuation of Education and the High School Dropout Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David

    of the factor model set out in Carneiro, Hansen, and Heckman (2003). Specically, we consider the impact of cognitive and non-cognitive ability and the value that parents place on education. Our results support three main conclusions. First, cognitive ability at age 15 has a substantial impact on dropping out....... Second, parental valuation of education has an impact of approximately the same size as cognitive ability e ects for medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their education......We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...

  8. Teaching Practices That Re-Engage Early School Leavers in Further Education: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sara; Mitchell, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Re-engaging young adults who have "dropped out" of school is an important and challenging task for educators. The purpose of this study was to explore the teaching practices that encourage young people to re-engage in further learning. Through interviews with teachers and students, the study identified five major interrelated teaching…

  9. Mental health from a life-course perspective : The transition from school to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents suffering from mental health problems are at risk of dropping out from high school without a basic educational level (BEL) or to be in NEET (Neither in Education, Employment nor Training), and when having entered the labor market in adulthood, to be unemployed and earn lower wages. This

  10. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  11. Adolescent School Experiences and Dropout, Adolescent Pregnancy, and Young Adult Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Brook, Judith S.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined predictability of inappropriate behavior in a random sample of 452 adolescents. Behaviors examined included dropping out, teen pregnancy, criminal activities and conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse. Found that academic achievement and aspirations, and learning-focused school settings related to…

  12. Relationships between Parenting Practices, Social Engagement, Academic Competency, and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…

  13. Schistosomes infection rate in relation to environmental factors in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja'a, Y A; Assiragi, H M; Abu-Luhom, A A; Mohammed, A B; Albahr, M H; Ashaddadi, M A; Al Muflihi, A N

    2000-07-01

    An epidemiological comparative survey aimed at determination of prevalence and focal distribution of Schistosomes infection and intestinal parasites to provide a reference for evaluating the need for community intervention. All children of 14th October Primary School were involved. The children were from 7 villages that lie on the Assahul valley of lbb governorates in Yemen. The total number was 230 with (82%) boys and (18%) girls. Their age was between 5-18 years with a mean of 10.24 +/- 2.6 years. Millipore and modified Kato techniques were adopted to quantify urinary and intestinal Schistosomes eggs. Other ova, larvae, cysts were recorded whenever seen. It was revealed that there was a Schistosomes infection rate of 37%. The mansoni prevalence was 35%, hematobia was 5% and mixed infections were 3%. Light infection was classified among 17% of all children; moderate infection among 18% and no intense mansoni infection was determined. Whereas in the case of hematobia species, 2% were intense and 3% were light. Intensity in all children was 5% eggs/g feces in case of intestinal bilharzia and 1% egg/10 ml urine in case of urinary. With regard to the prevalence of any soil-transmitted parasites, it was found to be 69% (Ascariosis 68%, Trichuriosis 10%). Double infection was found in 10%. Hookworm eggs were not seen. Infection rates with other parasites were as follows: Giardiosis 18%, Amoebiosis 14%, ova of Hymenolepes nana were seen in 13%, Taeniosis affected 13% and E. Vermicularis 1%. Bivariate analysis revealed significant associations between Schistosomes infection with residence near the valley, male sex and frequent water contact activities. No significant association was found with the age of the child, parents' education, availability of latrine or household standpipe water. In conclusion, schistosomosis was moderate, whereas soil transmitted helminthosis were intense.

  14. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katie E.; Steele, Aimy S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Research from the past 40 years indicates that Black students in primary and secondary school settings are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children's Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002). Although this phenomenon has…

  15. The Effect of Poverty, Gender Exclusion, and Child Labor on Out-of-School Rates for Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda Castillo, Leopoldo; Sotelsek Salem, Daniel; Sarr, Leopold Remi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze the effect of poverty, social exclusion, and child labor on out-of-school rates for female children. This empirical study is based on a dynamic panel model for a sample of 216 countries over the period 1970 to 2010. Results based on the generalized method of moments (GMM) of Arellano and Bond (1991) and the…

  16. Determinants of High-School Dropout: A Longitudinal Study in a Deprived Area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Fujihara, Sho; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Fukuhara, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-19

    Our objective in this study was to find determinants of high-school dropout in a deprived area of Japan using longitudinal data, including socio-demographic and junior high school-period information. We followed 695 students who graduated the junior high school located in a deprived area of Japan between 2002 and 2010 for 3 years after graduation (614 students: follow-up rate, 88.3%). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for high-school dropout, using multiple imputation (MI) to account for non-response at follow-up. The MI model estimated that 18.7% of students dropped out of high school in approximately 3 years. In the covariates-adjusted model, three factors were significantly associated with high-school dropout: ≥10 days of tardy arrival in junior high school (PR 6.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-24.6 for "10-29 days of tardy arrival" and PR 8.01; 95% CI, 2.05-31.3 for "≥30 days of tardy arrival" compared with "0 day of tardy arrival"), daily smoking (PR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.41-2.86) and severe problems, such as abuse and neglect (PR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.39). Among students with ≥30 days of tardy arrival in addition to daily smoking or experience of severe problems, ≥50% high-school dropout rates were observed. Three determinants of high-school dropout were found: smoking, tardy arrival, and experience of severe problems. These factors were correlated and should be treated as warning signs of complex behavioral and academic problems. Parents, educators, and policy makers should work together to implement effective strategies to prevent school dropout.

  17. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  18. Why stay in school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    This book addresses the current focus on student retention and dropout within secondary education. The research foundation for this book is a field study that investigates how retention processes are developed in the everyday interaction between students, teachers and leaders in a Danish vocational...... school. The background for the study is the political demands that more young people should complete a secondary education since dropping out of school have serious negative personal, social and economic consequences. The Danish vocational schools on the one hand have to deal with the political demands...... of increased student retention and on the other hand of the labor market demands of supporting the development of high quality vocational skills. It is examined how such structural conditions are related to the social constitution of student retention processes in a vocational school. The book should help shed...

  19. Effects of Intradistrict School Mobility and High Student Turnover Rates on Early Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the relations between concurrent, cumulative, and contextual intradistrict school mobility and early reading achievement. Longitudinal administrative school records were used for an entire cohort of students in a large urban district from first through third grade. Findings indicated that students with a…

  20. Principals' Leadership Practices and Mathematics Pass Rate in Jamaican High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Hermond, Douglas; Gardiner, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This research was intended to explore the degree to which leadership practices impacted Jamaican schools' mathematics achievement. More specifically, the researchers examined Jamaica's high school students' CSEC mathematics performance in relation to principals' instructional leadership behaviors as measured by teachers' perceptions, using Kouzes…

  1. High School Leaders' Perceptions of Practices That Increase Graduation Rates of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda D.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates there are significant differences in the academic performance of minorities and whites, particularly at the high school level. On average, Latino and African American high school students read and perform math on the same level as 13-year-old white students and trail their white peers by an average of 20 test points on math and…

  2. Progress Is No Accident: Why ESEA Can't Backtrack on High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In conjunction with the White House Next Gen High School Summit on November 10, a new report finds that the number of high school dropouts decreased from 1 million in 2008 to approximately 750,000 in 2012. The report, released by the Alliance for Excellent Education, America's Promise Alliance, Civic Enterprises, and Everyone Graduates Center,…

  3. African American Educators' Ideas and Practices for Increasing High School Graduation Rates, 1920-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensen, Miyoshi B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…

  4. The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Teacher Transfer Rates in Urban High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard

    2006-01-01

    Data in this report reveals that collectively bargaining agreements are not the source of the teacher quality problem in urban school districts. The data shows that collective bargaining agreements are associated with reduced teacher transfer activity, especially in high-poverty schools, and less reliance on first-year teachers to staff…

  5. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  6. [Class Climate, Academic Well-Being and Self-Rated Health Among School Children in Germany: Findings of the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between features of class climate and school wellbeing, based on self-rated health and reports of absence from school due to illness among adolescents in secondary schools, by using data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Data was obtained from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The sample includes (n=7,348) seventh grade students in regular schools (Starting Cohort 3, Wave 3, 2012). Measures of class climate comprise indicators about demands, control and orientation, autonomy and interaction among students as well as teaching quality in German language class. School wellbeing was measured by satisfaction with school and helplessness in main school subjects. Bivariate and logistic multilevel logistic regression techniques are applied, by controlling for student age, gender and school type attended. Multilevel results showed that particularly among students with higher school satisfaction, there was a higher likelihood of self-rated health and less school absence due to illness. In contrast, perceived helplessness in major subjects and learning orientation were negatively associated with both outcomes. Further, students attending low track schools had a higher risk of school absence than students in high track schools. The results highlight the fact that particularly students' school wellbeing in terms of school satisfaction and perceived helplessness in the subjects German and mathematics are associated with self-rated poorer health and school absence due to illness. Therefore, health promotion initiatives should particularly focus on students' school wellbeing as well as on students attending low track schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Abandono do tratamento de tuberculose e relações de vínculo com a equipe de saúde da família Abandono del tratamiento de la tuberculosis e relaciones vinculares con el equipo de salud familiar Tuberculosis treatment drop out and relations of bonding to the family health team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    2010-12-01

    áctica intersubjetiva en la perspectiva de la cogestión de la atención.This study aimed to analyze the relation between the singularities of the sick subject with the history of dropping out of the tuberculosis treatment and the care given by the family health team in light of the bonding concept. The empirical material was built through recorded interviews, in the period from July to September of 2008, using the Thematic Oral History methodology. Interviews were taken with nine users whose drop out was the criteria for closing the treatment to tuberculosis in two municipalities of the metropolitan region of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The analysis was performed according to the discourse analysis technique. The study identified that a therapeutic relation, sharing commitments and the user's valuation, strengthens the bonding and produces the care management democratization. On the other hand, a vertical relation, with fragile bonding, is opposed to the purpose of an intersubjective practice in the perspective of the care co-management.

  8. How different contexts of social capital are associated with self-rated health among Lithuanian high-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Štefan, Lovro; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background. Adolescents’ self-rated health is related to a number of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors, health-related behaviors, and their social environment. The impact of the latter is still not well explored. An adolescent’s social environment is represented by the social capital, i.e. social resources that they can access. The relationships between various contexts of social capital (family, neighborhood, peers, and school) and self-rated health among adolescents are still unclear. Objective. This study aims to examine the relationships between various social capital contexts and self-rated health in Lithuanian adolescents. Methods. The current cross-sectional study includes a nationally representative sample of 1863 adolescents (51.4% were girls) aged 14–18 years. The indicators of self-rated health as well as indicators of social capital in family, neighborhood, and school contexts were assessed. The results of the relationships between self-rated health and contexts of social capital were calculated controlling for the following covariates: physical activity, psychological distress, gender, body mass index, and family socioeconomic status. Results. Results indicate that there are significant relationships between good self-rated health and a higher level of family support, neighborhood trust, and vertical school trust. In the final logistic regression model, while controlling for all covariates, a higher level of family support and neighborhood trust remain significant predictors of good self-rated health. Conclusions. Family support and neighborhood trust are important correlates of self-rated health in adolescents. PMID:29871556

  9. The Effect of the Student Success Skills Small Group Counseling Intervention on Factors Associated with Dropout Potential in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jodie

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study is to add to the outcome research on effective school counseling interventions and to specifically evaluate the effectiveness of the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention with students identified as having drop out potential in the 9th grade. This study analyzed two years of pre-existing, non-identifiable…

  10. The Effects of a Rational-Emotive Affective Education Program for High-Risk Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaConte, Michael A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of participation in developmentally appropriate affective education program. Middle school students (n=23), identified as high risk for dropping out and also as learning disabled or emotionally disturbed, were assigned to experimental and control conditions. Participants in affective education group met for 15 weeks.…

  11. Sex Education and Teenage Pregnancy in the Niger Delta: Implications for Secondary School Biology Curriculum in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Marie Onovroghene

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that when Nigerian adolescent girls, especially those in the Niger Delta, become pregnant they drop out of school and may never go back again but become low level labourers or miscreants to the society. This study investigated the extent of teenagers involvement in sex, pre-disposition of females to pregnancy in the Niger…

  12. An equivalence study of interview platform: Does videoconference technology impact medical school acceptance rates of different groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballejos, Marlene P; Oglesbee, Scott; Hettema, Jennifer; Sapien, Robert

    2018-02-14

    Web-based interviewing may be an effective element of a medical school's larger approach to promotion of holistic review, as recommended by the Association of American Medical Colleges, by facilitating the feasibility of including rural and community physicians in the interview process. Only 10% of medical schools offer videoconference interviews to applicants and little is known about the impact of this interview modality on the admissions process. This study investigated the impact of overall acceptance rates using videoconference interviews and face-to-face interviews in the medical school selection process using an equivalence trial design. The University of New Mexico School of Medicine integrated a videoconferencing interview option for community and rural physician interviewers in a pseudo-random fashion during the 2014-2016 admissions cycles. Logistic regression was conducted to examine whether videoconference interviews impacted acceptance rates or the characteristics of accepted students. Demographic, admissions and diversity factors were analyzed that included applicant age, MCAT score, cumulative GPA, gender, underrepresented in medicine, socioeconomic status and geographic residency. Data from 752 interviews were analyzed. Adjusted rates of acceptance for face-to-face (37.0%; 95% CI 28.2, 46.7%) and videoconference (36.1%; 95% CI 17.8, 59.5%) interviews were within an a priori ± 5% margin of equivalence. Both interview conditions yielded highly diverse groups of admitted students. Having a higher medical college admission test score, grade point average, and self-identifying as disadvantaged increased odds of admission in both interview modalities. Integration of the videoconference interview did not impact the overall acceptance of a highly diverse and qualified group of applicants, and allowed rural and community physicians to participate in the medical school interview process as well as allowed campus faculty and medical student committee members

  13. Adolescent use of school-based health centers and high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Lyon, Aaron R; Cosgrove, T J; Bruns, Eric J

    2011-07-01

    To determine the association between use of school-based health centers (SBHCs) and school dropout. Quasi-experimental longitudinal analysis of a retrospective student cohort, with SBHC use as the independent variable. We statistically controlled for dropout risk and used propensity score regression adjustment to control for several factors associated with SBHC use. Integrated database from an urban public school district (academic outcomes) and department of public health (SBHC use). District-enrolled students in their first semester of ninth grade in 2005 (N = 3334), followed up through their anticipated on-time graduation semester of 12th grade in 2009. Students were divided into 4 groups: never used (47%); low use (23%); moderate use (20%); and high users (10%). Time to nongraduation (described as dropout). Low to moderate SBHC use (0.125-2.5 visits per semester) was associated with a 33% reduction in dropout compared with non-SBHC users. The high-use group (>2.5 visits per semester) did not have dropout rates that differed from nonusers. For SBHC users who did drop out, dropout occurred approximately 1 semester later than nonusers. Exploratory analyses revealed that the association between SBHC use and prevention of dropout was greatest for higher-risk students. This study found an association between low to moderate SBHC use and reductions in dropout for high school students in an urban school district, especially for students at higher risk for dropout. This study supports the theory that benefits of SBHCs extend beyond managing physical and mental health needs to include academic outcomes.

  14. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football "Heads Up Football" Player Safety Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Dalton, Sara L; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-05-01

    In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football's Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The "education only" group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Findings support the PSC as an effective method of injury mitigation in high school football. Future research

  15. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkardeş, Yasemin; Ozmert, Elif N; Unal, Fatih; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on behaviour in low-income school aged children. Double-blind randomized, placebo controlled trial. Low-income district primary school in Turkey. Third grade students in the school. Among 252 students, 226 participated and 218 completed the study. Children in each class were randomized either to the study group to receive 15 mg/day elemental zinc syrup or to placebo group to receive the syrup without zinc for 10 weeks. The change in Conner's Rating Scales for Teachers and Parents scores after supplementation. The mean Conner's Rating Scale for Parents scores on attention deficit, hyperactivity, oppositional behaviour and conduct disorder decreased significantly in the study and placebo groups after supplementation (p children with clinically significant parent ratings on attention deficit (p = 0.01) and hyperactivity (p = 0.004) decreased in the study group while prevalence of oppositional behaviour (p = 0.007) decreased in the placebo group. In children of mothers with low education all mean Parents' scores decreased significantly (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour decreased only in the study group (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit and hyperactivity. The affect on behaviour was more evident in the children of low educated mothers.

  17. A Public Relations Nightmare: ACLU Class Action Lawsuit Exposes Inaccurate and Inequitable High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Terri N.; Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Florida's decision to equate a GED to a high school diploma undermines the attempt of No Child Left Behind to close the achievement gap, while infringing on the public's trust. Public trust fosters a culture of systemic equity and social justice, which are necessary for academic excellence (Byrk & Schneider, 2003). Florida's code of ethics for…

  18. Rates of Cyber Victimization and Bullying among Male Australian Primary and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Tass; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of electronic forms of bullying (cyberbullying) was investigated among 1,530 primary and secondary school aged male students (Years 6 to 12; 9-18 years, chronologically) in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Findings revealed that victimization via the Internet was the most common form of cyberbullying with 11.5 percent of…

  19. Effects of Music on Physical Activity Rates of Junior High School Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Lindsey; Barney, David C.; Prusak, Keven A.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Music is an everyday occurrence in a person's life. Music is heard in the workplace, in homes, and in the mall. Music can also be heard as a person exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on junior high students (n = 305) step counts and time in activity in junior high school physical education classes.…

  20. Review and Extension of CO2-Based Methods to Determine Ventilation Rates with Application to School Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Batterman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ventilation rate (VR is a key parameter affecting indoor environmental quality (IEQ and the energy consumption of buildings. This paper reviews the use of CO2 as a “natural” tracer gas for estimating VRs, focusing on applications in school classrooms. It provides details and guidance for the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. An extension to the build-up method and an analysis of the post-exercise recovery period that can increase CO2 generation rates are presented. Measurements in four mechanically-ventilated school buildings demonstrate the methods and highlight issues affecting their applicability. VRs during the school day fell below recommended minimum levels, and VRs during evening and early morning were on the order of 0.1 h−1, reflecting shutdown of the ventilation systems. The transient mass balance method was the most flexible and advantageous method given the low air change rates and dynamic occupancy patterns observed in the classrooms. While the extension to the build-up method improved stability and consistency, the accuracy of this and the steady-state method may be limited. Decay-based methods did not reflect the VR during the school day due to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system shutdown. Since the number of occupants in classrooms changes over the day, the VR expressed on a per person basis (e.g., L·s−1·person−1 depends on the occupancy metric. If occupancy measurements can be obtained, then the transient mass balance method likely will provide the most consistent and accurate results among the CO2-based methods. Improved VR measurements can benefit many applications, including research examining the linkage between ventilation and health.

  1. [Study on the detection rate and risk factors regarding non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Zhu, Cui-zhen; Situ, Ming-jing; DU, Na; Huang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury in middle school students. 1312 middle school students of Pengzhou and Santai were selected to fill in a Risky Behavior Questionnaire for Adolescence (RBQ-A), Family Environment Scale (FES), Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Social Support Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) and self-administered questionnaire. In all the research subjects, 1288 were qualified for the study in April 2011 before the risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury were identified by logistic regression. In 1288 middle school students, 22.67% had a history of non-suicidal self-injury, with 22.70% in boys and 22.64% in girls. 63.36% of students had injured themselves through variously ways, more seen in boys (26.88%) than in girls (11.36%) who cut or burnt themselves. The scores of ASLEC and CES-D in non-suicidal self-injury group appeared higher than that in the control group and the score of SSSA was found higher in the control group. The main risk factors for non-suicidal self-injuries were family conflict, depressive emotion, negative life events and receiving less social support. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among middle school students in Pengzhou was high, which called for more attention.

  2. Obesity detection rate among primary school students in the People's Republic of China: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yue-long Jin,* Ling-ling Ding,* Ying-shui Yao, Xiu-li Song, Hui Tang, Lian-ping He, Yan ChenFaculty of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Wannan Medical College, Anhui, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is rising alarmingly among children and adolescents in the People's Republic of China, with an estimated 120 million now in the obese range. It is estimated that 8% of children in the People's Republic of China are obese and 12% are overweight.Methods: Eligible papers on the prevalence of obesity among primary school students in the People's Republic of China and published between 2006 and 2011 were retrieved from PubMed and from online Chinese periodicals, ie, the full-text databases of VIP, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan Fang. Meta-Analyst software was used to collate and analyze the detection rates cited in the papers retrieved.Results: After evaluation of the quality of the papers, 25 were finally included, giving a total sample population size for investigation of obesity of 219,763, in which 28,121 cases were detected. Meta-analysis showed that the combined obesity detection rate was 10.4% (95% confidence interval 8.6–12.6 among primary school students in the People's Republic of China, with a higher detection rate in boys (12.6% than in girls (7.2%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in the north (11.8% than in the south (9.5%, east (11.6%, and mid-west (8.0% regions. Obesity defined according to the World Health Organization weight-for-height standard (14.3% was higher than that using age-specific and gender-specific cutoff points for body mass index (9.0%.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis found an obesity prevalence rate of 10.4%, which does not seem as high as previous reports of childhood obesity rates in other countries. However, the prevalence of childhood

  3. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  4. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking school-age children: real words vs. non-words repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2015-02-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (DDK) tasks are a common tool for evaluating speech disorders. Usually, these tasks involve repetitions of non-words. It has been suggested that repeating real words can be more suitable for preschool children. But, the impact of using real words with elementary school children has not been studied yet. This study evaluated oral-DDK rates for Hebrew-speaking elementary school children using non-words and real words. The participants were 60 children, 9-11 years old, with normal speech and language development, who were asked to repeat "pataka" (non-word) and "bodeket" (Hebrew real word). Data replicate the advantage generally found for real word repetition with preschoolers. Children produced real words faster than non-words for all age groups, and repetition rates were higher for the older children. The findings suggest that adding real words to the standard oral-DDK task with elementary school children may provide a more comprehensive picture of oro-motor function.

  5. Teacher professionalisation and dropout rates in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    in by the teachers, interviews with the teachers, and by the teachers’ written logbooks. The preliminary conclusion is that it is the general attitude in the teacher groups towards the importance of improving retention that is of significance for the documented effects on the drop-out rates.......This article reports findings from a research project titled New roles for the teacher - Increased completion through social responsibility. This research, designed as an intervention project, has an overall aim of reducing absence and drop-out rates in the Danish vocational and general adult...... educational system by developing and improving the teachers’ competences. This has been pursued in the research project through engaging teachers in training aimed at improving their socio-pedagogical competences. The effect of this training has been measured by electronic questionnaires filled...

  6. A survey of rate of victimization and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, S E; Acik, Y; Ayar, A

    2008-01-01

    Violence of any type is a serious issue in the lives of many children from all racial, cultural and economic backgrounds, and is a topic of enormous societal concern in any society. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of exposure to violence as victims, and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in eastern Turkey. All the basic education schools in Elazig, a typical eastern Anatolian city, were included. A total of 3725 fifth and sixth graders were asked to answer survey questions about the rate of physical violence exposure in their everyday lives and whether they thought the violence was an 'acceptable' behaviour. The mean age of participants was 12.8 years with 46.8% boys and 53.2% girls, and their socio-economic status ranged from low-income to upper middle class. Seventy-four per cent of school-aged children reported exposure to at least one case of physical violence in their lives, and 43.4% reported experiencing physical violence within previous 12 months. Higher rates of exposure to physical violence were reported by boys than girls (P = 0.0001). Of the victims, 33.8% regarded physical violence as an acceptable or inevitable way of solution or responding to life events. Results from the self-report of the receiving end of violent behaviours indicate that physical violent victimization is at an alarmingly high rate among children of eastern Turkey, and a significant per cent of these victims approves violence as a way of solution.

  7. The Effect of Sport Specialization on Lower Extremity Injury Rates in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...

  8. Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Quittner, A L; Abikoff, H

    1998-12-01

    Examined factors that influence teachers' ratings of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). 105 teachers watched 2 videotapes--1 depicting a normal child and the other a child with either ADHD or ODD--and rated each child using 2 different questionnaires. Results indicated that teachers accurately rated the child on the ADHD versus ODD tape as having significantly more inattention and hyperactivity but significantly less oppositionality. However, effect sizes indicated the presence of a unidirectional, negative halo effect of oppositional behaviors on ratings of hyperactivity and inattention. Teachers appeared less biased in their judgments when using a well-operationalized rating scale. Finally, knowledge, education, and experience with children with ADHD generally had no effect on the accuracy of teachers' ratings.

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  10. "Coming Out" as Pregnant or Having a Baby While Attending School: Experiences and Challenges of Scottish Schoolgirl Mothers/Mothers-to-Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Concerns exist about schoolgirls disengaging from education, becoming pregnant, dropping out of school and having lower-level or fewer qualifications. Few studies have considered the experiences and challenges that schoolgirls who become mothers face when continuing in education. This article discusses the experiences and challenges of Scottish…

  11. An Examination of Dropout Rates for Hispanic or Latino Students Enrolled in Online K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Michael; Dardick, William; Stella, Julie

    2017-01-01

    As the number of online K-12 educational offerings continues to grow it is important to better understand key indicators of success for students enrolled in these classes. One of those indicators is student dropout rates. This is particularly important for Hispanic or Latino students who traditionally have high dropout rates. The purpose of this…

  12. Effort-reward imbalance in the school setting: associations with somatic pain and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca; Hoven, Hanno; Plenty, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    According to the workplace theory of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), individuals who perceive a lack of reciprocity between their effort spent at work and the rewards received in turn are at an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. It is also assumed that being overcommitted to work is linked to an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. This study applies the effort-reward imbalance model to the school setting. It aims to analyse the associations that effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment share with somatic pain and self-rated health among adolescents. Data are from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), involving students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2010 (n=403). Information on effort-reward imbalance and health outcomes was gathered from self-report questionnaires. An adjusted short version of ERI was used. Factor analysis showed that extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment constitute three distinct dimensions. The designed measures demonstrated sound psychometric properties both for the full sample and for subgroups. Ordered logistic regressions were conducted. The analyses showed that low reward and higher overcommitment were associated with greater somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Furthermore, effort-reward imbalance was linked with an elevated risk of somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Students are more likely to experience stress-related ill-health when they perceive an imbalance between their effort and rewards. In addition, high overcommitment is associated with an increased risk of ill-health among students. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. SEP PREPÁRATE: modelos de educación a distancia en el nivel medio superior SEP PREPÁRATE: e-learning models for high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Zermeño Marcela Georgina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta un estudio realizado sobre modelos innovadores de educación a distancia para adolescentes, con el propósito de generar información sobre los factores que permiten lograr que alumnos inscritos en programas a distancia, desarrollen las habilidades necesarias para su aprendizaje. Los alumnos que conforman la muestra de estudio, son adolescentes entre los 15 y 17 años de edad, en condiciones de rezago económico pero con necesidades propias de su edad y deseos de obtener sus estudios de preparatoria, inscritos en la Universidad TecMilenio y apoyados por la Fundación Bécalos, para que participen en el programa SEP Prepárate. Los alumnos cuentan con las herramientas necesarias para lograr sus estudios como son beca escolar, apoyo económico durante sus estudios, equipo de cómputo, conexión a Internet y Modem. Durante los trabajos de campo, se realizaron encuestas a los alumnos y padres de familia, entrevistas personales a los alumnos exitosos y a los alumnos no exitosos. El análisis de la información reveló que el programa SEP Prepárate creado por la Secretaría de Educación Pública y la Universidad Tecmilenio, es una alternativa viable que atiende las necesidades propias de los alumnos que estudian a distancia y como ayudar a los estudiantes a llegar con éxito al final de sus estudios de preparatoria. This document presents a study done about innovative e-learning models for trailed adolescents; it seeks to generate relevant information about the elements that would guarantee that enrolled students into an e-learning program develop the needed abilities for their instruction. The sample students that took part are adolescents between 15 and 17 years old, in poverty conditions but with the desire to graduate high school as any other teenager. The students are enrolled at TecMilenio University with the financial support of Fundación Bécalos, in coordination with the Mexican Ministry of Public Education, within

  14. School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Systematic Review of Consent Procedures, Participation Rates, and Main Findings of Health-Related Research in Alternative High Schools from 2010 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Morris, Marian; Rew, Lynn; Simonton, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a well-established link between educational attainment and health. Alternative high schools (AHSs) serve students who are at risk for school dropout. Health-related research conducted in AHSs has been sparse. Achieving high participation rates is critical to producing generalizable results and can be challenging in research with…

  16. Engineering-Based Problem Solving Strategies in AP Calculus: An Investigation into High School Student Performance on Related Rate Free-Response Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieken, John

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…

  17. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2012. Compendium Report. NCES 2015-015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Patrick; Noel, Amber M.

    2015-01-01

    This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of rates in 2012, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last four decades (1972-2012), and examines the characteristics of high school…

  18. Infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis of primary school children in Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do (Province), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jin; Yeon, Je Wook

    2001-01-01

    The egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis of school children in the rural area was studied in Hamyang-gun. Gyeongsangnam-do in Korea. Cellotape anal swab and formalin ether concentration methods were performed one time to 720 primary school children. The total egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 12.6% in two schools (Baekjeon and Wiseong). In the Baekjeon and Wiseong primary school, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 4.6% and 13.4%, respectively. Pinworm egg positive rate was 17.6% in the lower grades (1st. 2nd and 3rd), and 7.7% in higher grades (4th, 5th and 6th). The total egg positive rate of male and female was 12.6% and 12.7%, respectively. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis of Baekjeon and Wiseong primary school was 1.5% and 0.46%, respectively. The total egg positive rate of C. sinensis was 0.56%. This survey showed that continuous education and chemotherapy is necessary to treat and prevent reinfection of E. vermicularis. In the case of C. sinensis, health education for school children is recommended to prevent potential infection of adolescents. PMID:11775334

  19. Entering University Studies: Identifying Enabling Factors for a Successful Transition from School to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Venicia

    2017-01-01

    The South African higher education sector is faced with high attrition and low retention rates. Studies conducted by the Council on Higher Education in South Africa have found that 50% of black students who access university study drop out, and the majority of dropouts occurred in the first year of study. While these studies revealed what the…

  20. Diabetes's 'health shock' to schooling and earnings: increased dropout rates and lower wages and employment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear.

  1. High school dropouts: interactions between social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and student dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students' engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development represents a promising theory for understanding this complex phenomenon. The self-system model acknowledges the interactive and iterative roles of social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and academic achievement as antecedents to the decision to dropout of school. We analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002-2004 in the context of the self-system model, finding that perception of social context (teacher support and parent support) predicts students' self-perceptions (perception of control and identification with school), which in turn predict students' academic and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement. Further, students' academic and behavioral engagement and achievement in 10th grade were associated with decreased likelihood of dropping out of school in 12th grade. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. High school dropouts: Interactions between social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and student dropout☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students’ engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development represents a promising theory for understanding this complex phenomenon. The self-system model acknowledges the interactive and iterative roles of social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and academic achievement as antecedents to the decision to dropout of school. We analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002–2004 in the context of the self-system model, finding that perception of social context (teacher support and parent support) predicts students’ self-perceptions (perception of control and identification with school), which in turn predict students’ academic and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement. Further, students’ academic and behavioral engagement and achievement in 10th grade were associated with decreased likelihood of dropping out of school in 12th grade. PMID:22153483

  3. Investigating stakeholders' perceptions of the link between high STD rates and the current Baltimore City Public Schools' sex education curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Shenell L. T.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  4. Multimedia Scenario Based Learning Programme for Enhancing the English Language Efficiency among Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnath Tupe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken with a view to assess the deficiencies in English language among Primary School Children and to develop Multimedia Scenario Based Learning Programme (MSBLP for mastery of English language which required special attention and effective treatment. The experimental study with pretest, post-test control group design was employed to carry out the experiment of MSBLP in a sample school and to determine its efficacy for enhancing English Language skills among Primary School Students. In India, the Central and State Government has made great efforts to Education for All (EFA and initiated several programs to provide universal access to education, to reduce the drop-out rates and ensure achievement of minimum levels of learning. To our surprise the scenario had not much changed inside the classroom even implementing several programmes. However, it was still unclear how effective was the delivery of the course content in the classroom. An intensive training for teachers on a regular basis on a state-wide scale may not be feasible again and again. Hence, multimedia offers pragmatic solutions So that this research paper devoted to explore the issues of learning English and describes the creation of MSBLP as a solution in scientific manner.

  5. Heart Rate-Determined Physical Activity In New Zealand School Children: A Cross- Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Hamlin; Mick Grimley; Vicki Cowley; Chris D. Price; Jill M. Hargreaves; Jenny J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine current levels of physical activity determined via heart rate monitoring. A total of 176 children (85 boys, 91 girls) aged 5-13 years wore sealed Polar heart rate monitors for at least 10 hours per day on at least 3 days. Mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity was 65 ± 43 (mean ± SD) for boys and 54 ± 37 for girls. Daily minutes of vigorous-intensity activity was 31 ± 24 and 24 ± 21 for boys and girls respectively. Significa...

  6. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  7. The Impact of Performance Ratings on Job Satisfaction for Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Li, Jiaxi; Springer, Matthew G.; Tan, Li

    2017-01-01

    Spurred by the federal Race to the Top competition, the state of Tennessee implemented a comprehensive statewide educator evaluation system in 2011. The new system is designed to increase the rigor of evaluations and better differentiate teachers based on performance. The use of more differentiated ratings represents a significant shift in…

  8. Marijuana usage in relation to harmfulness ratings, perceived likelihood of negative consequences, and defense mechanisms in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como-Lesko, N; Primavera, L H; Szeszko, P R

    1994-08-01

    This study investigated high school students' marijuana usage patterns in relation to their harmfulness ratings of 15 licit and illicit drugs, perceived negative consequences from using marijuana, and types of defense mechanisms employed. Subjects were classified into one of five pattern-of-use groups based on marijuana usage: principled nonusers, nonusers, light users, moderate users, and heavy users. Principled nonusers (individuals who have never used marijuana and would not do so if it was legalized) rated marijuana, hashish, cocaine, and alcohol as significantly more harmful than heavy users. A cluster analysis of the drugs' harmfulness ratings best fit a three cluster solution and were named medicinal drugs, recreational drugs, and hard drugs. In general, principled nonusers rated negative consequences from using marijuana as significantly more likely to occur than other groups. Principled nonusers and heavy users utilized reversal from the Defense Mechanism Inventory, which includes repression and denial, significantly more than nonusers, indicating some trait common to the two extreme pattern-of-use groups.

  9. Climate warming causes declines in crop yields and lowers school attendance rates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Njabo, Kevin Y; Tróchez, Anthony; Morgan, Katy; Meñe, Demetrio Bocuma; Anthony, Nicola M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Allen, Walter R; Hanna, Rachid; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0.8°C temperature increase over this 63-year period - a trend that is also observed in monthly temperatures in the last twenty years. From 1991 to 2011, there was a 43% decrease in plantain productivity in Central Africa, which was explained by shifts in temperature (R 2 =0.68). This decline may have reduced rural household wealth and decreased parental investment in education. Over the past two decades, there was a six month decrease in the duration of school attendance, and the decline was tightly linked to plantain yield (R 2 =0.82). By 2080, mean annual temperature is expected to increase at least 2°C in Central Africa, and our models predict a concomitant decrease of 39% in plantain yields and 51% in education outcomes, relative to the 1991 baseline. These predictions should be seen as a call-to-action for policy interventions such as farmer training programs to enhance the adaptive capacity of food production systems to mitigate impacts on rural income and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Production of Professional School Counselors in Alabama: Graduation Rates of CACREP and Non-CACREP Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Susan R.; Snow, Brent M.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2009-01-01

    Today's professional school counselors have many roles and tasks within the schools. As more children depend on the services of school counselors, well-trained counselors are needed to meet the demands. Data presented in this paper provide support for the production of professional school counselors in Alabama and the immediate southeastern area…

  11. Students' motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: a self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-03-01

    In the present study, we used a model of motivation grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000b, 2002) to examine the relationship between physical education (PE) students' motivational processes and ratings of their effort and persistence as provided by their PE teacher. Data were obtained from 394 British secondary school students (204 boys, 189 girls, 1 gender not specified; M age = 11.97 years; SD = .89; range = 11-14 years) who responded to a multisection inventory (tapping autonomy-support, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and self-determined motivation). The students' respective PE teachers subsequently provided ratings reflecting the effort and persistence each student exhibited in their PE classes. The hypothesized relationships among the study variables were examined via structural equation modeling analysis using latent factors. Results of maximum likelihood analysis using the bootstrapping method revealed the proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data, chi-squared (292) = 632.68, p self-determination. Student-reported levels of self-determined motivation positively predicted teacher ratings of effort and persistence in PE. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing student motivation in PE settings.

  12. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  13. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Examining Parents' Ratings of Middle-School Students' Academic Self-Regulation Using Principal Axis Factoring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Lui, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the "Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale" ("SRSI-PRS"), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS:…

  15. Exploring First-Term Online College Dropout Relative to High School Certification, Gap Years, and Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suydan, Ava Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Despite university efforts to decrease the number of students dropping out of college, attrition of online students occurs at an annual rate of 50% or more (Wang & Wu, 2004). Educational leaders understand the increased demand for online programs and courses because of students' requirements of convenience and flexibility (Kuo, Walker,…

  16. A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

  17. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  18. Birthdays, Schooling, and Crime: New Evidence on the Dropout-Crime Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Songman Kang

    2013-01-01

    Based on administrative data for five cohorts of public school children in North Carolina, we demonstrate that those born just after the cut date for starting school are likely to outperform those born just before in reading and math in middle school, and are less likely to be involved in juvenile delinquency. On the other hand, those born after the cut date are more likely to drop out of high school before graduation and commit a felony offense by age 19. We also present suggestive evidence ...

  19. Dropout rates in medical students at one school before and after the installation of admission tests in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibnegger, Gilbert; Caluba, Hans-Christian; Ithaler, Daniel; Manhal, Simone; Neges, Heide Maria; Smolle, Josef

    2011-08-01

    Admission to medical studies in Austria since academic year 2005-2006 has been regulated by admission tests. At the Medical University of Graz, an admission test focusing on secondary-school-level knowledge in natural sciences has been used for this purpose. The impact of this important change on dropout rates of female versus male students and older versus younger students is reported. All 2,860 students admitted to the human medicine diploma program at the Medical University of Graz from academic years 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 were included. Nonparametric and semiparametric survival analysis techniques were employed to compare cumulative probability of dropout between demographic groups. Cumulative probability of dropout was significantly reduced in students selected by active admission procedure versus those admitted openly (P students was only 0.145 (95% CI, 0.106-0.198). Among openly admitted students, but not for selected ones, the cumulative probabilities for dropout were higher for females (P students (P dropout hazard is highest during the second year of study. The introduction of admission testing significantly decreased the cumulative probability for dropout. In openly admitted students a significantly higher risk for dropout was found in female students and in older students, whereas no such effects can be detected after admission testing. Future research should focus on the sex dependence, with the aim of improving success rates among female applicants on the admission tests.

  20. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  1. Using Group Counseling to Improve the Attendance of Elementary School Students with High Rates of Absenteeism: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Landman, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The foundations of academic and social learning are laid in the early years of school, and attendance is critical to school success. However, research suggests that chronic absenteeism is a significant problem at the elementary school level (Chang & Romero, 2008; Romero & Lee, 2007). This paper presents the results of an action research…

  2. An Analysis of New Small High Schools' On-Time Graduation Rates in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Beginning in 2002, with the election of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's Department of Education undertook an unprecedented overhaul of the largest school district in the United States. Over the next 10 years the Department of Education closed more than 25 large, underperforming high schools, and created almost 200 new, small high schools,…

  3. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  4. Illness absenteeism rates in primary and secondary schools in 2013-2014 in England: was there any impact of vaccinating children of primary-school age against influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H K; Brousseau, N; Andrews, N; Selby, L; Pebody, R

    2016-09-09

    A phased introduction of routine influenza vaccination of healthy children was recommended in the UK in 2012, with the aim of protecting both vaccinated children and the wider population through reducing transmission. In the first year of the programme in 2013-2014, 4- to 11-year-olds were targeted in pilot areas across England. This study assesses if this was associated with school absenteeism, an important societal burden of influenza. During the spring 2014 term when influenza predominantly circulated, the proportion of absence sessions due to illness was compared between vaccination pilot and non-pilot areas for primary schools (to measure overall impact) and secondary schools (to measure indirect impact). A linear multilevel regression model was applied, adjusting for clustering within schools and potential school-level confounders, including deprivation, past absenteeism, and ethnicity. Low levels of influenza activity were reported in the community in 2013-2014. Primary schools in pilot areas had a significantly adjusted decrease in illness absenteeism of 0·05% relative to non-pilot schools; equivalent to an average of 4 days per school. In secondary schools, there was no significant indirect impact of being located in a pilot area on illness absenteeism. These insights can be used in conjunction with routine healthcare surveillance data to evaluate the full benefits of such a programme.

  5. The association between social networks and self-rated risk of HIV infection among secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, Elizabeth; Todd, Jim; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15–24 years in 5 secondary schools...... participation in bonding and bridging social networks and self-rated HIV risk behavior. More participants participated in bonding networks (72%) than in bridging networks (29%). Participation in bridging networks was greater among females (25%) than males (12%, p 

  6. Development of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Module on Topic of Reaction Rate for Senior High School Level Grade XI Chemistry Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. R.; Hardeli; Bayharti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to produce chemistry triangle oriented module on topic of reaction rate, and to reveal the validity and practicality level of the generated module. The type of research used is EducationalDesign Research (EDR) with development model is Plompmodel. This model consists of three phases, which are preliminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. The instrument used in this research is questionnaire validity and practicality. The data of the research were analyzed by using Kappa Cohen formula. The chemistry triangle oriented module validation sheet was given to 5 validators consisting of 3 chemistry lecturers and 2 high school chemistry teachers, while the practicality sheet was given to 2 chemistry teachers, 6 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 5 on the small groupevaluation and 25 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 6 on the field test. Based on the questionnaire validity analysis, the validity level of the module is very high with the value of kappa moment 0.87. The level of practicality based on teacher questionnaire response is very high category with a kappa moment value 0.96. Based on the questionnaire of student responses on small group evaluation, the level of practicality is very high category with a kappa moment 0.81, and the practicality is very high category with kappa moment value 0.83 based on questionnaire of student response on field test.

  7. School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? : exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE)

  8. Trends in Algebra II Completion and Failure Rates for Students Entering Texas Public High Schools. REL 2018-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Ginger; Mellor, Lynn; Sullivan, Kate

    2018-01-01

    This study examines Algebra II completion and failure rates for students entering Texas public high schools from 2007/08 through 2014/15. This period spans the time when Texas students, beginning with the 2007/08 grade 9 cohort, were required to take four courses each in English, math (including Algebra II), science, and social studies (called the…

  9. Development and Initial Validation of the Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale: Stressors Faced by Students in Accelerated High School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Roth, Rachel A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    High school students in accelerated curricula face stressors beyond typical adolescent developmental challenges. The Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale (StRESS) is a self-report measure of environmental stressors appropriate for students in Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. We developed the StRESS…

  10. The validity of student tutors’ judgments in early detection of struggling in medical school. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Early identification and support of strugglers in medical education is generally recommended in the research literature, though very little evidence of the diagnostic qualities of early teacher judgments in medical education currently exists. The aim of this study was to examine the validity...... of early diagnosis of struggling in medical school based on informal teacher judgements of in-class behavior. The study design was a prospective cohort study and the outcomes/truth criteria were anatomy failure and medical school drop out. Six weeks into an anatomy course, student tutors attempted...... to identify medical students, who they reckoned would fail the anatomy course or drop out, based on their everyday experiences with students in a large group educational setting. In addition, they were asked to describe the indicators of struggling they observed. Sixteen student tutors evaluated 429 medical...

  11. A Systematic Review of Consent Procedures, Participation Rates, and Main Findings of Health-Related Research in Alternative High Schools From 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Morris, Marian; Rew, Lynn; Simonton, Amanda J

    2016-02-01

    There is a well-established link between educational attainment and health. Alternative high schools (AHSs) serve students who are at risk for school dropout. Health-related research conducted in AHSs has been sparse. Achieving high participation rates is critical to producing generalizable results and can be challenging in research with adolescents for reasons such as using active consent. These challenges become greater when working with vulnerable populations of adolescents. In this systematic review, we examined health-related studies conducted in AHSs between 2010 and 2015. Results indicated that (1) health-related research in AHSs has increased over the past 5 years, (2) AHS students continue to experience significant disparities, (3) active consent is commonly used with AHS students, (4) 42% of studies reported participation rates or provided enough information to calculate participation rates, and (5) school nurses are missing from health-related research conducted in AHSs. Implications for future research and school nursing are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Reducing routine vaccination dropout rates: evaluating two interventions in three Kenyan districts, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Adam; Lowther, S; Ngan'ga, Z; Gura, Z; Tabu, C; Sandhu, H; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-02-16

    Globally, vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for nearly 20% of deaths annually among children education [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1-3.2], and residing >5 km from health facility (OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.7) were associated with higher odds of dropping out. Those who received text messages were less likely to drop out compared to controls (OR 0.2, CI 0.04-0.8). There was no statistical difference between those who received stickers and controls (OR 0.9, CI 0.5-1.6). Text message reminders can reduce vaccination dropout rates in Kenya. We recommend the extended implementation of text message reminders in routine vaccination services.

  13. Reducing routine vaccination dropout rates: evaluating two interventions in three Kenyan districts, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Haji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for nearly 20 % of deaths annually among children 5 km from health facility (OR 1.6, CI 1.0–2.7 were associated with higher odds of dropping out. Those who received text messages were less likely to drop out compared to controls (OR 0.2, CI 0.04–0.8. There was no statistical difference between those who received stickers and controls (OR 0.9, CI 0.5–1.6. Conclusion Text message reminders can reduce vaccination dropout rates in Kenya. We recommend the extended implementation of text message reminders in routine vaccination services.

  14. Effect of the good school toolkit on school staff mental health, sense of job satisfaction and perceptions of school climate: Secondary analysis of a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayiwa, Joshua; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Merrill, Katherine G; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Good School Toolkit, a complex behavioural intervention delivered in Ugandan primary schools, has been shown to reduce school staff-perpetrated physical violence against students. We aimed to assess the effect of this intervention on staff members' mental health, sense of job satisfaction and perception of school climate. We analysed data from a cluster-randomised trial administered in 42 primary schools in Luwero district, Uganda. The trial was comprised of cross-sectional baseline (June/July 2012) and endline (June/July 2014) surveys among staff and students. Twenty-one schools were randomly selected to receive the Toolkit, whilst 21 schools constituted a wait-listed control group. We generated composite measures to assess staff members' perceptions of the school climate and job satisfaction. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01678846). No schools dropped out of the study and all 591 staff members who completed the endline survey were included in the analysis. Staff in schools receiving the Toolkit had more positive perspectives of their school climate compared to staff in control schools (difference in mean scores 2.19, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92, 3.39). We did not find any significant differences for job satisfaction and mental health. In conclusion, interventions like the Good School Toolkit that reduce physical violence by school staff against students can improve staff perceptions of the school climate, and could help to build more positive working and learning environments in Ugandan schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dropping in and Dropping Out: Experiences of Sustaining and Ceasing Amateur Participation in Classical Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Stephanie E.; Robinson, Katharine

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of lifelong musical participation have been repeatedly demonstrated through research and anecdote, and yet the challenging question of why more people are not engaged in these activities is rarely addressed. This project used interviews with eighteen current and past amateur ensemble members to explore themes of social acceptance,…

  16. Statistical model for degraded DNA samples and adjusted probabilities for allelic drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract DNA samples found at a scene of crime or obtained from the debris of a mass disaster accident are often subject to degradation. When using the STR DNA technology, the DNA profile is observed via a so-called electropherogram (EPG), where the alleles are identified as signal peaks above...... data from degraded DNA, where cases with varying amounts of DNA and levels of degradation are investigated....

  17. Statistical model for degraded DNA samples and adjusted probabilities for allelic drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2012-01-01

    DNA samples found at a scene of crime or obtained from the debris of a mass disaster accident are often subject to degradation. When using the STR DNA technology, the DNA profile is observed via a so-called electropherogram (EPG), where the alleles are identified as signal peaks above a certain...... data from degraded DNA, where cases with varying amounts of DNA and levels of degradation are investigated....

  18. The religion paradox: if religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Myers, David G

    2011-12-01

    As we estimate here, 68% of human beings--4.6 billion people--would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person-culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society.

  19. Why College Students Drop out and What We Do about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This author argues that college and university education in North America is in trouble. Education surpasses health, war, and the economy as the most important issue for the future. It does not get the attention it deserves because its effects are long term and people have short attention spans. In this article, the author explains why so many…

  20. Accrual and drop out in a primary prevention randomised controlled trial: qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Jackie F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment and retention of participants are critical to the success of a randomised controlled trial. Gaining the views of potential trial participants who decline to enter a trial and of trial participants who stop the trial treatment is important and can help to improve study processes. Limited research on these issues has been conducted on healthy individuals recruited for prevention trials in the community. Methods Semi-structured interviews with people who were eligible but had declined to participate in the Aspirin for Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis (AAA trial (N = 11, and AAA trial participants who had stopped taking the trial medication (N = 11. A focus group with further participants who had stopped taking the trial medication (N = 6. (Total participants N = 28. Results Explanations for declining to participate could be divided into two groups: the first group were characterised by a lack of necessity to participate and a tendency to prioritise other largely mundane problems. The second group's concern was with a high level of perceived risk from participating. Explanations for stopping trial medication fell into four categories: side effects attributed to the trial medication; starting on aspirin or medication contraindicating to aspirin; experiencing an outcome event, and changing one's mind. Conclusions These results indicate that when planning trials (especially in preventive medicine particular attention should be given to designing appropriate recruitment materials and processes that fully inform potential recruits of the risks and benefits of participation. Trial registration ISRCTN66587262

  1. Accrual and drop out in a primary prevention randomised controlled trial: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eborall, Helen C; Stewart, Marlene C W; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Price, Jackie F; Fowkes, F Gerry R

    2011-01-11

    Recruitment and retention of participants are critical to the success of a randomised controlled trial. Gaining the views of potential trial participants who decline to enter a trial and of trial participants who stop the trial treatment is important and can help to improve study processes. Limited research on these issues has been conducted on healthy individuals recruited for prevention trials in the community. Semi-structured interviews with people who were eligible but had declined to participate in the Aspirin for Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis (AAA) trial (N = 11), and AAA trial participants who had stopped taking the trial medication (N = 11). A focus group with further participants who had stopped taking the trial medication (N = 6). (Total participants N = 28). Explanations for declining to participate could be divided into two groups: the first group were characterised by a lack of necessity to participate and a tendency to prioritise other largely mundane problems. The second group's concern was with a high level of perceived risk from participating.Explanations for stopping trial medication fell into four categories: side effects attributed to the trial medication; starting on aspirin or medication contraindicating to aspirin; experiencing an outcome event, and changing one's mind. These results indicate that when planning trials (especially in preventive medicine) particular attention should be given to designing appropriate recruitment materials and processes that fully inform potential recruits of the risks and benefits of participation. ISRCTN66587262.

  2. Dropping out of a transdiagnostic online intervention: A qualitative analysis of client's experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernández-Álvarez

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The analyzed content has direct impact on the clinical application of IBTs. A more tailored manage of expectations as well as strategies to enhance the therapeutic relationship in certain clients are identified as the two key elements in order to improve the dropout in IBTs. Going further, in the mid and long run, ideographic interventions would be vital. The present study permits to better grasp the phenomenon of dropout in IBTs and delineate specific implications both in terms of research, training and practice.

  3. Investigating Participation in Advanced Level Mathematics: A Study of Student Drop-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Andrew; Sealey, Paula

    2012-01-01

    There has, for some years, been a growing concern about participation in university-entrance level mathematics in England and across the developed world. Extensive statistical analyses present the decline but offer little to help us understand the causes. In this paper we explore a concern which cannot be explored through national data-sets,…

  4. Fully Integrated, Low Drop-Out Linear Voltage Regulator in 180 nm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yosef-Hay, Yoni; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a capacitor-free low dropout (LDO) linear regulator based on a dual loop topology. The regulator utilizes two feedback loops to satisfy the challenges of hearing aid devices, which include fast transient performance and small voltage spikes under rapid load-current changes...

  5. Access and Retention in French Higher Education: Student Drop-Out as a Form of Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Romuald; Orange, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on Bourdieu's theory and using Durkheim's concepts of "social fact" and "regulation", this article examines the place held by public universities within the French higher education (HE) system, breaking with the purely bureaucratic vision prevailing in France today. By setting aside some of the main received ideas about…

  6. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football “Heads Up Football” Player Safety Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective

  7. Work Intensity and Non-Completion of University: Longitudinal Approach and Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Stéphane; Doray, Pierre; Laplante, Benoît; Street, María Constanza

    2013-01-01

    Researchers focused upon the work-dropping out connection tend to show a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of dropping out and the number of hours worked outside school, with a higher exit rate for both non-working students and for students whose working hours pass a critical threshold. Yet the data typically used by these researchers…

  8. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  9. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bimala Sharma; Rosemary Cosme Chavez; Ae Suk Jeong; Eun Woo Nam

    2017-01-01

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were per...

  10. Factors that Contribute to Student Graduation and Dropout Rates: An In-Depth Study of a Rural Appalachian School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle-Burns, Ann

    2011-01-01

    There has been a wealth of research conducted on the national epidemic of high school dropouts spanning several decades. It is estimated that the class of 2009 cost the nation $335 billion in lost wages, taxes and productivity over their lifetimes (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009). The citizenry of the country suffers not only because of…

  11. Academic Performance, Course Completion Rates, and Student Perception of the Quality and Frequency of Interaction in a Virtual High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Abigail; Graham, Charles R.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' perceptions of teacher-student interaction and academic performance at an asynchronous, self-paced, statewide virtual high school. Academic performance was measured by grade awarded and course completion. There were 2269 students who responded to an 18-item survey designed to measure student…

  12. The Impact of the State-Wide and District Dropout Prevention Plans on the Dropout Rates, Graduation Rates, GED Completions, and Truancy Rates of High School Teens in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Amanda Jean Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, as part of the compliance with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Mississippi implemented a state-wide dropout prevention plan. The Mississippi Department of Education through the Office of Dropout Prevention supplied a skeletal format to serve as a guideline for all 152 individual school districts within the state. The school…

  13. School climate for transgender youth: a mixed method investigation of student experiences and school responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jenifer K; Anderson, Charles R; Toomey, Russell B; Russell, Stephen T

    2010-10-01

    Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study 2, we examine transgender youth's experience of school harassment, school strategies implemented to reduce harassment, the protective role of supportive school personnel, and individual responses to harassment, including dropping out and changing schools. In both studies, we found that school harassment due to transgender identity was pervasive, and this harassment was negatively associated with feelings of safety. When schools took action to reduce harassment, students reported greater connections to school personnel. Those connections were associated with greater feelings of safety. The indirect effects of school strategies to reduce harassment on feelings of safety through connection to adults were also significant. Focus group data illuminate specific processes schools can engage in to benefit youth, and how the youth experience those interventions.

  14. The validity of student tutors' judgments in early detection of struggling in medical school. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Morcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2016-12-01

    Early identification and support of strugglers in medical education is generally recommended in the research literature, though very little evidence of the diagnostic qualities of early teacher judgments in medical education currently exists. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of early diagnosis of struggling in medical school based on informal teacher judgements of in-class behavior. The study design was a prospective cohort study and the outcomes/truth criteria were anatomy failure and medical school drop out. Six weeks into an anatomy course, student tutors attempted to identify medical students, who they reckoned would fail the anatomy course or drop out, based on their everyday experiences with students in a large group educational setting. In addition, they were asked to describe the indicators of struggling they observed. Sixteen student tutors evaluated 429 medical students for signs of struggling. By week six, the student tutors were able to detect approximately 1/4-1/3 of the students who eventually failed or dropped out, and for ¾ of the strugglers they identified, they were correct in their judgments. Informal student tutor's judgements showed incremental validity for both outcomes when controlling for grades obtained in preceeding exams. Lack of participation, lack of commitment, poor academic performance, poor social interactions and general signs of distress were the main indicators of struggling identified. Teachers' informal judgements of in-class behavior may be an untapped source of information in the early identification of struggling medical students with added value above and beyond formal testing.

  15. Correlation of Dental Caries Experience with pH, Buffering Capacity and Flow Rate of Saliva among 15-year-old School Children in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay S Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: To correlate dental caries experience with pH, buffering capacity and flow rate of saliva among 15-year-old-children Materials & Method : Fifteen year old school children from adopted schools of a dental college in Mangalore were considered as study subjects. The study was carried out using a standardized proforma that consisted of questionnaire for recording demographic data. The caries experience was assessed by DMFT Index. Salivary pH was measured by using a pH meter and salivary buffering capacity was measured by using titration method. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all subjects by direct expectoration to calculate the flow rate. Results: The mean DMFT of the study population was 2.85 ± 2.5. The mean salivary pH was found to be 6.88 ± 0.69.About 74.1% were having medium salivary buffering capacities. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate and mean total antioxidant capacity of the study population was 0.41 ± 0.14 ml/min and 94.15 ± 60.72 g/dL respectively. Conclusions: A marked association between the pH, buffering capacity and unstimulated flow rate with dental caries experience suggest that assessment of these salivary parameters can be used as predictors for future dental caries susceptibility in an individual.

  16. School motivation and high school dropout: the mediating role of educational expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research examining the dynamics of whether students' motivational beliefs from earlier in high school might be used to predict their status as a dropout in their final year. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating role of students' educational expectations in linking students' school motivation to their dropout status by utilizing a nationally representative dataset. The present study used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The final sample consisted of 16,194 students, with approximately 54% White, 13% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 10% Asian students, and the rest were Native American, Hawaiian, multiracial, or of other races. Structural equation modelling was employed to conduct the mediational analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the relationships between student ability beliefs in math and English and student behaviour of dropping out were fully mediated by students' educational expectations. The results also revealed that student intrinsic value in math and English had significant indirect relations with student behaviour of leaving school through students' educational expectations. The results of this study suggest that explanations for student dropout status that rely solely on students' social background and school behaviours without considering their motivation are incomplete. The study expands the extant research by showing possible pathways that motivate students to persist in high school. These pathways are specifically rooted in students' ability beliefs and intrinsic interest in learning through their relationships with students' expectations for their education. © 2012 The

  17. GeoFORCE Alaska: Four-Year Field Program Brings Rural Alaskan High School Students into the STEM Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S. J.; Rittgers, A.; Stephens, L.; Hutchinson, S.; Peters, H.; Snow, E.; Wartes, D.

    2016-12-01

    GeoFORCE Alaska is a four-year, field-based, summer geoscience program designed to raise graduation rates in rural Alaskan high schools, encourage participants to pursue college degrees, and increase the diversity of Alaska's technical workforce. Residents of predominantly Alaska Native villages holding degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) bring valuable perspectives to decisions regarding management of cultural and natural resources. However, between 2010 and 2015 the average dropout rate for students in grades 7-12 was 8.5% per year in the North Slope School District and 7% per year in the Northwest Arctic School District. 2015 graduation rates were 70% and 75%, respectively. Statewide statistics highlight the challenge for Alaska Native students. During the 2014-2015 school year alone 37.6% of Alaska Native students dropped out of Alaskan public schools. At the college level, Alaska Native students are underrepresented in University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) science departments. Launched in 2012 by UAF in partnership with the longstanding University of Texas at Austin program, GeoFORCE applies the cohort model, leading the same group of high school students on geological field academies during four consecutive summers. Through a combination of active learning, teamwork, and hands-on projects at spectacular geological locations, students gain academic skills and confidence that facilitate high school and college success. To date, GeoFORCE Alaska has recruited two cohorts. 78% of these students identify as Alaska Native, reflecting community demographics. The inaugural cohort of 18 students from the North Slope Borough completed the Fourth-Year Academy in summer 2015. 94% of these students graduated from high school, at least 72% plan to attend college, and 33% will major in geoscience. A second cohort of 34 rising 9th and 10th graders entered the program in 2016. At the request of corporate sponsors, this cohort was recruited from both the

  18. Cigarette Smoking Trajectories From Sixth to Twelfth Grade: Associated Substance Use and High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Lacy, Beth; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Dube, Shanta R; Song, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from sixth to twelfth grade and to characterize these trajectories by use of other drugs and high school dropout. The diverse sample for this analysis consisted of a cohort of 611 students from Northeast Georgia who participated in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Students completed seven yearly assessments from sixth through twelfth grade. We used semi-parametric, group-based modeling to identify groups of students whose smoking behavior followed a similar progression over time. Current smoking (past 30 day) increased from 6.9% among sixth graders to 28.8% among twelfth graders. Four developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking were identified: Abstainers/Sporadic Users (71.5% of the sample), Late Starters (11.3%), Experimenters (9.0%), and Continuous Users (8.2%). The Abstainer/Sporadic User trajectory was composed of two distinct groups: those who never reported any tobacco use (True Abstainers) and those who reported sporadic, low-level use (Sporadic Users). The True Abstainers reported significantly less use of alcohol and other drugs and lower dropout rates than students in all other trajectories, and Sporadic Users had worse outcomes than True Abstainers. Experimenters and Continuous Users reported the highest drug use. Over one-third of Late Starters (35.8%) and almost half of Continuous Users (44.4%) dropped out of high school. Cigarette smoking was associated with behavioral and academic problems. Results support early and continuous interventions to reduce use of tobacco and other drugs and prevent high school dropout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. TT Mutant Homozygote of Kruppel-like Factor 5 Is a Key Factor for Increasing Basal Metabolic Rate and Resting Metabolic Rate in Korean Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ran; Kwon, In-Su; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of KLF5 to basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the inhibition of obesity in Korean children. A variation of KLF5 (rs3782933) was genotyped in 62 Korean children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we developed a model to predict BMR in children. We divided them into several groups; normal versus overweight by body mass index (BMI) and low BMR versus high BMR by BMR. There were no differences in the distributions of alleles and genotypes between each group. The genetic variation of KLF5 gene showed a significant correlation with several clinical factors, such as BMR, muscle, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Children with the TT had significantly higher BMR than those with CC (p = 0.030). The highest muscle was observed in the children with TT compared with CC (p = 0.032). The insulin and C-peptide values were higher in children with TT than those with CC (p= 0.029 vs. p = 0.004, respectively). In linear regression analysis, BMI and muscle mass were correlated with BMR, whereas insulin and C-peptide were not associated with BMR. In the high-BMR group, we observed that higher muscle, fat mass, and C-peptide affect the increase of BMR in children with TT (p BMR (adjust r(2) = 1.000, p BMR in Korean children. We could make better use of the variation within KLF5 in a future clinical intervention study of obesity.

  20. TT Mutant Homozygote of Is a Key Factor for Increasing Basal Metabolic Rate and Resting Metabolic Rate in Korean Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ran Choi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of KLF5 to basal metabolic rate (BMR and resting metabolic rate (RMR and the inhibition of obesity in Korean children. A variation of KLF5 (rs3782933 was genotyped in 62 Korean children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we developed a model to predict BMR in children. We divided them into several groups; normal versus overweight by body mass index (BMI and low BMR versus high BMR by BMR. There were no differences in the distributions of alleles and genotypes between each group. The genetic variation of KLF5 gene showed a significant correlation with several clinical factors, such as BMR, muscle, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Children with the TT had significantly higher BMR than those with CC (p = 0.030. The highest muscle was observed in the children with TT compared with CC (p = 0.032. The insulin and C-peptide values were higher in children with TT than those with CC (p= 0.029 vs. p = 0.004, respectively. In linear regression analysis, BMI and muscle mass were correlated with BMR, whereas insulin and C-peptide were not associated with BMR. In the high-BMR group, we observed that higher muscle, fat mass, and C-peptide affect the increase of BMR in children with TT (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.018, respectively, while Rohrer's index could explain the usual decrease in BMR (adjust r2 = 1.000, p < 0.001, respectively. We identified a novel association between TT of KLF5 rs3782933 and BMR in Korean children. We could make better use of the variation within KLF5 in a future clinical intervention study of obesity.