WorldWideScience

Sample records for school cross-country athletes

  1. Stress fractures in elite cross-country athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Scott R; Saint-Phard, Deborah; Tyburski, Mark; Van Dorsten, Brent

    2007-04-01

    This retrospective and comparative survey investigates an unusual number of stress fractures seen within a Division I college cross-country team. An anonymous questionnaire-designed to observe factors known to increase stress fracture incidence-was distributed to members of the current and previous seasons' teams. Running surface, sleep hours, intake of calcium, and shoe type were among the factors investigated. Eleven lower extremity stress fractures were found in nine athletes. Athletes with stress fractures reported significantly fewer workouts per week on the new track. All other study parameters had no statistically significant effect on stress fractures in these athletes.

  2. Preventive osteopathic manipulative treatment and stress fracture incidence among collegiate cross-country athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Lynn F; Janiski, Carrie; Balawender, Jenifer L; Feinstein, Adam

    2013-12-01

    Stress fractures are common among athletes, particularly distance runners, with many theories regarding the etiologic process of stress fractures and various studies identifying risk factors or suggesting preventive techniques. To our knowledge, no previous studies have discussed the possible causative effects of somatic dysfunction or the preventive capabilities of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). To apply a preventive OMT protocol for cross-country athletes to reduce the incidence of stress fractures. Cohort study. Examinations of cross-country athletes at an NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I university were performed by supervising physician-examiners and first- and second-year osteopathic medical students during several consecutive academic years. Athletes re-enrolled in the study each year they continued to be eligible. The intervention included osteopathic structural examination and OMT that focused on somatic dysfunction identified in the pelvis, sacrum, and lower extremities. More than 1800 participant examinations were performed on 124 male and female participants by 3 supervising physician-examiners and 141 osteopathic medical students over the course of 5 consecutive academic years (2004-2005 to 2008-2009). Data from these academic years were compared with data from the previous 8 academic years (1996-1997 to 2003-2004). An average of 20 new participants enrolled yearly. The number of annual stress fractures per team ranged from 0 to 6 for male participants and 1 to 6 for female participants. The cumulative annual incidence of stress fractures for male participants demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from 13.9% (20 of 144) before intervention to 1.0% (1 of 105) after intervention, resulting in a 98.7% relative reduction in stress-fracture diagnosis (P=.019). The cumulative annual incidence for female participants showed a minimal decrease from 12.9% (23 of 178) before intervention to 12.0% (17 of 142) after

  3. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing and orienteering.

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    von Rosen, P; Heijne, A

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (P = .003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5%-27.1%), during both preseason (P = .002) and competitive season (P = .031). Athletes who improved their ranking position (51%, n = 51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) compared to those who decreased (49%, n = 49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than 40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n = 5) in the middle-ranked, and 17.3% (n = 9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cross-country skiing movement factorization to explore relationships between skiing economy and athletes' skills.

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    Pellegrini, B; Zoppirolli, C; Boccia, G; Bortolan, L; Schena, F

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the relationships between the biomechanics of the double poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, its economy, and athletes' skill. To this aim, skiers' motion has been factorized into components through principal component analysis (PCA). Eight high-level (HL) and eight regional level (RL) male cross-country skiers performed a 5-minute submaximal DP trial while roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h -1 and 2° incline. Whole-body kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system. PCA was applied to markers coordinates to extract principal movements (PM k ), which were ranked by their variance. Energy cost (EC) of locomotion was calculated from ergospirometric measurements. Results showed that 96.7%±0.6% of total skiing pattern variance can be described with the first three PM k. (Shoulder and trunk flexion-extension are described PM 1 and PM 2 and elbow flexion-extension are mainly represented in PM 2 and PM 3. The variance of further components, consisting of residual movements (eg, slow postural changes or high-frequency vibrations), was greater for the RL than the HL skiers (4.0%±0.5% vs 2.6%±0.3%; P<.001) and was positively correlated with EC (R 2 =.646; P<.001). PCA permitted to describe the biomechanics of the DP technique through a limited set of principal movements. Skiing skills and economy appeared to be related to a skier's ability to simplify movement complexity, suggesting that an efficient skier is better able to reduce superfluous movement components during DP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Medial tibial stress syndrome in high school cross-country runners: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisky, Melody S; Rauh, Mitchell J; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Underwood, Frank B; Tank, Robert T

    2007-02-01

    Prospective cohort. To determine (1) the cumulative seasonal incidence and overall injury rate of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and (2) risk factors for MTSS with a primary focus on the relationship between navicular drop values and MTSS in high school cross-country runners. MTSS is a common injury among runners. However, few studies have reported the injury rate and risk factors for MTSS among adolescent runners. Data collected included measurement of bilateral navicular drop and foot length, and a baseline questionnaire regarding the runner's height, body mass, previous running injury, running experience, and orthotic or tape use. Runners were followed during the season to determine athletic exposures (AEs) and occurrence of MTSS. The overall injury rate for MTSS was 2.8/1000 AEs. Although not statistically different, girls had a higher rate (4.3/1000 AEs) than boys (1.7/1000 AEs) (P = .11). Logistic regression modeling indicated that only gender and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with the occurrence of MTSS. However, when controlled for orthotic use, only BMI was associated with risk of MTSS. No significant associations were found between MTSS and navicular drop or foot length. Our findings suggest that navicular drop may not be an appropriate measure to identify runners who may develop MTSS during a cross-country season; thus, additional studies are needed to identify appropriate preseason screening tools.

  6. The Evolution of Champion Cross-Country-Skier Training: From Lumberjacks to Professional Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-02-01

    Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC-skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources. Before 1970, most male champion XC skiers were lumberjacks who ran or skied long distances to and from felling areas while working long days in the woods. In addition, they trained as much as possible, with increased intensity during the autumn, while less work but more ski-specific training and competitions were done during the winter. Until the 1970s, few XC skiers were women, whom coaches believed tolerated less training than men did. Today's XC skiers are less physically active, but the influence of both science and the systematic approaches of former athletes and coaches have gradually taught XC skiers to adopt smarter, more goal-oriented training practices. Although the very high VO 2 max of world-class XC skiers has remained the same since the 1960s, new events in modern XC skiing have additionally required superior upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and tactical flexibility. These elements also emerge in the training of today's best skiers; women's physiological capacities and training routines especially seem to have improved dramatically.

  7. The evolution of champion cross-country-skier training: From lumberjacks to professional athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century and was included as a men’s event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC-skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian ...

  8. Expert model for the evaluation of potential competition performance in cross-country skiers exemplified by two evaluated athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pustovrh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to obtain information on potential competition performance in cross-country skiers by the method of expert modelling. On the basis of expert knowledge, a model of potential performance (MFMPS was constructed in the form of a decision tree, encompassing motor, functional, morphological, psychological, and sociological subspaces. For all base variables, normalisers were determined, and for all nodes in the MFMPS model, decision rules were determined according to the method applying dependent determination of weights. Potential competition performance of the sample of 14 subjects measured – cross-country skiers in the age of 17 and 18 years was assessed at all levels in the MFMPS model by means of the SMMS program. At the highest levels of the MFMPS model, the correlation between the scores of the variables and the criterion variable SLO_FIS was established by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient. The validity of the MFMPS model  by means of which 81% of the variance of the criterion variable was explained – was established. The model laid out in this way allows us to search for current weak and good points in the preparation status of an athlete, on which the direction and correction of the transformation process is based. In this way, objective longitudinal monitoring of the development of the athlete's potential is also ensured.

  9. Effects of Pelvic and Core Strength Training on High School Cross-Country Race Times.

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    Clark, Anne W; Goedeke, Maggie K; Cunningham, Saengchoy R; Rockwell, Derek E; Lehecka, Bryan J; Manske, Robert C; Smith, Barbara S

    2017-08-01

    Clark, AW, Goedeke, MK, Cunningham, SR, Rockwell, DE, Lehecka, BJ, Manske, RC, and Smith, BS. Effects of pelvic and core strength training on high school cross-country race times. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2289-2295, 2017-There is only limited research examining the effect of pelvic and core strength training on running performance. Pelvic and core muscle fatigue is believed to contribute to excess motion along frontal and transverse planes which decreases efficiency in normal sagittal plane running motions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program resulted in decreased race times in high school cross-country runners. Thirty-five high school cross-country runners (14-19 years old) from 2 high schools were randomly assigned to a strengthening group (experimental) or a nonstrengthening group (control). All participants completed 4 standardized isometric strength tests for hip abductors, adductors, extensors, and core musculature in a test-retest design. The experimental group performed a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program along with their normal training. Participants in the control group performed their normal training without additional pelvic and core strengthening. Baseline, 3-week, and 6-week race times were collected using a repeated measures design. No significant interaction between experimental and control groups regarding decreasing race times and increasing pelvic and core musculature strength occurred over the 6-week study period. Both groups increased strength and decreased overall race times. Clinically significant findings reveal a 6-week pelvic and core stability strengthening program 3 times a week in addition to coach led team training may help decrease race times.

  10. Evaluating the predictability of distance race performance in NCAA cross country and track and field from high school race times in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Jamie L

    2017-12-30

    Successful recruiting for collegiate track & field athletes has become a more competitive and essential component of coaching. This study aims to determine the relationship between race performances of distance runners at the United States high school and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) levels. Conditional inference classification tree models were built and analysed to predict the probability that runners would qualify for the NCAA Division I National Cross Country Meet and/or the East or West NCAA Division I Outdoor Track & Field Preliminary Round based on their high school race times in the 800 m, 1600 m, and 3200 m. Prediction accuracies of the classification trees ranged from 60.0 to 76.6 percent. The models produced the most reliable estimates for predicting qualifiers in cross country, the 1500 m, and the 800 m for females and cross country, the 5000 m, and the 800 m for males. NCAA track & field coaches can use the results from this study as a guideline for recruiting decisions. Additionally, future studies can apply the methodological foundations of this research to predicting race performances set at different metrics, such as national meets in other countries or Olympic qualifications, from previous race data.

  11. How Do World-Class Nordic Combined Athletes Differ From Specialized Cross-Country Skiers and Ski Jumpers in Sport-Specific Capacity and Training Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Rasdal, Vegard; Bråten, Steinar; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan

    2016-10-01

    To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers. Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined. NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P ski-jumping-specific sessions and outdoor ski jumps compared with SJ. NC athletes performed 31% less endurance training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers. To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier's endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10-17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF HIP AND KNEE MUSCLES WITH INJURY RISK IN HIGH SCHOOL CROSS COUNTRY RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Lace E; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Williams, D S Blaise; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-11-01

    High school cross country runners have a high incidence of overuse injuries, particularly to the knee and shin. As lower extremity strength is modifiable, identification of strength attributes that contribute to anterior knee pain (AKP) and shin injuries may influence prevention and management of these injuries. To determine if a relationship existed between isometric hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor strength and the incidence of AKP and shin injury in high school cross country runners. Sixty-eight high school cross country runners (47 girls, 21 boys) participated in the study. Isometric strength tests of hip abductors, knee extensors and flexors were performed with a handheld dynamometer. Runners were prospectively followed during the 2014 interscholastic cross country season for occurrences of AKP and shin injury. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine risk relationships between strength values and occurrence of AKP and shin injury. During the season, three (4.4%) runners experienced AKP and 13 (19.1%) runners incurred a shin injury. Runners in the tertiles indicating weakest hip abductor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046), knee extensor (chi-square = 6.562; p=0.038), and knee flexor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046) muscle strength had a significantly higher incidence of AKP. Hip and knee muscle strength was not significantly associated with shin injury. High school cross country runners with weaker hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor muscle strength had a higher incidence of AKP. Increasing hip and knee muscle strength may reduce the likelihood of AKP in high school cross country runners. 2b.

  13. Bilateral Anterior Knee Pain in a High School Cross-Country Runner: An Atypical Etiology.

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    MacDonald, James

    2017-09-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complaint found in distance runners, and can be the end result of a variety of benign processes. A 17-year-old female cross-country runner presented to a sports medicine clinic with insidious onset of bilateral patellofemoral pain (PFP). In the workup of the significant quadriceps weakness discovered on her initial examination, a principal contributing cause of her PFP, she was found to have a form of spinal muscular atrophy, an uncommon neurodegenerative disease that typically requires multidisciplinary medical care. Her case provides a good example for clinicians to consider, at times, an in-depth assessment of the root causes of benign conditions.

  14. Prayer Lessons to Promote Happiness among Kindergarten School Children: A Cross-Country Experimental Study

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    Pandya, Samta P.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a one-year longitudinal experimental study with 3,782 kindergarten school children across 15 countries, this article examines the association between prayer and happiness. Results show that the post-test scores on the faces scale were higher for the participant group who had taken the prayer lessons vis-à-vis the comparison group.…

  15. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  16. Cross-Country Comparisons of Inattentive, Hyperactive and Impulsive Behaviour in School-Based Samples of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Christine; Styles, Irene; Jones, Paul; Tymms, Peter; Wildy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the Rasch measurement model to analyse data collected on children's attention, activity and impulsiveness at the end of their first year at school by teachers in England, Scotland and Australia. The analysis offers insights into differences in teachers' perceptions of children's behaviour between countries and changes with age. The…

  17. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  18. Student Athletes Work toward a Drug-Free School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Jerome P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Student Athlete Leadership Program (SALP), part of the Long Beach (New York) City School District's comprehensive drug education program. SALP trains high-profile high school athletes to conduct drug and alcohol prevention activities in the elementary schools. (FMW)

  19. Athletic training services in public secondary schools: a benchmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Casa, Douglas J; Vandermark, Lesley W; Stearns, Rebecca L; Attanasio, Sarah M; Fontaine, Garrett J; Wafer, Alex M

    2015-02-01

    Authors of the most recent study of athletic training (AT) services have suggested that only 42% of secondary schools have access to athletic trainers. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and was conducted more than 10 years ago. To determine current AT services in public secondary schools. Cross-sectional study. Public secondary schools in the United States. A total of 8509 (57%) of 14,951 secondary schools from all 50 states and Washington, DC, responded to the survey. Data on AT services were collected for individual states, National Athletic Trainers' Association districts, and the nation. Of the 8509 schools that responded, 70% (n = 5930) had AT services, including full-time (n = 3145, 37%), part-time (n = 2619, 31%), and per diem (n = 199, 2%) AT services, and 27% (n = 2299) had AT services from a hospital or physical therapy clinic. A total of 4075 of 8509 schools (48%) provided coverage at all sports practices. Eighty-six percent (2,394,284/2,787,595) of athletes had access to AT services. Since the last national survey, access to AT services increased such that 70% of respondent public secondary schools provided athletic trainers at sports games or practices. Approximately one-third of all public secondary schools had full-time athletic trainers. This number must increase further to provide appropriate medical coverage at athletic practices and games for secondary school athletes.

  20. Epidemiology of stress fracture injuries among US high school athletes, 2005-2006 through 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changstrom, Bradley G; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Braund, Cortney; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    High school athletes in the United States sustain millions of injuries annually, approximately 10% of which are fractures. However, there is no clear estimate of the number of stress fractures sustained by high school athletes annually despite reports that stress fractures account for 0.7% to 20% of injuries seen in sports medicine clinics. This suggests a high utilization of resources for a potentially preventable injury. In addition, stress fractures have been associated with low energy availability and disordered eating in young athletes, highlighting the importance of early recognition and intervention. To investigate stress fracture rates and patterns in a large national sample of US high school athletes. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data from High School RIO (Reporting Information Online), a national sports injury surveillance study, were analyzed to describe rates and patterns of stress fracture injury sustained from 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, across sports and by sex. From 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, a total of 51,773 injuries were sustained during 25,268,873 athlete-exposures, of which 389 (0.8%) were stress fractures, resulting in an overall stress fracture rate of 1.54 per 100,000 athlete-exposures. Rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures were highest in girls' cross country (10.62), girls' gymnastics (7.43), and boys' cross country (5.42). In sex-comparable sports, girls sustained more stress fractures (63.3%) than did boys (36.7%) and had higher rates of stress fracture (2.22 vs 1.27; rate ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.38-2.23). The most commonly injured sites were the lower leg (40.3% of all stress fractures), foot (34.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (15.2%). Management was nonsurgical in 98.7% of the cases, and 65.3% of injuries resulted in ≥3 weeks of time loss, medical disqualification, or an end to the season before athletes could return to play. Although a rare injury, stress fractures cause considerable morbidity for high school athletes

  1. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Eric G.; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Stiffler, Mikel R.; Brooks, M. Alison; Bell, David R.; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) rep...

  2. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the ...

  3. Concussion Knowledge and Reporting Behavior Differences Between High School Athletes at Urban and Suburban High Schools.

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    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated knowledge of concussion survey consisting of 83 questions. The independent variable was school type (urban/suburban). We examined the proportion of athletes who correctly identified signs and symptoms of concussion, knowledge of concussion and reasons why high school athletes would not disclose a potential concussive injury across school classification. Data were analyzed using descriptive, non-parametric, and inferential statistics. Athletes attending urban schools have less concussion knowledge than athletes attending suburban schools (p urban schools without an athletic trainer have less knowledge than urban athletes at schools with an athletic trainer (p urban schools and 10 reasons for not reporting. Concussion education efforts cannot be homogeneous in all communities. Education interventions must reflect the needs of each community. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  4. Alcohol use, sexual activity, and perceived risk in high school athletes and non-athletes.

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    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.

  5. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

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    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  6. Low proportion of high school senior athletes receiving recommended immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Rizzone, Katherine H; Cribbs, Sarah P; Roumie, Christianne L

    2014-05-01

    The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) often serves as the only preventive health care visit for athletes, but immunization status is not uniformly addressed in such visits. Thus, athletes may not be receiving recommended immunizations. Our aim was to determine the proportion of high school senior athletes who received all recommended immunizations. Our hypothesis was that females would be less likely than males to receive all recommended immunizations given suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional survey evaluation of the immunization status of high school senior athletes in Davidson County, TN. The primary composite outcome was receipt of recommended immunizations for tetanus, meningococcal, and seasonal influenza. For females, the primary outcome also included completion of the HPV series. A total of 162 participants, 104 males and 58 females, were included. More males than females received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 3.5%; P = 0.02). When HPV immunization was excluded from the composite outcome, there was no difference in the proportion of males and females who received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 15.5%; P = 0.98). The odds of receiving all recommended immunizations was 0.14 (95% CI, 0.03-0.72) for females compared with males when adjusted for covariates. Athletes seen at retail-based clinics for their PPE were less likely to receive all recommended immunizations compared with athletes seen in primary care (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.69). Only 1 in 6 high school senior athletes received the recommended tetanus, meningococcal, and influenza immunizations. A lower proportion of females, only 1 in 28, received all recommended immunizations due to the HPV series. Policy changes requiring a review of immunizations at the PPE would benefit many high school athletes.

  7. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  8. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors.

  9. Athletic Trainer Services in US Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Private secondary schools in the United States. Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting.

  10. Eye Injuries in High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Boden, Rebecca G; Comstock, R Dawn; Kerr, Zachary Y

    Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined. A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%). Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery

  11. Perceived parental influences on motivational profiles of secondary school athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.Sc. This study investigated the correlations between the motivational profiles as defined by Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) and parental expectations and criticism of secondary school children in South Africa who participate in sport. A sample of 267 secondary school athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) as well as the Parental Expectations (PE) and Parental Criticism (PC) subscales of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Results indicat...

  12. The impact of different cross-training modalities on performance and injury-related variables in high school cross country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Smith, Ross E; Temme, Mark; Dwyer, Jeffrey N

    2017-11-29

    There are many different types of aerobic cross-training modalities currently available. It is important to consider the effects that these different modalities have on running performance and injury risks. The purpose of this study was to compare movement quality, running economy and performance, injury-related biomechanical variables and, hip muscle strength before and after training with different cross-training modalities in high school runners. Thirty-one high school male runners trained for four weeks in one of three cross-training modalities, in addition to a running-only (RUN, n=9) group, for which training sessions replaced two easy runs per week: cycling (CYCLE; n=6), indoor elliptical (ELLIP; n=7) and, outdoor elliptical bike (EBIKE; n=9). Functional movement screen (FMS), running economy (RE), 3,000m performance, hip kinematics, hip muscle strength were assessed. Paired t-tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess mean differences for each variable before and after training within each group. EBIKE training was the only modality that improved FMS scores (d = 1.36) and RE before and after training (d = 0.48). All groups showed improvements in 3,000m performance but large effects were only found for the CYCLE (d = 1.50) and EBIKE (d = 1.41) groups. RUN (d = 1.25), CYCLE (d = 1.17) and, EBIKE (d = 0.82) groups showed improvements in maximal hip extensor strength. Outdoor cycling and elliptical bike cross-training may be the most effective cross-training modalities to incorporate in early season training to improve running performance in high school runners.

  13. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  14. Epidemiologic comparison of injured high school basketball athletes reporting to emergency departments and the athletic training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values training setting (IPR = 1.18; all P values basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is crucial to grasping the full epidemiologic and clinical picture of sport-related injuries. Certified athletic trainers play an important role in identifying, assessing, and treating athletes with sport-related injuries who might otherwise present to clinical settings with higher costs, such as the emergency department.

  15. Concussion and the Student-Athlete: Considerations for the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Andrea; Ploeg, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The number of high school students who participate in athletics has increased over the past decade. There has also been an increased emphasis placed on athletic involvement and physical strength and ability. This has led to increased awareness of athletic injuries such as concussions. While concussions are not a new injury, the medical community…

  16. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete?s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional s...

  17. Bilateral femoral supracondylar stress fractures in a cross country runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kate; Fahey, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Several high-risk factors lead to stress fractures. They include excessive training in athletes leading to overuse injuries, nutritional deficiencies, and endocrine disorders. While stress fractures are common, bilateral stress fractures are rarely seen. Few cases have been reported of bilateral femoral stress fractures in young athletes. This article presents a case of a 14-year-old cross country runner with a bilateral femoral supracondylar stress fracture. He presented with bilateral supracondylar stress fractures from running. The patient followed a strict vegan diet, but his parents stated that, to their knowledge, he was getting adequate protein and calcium. Treatment consisted of decreased activity to pain-free levels with acetaminophen for pain. Low-impact conditioning such as swimming and bicycling was allowed. Hamstring and quadricep stretching was suggested. Nutritional consultation was obtained to ensure appropriate nutrition on a vegan diet. At 1-month follow-up, he was pain free and allowed to proceed with a gradual return to running activities. In this case, the onset of a new workout routine was intolerable for this patient's low bone density, causing insufficiency fractures. Appropriate vegan diets were not associated with stress fracture in our literature review. He may have had an inadequate diet prior to this injury. As in this case, full recovery can be made after this rest period, and the patient may return to his or her original activity safely. In young athletes, diet and nutrition must be kept in mind.

  18. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  19. A Qualitative Content Analysis of Sexual Abuse Prevention and Awareness Programming in Texas Private School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naterman, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent private school athletic administrators have implemented programming specifically aimed at combatting the problem of childhood sexual abuse in sport. The study examined published policies and procedures overseen by private school athletic administrators to determine to what extent their…

  20. Epidemiology of Basketball, Soccer, and Volleyball Injuries in Middle-School Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981

  1. The Effect of Sport Specialization on Lower Extremity Injury Rates in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...

  2. Too Busy for School? The Effect of Athletic Participation on Absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Cuffe, Harold E.; Waddell, Glen R.; Bignell, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    While existing research supports that participation in high-school athletics is associated with better education and labour-market outcomes, the mechanisms through which these benefits accrue are not well established. We use data from a large public-school district to retrieve an estimate of the causal effect of high-school athletic participation on absenteeism. We show that active competition decreases absences, with most of the effect driven by reductions in unexcused absences – truancy amo...

  3. The Russians Are the Fastest in Marathon Cross-Country Skiing: The “Engadin Ski Marathon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” All athletes (n=197,125 who finished the “Engadin Ski Marathon” between 1998 and 2016 were considered. More than two-thirds of the finishers (72.5% in women and 69.6% in men were Swiss skiers, followed by German, Italian, and French athletes in both sexes. Most of the Swiss finishers were from Canton of Zurich (20.5%, Grisons (19.2%, and Berne (10.3%. Regarding performance, the Russians were the fastest and the British the slowest. Considering local athletes, finishers from Canton of Uri and Glarus were the fastest and those from Canton of Geneva and Basel the slowest. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that local athletes were not the fastest in the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” Future studies need to investigate other cross-country skiing races in order to find the nationalities and regions of the fastest cross-country skiers.

  4. Amount of newspaper coverage of high school athletics for boys and girls on sports page and newspaper circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul M; Whisenant, Warren A

    2002-02-01

    This study analyzed the amount of coverage for high school athletics in 43 newspapers with small circulation by devoting 40% of their interscholastic athletics coverage to girls in athletics, printed significantly more articles about girls' athletics than did the newspapers with medium (33%) or large (32%) circulation. Therefore, the smaller the newspaper circulation, the more equitable the coverage of athletics for girls and boys. This finding was consistent with some prior work but not all.

  5. Prevalence of Sport Specialization in High School Athletics: A 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year

  6. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  7. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P < .001). The age of single-sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P < .001). Current HS (39.9%) and collegiate athletes (42.1%) recalled a statistically greater incidence of sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P < .001). The majority (61.7%) of professional athletes indicated that they believed specialization helps the athlete play at a higher level, compared with 79.7% of HS and 80.6% of collegiate athletes (P < .001). Notably, only 22.3% of professional athletes said they would want their own child to specialize to play only 1 sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current

  8. Effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on the neuropsychological test performance of high school athletes: A comparison of high, moderate, and low contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Siu, Andrea M; Yoshinaga, Kara; Choi, So Yung; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The results revealed that the High Contact group obtained small but statistically poorer performances in ImPACT Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Impulse Control, and Total Symptom scores compared to the Moderate and Low Contact groups. The High Contact group also had poorer Reaction Time scores compared to the Low Contact group. No differences between the Moderate and Low Contact groups were noted. The findings, along with prior similar results, tentatively raise concerns that participant in high contact sports, exposed to repetitive subconcussive head trauma, may be at greater risk for lowered neuropsychological functioning and increased symptoms, compared to other high school athletes. In view of the preliminary nature of this investigation, more research into the effects of frequent head impacts in high school sports is strongly recommended.

  9. Canadian High School Athletics and the Saga of Continuing Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    In most Canadian jurisdictions, high school athletics are still governed by outdated and sexist views about participation. The author argues that the current approach is discriminatory and violates human rights laws. In addition, a careful analysis of the jurisprudence reveals a host of specious arguments that keeps athletically talented female…

  10. Building Leadership Skills in Middle School Girls through Interscholastic Athletics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lawrence; Gary, Juneau Mahan; Duhamel, Christie Creney; Homefield, Kimberly

    For the middle school-aged female athlete, self-esteem, empowerment, and self-confidence are often bolstered through participation in interscholastic competitive sports. These traits are also traits of leadership. This digest discusses how many contributing factors and people mold the student athlete into a leader but the process must be…

  11. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature concerning Interscholastic Athletic Equity in Minnesota High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dildine, Robert A.

    This report analyzes interscholastic athletic programs offered by Minnesota high schools to identify errors in data reporting and suggest corrective action, identify areas of gender inequality in athletic offerings, and identify needed improvements in rule, law, or reporting requirements. The report outlines issues in sports equity, compares…

  12. Athletes' Perceptions of Coaching Competency Scale II-High School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Chase, Melissa A.; Beauchamp, Mark R.; Jackson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this validity study was to improve measurement of athletes' evaluations of their head coach's coaching competency, an important multidimensional construct in models of coaching effectiveness. A revised version of the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS) was developed for athletes of high school teams (APCCS II-HST). Data were collected…

  13. High School Coaches' Experiences With Openly Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrook, Meghan K; Watson, Jack C; Voelker, Dana K

    2018-01-17

    Despite reports that there has been a positive trend in perception and treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in recent years (Griffin, 2012 ; Loftus, 2001 ), sport, in general, is still an uncertain, and sometimes even hostile, environment for LGB athletes (Anderson, 2005 ; Waldron & Krane, 2005 ). To gain more information on coach understanding and perceptions of the team environment, 10 high school head coaches in the United States were interviewed to explore their experiences coaching openly LGB athletes. Qualitative analyses revealed four primary themes associated with coach experiences: team environment dogmas and observations, fundamental beliefs contributing to perceptions of LGB athletes, types and timing of sexual orientation disclosure, and differential LGB athlete characteristics. Future research should examine these primary themes in more detail through interviews with LGB athletes, as well as high school coaches in more traditionally masculine sports, such as football, men's basketball, and wrestling.

  14. A gender-based analysis of high school athletes using computerized electrocardiogram measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of the ECG to the preparticipation examination (PPE of high school athletes has been a topic for debate. Defining the difference between the high school male and female ECG is crucial to help initiate its implementation in the High School PPE. Establishing the different parameters set for the male and female ECG would help to reduce false positives. We examined the effect of gender on the high school athlete ECG by obtaining and analyzing ECG measurements of high school athletes from Henry M. Gunn High School. METHODS: In 2011 and 2012, computerized Electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed on 181 athletes (52.5% male; mean age 16.1 ± 1.1 years who participated in 17 different sports. ECG statistics included intervals and durations in all 3 axes (X, Y, Z to calculate 12 lead voltage sums, QRS Amplitude, QT interval, QRS Duration, and the sum of the R wave in V5 and the S Wave in V2 (RS Sum. RESULTS: By computer analysis, we demonstrated that male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, Q-wave duration, and T wave amplitude. (P<0.05. By contrast, female athletes had a significantly greater QTc interval. (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The differences in ECG measurements in high school athletes are strongly associated with gender. However, body size does not correlate with the aforementioned ECG measurements. Our tables of the gender-specific parameters can help facilitate the development of a more large scale and in-depth ECG analysis for screening high school athletes in the future.

  15. The Impact of High School on the Leadership Development of African American Male Scholar-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…

  16. Sports training program at schoolAthlete at School: logical fundamentals and historical circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson Santana Reis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is an initial attempt to assess the "Sports Training Program at School - Athlete at School" and is structured according to its wide three "lines of action", namely: encouragement and democratization of sports practices at school; development and dissemination of the Olympic and Paralympic values among students of basic education; and identification and guidance of young talents. In the case of the first two lines, the results show weaknesses, mismatches, and inaccuracies between the theoretical conceptual framework and the technical operational design. On the other hand, the last line confers identity and compliancy to the program, (redirecting the school and physical education to the old "game" of sports massification, and identification and selection of talents. Therefore, the considerations indicate the need to counteract the renewed risk of using the school, physical education, and educational sports policies in accordance with the desires and prerogatives of the sports sector stricto sensu.

  17. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  18. A Paired Comparison of Initial and Recurrent Concussions Sustained by US High School Athletes Within a Single Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Dustin W; Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Cantu, Robert C

    To compare initial and recurrent concussions regarding average number of days between concussions, acute concussion symptoms and symptom resolution time, and return to play time. High school athletes sustaining multiple concussions linked within sport seasons drawn from a large sports injury surveillance study. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal surveillance data. Number of days between concussions, number of symptoms endorsed, specific symptoms endorsed, symptom resolution time, return to play time. Median time between initial and recurrent concussions was 21 days (interquartile range = 10-43 days). Loss of consciousness, the only significant symptom difference, occurred more frequently in recurrent (6.8%) than initial (1.7%) concussions (P = .04). No significant difference was found in the number of symptoms (P = .84) or symptom resolution time (P = .74). Recurrent concussions kept athletes from play longer than initial concussions (P concussions were season ending. We found that athletes' initial and recurrent concussions had similar symptom presentations and resolution time. Despite these similarities, athletes were restricted from returning to play for longer periods following a recurrent concussion, indicating clinicians are managing recurrent concussions more conservatively. It is probable that concussion recognition and management are superior now compared with when previous studies were published, possibly improving recurrent concussion outcomes.

  19. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  20. The Effects of Specialization and Sex on Anterior Y-Balance Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Madeline M; Trapp, Jessica L; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinicians should be aware that single-sport male athletes may display deficits in dynamic balance, potentially

  1. Competing perspectives during organizational socialization on the role of certified athletic trainers in high school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, James; Crews, Candice; Mitchell, Murray

    2005-01-01

    When certified athletic trainers (ATCs) enter a workplace, their potential for professional effectiveness is affected by a number of factors, including the individual's ability to put acquired knowledge, skills, and attitudes into practice. This ability may be influenced by the preconceived attitudes and expectations of athletes, athletes' parents, athletic directors, physical therapists, physicians, and coaches. To examine the perspectives of high school coaches and ATCs toward the ATC's role in the high school setting by looking at 3 questions: (1) What are coaches' expectations of ATCs during different phases of a sport season? (2) What do ATCs perceive their role to be during different phases of a season? and (3) How do coaches' expectations compare with ATCs' expectations? Qualitative research design involving semistructured interviews. High schools. Twenty high school varsity basketball coaches from 10 high schools in 2 states and the ATCs assigned to these teams. For the coaches, 12 questions focused on 3 specific areas: (1) the athletic training services they received as high school basketball coaches, (2) each coach's expectations of the ATC with whom he or she was working during various phases of the season, and (3) coaches' levels of satisfaction with the athletic training services provided to their team. For the ATCs, 17 questions focused on 3 areas: (1) the ATC's background, (2) the ATC's perceived duties at different phases of the basketball season and his or her relationship with the coach, and (3) other school factors that enhanced or interfered with the ATC's ability to perform duties. Three themes emerged. Coaches had limited knowledge and understanding of ATCs' qualifications, training, professional preparation, and previous experience. Coaches simply expected ATCs to be available to complement their roles. Positive communication was identified as a critical component to a good coach-ATC relationship. Although all participants valued good

  2. Differences in dynamic balance scores in one sport versus multiple sport high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Rauh, Mitchell J; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ.

  3. Mouthguard usage by middle and high school student-athletes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B; Johnson, Cleverick D; Cooley, Ralph A; Sharp, Holly; Servos, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This survey recorded utilization levels of stock and custom mouthguards among middle and high school athletes in a US metropolitan area and gathered data on the prevalence of traumatic injuries that have occurred as a consequence of school-based athletic competition. The data also included reasons for the athletes' noncompliance. A 23-question, online survey form was developed. A geographically diverse list of public and private schools in the Houston metropolitan area was identified and included 30 public middle schools, 32 public high schools, 8 private middle schools, and 10 private high schools. The sports surveyed were baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, volleyball, and wrestling. Only 1 private middle school participated. Only 5 of 32 public high schools and 1 private high school participated, representing response rates of 16% and 10%, respectively. Overall, there were 503 responses, and 56% of the respondents did not have a mouthguard. Among athletes who owned a mouthguard, most (70%) had stock versions purchased in a retail store, while 11% had a custom mouthguard fabricated by a dentist, and 19% had both types. The most frequent reasons cited for not wearing a mouthguard were forgetting to use it and a lack of comfort. The injury rates reported by respondents in the stock and custom mouthguard groups were 26% and 9%, respectively. A consistent, concerted effort by local dental societies should be aimed at school administrators and coaches to encourage enforcement or reinforcement of mouthguard usage policies among high school athletes, but, ultimately, parents need to step up to protect their children.

  4. A comparison of the technique of the football quarterback pass between high school and university athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffan, Adam; Alexander, Marion J L; Peeler, Jason

    2017-07-28

    The purpose of the study was to compare the most effective joint movements, segment velocities and body positions to perform the fastest and most accurate pass of high school and university football quarterbacks. Secondary purposes were to develop a quarterback throwing test to assess skill level, to determine which kinematic variables were different between high school and university athletes as well as to determine which variables were significant predictors of quarterback throwing test performance. Ten high school and ten university athletes were filmed for the study, performing nine passes at a target and two passes for maximum distance. Thirty variables were measured using Dartfish Team Pro 4.5.2 video analysis system, and Microsoft Excel was used for statistical analysis. University athletes scored slightly higher than the high school athletes on the throwing test, however this result was not statistically significant. Correlation analysis and forward stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed on both the high school players and the university players in order to determine which variables were significant predictors of throwing test score. Ball velocity was determined to have the strongest predictive effect on throwing test score (r = 0.900) for the high school athletes, however, position of the back foot at release was also determined to be important (r = 0.661) for the university group. Several significant differences in throwing technique between groups were noted during the pass, however, body position at release showed the greatest differences between the two groups. High school players could benefit from more complete weight transfer and decreased throw time to increase throwing test score. University athletes could benefit from increased throw time and greater range of motion in external shoulder rotation and trunk rotation to increase their throwing test score. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to

  5. High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M

    1999-09-01

    To determine whether high school athletic participation among adolescents in Western New York was associated with reduced rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. A secondary analysis of data from the Family and Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (ages 13-16 years) from 699 families living in households in Western New York. A general population sample was obtained with characteristics closely matching the census distributions in the area. Interview and survey methods provided data on athletic participation, frequency of sexual relations during the past year, and risk for pregnancy. Bivariate correlations were used to examine relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Next, path analyses were done in order to test for hypothesized relationships between athletic participation, sexual behavior, and pregnancy involvement while controlling for age, race, income, family cohesion, and non-athletic forms of extracurricular activity. Variables that were significantly associated with sexual behavior and/or pregnancy involvement were presented for both sexes within the resulting multivariate models. Lower income and higher rates of sexual activity were associated with higher rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes. Family cohesion was associated with lower sexual activity rates for both sexes. For girls, athletic participation was directly related to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. Male athletes did not exhibit lower rates of sexual behavior and involvement with pregnancy than male non-athletes. Boys who participated in the arts, however, did report lower rates of sexual behavior and, indirectly, less involvement with pregnancy. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their non-athletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male

  6. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  7. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across ...... that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-á-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  8. Concussion Symptoms and Return to Play Time in Youth, High School, and College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95

  9. The Effects of Playing Multiple High School Sports on National Basketball Association Players' Propensity for Injury and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K

    2018-02-01

    Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P NBA (94% vs 81.1%; P = .03). While a minority of professional basketball athletes participated in multiple sports in high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.

  10. Cerebrovascular reactivity changes in asymptomatic female athletes attributable to high school soccer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Diana O; McCuen, Emily C; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Nho, Yeseul; Hannemann, Robert; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    As participation in women's soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes' careers continues to increase, prevention and care for mTBI in women's soccer has become a major concern for female athletes since the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women's sports, soccer exhibits among the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men's football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that "concussive hits" occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision sport athletes should be assessed. Neuroimaging biomarkers have proven to be valuable in detecting brain changes that occur before neurocognitive symptoms in collision sport athletes. Quantifying the relationship between changes in these biomarkers and head impacts experienced by female soccer athletes may prove valuable to developing preventative measures for mTBI. This study paired functional magnetic resonance imaging with head impact monitoring to track cerebrovascular reactivity changes throughout a season and to test whether the observed changes could be attributed to mechanical loading experienced by female athletes participating in high school soccer. Marked cerebrovascular reactivity changes were observed in female soccer athletes, relative both to non-collision sport control measures and pre-season measures and were localized to fronto-temporal aspects of the brain. These changes persisted 4-5 months after the season ended and recovered by 8 months after the season. Segregation of the total soccer cohort into cumulative loading groups revealed that population-level changes were driven by athletes experiencing high cumulative loads, although athletes experiencing lower cumulative loads still contributed to group changes. The results of this study imply a non-linear relationship between cumulative

  11. Implementing a Coach-Delivered Dating Violence Prevention Program with High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-05-10

    Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes. Identifying specific barriers and facilitators based on the coaches' experiences with program delivery combined with the coaches' and athletes' program perceptions may help optimize future CBIM implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured interviews with coaches (n = 36) explored the implementers' perspectives on strategies that worked well and potential barriers to program implementation. Ten focus groups with male athletes (n = 39) assessed their experiences with CBIM and the suitability of having their coaches deliver this program. Coaches described using the CBIM training cards and integrating program delivery during practice. Athletes reported coaches routinely delivering the CBIM program and adding their own personal stories or examples to the discussions. Key facilitators to program implementation include support from the violence prevention advocate, the ease of integrating CBIM into the sports season, and using the program materials. Barriers to implementation included finding sufficient time for the program, dynamics of delivering sensitive program content, and participant constraints. Coaches and athletes alike found the program feasible and acceptable to implement within the sports setting. Both coaches and athletes offered insights on the implementation and the feasibility and acceptability of CBIM within school-based athletic programs. These experiences by

  12. Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew

    2015-07-01

    Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing

  13. Decomposing Cross-Country Differences in Skills:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Rosdahl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs multivariate analysis of skill differences in the Nordic countries as assessed by OECD’s PIACC survey of adults aged 16-65. We decompose the differences in average skills between Finland and each of the three Scandinavian countries into a component that is due to different skill...... levels in subgroups of the population and a component that is due to differences in the composition of subgroups. The decompositions show that the high Finnish average skill level compared to the three Scandinavian countries can be attributed the low share of immigrants in Finland and to high scores...... among Finns with high school and less than high school education. The Finnish average score is pulled substantially downwards as a consequence of the low numeracy skill level among older Finns, which is consistent with an increase in the quantity or quality of Finnish education over time, relative...

  14. Shoulder injuries in US high school baseball and softball athletes, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnik, Stephanie; Fogarty, Kieran J; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors that are involved in shoulder injury rates among high school athletes who participate in organized baseball and softball. Baseball- and softball-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2008 academic years from approximately 74 nationally representative high schools via High School Reporting Information Online. Certified athletic trainers reported 91 baseball shoulder injuries and 40 softball shoulder injuries during 528147 and 399522 athlete exposures, respectively. The injury rate was 1.72 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for baseball and 1.00 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for softball. Muscle strain/incomplete tears were the most common injuries in both baseball (30.8%) and softball (35.0%). In practices, throwing, not including pitching, caused more than half of softball injuries (68.2%) as compared with competition injuries (23.5%; injury proportion ratio [IPR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-7.15]; P = .015), whereas pitching was the most common mechanism in causing shoulder injuries during baseball practice (41.9%) compared with competitions (25.6%; IPR: 1.64 [95% CI: 0.88-3.04]; P = .17). Eighty-one percent of the baseball shoulder injuries and 82.5% of the softball shoulder injuries were new. Ten percent of baseball athletes and 5.3% of softball athletes sustained injuries that required surgery (IPR: 1.40 [95% CI: 0.32-6.10]; P = .93). Injuries that were sustained while the athlete was on the pitcher's mound were significantly more likely to result in surgery than any other field position (IPR: 2.64 [95% CI: 1.65-4.21]; P = .0061). Injured baseball players were more than twice as likely to be pitchers. Although rates and patterns of shoulder injuries are similar between baseball and softball players, injury rates and patterns differ between field positions within each sport, as well as by injury severity and the athletes' year in school.

  15. Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan Josef

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  16. Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among High School Athletes - United States, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-09-04

    Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, pcombustible tobacco users (AOR = 0.80, p<0.05). These findings suggest that opportunities exist for development of stronger tobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.

  17. Preventing Substance Use among High School Athletes: The ATLAS and ATHENA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Linn; Eliot, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article will provide information about two worthwhile programs that deal with education of high school athletes about use and abuse of steroids and other areas. Based on rationale and expressed need, program descriptions will be provided including summaries of relevant program results. Guidelines for what practitioners need to consider when…

  18. Sport Psychology Teaching Approaches for High School Coaches and Their Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.

    2017-01-01

    Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…

  19. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  20. A Review of Eating Disorders in Athletes: Recommendations for Secondary School Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for…

  1. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Single Sport Specialization in Youth Sports: A Survey of 3,090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William D.; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. There is considerable debate regarding the rationale, optimal timing, injury risk, and the psychosocial health of a young athlete specializing early in a single sport. The purpose of our study was to compare youth single sport specialization in high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with respect to the age of special...

  3. Cross-country Evidence on the Demand for Money

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis , Apostolos; Vaccaro , Jason

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine money demand issues using cross-country data, for 48 countries over the 1980-1995 period. In particular, we investigate conventional money demand functions, for both narrow and broad aggregates, and the role that institutions, financial structure and financial development may have in the demand for money. On the basis of possible heterogeneity within the cross-country data set, we exploit Bayesian classification and finite mixture models to partition the data based ...

  4. The elite cross-country skier provides unique insights into human exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques. This review summarizes research on elite cross-country skiers, with special emphasis on the studies initiated by Professor Bengt Saltin. He often employed exercise as a means to learn more about the human body, successfully engaging elite endurance athletes to improve our understanding of the demands, characteristics, and specific effects associated with different types of exercise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Predisposing Risk Factors and Stress Fractures in Division I Cross Country Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Kaci L; Knight, Kathy B; Bass, Martha A; Valliant, Melinda W

    2017-11-11

    The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with increased stress fractures in collegiate cross country runners. Participants in this study were 42 male and female cross country runners at a Division I university. Each athlete completed a questionnaire regarding smoking status, vitamin/mineral intake, previous stress fracture history, birth control usage, menstrual status, and demographic information. Nutritional assessment via a 3-day food record and measurements of whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral densities (BMD) were also conducted on each athlete. Results indicated that 40% of the female and 35% of the male runners reported a history of stress fracture, and that all of these did not meet the recommended daily energy intake or adequate intakes for calcium or Vitamin D required for their amount of training. Two-tailed t-test found statistically higher incidences of lumbar spine BMD in males and females whose daily calcium and Vitamin D intakes were below minimum requirements as well as for women whose caloric intake was below the required level. When data on the lumbar spine was evaluated, 31% of participants (31.8% of the male and 30% of the female runners) were identified as having osteopenia and 4.8% with osteoporosis. Results warrant a need for future longitudinal studies.

  6. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  7. Population-Based Estimates of Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) Infections among High School Athletes--Nebraska, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Mueller, Shawn W.; Theis, Max; Keyser, Alison; Safranek, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is an emerging cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among athletes. To determine statewide incidence among high school athletes, we surveyed all 312 Nebraska high schools regarding sport programs offered, program-specific participation numbers, number of athletes with…

  8. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Chapman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  9. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in high school athletes via a free running test: incidence and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukafka, D S; Lang, D M; Porter, S; Rogers, J; Ciccolella, D; Polansky, M; D'Alonzo, G E

    1998-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 35% of athletes and up to 90% of asthmatics. Asthma morbidity and mortality have increased over the past several decades among residents of Philadelphia, PA. It is possible that a simple free running test for EIB may serve as a tool to study the factors contributing to recent trends in asthma, and to screen for asthma in athletes in the urban setting. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess a free running test to screen for EIB, and (2) examine prevalence of and epidemiologic factors associated with EIB in high school athletes. Cross-sectional observational study on the incidence and risk factors for EIB. To validate our method and criteria for the diagnosis of EIB, a repeat test was performed on a portion of the athletes. In a randomized single-blinded fashion, 15 athletes who had demonstrated EIB initially received albuterol or placebo prior to a repeat exercise test. Community high school athletic facilities. We studied 238 male high school varsity football players. All athletes underwent an acquaintance session with a questionnaire, followed by a 1-mile outdoor run (6 to 8 mins). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were determined prior to and 5, 15, and 30 min after exercise. Heart rates (HRs) and dyspnea scores were measured. EIB was defined as a decrease of 15% in PEF at any time point after exercise. Associations of EIB with demographic factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Two hundred thirty-eight athletes participated: 92 European-Americans (EA), 140 African-Americans (AA), 5 Hispanics, and 1 Native American. Mean age was 16+/-1 years. Average HR postexercise was 156+/-24 beats/min. Twenty-four (10%) reported a history of treated asthma. The prevalence of EIB among the remaining 214 athletes was 19 of 214 (9%). The rate of EIB among AA athletes was higher than among EA athletes: (17/126 [13%] AA vs 2/82 [2%] EA, p = 0.01). During the validation portion of the study, the

  10. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  11. Practices and Procedures to Prevent the Transmission of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stephanie A.; Long, Marcus; Gaebelein, Claude J.; Martin, Madeline S.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Yetter, John

    2012-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are frequent in student athletes and are often caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA). We evaluated the awareness of CA-MRSA among high school coaches and athletic directors in Missouri (n = 4,408) and evaluated hygiene practices affecting SSTI…

  12. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Mallika; McIlvain, Natalie M; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2012-04-01

    In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions. To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers from a large, nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 20 sports during the 2008-2010 academic years. During the study period, 1936 concussions were reported during 7,780,064 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 2.5 per 10,000 AEs. The injury rate was higher in competition (6.4) than practice (1.1) (rate ratio [RR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). The majority of concussions resulted from participation in football (47.1%, n = 912), followed by girls' soccer (8.2%, n = 159), boys' wrestling (5.8%, n = 112), and girls' basketball (5.5%, n = 107). Football had the highest concussion rate (6.4), followed by boys' ice hockey (5.4) and boys' lacrosse (4.0). Concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries among boys' ice hockey (22.2%) than all other sports studied (13.0%) (injury proportion ratio [IPR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P sports, girls had a higher concussion rate (1.7) than boys (1.0) (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0). The most common mechanisms of injury were player-player contact (70.3%) and player-playing surface contact (17.2%). In more than 40% of athletes in sports other than girls' swimming and girls' track, concussion symptoms resolved in 3 days or less. Athletes most commonly returned to play in 1 to 3 weeks (55.3%), with 22.8% returning in less than 1 week and 2.0% returning in less than 1 day. Although interest in sports-related concussions is usually focused on full-contact sports like football and ice hockey

  13. Performance and reliability of the Y-Balance TestTM in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura J; Creps, James R; Bean, Ryan; Rodda, Becky; Alsalaheen, Bara

    2017-11-07

    Lower extremity injuries account for 32.9% of the overall injuries in high school athletes. Previous research has suggested that asymmetry greater than 4cm using the Y-Balance TestTM Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) in the anterior direction is predictive of non- contact injuries in adults and collegiate athletes. The prevalence of asymmetries or abnormal YBT-LQ performance is not well documented for adolescents. The primary purposes of this study are: 1) to characterize the prevalence of YBT-LQ asymmetries and performance in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents, 2) to examine possible differences in performance on the YBT-LQ between male and female adolescents, and 3) to describe the test-retest reliability of the YBT-LQ in a subsample of adolescents. Observational cross-sectional study. High-school athletes completed the YBT-LQ as main outcome measure. 51 male, 59 female high-school athletes participated in this study. Asymmetries greater than 4cm in the posteromedial (PM) reach direction were most prevalent for male (54.9%) and female (50.8%) participants. Females presented with slightly higher composite scores. Good reliability (ICC = 0.89) was found for the anterior (ANT) direction, and moderate reliability with 0.76 for posterolateral (PL) and 0.63 for PM directions. The MDC95 for the ANT direction was 6% and 12% for both the PL and PM directions. The YBT-LQ performance can be beneficial in assessing recovery in an injured extremity compared to the other limb. However, due to the large MDC95, noted in the PM and PL directions, the differences between sequential testing cannot be attributed to true change in balance unless they exceed the MDC95. In this study, 79% of the athletes presented with at least one asymmetry in YBT-LQ reach distances. Moderate reliability in the PL and PM directions warrants reexamination of the definition of asymmetry in these directions.

  14. The effect of coach education on reporting of concussions among high school athletes after passage of a concussion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Frederick P; Schiff, Melissa A; Chrisman, Sara P; Chung, Shana K; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Herring, Stanley A

    2014-05-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to concussions and especially sports-related concussions in youth. To prevent an inappropriate return to play while symptomatic, nearly all states have now passed legislation on youth sports-related concussions. To determine (1) the incidence of sports-related concussions in high school athletes using a unique system to collect reports on concussions, (2) the proportion of athletes with concussions who play with concussive symptoms, and (3) the effect of the type and modality of coach education on the likelihood of athletes reporting symptoms to the coach or playing with concussive symptoms. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study was conducted with high school football and girls' soccer athletes playing in fall 2012 and their coaches and parents in 20 urban or rural high schools in Washington State. The main outcome was the incidence of concussions per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), the proportion of concussed athletes who played with concussive symptoms, and the association of coach concussion education with coach awareness of athletes with concussive symptoms. Among the 778 athletes, the rate of concussions was 3.6 per 1000 AEs and was identical for the 2 sports studied. The cumulative concussion incidence over the course of the season was similar in girls' soccer (11.1%) and football (10.4%). Sixty-nine percent of concussed athletes reported playing with symptoms, and 40% reported that their coach was not aware of their concussion. Most measures of coach concussion education were not associated with coach awareness of concussions in their athletes, although the modalities of a video and quiz were associated with a lower likelihood of coach awareness. More objective and accurate methods are needed to identify concussions. Changes in athlete attitudes on reporting concussive symptoms will likely not be accomplished through legislation alone.

  15. Body Composition and Dietary Intake of Elite Cross-country Skiers Members of the Greek National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Gouvianaki, Anna; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Maraki, Zoi; Pagkalos, Ioannis G; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Hassapidou, Maria N; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    To assess the anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake of the Greek national cross-country skiing team. Thirty-three athletes (10 females aged 20 ± 5 years; 23 males aged 20 ± 6 years old) participated in the study. All athletes were members of the Greek national ski team, and they had been selected to take part in the Winter Olympics, World Ski Championships, European Ski Championships or other international events, according to their performance. Body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and skinfold thickness. The athletes recorded their physical activity and dietary intake for 3 training days, and on a competition day. The female skiers had 14.2±1.9% body fat, the men 11.0±1.5% body fat. Female athletes consumed a diet of 1988±319 Kcal during training days and 2011±330 Kcal during competition days. Male athletes consumed 2255±790 Kcal and 2125±639 Kcal respectively. These values are below those recommended for highly active people. During the training period, carbohydrate, fat and protein contributed to 44.5±7.1%, 39.2±5.3% and 16.1±3.7% of the total energy intake (EI) respectively for the males, and to 52.8±5.6%, 33.0±3.7% and 14.3±2.5% of the EI of the women. Between training and competition days, men demonstrated an increased carbohydrate and reduced fat consumption when competing (PGreek national cross-country ski team could put the athletes at risk of nutritional deficiencies, and possibly compromise their athletic performance.

  16. The reasons of dropout of sport in Hong Kong school athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo

    2017-01-01

    Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two...

  17. Maintaining Professional Commitment as a Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainer in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica

    2018-03-01

      Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful.   To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting.   Secondary school.   Qualitative study.   A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting.   All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation.   Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment.   Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.

  18. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of top-level youth cross-country cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, Alessandro; Savoldelli, Aldo; Modena, Roberto; Boccia, Gennaro; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico

    2018-04-01

    In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO 2max , PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years. Our findings showed in bikers, already at young age, a specific athletic profile advantageous for XCO performance. At the age of 16, just before entering the junior category and competing at international level, male and female bikers showed physiological values normalized to the body mass comparable to those reported in literature for high level athletes (VO 2max >70 and >60 ml/kg/min, PPO >6.5 and >5.5 W/kg, respectively in males and females). The production of high power-to-weight ratios and high peaks of anaerobic power attests the presence of highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems in young XCO cyclists reflecting the high physiological demand of this sport.

  19. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions.

  20. Cross-country learning in public procurement : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Kimberly; Senden, Shirin; Telgen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    All countries use public procurement to some degree to further policy objectives such as sustainability, innovation, fighting fraud and corruption, value for taxpayers’ money etc. Countries may learn from past successes and failures in other countries while implementing these policies: cross-country

  1. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  2. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…

  3. Human Capital and Cross-Country Comparison of Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); I. Zilcha (Itzhak)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies the effects of cross-country differences in the production process of human capital on income distribution and growth. Our overlapping gen- erations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogenous with respect to parental human capital and wealth; (2)

  4. Cross-Country Private Saving Heterogeneity and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro Campos, M.; Kool, C.J.M.; Muysken, J.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the dominant role of cross-country heterogeneity in private saving in the creation of Eurozone imbalances over the past decade, we empirically investigate the determinants of private saving for a sample of 30 OECD countries over the period 1990-2010. In addition to standard

  5. Experiences With and Perceptions of Workplace Bullying Among Athletic Trainers in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A; Weuve, Celest; Mazerolle, Stephanie M

    2016-09-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) has recently received much attention in society. Research on WPB in athletic training practice settings is limited. To determine the prevalence of WPB in the secondary school setting and explore the factors related to it. Mixed-methods study. Secondary school. A total of 567 athletic trainers (women = 322 [56.8%], men = 245 [43.2%]), aged 36.5 ± 11.1 years with 11.9 ± 9.5 years of experience took part in phase I. Ten participants (7 women and 3 men), aged 39.3 ± 10.1 years with 14.3 ± 8.3 years of experience, took part in phase II. For the online survey, we used the previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α = .84) Athletic Training Workplace Environment Survey, which included the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. The prevalence of WPB was measured with descriptive statistics, and χ 2 analyses were used to compare differences between groups (ie, females and males, perpetrators' titles). The interview data were examined using an inductive content analysis. Of the participants, 44 (7.8%) were empirically identified as targets of bullying, though a higher percentage (12.4%, n = 70) self-identified as bullying targets. Men and women did not differ with respect to having experienced WPB, but more perpetrators were male (71.6%, n = 48) than female (28.4%, n = 19; χ 2 1 = 12.55, P = discrimination were antecedents of bullying. Stress, depression, and sleep disturbances were reported consequences. Participants coped with bullying by avoidance and role refocusing. Bullying was experienced by a small percentage of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting, a contrast to the findings in the collegiate practice setting.

  6. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  7. Gender differences in the physiological responses and kinematic behaviour of elite sprint cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Leirdal, Stig; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2012-03-01

    Gender differences in performance by elite endurance athletes, including runners, track cyclists and speed skaters, have been shown to be approximately 12%. The present study was designed to examine gender differences in physiological responses and kinematics associated with sprint cross-country skiing. Eight male and eight female elite sprint cross-country skiers, matched for performance, carried out a submaximal test, a test of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and a shorter test of maximal treadmill speed (V (max)) during treadmill roller skiing utilizing the G3 skating technique. The men attained 17% higher speeds during both the VO(2max) and the V (max) tests (P differences that were reduced to 9% upon normalization for fat-free body mass. Furthermore, the men exhibited 14 and 7% higher VO(2max) relative to total and fat-free body mass, respectively (P gender groups. At the same absolute speed, men employed 11% longer cycles at lower rates, and at peak speed, 21% longer cycle lengths (P gender differences in performance and VO(2max) than those reported for comparable endurance sports. These differences reflect primarily the higher VO(2max) and lower percentage of body fat in men, since no gender differences in the ability to convert metabolic rate into work rate and speed were observed. With regards to kinematics, the gender difference in performance was explained by cycle length, not by cycle rate.

  8. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  9. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  10. Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Höög, Martina; Willis, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during...... altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers. METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20...... and the WVO2max decreased 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively (P0.05). In contrast, the average power output (322±87W) during the “all out” test increased 3.4±2.7% 10 days after the altitude training (P

  11. Seasonal variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and gas exchange threshold in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Metin; Korkmaz Eryılmaz, Selcen; Aydoğan, Sami

    2018-01-01

    In order to ensure that athletes achieve their highest performance levels during competitive seasons, monitoring their long-term performance data is crucial for understanding the impact of ongoing training programs and evaluating training strategies. The present study was thus designed to investigate the variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), and gas exchange threshold values of cross-country skiers across training phases throughout a season. In total, 15 athletes who participate in international cross-country ski competitions voluntarily took part in this study. The athletes underwent incremental treadmill running tests at 3 different time points over a period of 1 year. The first measurements were obtained in July, during the first preparation period; the second measurements were obtained in October, during the second preparation period; and the third measurements were obtained in February, during the competition period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), as well as VO 2max values and gas exchange threshold, measured using V-slope method during the incremental running tests, were assessed at all 3 time points. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20 package software. Significant differences between the measurements were assessed using Friedman's twoway variance analysis with a post hoc option. The athletes' body weights and BMI measurements at the third point were significantly lower compared with the results of the second measurement ( p exchange threshold, running speed at the gas exchange threshold, VO 2max , amount of oxygen consumed at gas exchange threshold level (VO 2GET ), maximal heart rate (HR max ), and heart rate at gas exchange threshold level (HR GET ) values did not significantly differ between the measurement time points ( p >0.05). VO 2max and gas exchange threshold values recorded during the third measurements, the timing of which coincided with the competitive season of the cross-country skiers

  12. SURVEY OF SHORT-TERM ORAL CORTICOSTEROID ADMINISTRATION BY ORTHOPAEDIC PHYSICIANS IN COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Pearsall IV

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral corticosteroid (OCS drugs is advocated because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. They also possess many potential adverse effects. No study has assessed physician prescribing practices of OCS therapy in high school (HS or college (COL athletes. This paper reports the prescribing patterns of sports medicine physicians who used short-term OCS therapy and to describe associated complications in HS and COL athletes within a 24- month period. An internet link to a descriptive epidemiology survey was included in an e-mail to all members of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to examine responses. Total response rate was 32% (615/1,928. Sixty-six percent of the physicians indicated prescribing OCS to both groups of athletes, while 29% reported prescribing OCS to COL athletes and 5% to HS athletes for musculoskeletal injuries. Physicians who prescribed multiple OCS regimens to the same athlete within the same season (P = 0.01 and physicians who prescribed OCS to the skeletally immature athlete (P = 0.009 reported more complications than other physicians. Among the 412 physicians who did not prescribe OCS in the treatment of athletic induced musculoskeletal injury, 251 (61% cited a risk of developing medical complications as the primary reason for avoiding use. The reported number of medical complications was low with no cases of avascular necrosis reported for the 2-year recall period. Orthopaedic surgeons who treated athletic induced musculoskeletal injuries with a short-term course of oral corticosteroids reported that high school and college athletes benefited with few medical complications

  13. LEVEL OF NUTTRITION ADEQUACY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN ATHLETES SOCCER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for  people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.

  14. High school athletes and nutritional supplements: a study of knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, S J; Shier, N W; Koceja, D M; Ellis, N T

    1995-09-01

    Factors influencing nutritional supplement use by high school students were assessed. Comparisons were made between various groups of sports participants and non-sports participants. The Nutritional Supplement Use and Knowledge Scale was administered to 509 students. Mean supplement use score was 10.87 (SEM = 0.50, range 0-57). Mean knowledge score was 13.56 (SEM = 0.16, range 1-21). Significant relationships (p knowledge with use, and supplement use with gender. ANOVA found significant differences between supplement use by gender (p knowledge scores by sports category (p knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, and carbohydrates were best discriminators of sport group membership. Greater knowledge about supplements was associated with less use; hence, education about supplements can be a deterrent to use. This study may help coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, teachers, physicians, and parents identify nutritional misconceptions held by adolescents.

  15. EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VO2 OF ATHLETES THAT ATTEND A SOCCER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bittencourt Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the effects from technical and physical activities on the VO2, of male athletes aged 14 to 15, participants of a soccer school, in the municipality of Rio Pardo - RS. The semi-experimental research involved 10 male adolescents. For the VO2 evaluation the 12 minute Cooper test was used. Interval-training work was applied, at which the athletes exercised 75% of their maximum speed, in 60-meter runs. After training for two months (at least two sessions a week the Cooper post-test was applied to check the improvement of the VO2. As results of this study, we can draw the conclusion that all adolescents involved in this training showed considerable improvement in their maximum VO2, especially the 15-year-old teens, who managed to obtain a much higher percentage level.

  16. The co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout among student-athletes: The role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkkila, M; Aunola, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Tolvanen, A; Ryba, T V

    2018-02-17

    Student-athletes who strive for success in high-level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. This study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N time 1  = 391; N time 2  = 373) across the first year of upper secondary school using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely sport and school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy. The results showed that burnout dimensions in a particular domain were substantially stable within the same domain during the first year of upper secondary school and that school-related exhaustion at the beginning of upper secondary school predicted sport-related exhaustion at the end of the school year. Mastery goals in sport and school were negatively associated with cynicism and feelings of inadequacy within the same domain. Furthermore, performance goals in school were positively associated with school-related cynicism. The results can be used by healthcare professionals for early prevention of student-athletes' burnout. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Muscle size, quality, and body composition: characteristics of division I cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Erica J; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L; Trexler, Eric T; Walker, Nina

    2015-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA), echo intensity (EI), and body composition of Division I cross-country runners. The secondary purpose was to examine differences in these variables in athletes stratified based on stress-fracture (SFx) history. Thirty-six athletes were stratified based on sex and SFx history. A panoramic scan vastus lateralis was performed using a GE Logiq-e B-mode ultrasound. Echo intensity and mCSA were determined from the scan using a grayscale imaging software (ImageJ). Body composition measures were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. For females, mCSA was significantly correlated with left leg lean mass (LM; R = 0.54) and EI (R = -0.57). Lean mass was significantly correlated with bone mineral density (BMD; R = 0.58) and bone mineral content (BMC; R = 0.56), whereas BMC was also correlated with leg LM (R = 0.72). For males, mCSA was significantly correlated with leg LM (R = 0.66), BMD (R = 0.50), and BMC (R = 0.54). Leg LM was significantly correlated with BMD (R = 0.53) and BMC (R = 0.77). Personal best times for males were significantly correlated with fat mass (R = 0.489) and %fat (R = 0.556) for the 10- and 5-km races, respectively. Female and male athletes with a history of SFx were not significantly different across any variables when compared with athletes with no history. These correlations suggest that more muscle mass may associate with higher BMD and BMC for stronger bone structure. Modifications in training strategies to include heavy resistance training and plyometrics may be advantageous for preventing risk factors associated with SFx reoccurrence.

  18. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  19. Leadership Development of Team Captains in Collegiate Varsity Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandzol, Christian; Perlis, Susan; Draina, Lois

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the leadership development of team captains and student-athletes engaged in NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics at 6 private institutions of higher education. Student-athletes in the sports of men's and women's soccer, women's field hockey, men's and women's cross country, and women's tennis completed the 2nd edition of…

  20. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  1. Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, David; Owen, Douglas

    2002-04-01

    General Aviation (GA) cross-country crashes, particularly those involving weather, continue to be a major source of fatalities, with a fatality rate more than four times greater than for GA crashes in general. There has been much speculation and little solid evidence on the causes of these crashes. We have designed a program of laboratory and database research into the causes of cross-country weather-related crashes including an analysis of air crashes in New Zealand between 1988 and 2000. There were 1308 reported occurrences in this period. We examined in detail 77 crashes where it could be determined that the aircraft was on a cross-country flight. In our first analysis we compared the characteristics of crashes that occurred in response to externally driven failures with crashes where the aircraft continued to be flown at the pilot's discretion up until the point of the crash. Clear differences were found for visibility, altitude, crash severity, and for several pilot characteristics. These differences are highly consistent with those found for previous research on pilot characteristics and crash involvement. In the second analysis we made comparisons between the weather-related and nonweather-related crashes in the discretionary control group and between subcategories of weather-related crashes. These data show that weather-related crashes occur further into the flight and closer to the planned destination than other kinds of cross-country crashes in GA. Pilots involved in these crashes are younger and have more recent flight time than pilots involved in other crashes. Their increased involvement cannot be explained simply by exposure (flight-time) but must be due to other factors.

  2. Does financial literacy improve financial inclusion? Cross country evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Antonia; Klühs, Theres; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    While financial inclusion is typically addressed by improving the financial infrastructure we show that financial literacy, representing the demand-side of financial markets, also has a beneficial effect. We study this effect at the cross-country level, which allows to consider institutional variation. Regarding "access to finance", financial infrastructure and financial literacy are mainly substitutes. However, regarding the "use of financial services", the effect of higher financial literac...

  3. Human Capital and Cross-Country Comparison of Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Viaene; Itzhak Zilcha

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies the effects of cross-country differences in the production process of human capital on income distribution and growth. Our overlapping gen- erations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogenous with respect to parental human capital and wealth; (2) intergenerational transfers take place via parental education and, public investments in education financed by taxes (possibly, with a level determined by majority voting); (3) due to investment i...

  4. Credit channels in Europe: a cross-country investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. DE BONDT

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The work provides an economic analysis of the monetary transmission mechanism in Europe. The author reviews the literature on the money and credit view before describing cross-country differences in credit channel indicators and examining the existence of credit channels by distinguishing between households and firms. The relative importance of a bank lending and balance sheet channel is discussed by assessing impulse response functions from a vector error correction model.

  5. The cross-country implications of alternative climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Du, Nan; Wei, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Because of worldwide growing concerns about global climate change, great interest has been expressed in the potential of alternative climate policies to reduce global carbon emissions. In this paper, we compare cross-country implications of alternative climate policies, including unilateral and multilateral climate policies. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are large differences in cross-country effects of alternative unilateral climate policies, when the same given carbon emission reductions are achieved in each abating country respectively. Meanwhile, cross-border externalities undermine efficiency of unilateral climate policies. Secondly, there are significant differences in cross-country implications of alternative multilateral climate policies, when the same global emission reductions are allocated in several different ways among abating countries. Thirdly, it is difficult to reach a stable global climate treaty, since any abating country has the incentive to argue for small carbon emission reductions. Finally, multilateral climate policies can reduce the negative impacts of cross-border externalities, but cannot cure all cross-border externalities. Looking ahead, it will be a great policy challenge for the world to reduce carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. - highlights: • We compare impacts of unilateral climate policies across countries. • We compare effects of alternative multilateral climate policies. • We explore whether cross-border externalities disappear under multilateral climate policies

  6. Age Differences in Recovery After Sport-Related Concussion: A Comparison of High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Randolph, Christopher; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Yanzhi; McCrea, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    Younger age has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prolonged recovery after sport-related concussion, yet few studies have directly evaluated age differences in acute recovery. To compare clinical recovery patterns for high school and collegiate athletes. Prospective cohort study. Large, multicenter prospective sample collected from 1999-2003 in a sports medicine setting. Concussed athletes (n = 621; 545 males and 76 females) and uninjured controls (n = 150) participating in high school and collegiate contact and collision sports (79% in football, 15.7% in soccer, and the remainder in lacrosse or ice hockey). Participants underwent evaluation of symptoms (Graded Symptom Checklist), cognition (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests), and postural stability (Balance Error Scoring System). Athletes were evaluated preinjury and followed serially at several time points after concussive injury: immediately, 3 hours postinjury, and at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 (with neuropsychological measures administered at baseline and 3 postinjury time points). Comparisons of concussed high school and collegiate athletes with uninjured controls suggested that high school athletes took 1 to 2 days longer to recover on a cognitive (Standardized Assessment of Concussion) measure. Comparisons with the control group on other measures (symptoms, balance) as well as direct comparisons between concussed high school and collegiate samples revealed no differences in the recovery courses between the high school and collegiate groups on any measure. Group-level recovery occurred at or before 7 days postinjury on all assessment metrics. The findings suggest no clinically significant age differences exist in recovery after sport-related concussion, and therefore, separate injury-management protocols are not needed for high school and collegiate athletes.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TRACK & FIELD INJURIES: A ONE YEAR EXPERIENCE IN ATHLETIC SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos TH Stergioulas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in track & field events that were sustained by students who attended the athletic schools during a one-year period. From September 2009 to May 2010, the researchers observed 2045 students (883 males and 1163 females, who were participating in track and field events at the mentioned schools. During the study period 150 injuries were recorded, which accounted for 13.3% of all injuries sustained by students. Most of the injuries (34% according to the diagnosis were sprains and strains and occurred during the months of February, December and January. A large percentage of the injuries (45.4% were sustained by students who attended the Athletic Schools, which operated in the urban region. Students who attended the second class sustained more injuries than the other classes (first and third. Students who were practising or competing on a tartan playing surface were more likely to sustain an injury. Knee and ankle were the most frequent anatomical sites in which injuries (43.9% occurred. Additionally, 80.0% of injuries occurred in students who were practising or competing in running events. No statistical differences were observed in all above mentioned parameters amongst male and female students. Physical education (P.E. teachers should place more emphasis on prevention measures. These measures should include proper supervision of students during training, warming up and cooling down sessions with stretching techniques. By following these suggestions students will compete in a safe and healthy environment.

  8. A Multisport Epidemiologic Comparison of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in High School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Allan M.; Collins, Christy L.; Henke, Natalie M.; Yard, Ellen E.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site after the ankle and the leading cause of sport-related surgeries. Knee injuries, especially of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), are among the most economically costly sport injuries, frequently requiring expensive surgery and rehabilitation. Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of ACL injuries among high school athletes by sport and sex. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using an Internet-based data-collection tool, Reporting Information Online (RIO), certified athletic trainers from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athlete-exposure and injury data for athletes from 9 sports during the 2007/08–2011/12 academic years. The outcome of interest in this study was ACL injuries. Results: During the study period, 617 ACL injuries were reported during 9 452 180 athlete exposures (AEs), for an injury rate of 6.5 per 100 000 AEs. Nationally, in the 9 sports studied, an estimated 215 628 ACL injuries occurred during the study period. The injury rate was higher in competition (17.6) than practice (2.4; rate ratio [RR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.08, 8.68). Girls' soccer had the highest injury rate (12.2) followed by boys' football (11.1), with boys' basketball (2.3) and boys' baseball (0.7) having the lowest rates. In sex-comparable sports, girls had a higher rate (8.9) than boys (2.6; RR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.64, 4.47). Overall, 76.6% of ACL injuries resulted in surgery. The most common mechanisms of injury were player-to-player contact (42.8%) and no contact (37.9%). Conclusions: Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates vary by sport, sex, and type of exposure. Recognizing such differences is important when evaluating the effectiveness of evidence-based, targeted prevention efforts. PMID:24143905

  9. Restricted use of electronic media, sleep, performance, and mood in high school athletes--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde; Mørk-Andreassen, Pia; Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The study aims to evaluate whether 4 weeks with restricted use of electronic media after 22:00 affects sleep, athletic performance, cognitive performance, and mood in high school athletes. Eighty-five athletes were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 44), who was instructed to not use any electronic media after 22:00, or a control condition (n = 41), where they could act as they preferred in terms of media use. Primary outcomes were sleep habits measured with a sleep diary. Secondary outcomes were (a) physical performance measured with a set of standardized tests (beep test, 20-m linear sprint, chin-up test, hanging sit-ups test, counter movement jump and sit-n-reach test); (b) cognitive performance (response time and response accuracy); and (c) positive and negative affect. Differences between groups were tested with mixed between-within subject analyses of variance. Thirty-five and 40 of the athletes in the intervention and control group, respectively, completed the study. Results showed that restricted use of electronic media after 22:00 did not improve sleep habits, athletic performance, cognitive performance, or mood in a group of high school top athletes with already good sleep habits. However, these findings give us knowledge about sleep habits and performance in this population that is of importance when designing future studies. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Work–Family Conflict Among Athletic Trainers in the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Work–family conflict (WFC) negatively affects a professional's ability to function at work or home. Objective: To examine perceptions of and contributing factors to WFC among secondary school athletic trainers. Design: Sequential explanatory mixed-methods study. Setting: Secondary school. Patients or Other Participants: From a random sample of 1325 individuals selected from the National Athletic Trainers' Association Member Services database, 415 individuals (203 women, 212 men; age = 36.8 ± 9.3 years) provided usable online survey data. Fourteen individuals participated in follow-up interviews. Intervention(s): Online WFC questionnaire followed by in-depth phone interviews. Main Outcome Measure(s): Descriptive statistics were obtained to examine perceived WFC. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated to examine the relationship between work hours, total athletic training staff, and number of children and WFC score. We performed analysis of variance to examine differences between the independent variables of sex and control over work schedule and the dependent variable of WFC score. The a priori α was set at P ≤ .05. Qualitative data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Multiple-analyst triangulation and member checks established trustworthiness of the qualitative data. Results: Mean WFC scores were 23.97 ± 7.78 for scale 1 (family defined as having a partner or spouse with or without children) and 23.17 ± 7.69 for scale 2 (family defined as individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life), indicating moderate perceived WFC. A significant relationship was found between the average hours of work per week and WFC scores: those with less scheduling control experienced more WFC. Two dimensions emerged from the qualitative methods that relate to how WFC is mitigated in the secondary school environment: (1) organizational—having colleagues and administration

  11. Work-family conflict among athletic trainers in the secondary school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pagnotta, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) negatively affects a professional's ability to function at work or home. To examine perceptions of and contributing factors to WFC among secondary school athletic trainers. Sequential explanatory mixed-methods study. Secondary school. From a random sample of 1325 individuals selected from the National Athletic Trainers' Association Member Services database, 415 individuals (203 women, 212 men; age = 36.8 ± 9.3 years) provided usable online survey data. Fourteen individuals participated in follow-up interviews. Online WFC questionnaire followed by in-depth phone interviews. Descriptive statistics were obtained to examine perceived WFC. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated to examine the relationship between work hours, total athletic training staff, and number of children and WFC score. We performed analysis of variance to examine differences between the independent variables of sex and control over work schedule and the dependent variable of WFC score. The a priori α was set at P ≤ .05. Qualitative data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Multiple-analyst triangulation and member checks established trustworthiness of the qualitative data. Mean WFC scores were 23.97 ± 7.78 for scale 1 (family defined as having a partner or spouse with or without children) and 23.17 ± 7.69 for scale 2 (family defined as individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life), indicating moderate perceived WFC. A significant relationship was found between the average hours of work per week and WFC scores: those with less scheduling control experienced more WFC. Two dimensions emerged from the qualitative methods that relate to how WFC is mitigated in the secondary school environment: (1) organizational-having colleagues and administration that understood the role demands and allowed for modifications in schedule and personal time and (2) personal-taking time for oneself

  12. Transference of 3D accelerations during cross country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2014-06-03

    Investigations into the work demands of Olympic format cross country mountain biking suggest an incongruent relationship between work done and physiological strain experienced by participants. A likely but unsubstantiated cause is the extra work demand of muscle damping of terrain/surface induced vibrations. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between vibration mechanics and their interaction with terrain, bicycle and rider during a race pace effort on a cross country mountain bike track, on both 26″ and 29″ wheels. Participants completed one lap of a cross country track using 26″ and 29″ wheels, at race pace. Power, cadence, speed, heart rate and geographical position were sampled and logged every second for control purposes. Tri-axial accelerometers located on the bicycle and rider, recorded accelerations (128Hz) and were used to quantify vibrations experienced during the whole lap and over terrain sections (uphill and downhill). While there were no differences in power output (p=0.3062) and heart rate (p=0.8423), time to complete the lap was significantly (p=0.0061) faster on the 29″ wheels despite increased vibrations in the larger wheels (p=0.0020). Overall accelerometer data (RMS) showed location differences (pbike-body compared to those experienced at the lower back and head. The reduction in accelerations at both the lower back and head are imperative for injury prevention and demonstrates an additional non-propulsive, muscular, challenge to riding. Stress was greatest during downhill sections as acceleration differences between locations were greater when compared to uphill sections, and thus possibly prevent the recovery processes that may occur during non-propulsive load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  14. Health status of young athletes — pupils of the school of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovskyy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health status of young athletes — pupils of the schools of physical culture — remains unexplored. The purpose of the study was a comparative assessment of health status of young athletes, depending on their age, gender and sport. Materials and methods. Health status of 499 pupils of the school of physical culture (330 boys and 169 girls aged 12–19 years old, representatives of 14 sports was studied according to medical examination results and records in dispensary observation cards. Results. 72 % of pupils had electrocardiographic (ECG deviations from norm, 65 % — somatic and infectious diseases, 48 % — musculoskeletal system diseases, 35 % — traumatic injuries, 14 % — health status complaints, the incidence of which usually depended on children’s age and gender. Specificity of sport direction significantly affected the incidence of ECG abnormalities, less significantly influenced the rate of musculoskeletal system pathology and traumatic injuries, almost did not affect the incidence of other somatic and infectious diseases. Conclusions. The higher incidence of ECG abnormalities, diseases and traumatic injuries was observed in representatives of cyclic, technical sports, wrestling and pentathlon.

  15. The reasons of dropout of sport in Hong Kong school athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo

    2017-01-01

    Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two predominated reasons of dropout; Influence of parent and training seemed to affect the termination of the sport to a lesser extent. Moreover, the perception of social value and lost focus were significantly different between two groups. Character of coach and teammates affect the engagement of training in school athletes. However, the parental influence had less influence than expected. Training intensity played little role as the dropout reason. Previous experience of dropout had an impact of potential dropout reasons on their current sport training. PMID:28959788

  16. The reasons of dropout of sport in Hong Kong school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo

    2017-05-16

    Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two predominated reasons of dropout; Influence of parent and training seemed to affect the termination of the sport to a lesser extent. Moreover, the perception of social value and lost focus were significantly different between two groups. Character of coach and teammates affect the engagement of training in school athletes. However, the parental influence had less influence than expected. Training intensity played little role as the dropout reason. Previous experience of dropout had an impact of potential dropout reasons on their current sport training.

  17. Relationship Between Concussion History and Concussion Knowledge, Attitudes, and Disclosure Behavior in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Linnan, Laura A; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    Examine the association between self-reported concussion history and measures of concussion knowledge, attitude, and disclosure behavior. Cross-sectional survey. Classroom. A convenience sample of high school athletes (n = 167; mean age = 15.7 years) from multiple sports completed a validated survey. Concussion history (main predictor) was defined as the number of self-recalled concussions during participants' high school career. The outcomes were recalled concussion disclosure behavior (3 measures) and scales assessing both concussion knowledge and concussion attitude. A greater number of previous concussions was associated with worse attitude to concussion and negative concussion disclosure behavior. For every 3 additional self-recalled concussions, there was a mean decrease of 7.2 points (range of possible scores = 14-98) in concussion attitude score (P = 0.002), a 48% decrease in the self-reported proportion of concussion events disclosed (P = 0.013), and an increased prevalence of self-reported participation in games (67%) and practices (125%) while experiencing signs and symptoms of concussion (P disclosure behavior were identified in youth athletes with a positive history of concussion. Improving disclosure in this subgroup will require targeted efforts addressing negative attitude to concussion.

  18. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain

  19. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball ( P = .01) and lifting weights out of season ( P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain may be correlated with volume of previous volleyball experience.

  20. Differences in adolescent relationship abuse perpetration and gender-inequitable attitudes by sport among male high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  2. DoD Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program for High School Students, 1996-󈨥 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Science Fair, A Honor Roll Baseball, Cross Country, Athletics, Weightlifting , Computers Robert Sidney Cox, III Other Male Leon High School...Sports Medicine Honor Roll Weightlifting , Swimming Marcus Mills Black Male Godby High School Florida State University Undecided FSU Incentive...paid for by the program. Seven of the students took a Psy- chology course, one a Nutritional Science class and two a Mathematics course. Eight of these

  3. The Secondary School Football Coach's Relationship With the Athletic Trainer and Perspectives on Exertional Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). Objective: To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Results: Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. Conclusions: These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care. PMID:24933433

  4. The secondary school football coach's relationship with the athletic trainer and perspectives on exertional heat stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J; Huggins, Robert A; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Qualitative study. Web-based management system. Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care.

  5. A cross-country Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mohit; Patnaik, Ila; Felman, Joshua; Shah, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article titled - "An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis" (Patnaik et al. [1]). In this article, we present the dataset for Exchange Market Pressure values (EMP) for 139 countries along with their conversion factors, ρ (rho). Exchange Market Pressure, expressed in percentage change in exchange rate, measures the change in exchange rate that would have taken place had the central bank not intervened. The conversion factor ρ can interpreted as the change in exchange rate associated with $1 billion of intervention. Estimates of conversion factor ρ allow us to calculate a monthly time series of EMP for 139 countries. Additionally, the dataset contains the 68% confidence interval (high and low values) for the point estimates of ρ 's. Using the standard errors of estimates of ρ 's, we obtain one sigma intervals around mean estimates of EMP values. These values are also reported in the dataset.

  6. Balance-related exercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelíčková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Title: Balance-related excercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children. Objectives of the Thesis: The goal of this thesis is to test the possibilitiy of implementation of selected balance- related excercise in visually impaired children. Method: The testing pool consisted of six pupils attending the Special school for Visually Impaired Children between 14 and 15 years of age. Over the period of ten weeks, selected exercise geared towards the cross-cou...

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF KNEE INJURIES AMONG US HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES, 2005/06–2010/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Best, Thomas M.; Flanigan, David C.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. Methods US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34–3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls’ soccer (4.53) and girls’ gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39–1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91–2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.53). Conclusions Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries. PMID:23059869

  8. New and Recurrent Concussions in High-School Athletes Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury Laws, 2005-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Comstock, R Dawn; Yi, Honggang; Harvey, Hosea H; Xun, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    To examine the trends of new and recurrent sports-related concussions in high-school athletes before and after youth sports traumatic brain injury laws. We used an interrupted time-series design and analyzed the concussion data (2005-2016) from High School Reporting Injury Online. We examined the trends of new or recurrent concussion rates among US representative high-school athletes participating in 9 sports across prelaw, immediate-postlaw, and postlaw periods by using general linear models. We defined 1 athlete exposure as attending 1 competition or practice. We included a total of 8043 reported concussions (88.7% new, 11.3% recurrent). The average annual concussion rate was 39.8 per 100 000 athlete exposures. We observed significantly increased trends of reported new and recurrent concussions from the prelaw, through immediate-postlaw, into the postlaw period. However, the recurrent concussion rate showed a significant decline 2.6 years after the laws went into effect. Football exhibited different trends compared with other boys' sports and girls' sports. Observed trends of increased concussion rates are likely attributable to increased identification and reporting. Additional research is needed to evaluate intended long-term impact of traumatic brain injury laws.

  9. Perspectives on parenthood and working of female athletic trainers in the secondary school and collegiate settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Loebsack, Alice R; Masucci, Matthew A; Roberts, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) are currently underrepresented in the collegiate setting. Parenting and family obligations may play a role in this underrepresentation. To examine female ATs' perspectives on parenting and working in the secondary school and collegiate employment settings. Cross-sectional study. Online survey. A total of 1000 nonstudent, female certified ATs who were currently members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. An original survey was developed to assess perceptions related to motherhood and work responsibilities. Descriptive statistics were used to assess age, years of experience as a certified AT, employment position, and parent or nonparent status. A correlation matrix was conducted to determine factors among parent and nonparent status, perceptions of motherhood, and employment-setting decisions. Of the 1000 surveys sent via e-mail, 411 (41.1%) female ATs responded. Responses indicated that a majority of the female ATs worked in the secondary school setting. Sixty-one percent of the respondents did not have children. Past female ATs' experiences indicated a perception that motherhood created more challenges or struggles (or both) in the work and family settings. Whether parents considered children a factor in employment-setting changes produced conflicting results: no significant correlations or differences were found among responses. Parenting considerations had influences on both the home and employment settings. Although parents and nonparents had different views on the implications of parenting in the workplace, both groups agreed that parenting could affect the work environment and the choice to change employment settings and careers. Administrative decisions need to be considered in relation to parenting concerns. Mentoring that includes employment-setting choices relative to life goals should be provided to ATs, regardless of sex.

  10. Effects of exercise on the markers of iron status in serum of cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malczewska-Lenczowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to assess the within-subject, day-to-day variability for ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR concentrations in serum of 6 female and 8 male cross-country skiers aged 16-18 years under a regular training regimen throughout 8 consecutive days. The concentrations of iron status variables and creatine kinase (CK activities were adjusted to plasma volume changes. Mean ferritin concentrations were 30.6 • 1.142[sup]±1[/sup] and 22.6 • 1.167[sup]±1[/sup] μg/l for men and women, respectively, the average within-subject, mean day-to-day variability coefficients (CV being 13.4% in men and 15.2% in women. Mean sTfR was 2.14 • 1.050[sup]±1[/sup] and 2.62 • 1.047[sup]±1[/sup] mg/l, respectively, and mean day-to-day CV 6.5% and 4.6%. Mean CV for sTfR/logFerr were 6.0% and 7.4%, respectively. Neither index correlated with training loads or CK activities. Thus, the training performed once daily had no significant effect on ferritin concentrations on the following morning, so ferritin alone may prove insufficient in detecting iron deficiency in endurance athletes. The low variability of sTfR under endurance loads made it useful in detecting iron deficiency together with ferritin and the sTfR/logFerr index. Adjusting the concentrations of ferritin and sTfR by changes in plasma volume might be recommendable for endurance athletes.

  11. The attitude of the faculty of sport and physical education students toward cross-country running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhas Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The syllabus of the track and field subject at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education includes cross-country running - running in nature. The main objective of this study was to determine the structure and intensity of students' attitude toward the cross-country running. Besides, the objective was to check the connection of the students' attitude towards the cross-country running and the achieved results of cross-country running, as well as of doing sport and recreational running. The sample comprised 69 students of the second year of studies who attended the cross-country running classes. For measuring the attitude toward the cross-country running, the Connotative differential instrument was used consisting of 15 pairs of opposite adjectives presented in a form of seven-part bipolar scale grouped into three dimensions: affective, cognitive and conative. This instrument was applied within an extensive questionnaire which included questions about doing sports, jogging, as well as the results of cross-country running at the end of the teaching period. The descriptive analysis has shown that students have a positive attitude of moderate intensity toward cross-country running, observed through all three dimensions of attitude. The correlation analysis between the dimensions of attitude toward cross country running and the results achieved at cross country running showed that the correlations are negative and statistically significant, suggesting that if the result of running is better, the students' attitude toward cross country running is more positive. Competitive sport is not connected with the quality of attitude toward cross-country running. The results obtained by the study give grounds for assuming that, given that attitudes are an important component of the motivational aspect of personality, it can be expected that the students' positive attitude toward cross country running would contribute to cross country running application in

  12. Achilles tendon adaptation in cross-country runners across a competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, L E; Lucero, A; Mauntel, T C; Kennedy, M; Walker, N; Marshall, S W; Padua, D A; Berkoff, D J

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) is an imaging tool used to quantify tendon structural integrity. UTC has quantified Achilles tendon (AT) acute response to load in athletes; however, AT response to cumulative load over a season is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AT response across a four-month competitive season in collegiate cross-country (XC) runners. Participants (n=21; male=9, female=12; age=19.8±1.2 years; height=171.9±8.9 cm; weight=60.2±8.5 kg) were imaged using the UTC device with a 10-MHz linear-array transducer mounted in a tracking device. The device captures images at 0.2 mm intervals along the AT. UTC algorithms quantified the stability of pixel brightness over every 17 contiguous transverse images into four echo types (I-IV). A total of 168 scans (n=21, bilateral limbs) were performed monthly across the four-month season (Aug=M1, Sep=M2, Oct=M3, Nov=M4). Echo-type percentages (%) were calculated from each scan. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) linear regression models evaluated echo-type % change (β) over the season (M1=reference). Type I increased from M1 to M4 (β=9.10, Presilience to a competitive season of repetitive loading in highly trained runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  14. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.

  15. Characteristics of injuries among young cross-country skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop information about injuries in cadet and junior cross-country skiers. Material and methods. Fifty female (n=21 and male (n=29 competitors from Podhale were in research group. Skiers completed questionnaire. The questions concerned the location of injuries, types of injuries, methods of treatments and rehabilitation and recovery exercises. Results. The most frequent injury in the research group was bruises, cuts and sprains and muscle strain. Few people had suffered broken bones and muscle ruptures. The most of the skiers suffered knee injuries. As a treatment PRICEMM procedure has been introduced. The main method of recovery was rest from training. Conclusions. No correlation was found epidemiology of injuries and the treatment, gender, age, level of sport and the number of starts of the season. Sports training and recovery should be similar In each group (female and male competitors. Players starting considerably more likely to devote less time to treatment and improvement of injury.

  16. Perceptions of perioperative nursing competence: a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma B; Falk-Brynhildsen, Karin; Nilsson, Ulrica; Jaensson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Throughout many countries, professional bodies rely on yearly self-assessment of competence for ongoing registration; therefore, nursing competence is pivotal to safe clinical practice. Our aim was to describe and compare perioperative nurses' perceptions of competence in four countries, while examining the effect of specialist education and years of experience in the operating room. We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional surveys from four countries including; Australia, Canada, Scotland, and Sweden. The 40-item Perceived Perioperative Competence Scale-Revised (PPCS-R), was used with a total sample of 768 respondents. We used a factorial design to examine the influence of country, years of experience in the operating room and specialist education on nurses' reported perceived perioperative competence. Regardless of country origin, nurses with specialist qualifications reported higher perceived perioperative competence when compared to nurses without specialist education. However, cross-country differences were dependent on nurses' number of years of experience in the operating room. Nurses from Sweden with 6-10 years of experience in the operating room reported lower perceived perioperative competence when compared to Australian nurses. In comparing nurses with > 10 years of experience, Swedish nurses reported significantly lower perceived perioperative competence when compared to nurses from Australia, Canada and Scotland. Researchers need to consider educational level and years of experience in the perioperative context when examining constructs such as competence.

  17. A cross-country Exchange Market Pressure (EMP dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Desai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article titled - “An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis” (Patnaik et al. [1]. In this article, we present the dataset for Exchange Market Pressure values (EMP for 139 countries along with their conversion factors, ρ (rho. Exchange Market Pressure, expressed in percentage change in exchange rate, measures the change in exchange rate that would have taken place had the central bank not intervened. The conversion factor ρ can interpreted as the change in exchange rate associated with $1 billion of intervention. Estimates of conversion factor ρ allow us to calculate a monthly time series of EMP for 139 countries. Additionally, the dataset contains the 68% confidence interval (high and low values for the point estimates of ρ’s. Using the standard errors of estimates of ρ’s, we obtain one sigma intervals around mean estimates of EMP values. These values are also reported in the dataset.

  18. Zipf rank approach and cross-country convergence of incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Urošević, Branko; Stanley, H. Eugene; Podobnik, Boris

    2011-05-01

    We employ a concept popular in physics —the Zipf rank approach— in order to estimate the number of years that EU members would need in order to achieve "convergence" of their per capita incomes. Assuming that trends in the past twenty years continue to hold in the future, we find that after t≈30 years both developing and developed EU countries indexed by i will have comparable values of their per capita gross domestic product {\\cal G}_{i,t} . Besides the traditional Zipf rank approach we also propose a weighted Zipf rank method. In contrast to the EU block, on the world level the Zipf rank approach shows that, between 1960 and 2009, cross-country income differences increased over time. For a brief period during the 2007-2008 global economic crisis, at world level the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of richer countries declined more rapidly than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of poorer countries, in contrast to EU where the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developing EU countries declined faster than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developed EU countries, indicating that the recession interrupted the convergence between EU members. We propose a simple model of GDP evolution that accounts for the scaling we observe in the data.

  19. Performance of high school male athletes on the Functional Movement Screen™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura J; Creps, James R; Bean, Ryan; Rodda, Becky; Alsalaheen, Bara

    2017-09-01

    (1) Describe the performance of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) by reporting the proportion of adolescents with a score of ≤14 and the frequency of asymmetries in a cross-sectional sample; (2) explore associations between FMS™ to age and body mass, and explore the construct validity of the FMS™ against common postural stability measures; (3) examine the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the FMS™ in adolescents. Cross-sectional. Field-setting. 94 male high-school athletes. The FMS™, Y-Balance Test (YBT) and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The median FMS™ composite score was 16 (9-21), 33% of participants scored below the suggested injury risk cutoff composite score of ≤14, and 62.8% had at least one asymmetry. No relationship was observed between the FMS™ to common static/dynamic balance tests. The inter-rater reliability of the FMS™ composite score suggested good reliability (ICC = 0.88, CI 95%:0.77, 0.94) and test-retest reliability for FMS™ composite scores was good with ICC = 0.83 (CI 95%:0.56, 0.95). FMS™ results should be interpreted cautiously with attention to the asymmetries identified during the screen, regardless of composite score. The lack of relationship between the FMS™ and other balance measures supports the notion that multiple screening tests should be used in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the adolescent athlete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance differences when using 26- and 29-inch-wheel bikes in Swiss National Team cross-country mountain bikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Thomas; Müller, Beat; Maier, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon Peter

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of bike type - the 26-inch-wheel bike (26" bike) and the 29-inch-wheel bike (29" bike) - on performance in elite mountain bikers. Ten Swiss National Team athletes (seven males, three females) completed six trials with individual start on a simulated cross-country course with 35 min of active recovery between trials (three trials on a 26" bike and three trials on a 29" bike, alternate order, randomised start-bike). The course consisted of two separate sections expected to favour either the 29" bike (section A) or the 26" bike (section B). For each trial performance, power output, cadence and heart rate were recorded and athletes' experiences were documented. Mean overall performance (time: 304 ± 27 s vs. 311 ± 29 s; P < 0.01) and performance in sections A (P < 0.001) and B (P < 0.05) were better when using the 29" bike. No significant differences were observed for power output, cadence or heart rate. Athletes rated the 29" bike as better for performance in general, passing obstacles and traction. The 29" bike supports superior performance for elite mountain bikers, even on sections supposed to favour the 26" bike.

  1. Sport and Sex-Specific Reporting Trends in the Epidemiology of Concussions Sustained by High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmo, Michael S; Weiner, Joseph A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-08-02

    Approximately 300,000 U.S. adolescents sustain concussions annually while participating in organized athletics. This study aimed to track sex and sport-specific trends among high school sports-related concussions over time, to identify whether a particular sport predisposes athletes to a higher risk, and to assess whether traumatic brain injury law enactments have been successful in improving recognition. Injury data for academic years 2005 to 2014 were collected from annual reports generated by High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). The relative proportions of total estimated concussions to total estimated injuries were compared using an injury proportion ratio. The concussion rate was defined as the number of concussions per 10,000 athlete exposures (1 athlete participating in 1 practice or competition), with rates compared using a rate ratio. To evaluate the impact of legislation on sports-related concussions in this population, trends in concussion rates and proportions were analyzed before enactment (academic years 2005-2009) and after enactment (academic years 2010-2014). Between 2005-2006 and 2014-2015, a significant increase (p concussions for all sports combined, the overall concussion rate (rate ratio, 2.30 [95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 2.59]), and the overall proportion of concussions (injury proportion ratio, 2.68 [95% confidence interval, 2.66 to 2.70]) was seen. Based on the injury proportion ratio, during the 2014-2015 academic year, concussions were more common in girls' soccer than in any other sport (p concussion prevention and recognition measures continue to be emphasized in high school contact sports. The data in our study suggest that significant increases in the overall rate and proportion of reported concussions during the past decade could have been affected by traumatic brain injury legislation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that girls' soccer players may have an even greater risk of sustaining a concussion

  2. "Living high - training low" vs. "living high - training high": erythropoietic responses and performance of adolescent cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoulas, K; Karamouzis, M; Mandroukas, K

    2011-03-01

    To determine and compare the erythropoietic response and exercise performance of adolescent cross-country skiers, as a result of "living high-training high" (HH) and "living high-training low" (HL). Nine female and six male adolescent cross-country skiers volunteered to participate in separate trials. In the first trial (HH), the skiers lived and trained for 21 days at 1550-2050 m, while in the second trial (HL) they trained near sea level (450-500 m) but resided at 1550 m. All participants underwent maximal cycle ergometer tests for the determination of VO2max and cardiorespiratory parameters via an open circuit system at sea level before ascent to altitude, and 1-2 days after descent from altitude. Blood samples were drawn prior to and immediately after maximal cycle exercise testing, at sea level prior to ascent, on days 1 (D1) and 21 (D21) at altitude (1740 m), and 1-2 days post-altitude, for the determination of serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration, haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and red blood cell (RBC) volume. The results showed that both boys and girls cross-country skiers, significantly improved their sea level VO2max after 21 days of living at moderate altitude and training near sea level. The present study demonstrates that living at moderate altitude, 1550-2050 m and training low, near sea level (450-500 m) significantly increases VO2max and RBC mass for both boys and girls. Results indicate that applying the training concept "living high - training low" in adolescent athletes may improve their endurance performance.

  3. Physical Activity in Intermediate Schools: The Interplay of School Culture, Adolescent Challenges, and Athletic Elitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Colleen; Murnaghan, Donna; MacLellan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    The intervention potential of physical activity programs for intermediate schools (grades 7-9), could be enhanced by an understanding of how students engage with and disengage from physical activity. This study provides an interpretation of how adolescents, parents, teachers, and principals perceive students' involvement in physical activity…

  4. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solo cross-country flight requirements. 61... Solo cross-country flight requirements. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a student pilot must meet the requirements of this section before— (i) Conducting a solo cross...

  5. Cross-country differences in stock market development : a cultural view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eelke de; Semenov, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Although during the last decades the importance of stock markets has increased in all OECD countries, the cross-country differences appear to be remarkably stable. In this paper we relate the factors determining cross-country differences in stock market activity to deeply rooted norms and values in

  6. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-a-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  7. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-à-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  8. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-\\'{a}-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  9. Comparisons of Perceived Training Doses in Champion Collegiate-Level Male and Female Cross-country Runners and Coaches over the Course of a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R

    2017-10-17

    Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is a practical tool for coaches to assess internal training load of their athletes. In a sport like cross-country running, that is individual in nature, but has a team training and competition component, information about the association between external and internal load is lacking. Furthermore, there is a need for studies that examine perception of training doses across multiple training cycles including the competitive season as well as between male and female athletes. Session RPE, duration, and training load (TL RPE  = sRPE × duration) of 25 highly trained male and female cross-country runners and their coaches were recorded for every training session (110 days) throughout a collegiate cross-country season. Intensity (sRPE), duration, and TL RPE were compared between coaches and runners by gender separately. Training sessions were also analyzed by those intended by the coaches to be easy, moderate, and hard as well as by training period. Data from 3024 training sessions were collected, 62% of which were considered "easy," 18% "moderate," and 20% "hard." Men and women rated coach-intended easy sessions significantly harder during each month of the season (effect size (ES) > 2.9, p sessions significantly higher than coaches (ES ≥ 1.0, p ≤ 0.002), whereas females rated hard intensity sessions significantly lower than coaches (ES > 0.5, p sessions (ES  0.05) or females and coach's moderate sessions (ES  0.05). Training intensity and TL RPE tended to increase throughout the season (p > 0.05), with a significant increase in moderate and hard intensity sessions in the last training period (p training throughout the cross-country season. Given the success of the athletes in this study, these results show how a simple system for monitoring training such as the sRPE method may improve control of training variables and provide a useful tool for coaches to evaluate training load placed on

  10. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.

  11. An examination of current practices and gender differences in strength and conditioning in a sample of varsity high school athletic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Monica L; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Petlichkoff, Linda M; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Currently, little is known about strength and conditioning programs at the high school level. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore current practices in strength and conditioning for varsity high school athletes in selected sports. The following were specifically examined: who administers programs for these athletes, what kinds of training activities are done, and whether the responsible party or emphasis changes depending on the gender of the athletes. Coaches of varsity soccer, basketball, softball, and baseball in 3 large Idaho school districts were asked to complete an online survey. Sixty-seven percent (32/48) of the questionnaires were completed and used for the study. The majority of coaches (84%) provided strength and conditioning opportunities for their athletes, although only 37% required participation. Strength training programs were designed and implemented primarily by either physical education teachers or head coaches. Compared with coaches of male athletes, coaches of female athletes were less likely to know the credentials of their strength coaches, and they were less likely to use certified coaches to plan and implement their strength and conditioning programs. Most programs included dynamic warm-ups and cool-downs, plyometrics, agility training, speed training, and conditioning, and most programs were conducted 3 d·wk(-1) (76%) for sessions lasting between 30 and 59 minutes (63%). Compared with their female counterparts, male athletes were more likely to have required training, participate in strength training year round, and train using more sessions per week. This study provides additional information related to the practice of strength and conditioning in a sample of high school athletic teams.

  12. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  13. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43.93% to 39.80%) were Ohio, Delaware, Alaska, Vermont

  14. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  15. Do Maximal Roller Skiing Speed and Double Poling Performance Predict Youth Cross-Country Skiing Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m and longer durations (575 m. Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km. The main findings of the current study were: 1 Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys’, but not to girls’ PXC; 2 Significant moderate to acceptable correlations between girls’ and boys’ short duration maximal roller skiing speed (double poling, V2 skating, leg skating and PXC were found; 3 Boys’ PXC was best predicted by double poling test performance on flat and uphill, while girls’ performance was mainly predicted by uphill double poling test performance; 4 When controlling for maturity offset, boys’ PXC was still highly associated with the roller skiing tests. The use of simple non-invasive roller skiing tests for determination of PXC represents practicable support for ski clubs, schools or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent.

  16. Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Rykert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ideal performance state is manifested by psychological and physiological efficiency. The psychological effects of anxiety and self-confidence has been shown to alter the efficiency of performance. This study attempted to identify the state anxiety and self-confidence of high school athletes just prior to a one repetition maximum (1-RM back squat and determine if the number of spotters affects an athlete’s level of state anxiety and/or self-confidence. Male high school athletes (10th and 11th grades were randomly separated into two experimental groups who performed the 1-RM back squat (BSQ with either 1 spotter (1SG: n=52 or 3 spotters (3SG: n=54. Following a dynamic warm-up period and several progressive BSQ warm-up sets, and just prior to attempts at a 1-RM BSQ, the participants completed the revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R. The CSAI-2R included the number of spotters (1 or 3 that would be present during the subsequent 1-RM BSQ attempts. The CSAI-2R is a17-question instrument with three subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. The subscale scores were compared between the 1SG and 3SG with an independent t-test (alpha≤0.05. None of the subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety were significantly different between the 1SG and 3SG experimental groups (p>0.05. Within the parameters of this study, the number of spotters present during the execution of the 1-RM BSQ had no practical or statistical impact on self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. Coaches and athletes could use this information in the training environment in order to make best use of personnel (assigned to spotting tasks, physical resources (ex. squat racks, and time management.

  17. Respiratory and Cardiac Resuscitation Skills of the High School Athletic Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furney, Steven

    Athletic coaches (n=149) responded to a survey questionnaire on two cardiac and respiratory emergency procedures: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the Heimlich maneuver. The coaches were asked to indicate how proficient they were at these skills, how important these skills were to their job, the availability and the need for in-service…

  18. Changing Lives? Critical Evaluation of a School-Based Athlete Role Model Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    There would appear to be an enduring belief that successful sportsmen and women can act as powerful motivational role models for young people, especially disaffected, disadvantaged or disengaged youth. In the UK, for example, this belief has been expressed recently in the development of programmes, such as changingLIVES, the Respect Athlete Mentor…

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of general and football-specific emergency medical service activations by high school and collegiate certified athletic trainers: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Laura C; Swartz, Erik E; Cappaert, Thomas A; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2010-11-01

    To describe frequency and characteristics of emergency medical services (EMS) activations by certified athletic trainers (ATs) and effects of pre-season planning meetings on interactions between ATs and EMS both generally and specifically during football head/neck emergencies. Retrospective cross-sectional survey. 2009 Web-based survey. Athletic trainers (n = 1884; participation rate, 28%) in high school and collegiate settings. Athletic trainer work setting, AT demographics, history of pre-season planning meetings. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the prevalence of EMS activation, planning meetings, and characteristics of AT-EMS interactions (eg, episodes of AT-perceived inappropriate care and on-field disagreements). Chi square tests tested differences (P football injury, 59.9% vs 27.5%; P football season, high school ATs perceived more episodes of inappropriate care (10.4% vs 3.9%; P emergency care providers.

  20. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  1. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 (SCAT3) in High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Esther Y; Nelson, Lindsay D; Barr, William B; McCrory, Paul; McCrea, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 (SCAT3) facilitates sideline clinical assessments of concussed athletes. Yet, there is little published research on clinically relevant metrics for the SCAT3 as a whole. We documented the psychometric properties of the major SCAT3 components (symptoms, cognition, balance) and derived clinical decision criteria (ie, reliable change score cutoffs and normative conversation tables) for clinicians to apply to cases with and without available preinjury baseline data. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. High school and collegiate athletes (N = 2018) completed preseason baseline evaluations including the SCAT3. Re-evaluations of 166 injured athletes and 164 noninjured controls were performed within 24 hours of injury and at 8, 15, and 45 days after injury. Analyses focused on predictors of baseline performance, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity and specificity of the SCAT3 using either single postinjury cutoffs or reliable change index (RCI) criteria derived from this sample. Athlete sex, level of competition, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability (LD), and estimated verbal intellectual ability (but not concussion history) were associated with baseline scores on ≥1 SCAT3 components (small to moderate effect sizes). Female sex, high school level of competition (vs college), and ADHD were associated with higher baseline symptom ratings (d = 0.25-0.32). Male sex, ADHD, and LD were associated with lower baseline Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) scores (d = 0.28-0.68). Male sex, high school level of competition, ADHD, and LD were associated with poorer baseline Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) performance (d = 0.14-0.26). After injury, the symptom checklist manifested the largest effect size at the 24-hour assessment (d = 1.52), with group differences diminished but statistically significant at day 8 (d = 0.39) and nonsignificant at day 15. Effect sizes for the SAC and BESS

  3. An analysis of Finnish skiing school students' academic education and athletic success [Analýza akademického vzdělání a sportovních úspěchů studentů finských lyžařských škol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Romar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skiing boarding schools provide an opportunity to combine academic education and an athletic career. Many athletes select to go to a boarding school at an age of 16 because they have poor local training possibilities; however, this physical move away from home providesmany challenges. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze academic education and athletic success of skiing school students in Finland. METHODS: The participants were 49 students (15 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 17 years. They came from three skiing boarding schools, two cross-country and one alpine school. Sixty percent of the alpine skiers were members of the junior national team while only six percent of the cross-country skiers. All participants completed a survey about study success and athletic performance. RESULTS: The results showed that 80% of the students extended their high school studies from three to four years. About 50% of all students were satisfied with their academic success. Fifty-four percent of alpine skiers and 15% of cross-country skiers indicated that their best athletic success were in international competitions. Almost all students perceived that skiing school helped by combining sport and school. However, only 40% of the alpine skiers and 62% of the cross-country skiers were satisfied with their present athletic success. Seventy-three percent of the alpine skiers felt that sport participation affected negatively their success in school. Success in sport, good training possibilities, skilled coaches and caring friends were reason for enjoying life in skiing boarding schools. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the concept of skiing schools and suggest that there are many things to consider when combining education and an athletic career.[VÝCHODISKA: Lyžařské internátní školy nabízejí možnost spojit akademické vzdělání a sportovní kariéru. Mnozí sportovci odcházejí ve věku 16 let na internátní

  4. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Richard J.; Linakis, Seth W.; Mello, Michael J.; Linakis, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S.) emergency departments (ED) from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers. Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for...

  5. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pai...

  6. Effects of Different Conditioning Activities on 100-m Dash Performance in High School Track and Field Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Guttierres, Ana P M; Encarnação, Irismar G A; Lima, Jorge R P; Borba, Diego A; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Bemben, Michael G; Vieira, Carlos A; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effects of different conditioning activities on the 100-m dash performance of 11 male, high school track and field athletes (mean age = 16.3; SD = 1.2 years). Participants performed a 100-m dash seven minutes after each of four randomized conditioning protocols, with each condition and 100-m dash separated by 3-10 days. The conditioning protocols were (a) control, no conditioning activity; (b) weighted plyometric, three sets of 10 repetitions of alternate leg bounding with additional load of 10% of the body mass; (c) free sprint, two 20-m sprints; and (d) resisted sprint (RS), two 20-m resisted sprints using an elastic tubing tool. We obtained session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) immediately after each conditioning protocol. There were no significant differences between any of the three experimental conditioning activities on 100-m sprint time, but the RS protocol improved 100-m sprint time compared with the control (no conditioning) protocol ( p < .001). The RS also led to greater sprint velocity and higher SRPE compared with the control condition ( p < .01). There was no significant association between SRPE and 100-m performance ( p = .77, r = .05). These results suggest a benefit for young male track and field athletes to the elastic tubing warm-up activities prior to the 100-m dash.

  7. New Evidence on Cross-Country Differences in Job Satisfaction Using Anchoring Vignettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Johansson, Edvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results on cross-country comparison of job satisfaction across seven EU countries taking into account that people in different countries may perceive subjective questions differently. We apply a chopit model approach where the threshold parameters in an ordered probit model...... somewhat lower while workers from the Netherlands are found to have the highest level of job satisfaction. These results suggest that cultural di¤erences in the way people perceive subjective questions about satisfaction make simple cross-country comparison misleading....

  8. Effects of a school-based relaxation intervention on recovery in young elite athletes in high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    group (n = 58) did not. A Danish version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measured recovery levels in the participants, at baseline and at the end of intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with four of the participants. Quantitative results did not show an improvement...... in recovery and stress levels. Qualitative results showed that the intervention had an effect on the participants, and also revealed areas, in which the intervention could be improved. Suggestions for future interventions are given....

  9. Cold-Water Immersion Cooling Rates in Football Linemen and Cross-Country Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Morrison, Katherine E; Scullin, Gregory

    2017-10-01

      Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA)-to-mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation.   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs).   Cohort study.   Controlled university laboratory.   Nine FBs (age = 21.7 ± 1.7 years, height = 188.7 ± 4 cm, mass = 128.1 ± 18 kg, body fat = 28.9% ± 7.1%, lean body mass [LBM] = 86.9 ± 19 kg, BSA = 2.54 ± 0.13 m 2 , BSA/mass = 201 ± 21.3 cm 2 /kg, and BSA/LBM = 276.4 ± 19.7 cm 2 /kg) and 7 CCs (age = 20 ± 1.8 years, height = 176 ± 4.1 cm, mass = 68.7 ± 6.5 kg, body fat = 10.2% ± 1.6%, LBM = 61.7 ± 5.3 kg, BSA = 1.84 ± 0.1 m 2 , BSA/mass = 268.3 ± 11.7 cm 2 /kg, and BSA/LBM = 298.4 ± 11.7 cm 2 /kg).   Participants ingested an intestinal sensor, exercised in a climatic chamber (39°C, 40% relative humidity) until either target core temperature (T gi ) was 39.5°C or volitional exhaustion was reached, and were immediately immersed in a 10°C circulated bath until T gi declined to 37.5°C. A general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance and independent t tests were calculated, with P LBM/mass (r = 0.72, P LBM (r = -0.72, P 11 minutes) than smaller, leaner athletes (7.7 minutes). Cooling rates varied widely from 0.332°C·min -1 in a small runner to only 0.101°C·min -1 in a lineman, supporting the use of rectal temperature for monitoring during cooling.

  10. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.

  11. Causes of corruption: a survey of cross-country analyses and extended results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.

    2008-01-01

    We survey and assess the empirical literature on the sources of corruption Thanks to the improved availability of data, we are able to produce an improved cross-country econometric model to test well-established and more recent hypotheses jointly. We do not find that the common law system, or a past

  12. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinant of Bank Loan Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Hernandez-Canovas, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the influence of cross-country differences on bank loan maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. It analyses a country's legal and institutional environment while controlling for banking structure, economic

  13. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  14. Kinematics of cross-country sit skiing during a Paralympic race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, Marco; Janssen, Thomas; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Fischer, Gabriela; Schena, Federico

    The study had three purposes: to verify a hypothesized speed decrease during the 15km cross-country sit skiing (CCSS) race; documenting this possible fatigue effect (speed decrease), to evaluate changes among the four laps in kinematics parameters (cycle speed, cycle duration, cycle length, duty

  15. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinants of Debt Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, Johanna; Hernandez-Canovas, Gines

    2006-01-01

    We examine the influence of cross country differences on debt maturity for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. We analyze a country's legal environment, institutional environment, banking structure and economic situation while controlling

  16. Decomposing cross-country differences in Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy: The impact of value sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heijink (Richard); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter); M. Oppe (Mark); A.H.E. Koolman (Xander); G. Westert (Gert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and

  17. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, R.; Baal, P. van; Oppe, M.; Koolman, X.; Westert, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and

  18. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy : The impact of value sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, R.; Van Baal, P.; Oppe, M.; Koolman, X.; Westert, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose

  19. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  20. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  1. A resposta de frequência cardíaca durante as competições de "mountain bike cross-country" Heart rate response during mountain bike cross-country races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Pereira Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a resposta de frequência cardíaca (FC durante as competições de "Cross-country" Olímpico (XCO. Quatorze "mountain bikers" foram separados em dois grupos: elite (n = 6; 26,5 ± 3,6 anos; 69,1 ± 2,1 kg; 174,0 ± 1,2 cm; 5,9 ± 0,9 % G; 9,0 ± 1,3 anos de treinamento e amadores (n = 8; 25,6 ± 7,7 anos; 67,7 ± 7,0 kg; 175,5 ± 5,5 cm; 5,8 ± 2,1 % G; 8,3 ± 5,7 anos de treinamento. Os participantes foram submetidos a um teste progressivo para a identificação dos limiares metabólicos e seus respectivos valores de frequência cardíaca (FC em cada zona de intensidade de esforço. Após intervalo mínimo de quatro dias os atletas da categoria elite foram avaliados através de monitores de FC durante a etapa brasileira da Copa do Mundo de XCO. Após 15 dias, todos os atletas foram avaliados no Campeonato Brasileiro de XCO. Os resultados indicaram que em ambas as competições, a média percentual da FC foi correspondente a 91-92 % da FCmáx. Nas competições, os atletas permaneceram durante diferentes tempos percentuais nas zonas de intensidade de esforço sendo 10,0-14,8% no domínio leve; 23,1-30,1% moderado e 55,1-66,9% intenso. Assim, este estudo apresenta que as competições de XCO são realizadas em alta intensidade, principalmente após a largada.The aim of this study was to verify and describe the intensity profile of cross-country mountain-biking races using heart rate (HR recorded during races. Fourteen mountain bikers participated in two groups: elite (n = 6; 26.5 ± 3.6 years old; 69.1 ± 2.1 kg; 174.0 ± 1.2 cm; 5.9 ± 0.9 % BF; 9.0 ± 1.3 years of training and amateurs (n = 8; 25.6 ± 7.7 years; 67.7 ± 7.0 kg; 175.5 ± 5.5 cm; 5.8 ± 2.1 % BF; 8.3 ± 5.7 years of training. Each cyclist was submitted to an incremental exercise test to determine the metabolic thresholds and the HR values at each threshold. After four days, only the athletes of elite category were tested during Brazilian

  2. Automatic Classification of Sub-Techniques in Classical Cross-Country Skiing Using a Machine Learning Algorithm on Micro-Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Marius Hoel Rindal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The automatic classification of sub-techniques in classical cross-country skiing provides unique possibilities for analyzing the biomechanical aspects of outdoor skiing. This is currently possible due to the miniaturization and flexibility of wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs that allow researchers to bring the laboratory to the field. In this study, we aimed to optimize the accuracy of the automatic classification of classical cross-country skiing sub-techniques by using two IMUs attached to the skier’s arm and chest together with a machine learning algorithm. The novelty of our approach is the reliable detection of individual cycles using a gyroscope on the skier’s arm, while a neural network machine learning algorithm robustly classifies each cycle to a sub-technique using sensor data from an accelerometer on the chest. In this study, 24 datasets from 10 different participants were separated into the categories training-, validation- and test-data. Overall, we achieved a classification accuracy of 93.9% on the test-data. Furthermore, we illustrate how an accurate classification of sub-techniques can be combined with data from standard sports equipment including position, altitude, speed and heart rate measuring systems. Combining this information has the potential to provide novel insight into physiological and biomechanical aspects valuable to coaches, athletes and researchers.

  3. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomas Carlsson, Michail Tonkonogi, Magnus Carlsson School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max and lean mass (LM. Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD] completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.00 2max and 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043 and 52% (P=0.019, respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with

  4. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in High School and College Athletes for Reducing Stress and Injury, and Improving Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Haley; Olson, Bernadette L

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Student athletes experience a variety of stressors from school and social activities, as well as the additional demands of sport participation. Mindfulness-based interventions can help increase mental awareness and acceptance, as well as mitigate negative thoughts and emotions. The use of mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing thoughts of stress, injury reduction, and improving overall wellbeing. Does the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes aged 13-24 years reduce stress and injury as well as improve overall quality of life? The literature was searched for studies that investigated the use of mindfulness-based strategies for student-athletes specifically for reducing stress and injury and/or improving quality of life. The literature search returned 8 possible studies related to the clinical question and 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 randomized control trial, 2 nonrandomized control cohort studies). All 3 included studies demonstrated overall improved levels of mindfulness among student-athletes after the use of a mindfulness-based intervention. Mindfulness-based interventions had positive effects for reducing negative thoughts and levels of perceived stress. The number of injury occurrences were found to decrease following the integration of a mindfulness-based intervention within an athletic population. Clinical Bottom Line: There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of mindfulness-based interventions with student-athletes for increasing mindfulness, managing negative emotions and perceived stress, as well as improving overall well-being. There is also current literature that advocates the use of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing injury, but further research is needed for support. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support that the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes will reduce stress and improve overall well-being as well as

  5. The effect of aging on pacing strategies of cross-country skiers and the role of performance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Villiger, Elias; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2018-01-01

    The participation of master cross-country (XC) skiers in training and competition has increased during the last decades; however, little is known yet about whether these athletes differ from their younger counterparts in aspects of performance such as pacing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the combined effect of age and performance (race time) on pacing in cross-country (XC) skiing. We analyzed all finishers ( n  = 79,722) in 'Vasaloppet' from 2012 to 2017, the largest cross-country skiing race in the world, classified according to their race time into 10 groups: 3-4 h, 4-5 h, ..., 12-13 h. A trivial main effect of sex on total pace range was observed ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.002), where women (44.1 ± 10.2%) had larger total pace range than men (40.9 ± 11.8%). A large main effect of performance group on total pace range was shown ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.160), where the smallest total pace range was 21.8 ± 1.9% (3-4 h group) and the largest 50.1 ± 9.9% (10-11 h group). A trivial sex×performance group interaction on total pace range was found ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.001) with the largest sex difference in pacing shown in 9-10 h group. A trivial and small main effect of age was found in women ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.005) and men ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.011), respectively, where the masters had smaller total pace range than their younger counterparts. A trivial age group×performance group interaction on total pace range was observed in both women ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.008) and men ( p  < 0.001, η 2  = 0.006) with smaller differences among age groups in the faster performance groups. In summary, master XC skiers adopted a relatively even pacing independently from their race time and the differences in pacing from the younger XC skiers were more pronounced in the slower masters. These findings suggest that exercise attenuates the decline of performance in

  6. School Safety Policies With Emphasis on Physical Education, Athletics and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet outlines principles of hazard control, school accident problems, and the need for guidelines and policies. Suggested general school safety policies, guidelines for courses in safety education and for the provision of facilities and supplies, policies for the administration of first aid and emergency care, and procedures for reporting…

  7. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  8. Full Coverage Sports Physicals: School Nurses' Untapped Role in Health Promotion among Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Morris, Marian; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Pre-participation physical exams (PPEs) hold great potential for addressing adolescents' health-risk behaviors. School nurses may be well positioned to assist with PPEs, yet little is known about their involvement. In this mixed methods study conducted in 2015, we collected data from school nurses in Texas (surveys, n = 208; key informant…

  9. Athletic Trainers' Roles and Responsibilities Regarding Academic Adjustments as Part of the Concussion-Management Process in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Cailee E Welch; Kay, Melissa C; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2017-10-01

    Athletic trainers (ATs) play a vital role in managing the care of student-athletes after a sport-related concussion, yet little is known about their specific involvement in the implementation of academic adjustments as part of the concussion-management plan.   To explore ATs' perceived roles and responsibilities regarding the implementation of academic adjustments for concussed student-athletes.   Qualitative study.   Individual telephone interviews.   Sixteen ATs employed in the secondary school setting (8 women, 8 men; age = 39.6 ± 7.9 years; athletic training experience = 15.1 ± 5.6 years), representing 12 states, were interviewed.   One telephone interview was conducted with each participant. After the interviews were transcribed, the data were analyzed and coded into themes and categories, which were determined via consensus of a 4-person research team. To decrease researcher bias, triangulation occurred through participant member checking, the inclusion of multiple researchers, and an internal auditor.   Several categories related to participants' perceptions regarding their roles and responsibilities within the academic-adjustments process emerged from data analysis: (1) understanding of academic adjustments, (2) perceptions of their roles in academic adjustments, (3) initiation of academic adjustments, (4) facilitation of academic adjustments, and (5) lack of a role in the academic-adjustments process. Although most ATs perceived that they had a role in the initiation and facilitation of academic adjustments for concussed student-athletes, some reported they did not want a role in the process. Regardless, participants frequently suggested the need for further education.   These findings highlight that ATs either wanted to be involved in the implementation of academic adjustments but felt further education was needed or they did not want to be involved because they felt that it was not in their area of expertise. To create a cohesive

  10. Intercollegiate Athletics Subsidies: A Regressive Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Matthew; Vedder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For most colleges and universities in the United States, intercollegiate athletics is a losing financial proposition. The vast majority ICA departments do not break even and require subsidization from the institution as a whole. When schools are forced to heavily subsidize athletics, ICA serves to impose an "athletics tax" on other dimensions of…

  11. Seasonal variations in VO2max, O2-cost, O2-deficit, and performance in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Myklebust, Håvard; Spencer, Matt; Hallén, Jostein

    2013-07-01

    Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2 years; height, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 roller ski skating VO2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min or 6.0 ± 0.5 L·min) were tested during the early, middle, and late preparation phase: June (T1), August (T2), and October (T3); during the competition phase: January/February (T4); and after early precompetition phase: June (T5). O2-cost during submaximal efforts, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO2-deficit), and performance during a 1,000-m test were determined in the V2 ski skating technique on a roller ski treadmill. Subjects performed their training on an individual basis, and detailed training logs were categorized into different intensity zones and exercise modes. Total training volume was highest during the summer months (early preseason) and decreased toward and through the winter season, whereas the volume of high-intensity training increased (all p size; ES = 0.63-1.37, moderate to large, all p country skiers induced no significant changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak but improved performance, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit.

  12. Cross-country differences in productivity: the role of allocation and selection

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelsman, Eric J.; Haltiwanger, John; Scarpetta, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper combines different strands of the productivity literature to investigate the effect of idiosyncratic (firm-level) policy distortions on aggregate outcomes. On the one hand, a growing body of empirical research has been relating cross-country differences in key economic outcomes, such as productivity or output per capita, to differences in policies and institutions that shape the business environment. On the other hand, a branch of empirical research has attempted to shed light on t...

  13. Armenia; The Road to Sustained Rapid Growth-Cross-Country Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Garbis Iradian

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the growth determinants and the economic policy challenges that Armenia faces to sustain the rapid growth of the past two years. The paper also seeks to answer the following two questions: Why has Armenia performed relatively better than other transition economies? What are the roles of macroeconomic policies and the level of financial intermediation in explaining growth differences? The paper also draws upon past cross-country experiences by estimating panel regressions o...

  14. The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Title: The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation. Aim: The aim of this thesis is the comparison of the results of stress tests carried out preparatory period before and after the preparation period and whether the results were influenced by the applied training process. Methods: In this thesis was used background research of professional publications, content analyzes of documents and comparison of the results of stress tests and c...

  15. Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2012-02-01

    There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Sex Discrimination in High School Sports. A Report and Recommendations from Public Hearings on Interscholastic Athletics for Girls in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Commission for Women, Harrisburg.

    The Pennsylvania Commission for Women held hearings on equal opportunity for girls in athletics in November 1978. Participants included coaches, parents, students, organization and state officials. Testimony was presented on inequities between girls' and boys' athletic programs, coaching and officiating salaries, and attitudes toward female and…

  17. Tests and indicators for improving the pedagogical control of the legs force of long and middle distance, as well as sport walk 12-15 school categories athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Santana-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of the yield inside the process of sport training is one of the instruments that guarantee that it is made on the base of solid arguments as for the correspondence among the loads or preparation stimuli that must receive the sportsman and its condition to assimilate it. Due to the deficiencies, detected during a preliminary diagnosis based on the content analysis, measurement and mathematical statistical methods that corroborate the necessity to perfect elements of the sportsmen preparation management, a study begins with the in o rde r to give solution to the scientific problem: How to improve the pedagogic control of the legs force on Long and Middle distance, as well as Sport Walk athletes at 12 - 15 yeas school categories from “Ormani Arenado” Initial Sport School of Pinar del Río? It has the objective to select tests and indicators that improve this pedagogic control. There were used different methods and investigation instruments such as, analysis and synthesis, the measurement, as well as the descriptive and inferential statistic, which allowed the selection of the test of the ten jumps to include it in the protocol of evaluation of the physical performance set for the school categories, with procedures that brings forth four indicators on the sportsman's state. Its feasibility is being evaluating at present in an extended study certified by the provincial commission of Athletics. The contributions of this research, favor to the results of the investigative project “The evaluation and planning of the training in Long and Middle distance, as well as Sport Walk athletes in Pinar del Río”, answering, at the same time, to the fourth technological demand of the Athletics in this western county of Cuba.

  18. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S. emergency departments (ED from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers.Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for male patients ages 7-17 years old (subdivided into 7-11 years old [youth group] and 12-17 years old [scholastic group].Results: During the study period, there were an estimated 167,606 ED visits for wrestling injuries in 7-17 years old U.S. males, with 152,710 (91.1% occurring in the older (12-17 years old group. The annual injury incidence was 6.49 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the youth group and 29.57 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the scholastic group. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in both age groups, with sprain/strain as the most common diagnosis, followed by fracture and contusion/abrasion. Distributions of injury by location were significantly different between groups (p=0.02, although both groups exhibited approximately 75% of all injuries from the waist up. Overexertion and struck by/against were the most common precipitating and direct mechanisms in both groups, respectively. Over 97% of all injured wrestlers were treated and released.Conclusion: The types of injury in youth (7-11 years old wrestlers are similar to those of scholastic (12-17 years old wrestlers, although the distribution of body parts injured differs between the age groups. The majority of injuries occurs above the waist and may be a target for prevention strategies. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:442-449.

  19. NATIONAL IDENTITY OF TOP – LEVEL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Doupona Topič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite international sports are staged in connection with national symbols and involve competitions between athletes and teams representing nation-states. The victors regularly express their joy by displaying their national flag, and spectators use victories as occasions for reaffirming and articulating national pride. The aim of the study was to determine how national identity is formed in connection with sports, and the ways that national identity is integrated into the lives of athletes. The sample included top-level athletes. All participants were members of the Slovenian national team (handball, voleyball, track and field, swimming, cross country skiing, rowing. Social-demographic variables, value categories, motivation for competition, national pride, awareness to be Slovenianian-ness were analysed. Results shows that sporting achievements do have a strong correlation with the national identity.

  20. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  1. Cross-country differences in the association between diabetes and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Reza Moghani; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2014-01-06

    This study tested possible cross-country differences in the associations between diabetes and activities of daily living (ADLs), and possible confounding / mediating effects of socio-economic status, obesity, and exercise. Data came from Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The study included a total number of 25,372 community sample of adults who were 40 years or older. We used data from community based surveys in seven countries including China, Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay. Demographics (age and gender), socio-economic status (education and income), obesity, exercise, and ADL (bath, dress, toilet, transfer, heavy, shopping, meals) were measured. Self-reported data on physician diagnosis of diabetes was the independent variable. We tested if diabetes is associated with ADL, before and after adjusting for socio-economics, obesity, and exercise in each country. Based on Model I (age and gender adjusted model), diabetes was associated with limitation in at least one ADL in Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay, but not China. Based on Model II that also controlled for education and income, education explained the association between diabetes and limitation in ADL in Mexico and Uruguay. Based on Model III that also controlled for exercise and obesity, in Cuba and Brazil, exercise explained the link between diabetes and limitation in performing ADLs. Thus, the link between diabetes and ADL was independent of our covariates only in Chile and Barbados. There are cross-country differences in the link between diabetes and limitation in ADL. There are also cross-country differences in how socio-economic status, obesity, and exercise explain the above association.

  2. Alcohol affordability and alcohol demand: cross-country trends and panel data estimates, 1975 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2014-04-01

    Relatively little is known about cross-country differences in alcohol affordability or factors that determine differences in affordability over time. This information is potentially important for alcohol policy, especially policies that focus on higher taxes or prices to reduce total alcohol consumption. This study estimates cross-country alcohol consumption relationships using economic models incorporating income and prices and alternative models based on alcohol affordability. The data and analysis are restricted to higher income countries. Data for alcohol consumption per capita (ages 15+) are analyzed for 2 samples: first, 17 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for the period 1975 to 2000; second, 22 countries in the European Union for the period from 2000 to 2008. Panel data models are utilized, with country and time fixed-effects to control for confounding influences. In economic demand models, covariates are real per capita income and real alcohol price indices. In affordability models, income is divided by prices to yield an index of alcohol affordability. Analysis of data trends reveals that much of the increase in affordability is due to rising real incomes, and not falling real prices. Economic models of demand perform slightly better statistically, but differences are not substantial as income and affordability are highly correlated. For both samples, exogenous rates of growth of alcohol consumption are negative. Price and income elasticities, on average, are within the range of prior estimates. Affordability elasticities are between 0.21 and 0.25. Although alcohol affordability is a valid concept statistically, its use in policy discussions tends to hide underlying causes of changes in affordability. A better approach is a comparison and analysis of trends and cross-country differences in real incomes and real alcohol prices together with the affordability index. Country-level analysis of income and price

  3. Investigation of the Concussion Goggle™ Education Program with Secondary School Athletic Teams: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. Payne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have investigated different types of concussion education programs within various populations with mixed results. To date, no research has been published using the Concussion Goggles™ educational program Objective: To compare secondary school student-athletes’ knowledge about concussions before and after attending a concussion education program using the Concussion Goggles™. Design: Pre- posttest. Setting: Public secondary school. Patients or Other Participants: 41 secondary school students (14 girls soccer players, 14 boys basketball players, and 13 girls basketball players with a mean age of 15.37 ± 1.22 years. Intervention(s: Participants completed the Concussion Goggles™ concussion educational program consisting of PowerPoint slides with 3 activities and short video segments within the presentation. Participants completed a test developed by the manufacturers of the Concussion Goggles™ educational program prior to and following the intervention to measure change in concussion knowledge. Main Outcome Measure(s: A 3-way mixed factorial analysis of variance (sport x grade level x gender for repeated measures was utilized to determine statistical significance. Results: A statistically significant difference between the overall pretest (9.37 ± 1.20 and posttest (9.63 ± 1.04 scores was not found (p = 0.28. Repeated measures analysis did not indicate significant interaction effects for test score x grade (p = 0.18, test score x sport (p = 0.63, nor test score x grade x sport (p = 0.96. Conclusion: The Concussion Goggle™ education program did not affect participant knowledge of concussions in the posttest. In its current form, the Concussion Goggle™ program may not be an effective concussion education program.

  4. Determinants of the Strength of Auditing and Reporting Standards: a Cross-Country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Krishansing Boolaky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study addresses the research gap regarding the absence of an empirical cross-country study on the determinants of the strength of auditing and reporting standards (SARS. Using data on 133 countries at various stages of development, we examine the role of environmental factors that influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. Our empirical results confirm that institutional infrastructure, financial market development and higher education and training jointly influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. We obtain qualitatively similar subsample results when we partition countries on the basis of economic development.

  5. The effect of mountain bike wheel size on Cross-Country performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen; Metcalfe, John; Sinclair, Jonathan Kenneth; Rylands, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different wheel size diameters on indicators of cross-country mountain bike time trial performance. Nine competitive male mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) performed 1 lap of a 3.48 km mountain bike (MTB) course as fast as possible on 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheeled MTB. Time (s), mean power (W), cadence (revs · min−1) and velocity (km · h−1) were recorded for the whole lap and during...

  6. Glycogen resynthesis rate following cross-country skiing is closely correlated to skeletal muscle glycogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim; Saltin, Bengt

    on an optimal glycogen resynthesis rate before a subsequent exercise session. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the glycogen resynthesis rate in elite cross-country (cc) skiers, following exhaustive exercise, and to examine the role of muscular glycogen content on the resynthesis rate. METHOD: Ten...... as 4h and 22h after the race and analyzed for glycogen content. Figure 1. Correlation between muscle glycogen resynthesis rate and glycogen content after and in the rocery period after exercise. Line indicate best fit of all the data points (r2 = 0.41, p

  7. The Happy Few. Cross-Country Evidence on Social Capital and Life Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine why the populations of certain countries are so much more satisfied with their lives than the rest of the world. In cross-country analyses, income per capita, economic uncertainty and expectations for the future are robust predictors of happiness while a social capital measure emerges...... strongly and robustly associated with happiness. Moreover, the effect of investing in social capital is remarkably strong compared to the alternatives. I conclude that the populations in a few Northern European countries are probably the happiest in the world because of their high levels of social capital...

  8. Are greenhouse gas emissions and cognitive skills related? Cross-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanbayev, Bekhzod; Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Lynn, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Are greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cognitive skills (CS) related? We attempt to answer this question by exploring this relationship, using cross-country data for 150 countries, for the period 1997-2012. After controlling for the level of economic development, quality of political regimes, population size and a number of other controls, we document that CS robustly predict GHG. In particular, when CS at a national level increase by one standard deviation, the average annual rate of air pollution changes by nearly 1.7% (slightly less than one half of a standard deviation). This significance holds for a number of robustness checks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Richard; van Baal, Pieter; Oppe, Mark; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert

    2011-06-23

    The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE) at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers of differences in health-state values across populations. This

  10. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppe Mark

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. Methods We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. Results QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. Conclusions The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers

  11. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  12. Performance of oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe: statistical summary of reported spillages, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, A.; Hayward, P.; Panisi, C.; Groenhof, J.

    This report presents statistical data relating to spillages from oil industry cross-country pipelines during the calendar year 1979, with comments and comparisons for the five year period 1975-1979. (Copyright (c) CONCAWE 1980.)

  13. The effect of mountain bike wheel size on cross-country performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different wheel size diameters on indicators of cross-country mountain bike time trial performance. Nine competitive male mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) performed 1 lap of a 3.48 km mountain bike (MTB) course as fast as possible on 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheeled MTB. Time (s), mean power (W), cadence (revs · min -1 ) and velocity (km · h -1 ) were recorded for the whole lap and during ascent and descent sections. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. Results revealed no significant main effects for any variables by wheel size during all trials, with the exception of cadence during the descent (F (2, 16)  = 8.96; P = .002; P 2  = .53). Post hoc comparisons revealed differences lay between the 26″ and 29″ wheels (P = .02). The findings indicate that wheel size does not significantly influence performance during cross-country when ridden by trained mountain bikers, and that wheel choice is likely due to personal choice or sponsorship commitments.

  14. Renewable electricity consumption in the EU-27: Are cross-country differences diminishing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, Maria; Villaverde, Jose [University of Cantabria, Department of Economics, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to analyse cross-country differences for shares of renewable electricity in the EU-27 for the period 1996-2005. We carry out a standard convergence analysis and then examine the evolution of the entire distribution, namely the external shape, intra-distributional dynamics and ergodic distribution. Our main results are as follows. First, there has been a clear convergence pattern for renewable electricity shares across countries. Second, the shape of the distribution has varied significantly over time, with more countries positioned around the mean in 2005 than in 1996. Third, the analysis shows that intra-distributional mobility has been relatively high, especially in those countries with the highest share in the initial year of our sample. Fourth, in spite of this, large cross-country differences will likely persist for RES-E shares in the hypothetical long-term equilibrium, which implies that a major impulse to national RES-E support policies will be necessary in the coming years to shorten this gap. (author)

  15. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  16. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier's locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier's position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.

  17. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana N; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries. Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in both populations. Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants. These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  18. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier’s locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier’s position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: air drag, efficiency, friction coefficient, speed, locomotive power

  19. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available School curriculums in physical education are conceptualised that students are expected to overcome many motoric assignments and vast area of disciplines (athletics, gymnastics, sports games, rhythmic gymnastics, ethnic dances, etc. Drawbacks of this kind of curriculum are: students superficially adopt only basic elements of motions; there is no automatization and complete control of motoric motions. Teaching practice is mainly focused on development of technical elements in contrast to development of motoric and functional abilities of students. Physical education efficiency can be improved by realistic, expertly and economical planning and monitoring of the effects of the teaching, as well as by increase in weekly number of classes. Sports games are, among others, by nature of comprising motions, important factors and tools in teaching of physical education of students. It seems that all of this has been considered when school reform has been done in Montenegro. By this very kind of work the effects of the increment in weekly class number are meant to be checked out. Our sample consisted of 73 8th grade boys, 42 in experimental group involved in additional basketball programme, and 31 boys in control group without additional classes of physical education. Level of motoric abilities has been followed by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group had shown improved levels of abilities in each test at final measurement, except at the test of vertical aiming – darts. However, keep in mind that boys in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds test and hand and foot tapping test, by using ANOVA we compared measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are

  20. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  1. Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... variables as they influenced the athletes' motor skill development. The social situations, family and the schools were found to significantly ...

  2. A RESEARCH ON IDENTIFYING THE NEED FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR NATIONAL ATHLETES WHO STUDY IN SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner BOZKUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured deliberation technique. Deliberation questions are prepared with this technique based on expert opinions and during the deliberation, the questions were asked to the people who attended the deliberation in a partially flexible way. Population and sampling of the research; population of the study is the people who study in School of Physical Education and Sports, and sampling is the 348 national athletes who study wrestling, bocce, dart, bowling, basketball, volleyball, football, taekwando, karate, archery, atheism, tennis, judo, badminton, table tennis, boxing, weight lifting, handball, gymnastics and swimming in School of Physical Education and Sports. %20.4 of these sportsmen are female, %79.6 of them are male and %78.7 of them are between 19-25 years old, %14.4 of them are between 26-30 years old, %4.3 of them are between 31-35 years old, and %2.6 of them are 36 years old and older. %26.4 of the sportsmen who attend the research, study Coaching, %49.7 of them study Profession of Teaching, %14.1 of them study Sport Management and %9.8 of them study Recreation. And %97.7 of these sportsmen receive undergraduate education, %2.3 of them receive graduate education. At the end of the study, the national athletes, who attended the research, emphasized that they were having problems in formal education, they failed the exams because they couldn’t follow the courses, when they had to attend the courses, they delayed their trainings, and this situation effected their education level. %87.9 of the national athletes who took part in the study pointed that they need distance learning and if such a programme is developed

  3. Foreign aid and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GT Ijaiya

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the rate of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to the inadequate management and use of international financial assistance such as foreign aid. Using a cross-country data, this paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The result obtained indicates that foreign aid has no significant influence on poverty reduction in SSA, because of the countries’ weak economic management evidenced by high levels of corruption, bad governance, and political and economic instability. To improve the performance of foreign aid directed at poverty reduction, the paper suggests the implementation of measures directed at good governance, macroeconomic and political stability.Incentives in Nigeria’s food manufacturing industries and their impact on output and prices

  4. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  5. The Impact of Governance on the Research Performance of European Universities in Cross-Country Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedláček Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on the impact of selected aspects of governance - the level of autonomy and the involvement of stakeholders in the internal governance of a university - on the research performance of universities measured by indicators of international university rankings in cross-country comparisons. The analyses are geographically situated in Europe. They follow two paths which are from the theoretical point of view based on the concepts of the principal-agent problem and stakeholder theory. Using linear regression, the author identifies statistically significant aspects of governance and compares them with results of previous studies. The findings serve as a basis for a discussion regarding how to create appropriate conditions for universities in order to improve their prospects for international success in research. The limitations of the results relating to the data, methodology and their application in the European context are discussed and general recommendations are formulated.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of double poling in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Lindinger, Stefan; Stöggl, Thomas; Eitzlmair, Erich; Müller, Erich

    2005-05-01

    To further the understanding of double poling (DP) through biomechanical analysis of upper and lower body movements during DP in cross-country (XC) skiing at racing speed. Eleven elite XC skiers performed DP at 85% of their maximal DP velocity (V85%) during roller skiing at 1 degrees inclination on a treadmill. Pole and plantar ground reaction forces, joint angles (elbow, hip, knee, and ankle), cycle characteristics, and electromyography (EMG) of upper and lower body muscles were analyzed. 1) Pole force pattern with initial impact force peak and the following active force peak (PPF) correlated to V85%, (r = 0.66, P biomechanical aspects. Future research should further investigate the relationship between biomechanical and physiological variables and elaborate training models to improve DP performance.

  7. Decoupling Economic Growth and Energy Use. An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis for 10 Manufacturing Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.

  8. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...

  9. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...

  10. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyse the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...

  11. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  12. Research of Obstacle Recognition Technology in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the obstacle recognition problem of unmanned ground vehicles in cross-country environment, this paper uses monocular vision sensor to realize the obstacle recognition of typical obstacles. Firstly, median filtering algorithm is applied during image preprocessing that can eliminate the noise. Secondly, image segmentation method based on the Fisher criterion function is used to segment the region of interest. Then, morphological method is used to process the segmented image, which is preparing for the subsequent analysis. The next step is to extract the color feature S, color feature a and edge feature “verticality” of image are extracted based on the HSI color space, the Lab color space, and two value images. Finally multifeature fusion algorithm based on Bayes classification theory is used for obstacle recognition. Test results show that the algorithm has good robustness and accuracy.

  13. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2017-01-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy......-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance....

  14. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  15. Using Bilateral Functional and Anthropometric Tests to Define Symmetry in Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björklund Glenn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of anthropometry and muscle function in cross-country skiers and their association to vertical jumping power. Twenty cross-country skiers were recruited (21.7 ± 3.8 yrs, 180.6 ± 7.6 cm, 73.2 ± 7.6 kg. Anthropometric data was obtained using an iDXA scan. VO2max was determined using the diagonal stride technique on a ski treadmill. Bilateral functional tests for the upper and lower body were the handgrip and standing heel-rise tests. Vertical jump height and power were assessed with a counter movement jump. Percent asymmetry was calculated using a symmetry index and four absolute symmetry index levels. At a group level the upper body was more asymmetrical with regard to lean muscle mass (p = 0.022, d = 0.17 and functional strength (p = 0.019, d = 0.51 than the lower body. At an individual level the expected frequencies for absolute symmetry level indexes showed the largest deviation from zero for the heel-rise test (χ2 = 16.97, p = 0.001, while the leg lean mass deviated the least (χ2 = 0.42, p = 0.517. No relationships were observed between absolute symmetry level indexes of the lower body and counter movement jump performance (p > 0.05. As a group the skiers display a more asymmetrical upper body than lower body regarding muscle mass and strength. Interestingly at the individual level, despite symmetrical lean leg muscle mass the heel-rise test showed the largest asymmetry. This finding indicates a mismatch in muscle function for the lower body.

  16. Using Bilateral Functional and Anthropometric Tests to Define Symmetry in Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Glenn; Alricsson, Marie; Svantesson, Ulla

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of anthropometry and muscle function in cross-country skiers and their association to vertical jumping power. Twenty cross-country skiers were recruited (21.7 ± 3.8 yrs, 180.6 ± 7.6 cm, 73.2 ± 7.6 kg). Anthropometric data was obtained using an iDXA scan. VO 2max was determined using the diagonal stride technique on a ski treadmill. Bilateral functional tests for the upper and lower body were the handgrip and standing heel-rise tests. Vertical jump height and power were assessed with a counter movement jump. Percent asymmetry was calculated using a symmetry index and four absolute symmetry index levels. At a group level the upper body was more asymmetrical with regard to lean muscle mass (p = 0.022, d = 0.17) and functional strength (p = 0.019, d = 0.51) than the lower body. At an individual level the expected frequencies for absolute symmetry level indexes showed the largest deviation from zero for the heel-rise test (χ2 = 16.97, p = 0.001), while the leg lean mass deviated the least (χ2 = 0.42, p = 0.517). No relationships were observed between absolute symmetry level indexes of the lower body and counter movement jump performance (p > 0.05). As a group the skiers display a more asymmetrical upper body than lower body regarding muscle mass and strength. Interestingly at the individual level, despite symmetrical lean leg muscle mass the heel-rise test showed the largest asymmetry. This finding indicates a mismatch in muscle function for the lower body.

  17. Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Turner, Elizabeth L; Thielman, Nathan M

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera. Problem The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published. A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed. Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having earthquake. The association between large earthquake disasters and cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested. A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

  18. Factors that Influence the Performance of Elite Sprint Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Zinner, Christoph; Platt, Simon; Stöggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-02-01

    Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Only original research articles addressing physiology, biomechanics, anthropometry, or neuromuscular characteristics and elite sprint cross-country skiers and performance outcomes were included. All articles meeting inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data were extracted from each article using a standardized form and subsequently summarized. Thirty-one articles met the criteria for inclusion, were reviewed, and scored an average of 66 ± 7 % (range 56-78 %) upon quality assessment. All articles except for two were quasi-experimental, and only one had a fully-experimental research design. In total, articles comprised 567 subjects (74 % male), with only nine articles explicitly reporting their skiers' sprint International Skiing Federation points (weighted mean 116 ± 78). A similar number of articles addressed skating and classical techniques, with more than half of the investigations involving roller-skiing assessments under laboratory conditions. A range of physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric, and neuromuscular characteristics was reported to relate to sprint skiing performance. Both aerobic and anaerobic capacities are important qualities, with the anaerobic system suggested to contribute more to the performance during the first of repeated heats; and the aerobic system during subsequent heats. A capacity for high speed in all the following instances is important for the performance of sprint cross-country

  19. Expected Time to Return to Athletic Participation After Stress Fracture in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Jamieson, Marissa; Everson, Sonsecharae; Siegel, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have documented expected time to return to athletic participation after stress fractures in elite athletes. Time to return to athletic participation after stress fractures would vary by site and severity of stress fracture. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. All stress fractures diagnosed in a single Division I collegiate men's and women's track and field/cross-country team were recorded over a 3-year period. Site and severity of injury were graded based on Kaeding-Miller classification system for stress fractures. Time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation was recorded for each athlete and correlated with patient sex and site and severity grade of injury. Fifty-seven stress fractures were diagnosed in 38 athletes (mean age, 20.48 years; range, 18-23 years). Ten athletes sustained recurrent or multiple stress fractures. Thirty-seven injuries occurred in women and 20 in men. Thirty-three stress fractures occurred in the tibia, 10 occurred in the second through fourth metatarsals, 3 occurred in the fifth metatarsal, 6 in the tarsal bones (2 navicular), 2 in the femur, and 5 in the pelvis. There were 31 grade II stress fractures, 11 grade III stress fractures, and 2 grade V stress fractures (in the same patient). Mean time to return to unrestricted sport participation was 12.9 ± 5.2 weeks (range, 6-27 weeks). No significant differences in time to return were noted based on injury location or whether stress fracture was grade II or III. The expected time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation after diagnosis of a stress fracture is 12 to 13 weeks for all injury sites. Athletes with grade V (nonunion) stress fractures may require more time to return to sport.

  20. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. The Training Characteristics of the World's Most Successful Female Cross-Country Skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Guro S; Tønnessen, Espen; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the training characteristics of the most successful female cross-country skier ever during the best period of her career. The participant won six gold medals at the Olympic Games, 18 gold medals at the World Championship, and 110 World Cup victories. Day-to-day training diary data, interviews, and physiological tests were analyzed. Training data was systemized by training form (endurance, strength, and speed), intensity [low- (LIT), moderate- (MIT), and high-intensity training (HIT)], and mode (running, cycling, and skiing/roller skiing), followed by a division into different periodization phases. Specific sessions utilized in the various periodization periods and the day-to-day periodization of training, in connection with altitude camps and tapering toward major championships, were also analyzed. Following a 12-year nonlinear increase in training load, the annual training volume during the five consecutive successful years stabilized at 937 ± 25 h, distributed across 543 ± 9 sessions. During these 5 years, total training time was distributed as 90.6% endurance-, 8.0% strength-, and 1.4% speed-training, with endurance-training time consisting of 92.3 ± 0.3% LIT, 2.9 ± 0.5% MIT, and 4.8 ± 0.5% HIT. Total LIT-time consisted of 21% warm-up, 14% sessions 90 min. While the total number of LIT sessions remained stable across phases (32 sessions), total LIT-time was reduced from GP (76 h/month) to SP (68 h/month) and CP (55 h/month). MIT-time decreased from GP (2.8 h/month) to SP (2.2 h/month) and CP (1 h/month). HIT-time increased from GP (2.8 h/month) to SP (3.2 h/month) and CP (4.7 h/month). Altitude training accounted for 18-25% of annual training volume and performed across relatively short training camps (≤16 days) with a clear reduction of HIT training, but increased total and LIT volume compared to sea-level training. Training before international championships included a 2-week increase in LIT and strength

  2. The Training Characteristics of the World's Most Successful Female Cross-Country Skier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro S. Solli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the training characteristics of the most successful female cross-country skier ever during the best period of her career. The participant won six gold medals at the Olympic Games, 18 gold medals at the World Championship, and 110 World Cup victories. Day-to-day training diary data, interviews, and physiological tests were analyzed. Training data was systemized by training form (endurance, strength, and speed, intensity [low- (LIT, moderate- (MIT, and high-intensity training (HIT], and mode (running, cycling, and skiing/roller skiing, followed by a division into different periodization phases. Specific sessions utilized in the various periodization periods and the day-to-day periodization of training, in connection with altitude camps and tapering toward major championships, were also analyzed. Following a 12-year nonlinear increase in training load, the annual training volume during the five consecutive successful years stabilized at 937 ± 25 h, distributed across 543 ± 9 sessions. During these 5 years, total training time was distributed as 90.6% endurance-, 8.0% strength-, and 1.4% speed-training, with endurance-training time consisting of 92.3 ± 0.3% LIT, 2.9 ± 0.5% MIT, and 4.8 ± 0.5% HIT. Total LIT-time consisted of 21% warm-up, 14% sessions <90 min, and 65% long-duration sessions >90 min. While the total number of LIT sessions remained stable across phases (32 sessions, total LIT-time was reduced from GP (76 h/month to SP (68 h/month and CP (55 h/month. MIT-time decreased from GP (2.8 h/month to SP (2.2 h/month and CP (1 h/month. HIT-time increased from GP (2.8 h/month to SP (3.2 h/month and CP (4.7 h/month. Altitude training accounted for 18–25% of annual training volume and performed across relatively short training camps (≤16 days with a clear reduction of HIT training, but increased total and LIT volume compared to sea-level training. Training before international championships

  3. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  4. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  5. Cross-country Differences in Reporting Practices – the Case of Provisions for Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and compare reporting practices on provisions for liabilities in different countries. Methodology: The research was limited to the types of provisions that are addressed in the International Accounting Standard 37 - Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. For the purpose of the study, financial statements of the biggest public companies in Great Britain, Germany and Poland have been chosen to be taken into consideration. The following detailed issues have been explored: - Presentation of the types of provisions in a statement of financial position and additional notes to a financial statement, - Presentation of the amounts of provisions made, used, and reversed during a given period and the effects of changes in the discount rate, - Scope and quality of descriptions of the nature of obligations presented by entities. The results of the analysis have been viewed from two perspectives - the areas of compliance and non-compliance of reporting on provisions with IFRS have been identified and a comparison of the extent of compliance with particular requirements between companies from different countries has been developed. Findings: The results of the analysis have revealed that companies from selected countries demonstrate different levels of compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Substantial differences in the scope and the quality of descriptive disclosures on provisions have been also identified. Originality/value: The study contributes to the research on cross-country differences in reporting practices and indicates the need for a further analysis of the underlying determinants

  6. Heart rate profiles and energy cost of locomotion during cross-country skiing races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognoni, P; Rossi, G; Gastaldelli, F; Canclini, A; Cotelli, F

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses and speed in two cross-country skiing races, which were run by seven male and seven female subjects by using classic and free style. Heart rates and skiing velocities were analyzed over flat, uphill and downhill sections, which were run from one to three times. Heart rates were higher in uphill sections than in flat sections; a steady-state heart rate was never reached in the downhill section. When the same uphill section was repeated, the heart rate tended to increase but the speed to decrease. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was calculated from heart rate:VO2 ratio, measured during uphill walking with the aid of poles. The mean (SD) energy cost of locomotion (i.e., the ratio between net VO2 and speed) was 162.1 (9.4) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) and 147.7 (7.1) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) when male subjects ran the flat section after first downhill by using classic and free style, respectively. Females had lower values for VO2 and speed, but similar energy costs. In general, the variability of the energy cost of locomotion in skiers of a similar competitive level is of the same order as that found in uphill walking on a treadmill.

  7. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  9. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fëllënza Lushaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of inequality, high level of unemployment and demographic challenges. In addition, SME development can contribute to strengthening the competitiveness and productivity, while also promoting the growth of income per capita. Besides the positive perception the creation of small and medium enterprises has, it is also indispensable to consider their extinction rate, being the most affected category of businesses, especially in the initial stages. It is proved that the net SME creation and cross-country differences in the relationship between new businesses and extinct businesses, can serve as a recommendation for policy makers in order to create a favorable climate for small and medium enterprises. GCI indicators that measures global competitiveness are used to determine if the climate of competitiveness predicts the development of SMEs.

  10. Is it possible to develop a cross-country test of social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brett; Atler, Karen; Fisher, Anne G

    2017-11-01

    The Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI) is used in Asia, Australia, North America and Europe. What is considered to be appropriate social interaction, however, differs amongst countries. If social interaction varies, the relative difficulty of the ESI items and types of social exchange also could vary, resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) and test bias in the form of differential test functioning (DTF). Yet, because the ESI scoring criteria are designed to account for culture, the ESI should be free of DIF and DTF. The purpose, therefore, was to determine whether the ESI demonstrates DIF or DTF related to country. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study of 9811 participants 2-102 years, 55% female, from 12 countries was conducted using many-facet Rasch analyses. DIF analyses compared paired item and social exchange type values by country against a critical effect size (±0.55 logit). DTF analyses compared paired ESI measures by country to 95% confidence intervals. All paired social exchange types and 98.3% of paired items differed by less than ±0.55 logit. All persons fell within 95% confidence intervals. Minimal DIF resulted in no test bias, supporting the cross-country validity of the ESI.

  11. Speed and heart-rate profiles in skating and classical cross-country skiing competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Kocbach, Jan; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-10-01

    To compare the speed and heart-rate profiles during international skating and classical competitions in male and female world-class cross-country skiers. Four male and 5 female skiers performed individual time trials of 15 km (men) and 10 km (women) in the skating and classical techniques on 2 consecutive days. Races were performed on the same 5-km course. The course was mapped with GPS and a barometer to provide a valid course and elevation profile. Time, speed, and heart rate were determined for uphill, flat, and downhill terrains throughout the entire competition by wearing a GPS and a heart-rate monitor. Times in uphill, flat, and downhill terrain were ~55%, 15-20%, and 25-30%, respectively, of the total race time for both techniques and genders. The average speed differences between skating and classical skiing were 9% and 11% for men and women, respectively, and these values were 12% and 15% for uphill, 8% and 13% for flat (all P skating and classical, respectively, with corresponding numbers of 11% and 14% for uphill, 6% and 11% for flat, and 4% and 5% for downhill terrain (all P skating and classical techniques and between the 2 genders were found on uphill terrain. Therefore, these speed differences could not be explained by variations in exercise intensity.

  12. Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A; Riber, C; Santisteban, R; Rubio, M D; Agüera, E I; Castejón, F M

    1999-01-01

    The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the CC events. Jugular venous blood samples were withdrawn before the warm-up period, immediately after the competitions and at 5 and 10 min in the recuperation period. The following haematological parameters were studied: red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), and number and percentages of lymphocytes (LYM) and granulocytes and monocytes (GRAN). One fraction of blood was centrifuged and, in plasma, lactate (LA), total plasma protein (TPP) and the rate of LA disappearance were determined. The competitions induced significant increases in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV and TPP. Plasma LA response exceeded the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l, reaching a maximum level of 13.3 mmol/l. HR ranged from 140 to more than 200 bpm, peaking at 230 bpm, revealing a limitation in the oxygen supply to the working muscles. It was concluded that muscle energy resynthesis during a CC event is provided both through oxidative processes and glycolysis with LA formation. Therefore, both stamina and power exercises are required for eventing horses.

  13. Global digital divide: determinants of cross-country ICT development with special reference to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbra Toria Nipo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT tools are regarded as imperative not only for enabling the economy to grow at a healthy rate, but also for elevating the socioeconomic conditions and standards of the society. In concurrence with the widespread diffusion of ICT, lies the phenomenon called digital divide – a complex issue pertaining to unequal access, use and applications of ICT among countries and peoples. This paper attempts to measure the contribution of conventional factors such as affordability, infrastructure, trade openness and urbanization, with added emphasis on the role of financial development in explaining cross-country development of ICT among Southeast Asian countries. Using panel data for 4 countries for the period 1994 – 2011, findings of this study revealed that GDP is the most significant determinant in explaining digital divide – consistent with findings from previous research efforts. Financial development also appear significant in most models adopted in all three ICT tools, implying the need for these countries to improve their financial markets to avoid falling further behind in promoting a digitally inclusive society.

  14. The impact of the fourth industrial revolution: a cross-country/region comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fourth industrial revolution stimulates the advances of science and technology, in which the Internet of Things (IoT and its supporting technologies serve as backbones for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS and smart machines are used as the promoters to optimize production chains. Such advancement goes beyond the organizational and territorial boundaries, comprising agility, intelligence, and networking. This scenario triggers governmental efforts that aim at defining guidelines and standards. The speed and complexity of the transition to the new digitalization era in a globalized environment, however, does not yet allow a common and coordinated understanding of the impacts of the actions undertaken in different countries and regions. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to bridge this gap through a systematic literature review that identifies the most influential public policies and evaluates their existing differences. This cross-country/region comparison provides a worldwide panorama of public policies' durations, main objectives, available funding, areas for action, focused manufacturing sectors, and prioritized technologies. Findings of this review can be used as the basis to analyse the position of a country against the existing challenges imposed towards its own industrial infrastructure and also to coordinate its public policies.

  15. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  16. Strategies for Reducing Criminal Violence among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffo, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the serious problem of criminal violence in the personal lives of athletes, suggesting strategies that physical educators, coaches, and school systems can implement with young athletes which could reduce the incidence and severity of violence later in life (e.g., teaching unconditional respect for others, continually reinforcing social…

  17. Nutrition for Athletes. A Handbook for Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook contains nutritional information for athletic coaches and others who provide this information and guidance to high school and college students. The purposes of the handbook are to review briefly the content of a sound basic diet and to analyze theories and practices that would relate to nutrition and athletic performance. The…

  18. Article Spurs Community to Support Athlete, Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Janelle

    1999-01-01

    Describes the coverage of an athlete's spinal cord injury by the "Wildcat News" (Woodrow Wilson High School, Dallas, Texas). Notes a fellow teammate (the sports editor) covered the accident. Discusses the efforts made to be sensitive to the situation and the needs of others. Appends an exercise concerning coverage of athletic injuries.…

  19. Self-Esteem of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette L.

    While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…

  20. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  1. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  2. Team Up for Drug Prevention with America's Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighan, William P., Comp.; And Others

    Materials useful in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs directed towards high school athletes are contained in this document. Nine topic areas are covered: (1) effects of athletics on young people, such as pressure to win; (2) reasons athletes use drugs and alcohol, including coping with stress and feeling good; (3) enabling behaviors of…

  3. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  4. Lessons from a comparative (cross-country) study using conjoint analysis: Why not use all the information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan

    Re-examination of data from two comparative (cross-country) studies using conjoint analysis shows that significant improvement can be achieved by using two often neglected kinds of a priori information: Knowledge of the expected order of preferences for the various levels of one or more attributes...

  5. Coproducing flood risk management through citizen involvement: insights from cross-country comparison in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Mees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Across Europe, citizens are increasingly expected to participate in the implementation of flood risk management (FRM, by engaging in voluntary-based activities to enhance preparedness, implementing property-level measures, and so forth. Although citizen participation in FRM decision making is widely addressed in academic literature, citizens' involvement in the delivery of FRM measures is comparatively understudied. Drawing from public administration literature, we adopted the notion of "coproduction" as an analytical framework for studying the interaction between citizens and public authorities, from the decision-making process through to the implementation of FRM in practice. We considered to what extent coproduction is evident in selected European Union (EU member states, drawing from research conducted within the EU project STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements. On the basis of a cross-country comparison between Flanders (Belgium, England (United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Poland, we have highlighted the varied forms of coproduction and reflected on how these have been established within divergent settings. Coproduction is most prominent in discourse and practice in England and is emergent in France and Flanders. By contrast, FRM in the Netherlands and Poland remains almost exclusively reliant on governmental protection measures and thereby consultation-based forms of coproduction. Analysis revealed how these actions are motivated by different underlying rationales, which in turn shape the type of approaches and degree of institutionalization of coproduction. In the Netherlands, coproduction is primarily encouraged to increase societal resilience, whereas public authorities in the other countries also use it to improve cost-efficiency and redistribute responsibilities to its beneficiaries.

  6. Environmental policies and risk finance in the green sector: Cross-country evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of venture capital investment in the green sector across 29 countries over the period 2005–2010, and identifies the role that policies might play in explaining observed cross-country differences. The analysis is based on a deal-level database of businesses seeking financing, combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The econometric analysis relates the number of deals and their volumes in a country to deployment and supply policies using count data and limited dependent variable (Tobit) models. The results suggest that both supply side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of venture capital relative to more short-term fiscal policies. When focusing on policies related to renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with venture capital investment. However, in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment, perhaps reflecting a lack of credibility over the longer term. Thus, both sets of results point to long-term policy stability, sustainability and credibility as important policy features to ensure Venture capital backing of innovative and risky ventures in a country's green sector. -- Highlights: •Risk-finance in the green sector is likely to face more challenges than in other hi-tech sectors. •Supply and deployment policies are associated with more investments relative to fiscal policies. •FITs have a positive effect, but in the solar sector very generous FITs discourage investments

  7. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  8. Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

     Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates.  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports.  Randomized, controlled clinical trial.  Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season.  The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program.  Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball).  The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions

  9. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  10. Set of physical exercises for the rehabilitation of the ankle sprain of the women volleyball athletes, junior category in the sports school «Ormani Arenado» Pinar del Río municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arceny Rodríguez Flores

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this work is about an outstanding topic for the physical activity nowadays, because sprain is an injury that affects most of the world sport population. Objetive: this research is aimed at proposing a set of physical exercises for the rehabilitation of the ankle sprain of the women volleyball athletes, junior category in the Sports school «Ormani Arenado» Pinar del Río municipality. Material and methods: this study was started after a survey applied to diagnose the current situation of these athletes, related to indicators such as the injury behavior, training participation, among other items. Afterwards, it was specified the theoretical backgrounds of this kind of injury. It was applied research methods; within the theoretical they are found the historical, the logical, the synthetical and the inductive-deductive. Within the theoretical method it is included the survey, the observation and as the mathematical-statistical it was used the descriptive statistics for the processing of data. Results: finally, it was shown some ways to rehabilitate athletes from the ankle sprain in the team under study, achieving a short-term reinsertion of athletes to the daily training sessions. Conclusions: the selected set of exercises for athletes, allows for proper rehabilitation, shortening the rehabilitation time and achieving faster incorporation to their daily workouts.

  11. Coping with the Stress of Athletic Injury: How Coaches Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler

    2015-01-01

    Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…

  12. Performance and physiological effects of different descending strategies for cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Phil W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p  .05). Importantly, pedalling did not invoke a performance benefit (p > .05) on the descent used in this study. Significantly greater heart rate and oxygen uptake (both p bike athletes focus on skills to increase descending speed without the addition of pedalling, and that equipment be used to decrease vibrations nearer to those seen on the road.

  13. A Corporate Pitch for Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The challenge of funding new athletic programs with no additional tax revenue forced a Colorado Springs school district to supplement existing funding arrangements (participation fees, gate admissions, and team fundraising) with a new income source--a lucrative Coca-Cola contract. This article explains how to negotiate (and justify) favorable…

  14. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  15. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  16. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  17. Implementing US GDP in Chained Prices for Cross-country GDP Growth and Sectoral Comparisons: Application to Selected ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumagan, Jesus C.

    2008-01-01

    GDP in constant prices of ASEAN countries suffers from substitution bias by ignoring relative price changes and makes GDP growth and shares dependent on the base year. These analytical deficiencies led the US since the mid-1990s to convert GDP from constant to chained prices. Thus, cross-country comparisons in constant prices are analytically shaky even with the same base year. Therefore, this paper implements US GDP in chained prices in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand to allev...

  18. Assessment of ventilatory thresholds from heart rate variability in five incremental treadmill tests in cross country skiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendia Iztueta, Ibai

    2014-01-01

    Incremental treadmill tests are widely used in the field of exercise physiology for the assessment of Ventilatory Thresholds for clinical and sport oriented issues. The assessment of Ventilatory Thresholds (VTs) from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity because it is a non-invasive and economical method. Nevertheless, this has not been used in Cross Country (XC) Skiing, an endurance sport where the knowledge of VTs holds special importance. The ...

  19. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larive, J.F.

    2008-08-01

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

  20. Analysis of classical time-trial performance and technique-specific physiological determinants in elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Sandbakk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP and diagonal (DIA techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r=0.98 and flat (r=0.91 sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p<0.05. Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p<0.001. Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r=0.66-0.78, with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p<0.05. Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  1. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  2. Velocity distribution of women's 30-km cross-country skiing during Olympic Games from 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Wlodzimierz S; Dancewicz-Nosko, Dorota; Giovanis, Vasilios

    2017-12-01

    Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi). At every race two 15 km or three 10 km loops of the same vertical profile were taken into account. The competitors were divided onto: A - winners, B - medallists, C - competitors who obtained places 4 to 10 at the finish line (medium runners), D - competitors who obtained places 11 to 30 at the finish line (poor runners). Velocity data presented on the web pages of several institutions were utilized. The competitors had their velocity distributed in a manner with usually diminishing values. While comparing velocity of sequential loops with the mean velocity the difference for the poor runners reached the value of almost 6 %, which was too high. There was significant (usually negative) correlation coefficient between values of velocity deviation for the first and second loops and the mean value of velocity for the entire distance for the better runners and mixed, i.e. positive and negative values for the poorer runners. It was postulated investigations of velocity distribution should be introduced in coaching in order to inform competitors about their running. This advise is especially important for the poorer runners. Up to now cross country skiers run for themselves. It should be discussed whether the tactics used by road and track runners, i.e. running with pace makers, can be introduced in cross country skiing. Also the use of a drone during training can be used in order to maintain proper pace.

  3. Biomechanical comparison of the double-push technique and the conventional skate skiing technique in cross-country sprint skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) adapt the "double-push" technique from inline skating to cross-country skiing; (2) compare this new skiing technique with the conventional skate skiing cross-country technique; and (3) test the hypothesis that the double-push technique improves skiing speed in a short sprint. 13 elite skiers performed maximum-speed sprints over 100 m using the double-push skate skiing technique and using the conventional "V2" skate skiing technique. Pole and plantar forces, knee angle, cycle characteristics, and electromyography of nine lower body muscles were analysed. We found that the double-push technique could be successfully transferred to cross-country skiing, and that this new technique is faster than the conventional skate skiing technique. The double-push technique was 2.9 +/- 2.2% faster (P push technique had a longer cycle length and a lower cycle rate, and it was characterized by higher muscle activity, higher knee extension amplitudes and velocities, and higher peak foot forces, especially in the first phase of the push-off. Also, the foot was more loaded laterally in the double-push technique than in the conventional skate skiing technique.

  4. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%-4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.

  5. Comparison of Mental Health Components among Athlete and Non-athlete Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic

  6. Athletics for All: Providing Opportunities for Students of All Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…

  7. Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poświata Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.

  8. Gender differences in sport injury risk and types of inju-ries: a retrospective twelve-month study on cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristolainen, Leena; Heinonen, Ari; Waller, Benjamin; Kujala, Urho M; Kettunen, Jyrki A

    2009-01-01

    This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 26.4, p difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training. Key pointsOnly a few sport injury studies have compared in-jury rates between the sexesOverall gender-related risk for acute and overuse injuries in top-level athletes between the sexes was smallSome gender differences in the specific anatomical locations of injuries as well as in specific injuries in sports were foundSome of these differences seem to be explained by the differences in the amount of training.

  9. Parental Engagement Strategies in Greek and Nigerian Preschool Settings: Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Ekine, Adefunke

    2017-01-01

    Acknowledging the fact that parental engagement is more beneficial during early childhood compared to other developmental stages many countries have institutionalised parental engagement. In Nigeria, the government has taken initiatives in order to involve parents in their child's development by encouraging the establishment of School Management…

  10. Sports injuries in Finnish elite cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Ristolainen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    In sports with different exercise-loading characteristics, acute and overuse injury profiles and gender differences in injuries were investigated. In addition, trainingrelated risk factors for overuse injuries in endurance athletes were studied. This twelve-month retrospective questionnaire study comprised Finnish elite crosscountry skiers (n=149), swimmers (n=154), long-distance runners (n=143) and soccer players (n=128) aged 15–35 years. Questionnaires were sent to the athlet...

  11. Surveillance of Physician-Diagnosed Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Consistent With Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) among Nebraska High School Athletes, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide surveillance…

  12. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The place and importance of physical education in educational system is well known. Many researches have been done with the goal to determine influence of physical education on students. However, keep in mind that many of those researches had shown that women are generally not so interested in sports and that they are less included in physical activities (especially some forms of it, we have focused our work at possibilities of improvement of motoric abilities of girls inside chosen subject – sport for athletes, which is being conveyed in 8th grade with two classes per week, and chosen sport was basketball. Our sample consisted of 67 girls (37 in experimental and 30 in control group. Level of motoric abilities has been tracked by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group improved levels of abilities in each test at final measuring. However, keep in mind that girls in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the following tests: horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, horizontal aiming and standing on one leg with eyes closed, we have compared by ANOVA measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are statistically significant differences between groups in left hand basketball dribbling test, pull-through and jump-over tests, horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, standing on one leg with eyes closed, vertical jump – Sargent test, basketball throwing from chest from sitting position. Therefore, we can finally conclude that conveyed basketball programme had completely positive impact at motoric abilities of girls, as we expected

  13. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  14. Winter sports athletes: long-term effects of cold air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2012-05-01

    Athletes such as skaters and skiers inhale large volumes of cold air during exercise and shift from nasal to mouth breathing. Endurance athletes, like cross-country skiers, perform at 80% or more of their maximal oxygen consumption and have minute ventilations in excess of 100 l/min. Cold air is always dry, and endurance exercise results in loss of water and heat from the lower respiratory tract. In addition, athletes can be exposed to indoor and outdoor pollutants during the competitive season and during all-year training. Hyperpnoea with cold dry air represents a significant environmental stress to the airways. Winter athletes have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine and hyperpnoea. The acute effects of exercise in cold air are neutrophil influx as demonstrated in lavage fluid and airway epithelial damage as demonstrated by bronchoscopy. Upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been observed in horses. Chronic endurance training damages the epithelium of the small airways in mice. Airway inflammation has been observed on bronchoscopy of cross-country skiers and in dogs after a 1100-mile endurance race in Alaska. Neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation with remodelling is present in bronchial biopsies from skiers. Repeated peripheral airway hyperpnoea with dry air causes inflammation and remodelling in dogs. As it is currently unknown if these airway changes are reversible upon cessation of exposure, preventive measures to diminish exposure of the lower airways to cold air should be instituted by all winter sports athletes.

  15. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E. Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Peter Scheiber, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS, and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2, total energy expenditure (EE, heart rate (HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs.

  16. The Question of Queue: Implications for -Best Practice- in Cross-country Transport of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Standard Contract' authorized by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Section 302(a)) provides that priority for acceptance of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shall be based on the date of its discharge from civilian nuclear reactors. Through 2007, about 2,100 discharges of about 58,000 metric tons have created a priority ranking (or 'queue') for US DOE spent fuel acceptance and transport. Since 1982, consideration of the task of large-scale, cross-country SNF transport (by the National Academies and others) has led to several recommendations for 'best practice' in such an unprecedented campaign. Many of these recommendations, however, are inconsistent with the acceptance priority established by the Standard Contract, and in fact cannot be implemented under its provisions. This paper considers the SNF acceptance rankings established by the Standard Contract, and the barrier these place on best practice cross-country transport of the nation's inventory of SNF. Using a series of case studies, the paper explores the challenge of best practice transport from selected shipment origins under current arrangements. The case studies support preliminary conclusions regarding the inconsistency between best practice SNF transport and the Standard Contract acceptance queue, with reference to particular origins sites and their utility owners. The paper concludes with a suggestion for resolving the inconsistencies, and recommended next steps in the inquiry. (authors)

  17. The impact of uphill cycling and bicycle suspension on downhill performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Philip W; Miller, Matthew C; Stannard, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Non-propulsive work demand has been linked to reduced energetic economy of cross-country mountain biking. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical, physiological and performance differences and observe economy while riding a downhill section of a cross-country course prior to and following the metabolic "load" of a climb at race pace under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension) expected to alter vibration damping mechanics. Participants completed 1 lap of the track incorporating the same downhill section twice, under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension). Performance was determined by time to complete overall lap and specific terrain sections. Power, cadence, heart rate and oxygen consumption were sampled and logged every second while triaxial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz) to quantify vibration. No differences between performance times (P = 0.65) or power outputs (P = 0.61) were observed while physiological demand of loaded downhill riding was significantly greater (P  0.05) measures. This study showed minimal advantage of a full suspension bike in our trial, with further investigations over a full race distance warranted.

  18. A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

  19. Quantification of brake data acquired with a brake power meter during simulated cross-country mountain bike racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2018-01-17

    There is currently a dearth of information describing cycling performance outside of propulsive and physiological variables. The aim of the present study was to utilise a brake power meter to quantify braking during a multi-lap cross-country mountain bike time trial and to determine how braking affects performance. A significant negative association was determined between lap time and brake power (800.8 ± 216.4 W, mean ± SD; r = -0.446; p  0.05) which was attributed to decreased brake work (p < 0.05) and brake time (p < 0.05) in both the front and rear brakes by the final lap. A multiple regression model incorporating braking and propulsion was able to explain more of the variance in lap time (r 2  = 0.935) than propulsion alone (r 2  = 0.826). The present study highlights that riders' braking contributes to mountain bike performance. As riders repeat a cross-country mountain bike track, they are able to change braking, which in turn can counterbalance a reduction in power output. Further research is required to understand braking better.

  20. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević; Dejan Milenković

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functi...

  1. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  2. Why Sleep Matters-The Economic Costs of Insufficient Sleep: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Marco; Stepanek, Martin; Taylor, Jirka; Troxel, Wendy M; van Stolk, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States has declared insufficient sleep a "public health problem." Indeed, according to a recent CDC study, more than a third of American adults are not getting enough sleep on a regular basis. However, insufficient sleep is not exclusively a US problem, and equally concerns other industrialised countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, or Canada. According to some evidence, the proportion of people sleeping less than the recommended hours of sleep is rising and associated with lifestyle factors related to a modern 24/7 society, such as psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of physical activity and excessive electronic media use, among others. This is alarming as insufficient sleep has been found to be associated with a range of negative health and social outcomes, including success at school and in the labour market. Over the last few decades, for example, there has been growing evidence suggesting a strong association between short sleep duration and elevated mortality risks. Given the potential adverse effects of insufficient sleep on health, well-being and productivity, the consequences of sleep-deprivation have far-reaching economic consequences. Hence, in order to raise awareness of the scale of insufficient sleep as a public-health issue, comparative quantitative figures need to be provided for policy- and decision-makers, as well as recommendations and potential solutions that can help tackling the problem.

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Håvard Østerås,1 Kirsti Krohn Garnæs,2 Liv Berit Augestad3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16, both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1% responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors (77.6%, and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors (20.3%, and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries, calf (12.2%, ankle/foot (10.8%, lower back (10.8%, and thigh (10.1%. The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. Keywords: injuries, cross-country skiing, skating

  4. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  5. Study of some significant parameters about the dynamic of the arms to evaluate the vertical jump in volleyball athletes, category 13-15 from the sport school Ormani Arenado Llonch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Henríquez Hernández

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the yield in the vertical jump for many scientists, trainers and athletes has been and it continues being a polemic objective in the training for the volleyball players keeping in mind the participation that has this task motorboat in question, without doubts the Cuban School of Volleyball keeping in mind the characteristics of our players it has potentialized the saltabilidad of the jugadoras there is inclination of the years for it becomes it necessary to study and to evaluate the capacity miodinámica of the musculature of the inferior members to give continuity to this problem takes like sample in our study the athletes of the category 13-15 years of the EIDE of Pinegrove of the River to which you/they were carried out a traverse study in the stage of general physical preparation where you study the restored miodinámica of the inferior members in different laboratory test Squat Jump and I jump with against movements starting from a contact doormat built in Pinegrove of the River, field test like long jump without impulse, test of Power of Lewis, test of relative force for inferior members, being significant securities of correlation. Starting from the results individual suggestions were offered for the training of this athletes.

  6. The Effects of a 10-day Altitude Training Camp at 1828 Meters on Varsity Cross-Country Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Sebastian R; Newhouse, Ian; Thompson, David S; Johnson, Vineet B K

    2017-01-01

    Altitude training has been shown to alter blood lactate (BL) levels due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study aims to estimate the impact of altitude training on BL changes immediately following an incremental treadmill test and during recovery before and after 10-day altitude training at approximately 1828 meters. Eight varsity cross-country runners performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT), pre and post-altitude training. Resting and post-warm-up BL values were recorded. During ITT, heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and time to exhaustion were monitored. BL was also measured post-ITT at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 minutes. The average of all BL values was higher following altitude intervention (8.8 ± 4.6 mmol/L) compared to pre-intervention (7.4 ± 3.3 mmol/L). These differences were statistically significant ( t (6) = -2.40, p = .026). BL immediately (0 minutes) after the ITT was higher following the altitude intervention (13.6 ± 3.6 mmol/L) compared to pre-intervention (9.7 ± 3.8 mmol/L) and was statistically significant ( t (7) = -3.30, p = .006). Average HR during the ITT was lower following the altitude intervention (176.9 ± 11.1 bpm) compared to pre (187 ± 9.5 bpm), these differences were statistically significant ( t (28)= 18.07, p= altitude intervention at 1828 meters may benefit varsity cross-country runners. The higher post-exercise BL may be attributed to more anaerobic contributions. Lower HR may suggest a larger stroke volume and/or more efficient O2 carrying capacity.

  7. The effectiveness of front fork systems at damping accelerations during isolated aspects specific to cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-11-01

    Cross-country mountain bike suspension reportedly enhances comfort and performance through reduced vibration and impact exposure. This study analysed the effectiveness of three different front fork systems at damping accelerations during the crossing of three isolated obstacles (stairs, drop, and root). One participant completed three trials on six separate occasions in a randomised order using rigid, air-sprung, and carbon leaf-sprung forks. Performance was determined by time to cross obstacles, while triaxial accelerometers quantified impact exposure and damping response. Results identified significant main effect of fork type for performance time (p < 0.05). The air-sprung and leaf-sprung forks were significantly slower than the rigid forks for the stairs (p < 0.05), while air-sprung suspension was slower than the rigid for the root protocol (p < 0.05). There were no differences for the drop protocol (p < 0.05). Rigid forks reduced overall exposure (p < 0.05), specifically at the handlebars for the stairs and drop trials. More detailed analysis presented smaller vertical accelerations at the handlebar for air-sprung and leaf-sprung forks on the stairs (p < 0.05), and drop (p < 0.05) but not the root. As such, it appears that the suspension systems tested were ineffective at reducing overall impact exposure at the handlebar during isolated aspects of cross-country terrain features which may be influenced to a larger extent by rider technique.

  8. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  9. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  10. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  11. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrocardiographic findings in athletes: the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and conduction defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdeau, J B; Blier, L; Turcotte, H; O'Hara, G; Boulet, L P

    2001-06-01

    To determine whether there are electrocardiographic differences or distinctive abnormalities between athletes and sedentary subjects, and to verify the relationship between vagal activity measured by heart rate variability (SD of all normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]) and possible electrocardiographic abnormalities. Resting electrocardiograms and heart rate variability measurements were performed separately during a single visit on 100 athletes and 50 nonathlete control subjects aged 18 to 55 years. The athletes were from the following various sports disciplines: long-distance running, mountain biking, cross-country skiing, biathlon, speed skating, swimming and triathlon. There were significantly longer RR intervals, PR intervals and QT intervals in athletes than in control subjects (all P0.05). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and incomplete right bundle branch block (IRBBB) was 10% and 7%, respectively, in athletes, but these conditions were absent in control subjects; among athletes, 2% presented with both conditions. LVH and IRBBB were more common among long-distance runners (six of 14 and four of 14, respectively) and could be attributed to normal, long term adaptation to intense, repeated exercise. LVH was related to age (P=0.04), whereas IRBBB was influenced by the number of years of training in the respective sports discipline (P=0.03). The mean SDNN value was significantly more elevated in athletes (P=0.0001), reflecting a higher parasympathetic tone than in sedentary control subjects. However, there was no relationship between vagal activity and LVH or IRBBB (both P>0.05).

  13. HIV/AIDS health care challenges for cross- country migrants in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphanchaimat R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapeepong Suphanchaimat,1,2 Angkana Sommanustweechai,1 Chiraporn Khitdee,1 Chompoonut Thaichinda,1 Kanang Kantamaturapoj,3 Pattara Leelahavarong,4 Pensom Jumriangrit,1 Thitikorn Topothai,1 Thunthita Wisaijohn,1 Weerasak Putthasri1 1International Health Policy Program (IHPP, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Banphai Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; 4Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand Introduction: HIV/AIDS has been one of the world's most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results: Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in

  14. Intramyocellular lipids of muscle type in athletes of different sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinao Nakagawa,1 Masaaki Hattori2 1Human Performance Lab, Otaru University, Otaru, Hokkaido, 2Department of Community Development, Tokai University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS to examine quantitative differences in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL contents in various muscle types at rest for individual athletes from different sport disciplines. Five groups consisting of sprinters, alpine skiers, cross-country skiers, endurance runners and untrained healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. Data were acquired using 1H-MRS from the tibialis anterior (TA, medial gastrocnemius (MG and soleus (SOL muscles. No significant difference was found in the cross-sectional area (CSA of the TA, MG and SOL muscles, whereas the CSA of subcutaneous fat was significantly lower (p<0.01 for each athlete group compared with untrained subjects. In both TA and MG, IMCL concentrations in endurance runners were significantly higher than those of alpine skiers (p<0.01, sprinters (p<0.01 and untrained subjects (p<0.05. The IMCL concentrations in TA and MG of cross-country skiers were significantly higher than those of alpine skiers (p<0.05 and sprinters (TA, p<0.01; MG, p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the IMCL concentrations of TA and MG between alpine skiers or sprinters and untrained subjects. The IMCL concentration in SOL was significantly greater in endurance runners and showed no difference in cross-country skiers compared with that in alpine skiers and sprinters. There was no significant difference in the IMCL concentration of SOL between athletes and untrained subjects. These results suggest that differences in IMCL contents stored in various muscle types for athletes at rest are associated with the muscle cellular adaptation for differences in the type of exercise training and/or muscle fiber composition. Keywords: IMCL, alpine ski, skeletal muscle, sports

  15. The Effect of Creatin and Carnitine Supplementation on 5 kmClassic and 10 km Free Styles Race Performance of Cross Country Skiers

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru ÇETİN

    2004-01-01

    This İnvestigation examined the effect of creatin and carnitine supplementation on 5 km classic and 10 km free styles race performance of competitive cross country skiers.Eighteen highly trained (12 male and 6 female) cross country skiers aged 13-16 years seperated into 3 equal groups. All groups participated in the 5 km classic and 10 km free races styles in Erciyes at 2200m altitude ski center before the carnitine and creatine loading. After the race subjects were seperated into carnitine, ...

  16. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates.

  17. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  18. A Comparison of the Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Leadership Skills and Citizenship Traits of JROTC, Student Athletes, and Other Students in an Urban High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Bonds, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three groups: JROTC students, student athletes, and other students, to determine if there were differences in academic achievement. Gaining an understanding of the necessary skills required to become academically successful and make healthy life choices, could provide educators working within an urban…

  19. Gender Issues and Equity in Athletic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Albert S.; Miller, Michael T.; Newman, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Although discrimination is no longer routinely accepted in education, incidents of gender-based discrimination and harassment are being reported in record numbers. Schools must ensure equality of female athletic facilities; be aware of oral-contract, tort, and sexual harassment pitfalls; and meet Title IX's three-pronged compliance test. Contains…

  20. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Matthew D; Skaggs, David L; Bishop, Gregory A; Pace, J Lee; Ibrahim, David A; Wren, Tishya A L; Barzdukas, Audrius

    2014-03-01

    Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students' responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school's athletic department. Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average Sleep deprivation and increasing grade in school appear to be associated with injuries in an adolescent athletic population. Encouraging young athletes to get optimal amounts of sleep may help protect them against athletic injuries. Level III.

  1. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  2. Athletes at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  3. Performance of oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe. Statistical summary of reported spillages: 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, A.; Baradat, Y.

    1979-01-01

    CONCAWE's annual report on oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe shows that in 1978 the pipeline network reached a combined length of 18,500 kilometres and transported 594 million cubic metres of crude oil and refined products. The gross spillage amounted to 3639 m/sup 3/, that is 0.000613 percent or about 6.1 parts per million of the total quantity transported. The net spillage loss was 1,377 m/sup 3/ since 2,262 m/sup 3/ were recovered at site. There were 15 spillage incidents reported during 1978, all of which were directly related to pipelines (none to pump-stations). In 4 incidents the oil spilled was completely recovered, and in 10 cases clean-up was completed within one week of the discovery of the spillage. No contamination of potable water sources was reported. The causes of the spillages are attributed to corrosion (7 incidents), third party activities (4), mechanical failure (3) and natural hazards, i.e. excessive rainfall (1). The report also gives a comparison for the five-year period 1974 to 1978.

  4. Performance of oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe. Statistical summary of reported spillages, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, A.; Baradat, Y.

    1979-01-01

    CONCAW's annual report on oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe shows that in 1978 the pipeline network reached a combined length of 18,500 kilometers and transported 594 million cubic meters of crude oil and refined products. The gross spillage amounted to 3639 m/sup 3/, that is 0.000613% or about 6.1 ppM of the total quantity transported. The new spillage loss was 1377 m/sup 3/ since 2262 m/sup 3/ were recovered at site. There were 15 spillage incidents reported during 1978, all of which were directly related to pipelines (none to pump-stations). In 4 incidents the oil spilled was completely recovered, and in 10 cases clean-up was completed within one week of the discovery of the spillage. No contamination of potable water sources was reported. The causes of the spillages are attributed to corrosion (7 incidents), third party activities (4), mechanical failure (3) and natural hazards, i.e., excessive rainfall (1). The report also gives a comparison for the five-year period 1974-1978.

  5. Performance of oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe, statistical summary of reported spillages - 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, A.; Baradat, Y.

    CONCAWE's annual report on oil industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe shows that in 1978 the pipeline network reached a combined length of 18,500 kilometers and transported 594 million cubic meters of crude oil and refined products. The gross spillage amounted to 3639 cu. m, that is 0.000613 per cent or about 6.1 parts per million of the total quantity transported. The net spillage loss was 1,377 cu. m since 2,262 cu. m were recovered at site. There were 15 spillage incidents reported during 1978, all of which were directly related to pipelines (none to pump-stations). In 4 incidents the oil spilled was completely recovered, and in 10 cases clean-up was completed within one week of the discovery of the spillage. No contamination of potable water sources was reported. The causes of the spillages are attributed to corrosion (7 incidents), third party activities (4), mechanical failure (3) and natural hazards, i.e. excessive rainfall (1). The report also gives a comparison for the five-year period 1974-1978. (Copyright (c) CONCAWE 1979.)

  6. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability. PMID:28634428

  7. Influence of wheel size on muscle activity and tri-axial accelerations during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel diameters on muscle activity and whether larger diameter wheels attenuate muscle vibrations during cross-country riding. Nine male competitive mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study. Riders performed one lap at race pace on 26, 27.5 and 29 inch wheeled mountain bikes. sEMG and acceleration (RMS) were recorded for the full lap and during ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. No significant main effects were found by wheel size for each of the four muscle groups for sEMG or acceleration during the full lap and for ascent and descent (P > .05). When data were analysed between muscle groups, significant differences were found between biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P biking. However, more activity was observed in the biceps brachii during 26 inch wheel descending. This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre the front wheel over obstacles.

  8. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2009 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Uhlig, F.

    2011-05-15

    CONCAWE has collected 39 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 870 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2009 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 39 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 5 spillage incidents were reported in 2009, corresponding to 0.14 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.28 and the long-term running average of 0.53, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 4 incidents were due to mechanical failure and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

  9. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2007 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    CONCAWE has collected 37 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At over 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2007 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 37 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by intelligence pigs is also reported. 9 spillage incidents were reported in 2007, corresponding to 0.28 spillages per 1000 km of line, just under the 5-year average and well below the long-term running average of 0.55, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 1 incident was due to mechanical failure, 2 incidents to corrosion and 6 were connected to third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities is the main cause of spillage incidents.

  10. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2010 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Uhlig, F.

    2011-12-01

    CONCAWE has collected 40 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2010 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 40 years is analysed in various ways, including gross and net spillage volumes, and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in-line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 4 spillage incidents were reported in 2010, corresponding to 0.12 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.25 and the long-term running average of 0.52, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid-70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 2 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 to external corrosion, and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

  11. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2010 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Uhlig, F.

    2011-12-15

    CONCAWE has collected 40 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2010 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 40 years is analysed in various ways, including gross and net spillage volumes, and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in-line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 4 spillage incidents were reported in 2010, corresponding to 0.12 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.25 and the long-term running average of 0.52, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid-70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 2 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 to external corrosion, and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

  12. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2007 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    CONCAWE has collected 37 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At over 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2007 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 37 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by intelligence pigs is also reported. 9 spillage incidents were reported in 2007, corresponding to 0.28 spillages per 1000 km of line, just under the 5-year average and well below the long-term running average of 0.55, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 1 incident was due to mechanical failure, 2 incidents to corrosion and 6 were connected to third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities is the main cause of spillage incidents.

  13. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2008 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Uhlig, F.

    2010-06-15

    CONCAWE has collected 38 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At over 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 780 million m{sup 3} per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2008 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 38 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 12 spillage incidents were reported in 2008, corresponding to 0.34 spillages per 1000 km of line, somewhat above the 5-year average of 0.28 but well below the long-term running average of 0.54, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 7 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 incident to corrosion and 4 were connected to third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

  14. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2009 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Uhlig, F.

    2011-05-01

    CONCAWE has collected 39 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 870 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2009 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 39 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 5 spillage incidents were reported in 2009, corresponding to 0.14 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.28 and the long-term running average of 0.53, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 4 incidents were due to mechanical failure and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

  15. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement microdata, this paper estimates…

  16. Factors associated with dying at the place of wish: a cross-country comparison of cancer patients with the EURO SENTI-MELC Study 2009-2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, W.; Miccinesi, G.; Beccaro, M.; Vanthomme, K.; Donker, G.A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Alonso, T.V.A.V; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den

    2013-01-01

    Aims: 1) To study demographic and clinical factors associated with dying at a preferred place for cancer patients 2) To study cross-country differences in the intensity of factors Methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2009-2010 via representative nationwide networks of general

  17. Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Japanese Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Muroya, Miyuki; Shiina, Masami

    2015-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese collegiate athletes, with a focus on their disruption of athletic performance. Cross-sectional study. A university in Osaka, the largest city in western Japan. 232 female collegiate athletes. Premenstrual symptoms and social activities. The prevalence of each premenstrual symptom was high. The prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD was 8.6% and 2.9%, respectively, the same as in general high school students. The athletic performance of 44.3% of athletes was found to suffer in a game or in practice. "Elite athletes" (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 1.22-120.0), "Difficulty concentrating" (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.05-10.6), and "Fatigue or lack of energy" (OR 5.92, 95% CI: 1.32-34.5) increased the risk of poor athletic performance. This study showed that premenstrual symptoms affect not only the daily activities but also the athletic performance of collegiate athletes. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  19. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  20. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  1. Is inequality at the heart of it? Cross-country associations of income inequality with cardiovascular diseases and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hoorn, Stephen Vander; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-04-01

    Despite a number of cross-national studies that have examined the associations between income inequality and broad health outcomes such as life expectancy and all-cause mortality, investigations of the cross-country relations between income inequality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity, mortality, and risk factors are sparse. We analyzed the cross-national relations between income inequality and age-standardized mean body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP), obesity prevalence, smoking impact ratio (SIR), and age-standardized and age-specific disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, controlling for multiple country-level factors and specifying 5- to 10-year lag periods. In multivariable analyses primarily limited to industrialized countries, countries in the middle and highest (vs. lowest) tertiles of income inequality had higher absolute age-standardized obesity prevalences in both sexes. Higher income inequality was also related to higher mean SBP in both sexes, and higher SIR in women. In analyses of larger sets of countries with available data, positive associations were observed between higher income inequality and mean BMI, obesity prevalence, and CHD DALYs and mortality rates. Associations with stroke outcomes were inverse, yet became positive with the inclusion of eastern bloc and other countries in recent economic/political transition. China was also identified to be an influential data point, with the positive associations with stroke mortality rates becoming attenuated with its inclusion. Overall, our findings are compatible with harmful effects of income inequality at the national scale on CVD morbidity, mortality, and selected risk factors, particularly BMI/obesity. Future studies should consider income inequality as an independent contributor to variations in CVD burden globally.

  2. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Mendia-Iztueta

    Full Text Available The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV thresholds (HRVTs as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP, diagonal striding (DS, Nordic walking (NW, V1 skating (V1, and V2 skating (V2.Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1 was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2 was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD and standard deviation (SD of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA. The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  3. Automatic Classification of the Sub-Techniques (Gears Used in Cross-Country Ski Skating Employing a Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for classification of cross-country (XC ski-skating gears (G using Smartphone accelerometer data. Eleven XC skiers (seven men, four women with regional-to-international levels of performance carried out roller skiing trials on a treadmill using fixed gears (G2left, G2right, G3, G4left, G4right and a 950-m trial using different speeds and inclines, applying gears and sides as they normally would. Gear classification by the Smartphone (on the chest and based on video recordings were compared. Formachine-learning, a collective database was compared to individual data. The Smartphone application identified the trials with fixed gears correctly in all cases. In the 950-m trial, participants executed 140 ± 22 cycles as assessed by video analysis, with the automatic Smartphone application giving a similar value. Based on collective data, gears were identified correctly 86.0% ± 8.9% of the time, a value that rose to 90.3% ± 4.1% (P < 0.01 with machine learning from individual data. Classification was most often incorrect during transition between gears, especially to or from G3. Identification was most often correct for skiers who made relatively few transitions between gears. The accuracy of the automatic procedure for identifying G2left, G2right, G3, G4left and G4right was 96%, 90%, 81%, 88% and 94%, respectively. The algorithm identified gears correctly 100% of the time when a single gear was used and 90% of the time when different gears were employed during a variable protocol. This algorithm could be improved with respect to identification of transitions between gears or the side employed within a given gear.

  4. Alterations in aerobic energy expenditure and neuromuscular function during a simulated cross-country skiathlon with the skating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Nicolas; Mourot, Laurent; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-04-01

    Here, we tested the hypothesis that aerobic energy expenditure (AEE) is higher during a simulated 6-km (2 loops of 3-km each) "skiathlon" than during skating only on a treadmill and attempted to link any such increase to biomechanical and neuromuscular responses. Six elite male cross-country skiers performed two pre-testing time-trials (TT) to determine their best performances and to choose an appropriate submaximal speed for collection of physiological, biomechanical and neuromuscular data during two experimental sessions (exp). Each skier used, in randomized order, either the classical (CL) or skating technique (SK) for the first 3-km loop, followed by transition to the skating technique for the second 3-km loop. Respiratory parameters were recorded continuously. The EMG activity of the triceps brachii (TBr) and vastus lateralis (VLa) muscles during isometric contractions performed when the skiers were stationary (i.e., just before the first loop, during the transition, and after the second loop); their corresponding activity during dynamic contractions; and pole and plantar forces during the second loop were recorded. During the second 3-km of the TT, skating speed was significantly higher for the SK-SK than CL-SK. During this second loop, AEE was also higher (+1.5%) for CL-SKexp than SK-SKexp, in association with higher VLa EMG activity during both isometric and dynamic contractions, despite no differences in plantar or pole forces, poling times or cycle rates. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, during a skiathlon, the transition between the sections of classical skiing and skating alters skating performance (i.e., skiing speed), AEE and neuromuscular function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Automatic Classification of the Sub-Techniques (Gears) Used in Cross-Country Ski Skating Employing a Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Holst, Anders; Jonasson, Arndt; Andersson, Erik; Wunsch, Tobias; Norström, Christer; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for classification of cross-country (XC) ski-skating gears (G) using Smartphone accelerometer data. Eleven XC skiers (seven men, four women) with regional-to-international levels of performance carried out roller skiing trials on a treadmill using fixed gears (G2left, G2right, G3, G4left, G4right) and a 950-m trial using different speeds and inclines, applying gears and sides as they normally would. Gear classification by the Smartphone (on the chest) and based on video recordings were compared. Formachine-learning, a collective database was compared to individual data. The Smartphone application identified the trials with fixed gears correctly in all cases. In the 950-m trial, participants executed 140 ± 22 cycles as assessed by video analysis, with the automatic Smartphone application giving a similar value. Based on collective data, gears were identified correctly 86.0% ± 8.9% of the time, a value that rose to 90.3% ± 4.1% (P < 0.01) with machine learning from individual data. Classification was most often incorrect during transition between gears, especially to or from G3. Identification was most often correct for skiers who made relatively few transitions between gears. The accuracy of the automatic procedure for identifying G2left, G2right, G3, G4left and G4right was 96%, 90%, 81%, 88% and 94%, respectively. The algorithm identified gears correctly 100% of the time when a single gear was used and 90% of the time when different gears were employed during a variable protocol. This algorithm could be improved with respect to identification of transitions between gears or the side employed within a given gear. PMID:25365459

  6. Social Psychological Concomitants of Adolescents' Role Identities as Scholars and Athletes: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes attitudinal and behavioral correlates of the following four categories of high school students from the High School and Beyond study: (1) scholar-athletes; (2) pure scholars; (3) pure athletes; and (4) nonscholar-nonathletes. Findings are discussed in terms of self-esteem, internal locus of control, and extracurricular involvement. (SLD)

  7. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  8. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  9. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  10. Athletic coaches as violence prevention advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Stetkevich, Nicholas; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is a significant public health problem. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based ARA prevention program that trains coaches to deliver violence prevention messages to male athletes. Assessing acceptability and impact of CBIM on coaches may inform prevention efforts that involve these important adults in health promotion among youth. As part of a two-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial of CBIM in 16 high schools in Northern California, coaches completed baseline and postseason surveys (n = 176) to assess their attitudes and confidence delivering the program. Coaches in the intervention arm also participated in interviews (n = 36) that explored program acceptability, feasibility, and impact. Relative to controls, intervention coaches showed increases in confidence intervening when witnessing abusive behaviors among their athletes, greater bystander intervention, and greater frequency of violence-related discussions with athletes and other coaches. Coaches reported the program was easy to implement and valuable for their athletes. Findings illustrate the value of exploring attitudinal and behavioral changes among ARA prevention implementers, and suggest that coaches can gain confidence and enact behaviors to discourage ARA among male athletes. Coaches found the program to be feasible and valuable, which suggests potential for long-term uptake and sustainability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Epidemiology of Stress Fractures in Collegiate Student-Athletes, 2004-2005 Through 2013-2014 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katherine H; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Roos, Karen G; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

      Stress fractures are injuries caused by cumulative, repetitive stress that leads to abnormal bone remodeling. Specific populations, including female athletes and endurance athletes, are at higher risk than the general athletic population. Whereas more than 460 000 individuals participate in collegiate athletics in the United States, no large study has been conducted to determine the incidence of stress fractures in collegiate athletes.   To assess the incidence of stress fractures in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and investigate rates and patterns overall and by sport.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   National Collegiate Athletic Association institutions.   National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes.   Data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program for the academic years 2004-2005 through 2013-2014. We calculated rates and rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).   A total of 671 stress fractures were reported over 11 778 145 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 5.70 per 100 000 AEs. The sports with the highest rates of stress fractures were women's cross-country ( 28.59/100  000 AEs), women's gymnastics ( 25.58/100  000 AEs), and women's outdoor track ( 22.26/100  000 AEs). Among sex-comparable sports (baseball/softball, basketball, cross-country, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, indoor track, and outdoor track), stress fracture rates were higher in women (9.13/100 000 AEs) than in men (4.44/100 000 AEs; RR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.71, 2.47). Overall, stress fracture rates for these NCAA athletes were higher in the preseason (7.30/100 000 AEs) than in the regular season (5.12/100 000 AEs; RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.67). The metatarsals (n = 254, 37.9%), tibia (n = 147, 21.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (n = 81, 12.1%) were the most common locations of injury. Overall, 21.5% (n = 144) of stress fractures were

  12. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p < 0.01), V7 (r = 0.70, p < 0.01), and VO2SUBDP (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). Faster skiers in sprint simulation had a higher absolute VO2 (L.min) (p < 0.05-0.01) during sprint heats, and higher anaerobic skiing power (VMAST, p < 0.05) and better anaerobic skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p < 0.05-0.001) than slower skiers. Faster skiers were also stronger in BP, with regard to both absolute (p < 0.01) and relative (p < 0.05) values. In addition, anaerobic characteristics seem to be of importance at the beginning of the XC skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  14. [Limits of cardiac functional adaptation in "top level" resistance athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carù, B; Righetti, G; Bossi, M; Gerosa, C; Gazzotti, G; Maranetto, D

    2001-02-01

    Sports activity, particularly when performed at high level, provokes cardiovascular adjustments depending on the type of sport and on the level of the load. We evaluated 15 athletes from the Italian national team during a non-agonistic period of cross country skiing, with non-invasive tests including exercise test, color Doppler echocardiography, Holter monitoring, physical examination and standard rest electrocardiogram. Physical examination, rest electrocardiogram, exercise testing and echocardiography were all within the range of the expected values for this type of subjects. Holter monitoring recorded during the periods of agonistic activity revealed significant hypokinetic arrhythmias such as severe bradycardia, pauses, I and II degree atrioventricular blocks, and complete atrioventricular block in 2 cases; these features were not observed on Holter monitoring recorded during the non-agonistic period. The perfect health status of subjects and their racing results may bring about physiological functional adjustments, but these observations suggest the need for a follow-up to evaluate possible pathologic outcomes.

  15. From which level of competition in clubs are adolescents at greater risk of injury compared with outside-of-clubs athletes? A school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiggi, Maxime; Rindler, Victoria; Griffet, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Sport practice is a key factor in a person's physical and mental health but, for adolescent athletes, some injuries lead to health problems in the long term. The literature provides multiple factors for understanding injury but does not give information about injury risk related to each level of play in a large sample of multisport athletes. This study investigates this relationship in 14- to 19-year-old adolescents. The survey on adolescents and health was conducted in classrooms of France, from February to March 2015. Only sports players were included in the analyses (n = 986). The levels of play were divided into five categories: outside of a club/no competition, club player/no competition, club player/local level, club player/state level and club player/national and higher level. A three-step binary logistic regression analysis with age, sex, type of sport, weekly hours of exposure, and level of play was used. During the past year, 48.1% of the adolescents were injured. Age and sex were not risk factors. The injury risk associated with the increases in level of play is higher than those related to the hours of exposure per week or the type of sport. In clubs, adolescents who do not compete or play at a local level showed no evidence of greater injury risk whereas state-level and national- and higher-level athletes were at greater risk than outside-of-club players (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.13-3.94 and OR = 3.89, 95%CI = 2.07-7.31, respectively). Adolescents who play sports in clubs are clearly more exposed to injury than those who play outside of a club, mainly from state level. Age and sex are not related to injury. Future epidemiological studies should control adolescents' level of play. Special attention should be accorded to the injury risk of athletes playing at these levels of competition.

  16. Abnormal hip physical examination findings in asymptomatic female soccer athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Devyani; Rho, Monica; Yemm, Ted; Fong, Kathryn; Brophy, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Examination of the hip provides information regarding risk for pre-arthritic hip disorders, knee injuries, and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to report a hip screening examination of asymptomatic female soccer athletes and to test the hypothesis that these findings vary by competition experience. Methods Asymptomatic females from a youth soccer club, a college, and a professional team were evaluated. Passive hip range of motion, hip abduction strength, and hip provocative tests were assessed. Data were compared for the grade/middle school, high school, college, and professional athletes. Results One hundred and seventy-two athletes with a mean age of 16.7 ± 5 years (range 10–30) participated. Professional athletes had less flexion (HF) for both hips (p hips as compared to all other groups (p hip abduction strength as compared to other groups (p hip tests were found in 22 % of all players and 36 % of the professionals. In professionals, a positive provocative test was associated with ipsilateral decreased HF (p = 0.04). Conclusion Asymptomatic elite female soccer athletes with the most competition experience had less bilateral hip flexion and preferred kicking leg IR than less-experienced athletes. Positive provocative hip tests were found in 22 % of athletes. Future studies are needed to show whether these findings link to risk for intra-articular hip or lumbar spine and knee disorders. Level of evidence III. PMID:24150125

  17. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  18. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bread and cereal, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Drink Up! It's important for young athletes to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, which can zap strength, energy, and coordination and ...

  19. The Athlete Within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Olympians to be memorialized as works of art in oil painting exhibition 0lympic medallists, having already reached the pinnacle of popular acclaim through their athletic feats as seen on TV screens world wide, are

  20. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  1. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  2. Comparisons of sediment losses from a newly constructed cross-country natural gas pipeline and an existing in-road pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Bridget M. Harrison; Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2014-01-01

    Sediment loads were measured for about one year from natural gas pipelines in two studies in north central West Virginia. One study involved a 1-year-old pipeline buried within the bed of a 25-year-old skid road, and the other involved a newly constructed cross-country pipeline. Both pipelines were the same diameter and were installed using similar trenching and...

  3. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Athletic Training Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G; Jones, James

    2006-01-01

    Context: Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education in order to provide evidence for its current use or as a pedagogic tool. Objective: To describe the prevalence of PAL in athletic training clinical education and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Design: Descriptive. Setting: “The Athletic Training Student Seminar” at the National Athletic Trainers' Association 2002 Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposia. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 138 entry-level male and female athletic training students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Students' perceptions regarding the prevalence and benefits of and preferences for PAL were measured using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey. The Survey is a self-report tool with 4 items regarding the prevalence of PAL and 7 items regarding perceived benefits and preferences. Results: A total of 66% of participants practiced a moderate to large amount of their clinical skills with other athletic training students. Sixty percent of students reported feeling less anxious when performing clinical skills on patients in front of other athletic training students than in front of their clinical instructors. Chi-square analysis revealed that 91% of students enrolled in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs–accredited athletic training education programs learned a minimal to small amount of clinical skills from their peers compared with 65% of students in Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training–candidacy schools (χ2 3 = 14.57, P < .01). Multiple analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between sex and academic level on several items regarding benefits and preferences. Conclusions: According to athletic training students, PAL is occurring in

  4. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  6. Promoting Athletic Participation for Students with Disabilities: Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Melissa; Ennis, Robin Parks; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2018-01-01

    Engaging in physical activity is important for school-age children, as it promotes a healthy and active lifestyle. However, barriers to participation in physical education and athletics often prevent students with disabilities from engaging in these important activities. There are several legal precedents that should be considered as schools seek…

  7. Use of oral creatine as an ergogenic aid for increased sports performance: perceptions of adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, T R; Eck, J C; Covington, L A; Murphy, R B; Williams, R; Knudtson, J

    2001-06-01

    Competitive athletes, including adolescents, seek ways to gain advantage over competitors. One ergogenic aid is creatine, a naturally occurring nitrogen compound found primarily in skeletal muscle. Increasing creatine levels may prolong skeletal muscle activity, enhancing work output. A questionnaire assessing awareness and use of creatine supplementation was completed by 674 athletes from 11 high schools. Data were statistically analyzed to determine variation among groups. Of those surveyed, 75% had knowledge of creatine supplements, and 16% used creatine to enhance athletic performance. Percentage of use increased with age and grade level. Awareness and use were greater among boys than girls. Adverse effects were reported by 26%. Most athletes consumed creatine using a method inconsistent with scientific recommendations. Use of creatine by adolescent athletes is significant and inconsistent with optimal dosing. Physicians, athletic trainers, and coaches should disseminate proper information and advise these adolescent athletes.

  8. Ergogenic risks elevate health risks in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemer, Bernard A

    2003-11-01

    Young athletes may use many products and techniques in an attempt to increase competitive edge in sports. The doping techniques that were previously seen in elite adult athletes are now being noted in increasingly competitive elementary, middle, and high school male and female athletes. The risk of significant morbidity and mortality associated with the use of these products is substantially increased when other risk factors are present. The risk for heat-related illness and possible heat-related mortality is higher in physiologically immature, overweight, and poorly conditioned young athletes. These are the same athletes who may be more likely to use stimulant or anabolic steroid products in attempts to catch up on training and conditioning regimens, improve their competitive advantage, or improve their physiques. The risk for heat-related incidents is higher in young athletes who are predisposed to these events because of a family trait or a previous heat-related adverse event in their own medical histories. Combinations of these factors (eg, high osmotic dietary supplements, stimulants, pre-existing medical factors, adverse ambient conditions) may significantly increase a young athlete's chances of a serious, potentially fatal event. Similarly, the risk of cardiac-related sudden death in a young athlete is significantly increased by the use of stimulants such as methamphetamine. As is the case with heat-related adverse events, the risk of cardiac-related morbidity and mortality may be significantly increased when other variables are present, such as the presence of other medications and pre-existing medical factors. As athletic competition becomes increasingly intense for younger athletes, pediatricians need to be aware of the possibility that their young patients are using ergogenic aids that may increase the risk for sudden death significantly. Pediatricians should be aware of the products available to these young competitors, and of the co-factors that

  9. The influence of sleep duration and sleep-related symptoms on baseline neurocognitive performance among male and female high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia; Johnson, Eric W; Henry, Luke C

    2016-05-01

    Typically, the effects of sleep duration on cognition are examined in isolation. This study examined the effects of restricted sleep and related symptoms on neurocognitive performance. Baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) were administered to athletes (N = 7,150) ages 14-17 (M = 15.26, SD = 1.09) prior to sport participation. Three groups of athletes were derived from total sleep duration: sleep restriction (≤5 hours), typical sleep (5.5-8.5 hours), and optimal sleep (≥9 hours). A MANCOVA (age and sex as covariates) was conducted to examine differences across ImPACT/PCSS. Follow-up MANOVA compared ImPACT/PCSS performance among symptomatic (e.g., trouble falling asleep, sleeping less than usual) adolescents from the sleep restriction group (n = 78) with asymptomatic optimal sleepers (n = 99). A dose-response effect of sleep duration on ImPACT performance and PCSS was replicated (Wilk's λ = .98, F2,7145 = 17.25, p sleep restricted adolescents (n = 78) had poorer neurocognitive performance: verbal memory, F = 11.60, p = .001, visual memory, F = 6.57, p = .01, visual motor speed, F = 6.19, p = .01, and reaction time (RT), F = 5.21, p = .02, compared to demographically matched controls (n = 99). Girls in the sleep problem group performed worse on RT (p = .024). Examining the combination of sleep-related symptoms and reduced sleep duration effectively identified adolescents at risk for poor neurocognitive performance than sleep duration alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  11. Characterizations of a quality certified athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Scot; Wolfe, Brent D; Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G

    2011-01-01

    Didactic proficiency does not ensure clinical aptitude. Quality athletic health care requires clinical knowledge and affective traits. To develop a grounded theory explaining the constructs of a quality certified athletic trainer (AT). Delphi study. Interviews in conference rooms or business offices and by telephone. Thirteen ATs (men = 8, women = 5) stratified across the largest employment settings (high school, college, clinical) in the 4 largest districts of the National Athletic Trainers? Association (2, 3, 4, 9). Open-ended interview questions were audio recorded, transcribed, and reviewed before condensing. Two member checks ensured trustworthiness. Open coding reduced text to descriptive adjectives. We grouped adjectives into 5 constructs (care, communication, commitment, integrity, knowledge) and grouped these constructs into 2 higher-order constructs (affective traits, effective traits). According to participants, ATs who demonstrate the ability to care, show commitment and integrity, value professional knowledge, and communicate effectively with others can be identified as quality ATs. These abilities facilitate the creation of positive relationships. These relationships allow the quality AT to interact with patients and other health care professionals on a knowledgeable basis that ultimately improves health care delivery. Our resulting theory supported the examination of characteristics not traditionally assessed in an athletic training education program. If researchers can show that these characteristics develop ATs into quality ATs (eg, those who work better with others, relate meaningfully with patients, and improve the standard of health care), they must be cultivated in the educational setting.

  12. Sport type and interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors of body dissatisfaction in high school female sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Bryant, Fred B; Balague, Gloria; Bohnert, Amy M

    2013-03-01

    Through multiple group structural equation modeling analyses, path models were used to test the predictive effects of sport type and both interpersonal (i.e., mothers' body dissatisfaction, family dynamics) and intrapersonal factors (i.e., athletic self-efficacy, body mass index [BMI]) on high school female sport participants' (N=627) body dissatisfaction. Sport types were classified as esthetic/lean (i.e., gymnastics), non-esthetic/lean (i.e., cross-country), or non-esthetic/non-lean (i.e., softball). Most participants reported low body dissatisfaction, and body dissatisfaction did not differ across sport types. Nevertheless, mothers' body dissatisfaction was positively associated with daughters' body dissatisfaction for non-esthetic/lean and non-esthetic/non-lean sport participants, and high family cohesion was predictive of body dissatisfaction among non-esthetic/lean sport participants. Across sport types, higher BMI was associated with greater body dissatisfaction, whereas greater athletic self-efficacy was associated with lower body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the complex relationship between interpersonal and intrapersonal factors and body dissatisfaction in adolescent female sport participants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  14. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  15. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  16. Comparing fMRI activation during smooth pursuit eye movements among contact sport athletes, non-contact sport athletes, and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Kellar

    Full Text Available Objectives: Though sub-concussive impacts are common during contact sports, there is little consensus whether repeat blows affect brain function. Using a “lifetime exposure” rather than acute exposure approach, we examined oculomotor performance and brain activation among collegiate football players and two control groups. Our analysis examined whether there are group differences in eye movement behavioral performance and in brain activation during smooth pursuit. Methods: Data from 21 off-season Division I football “starters” were compared with a 19 collegiate cross-country runners, and b 11 non-athlete college students who were SES matched to the football player group (total N = 51. Visual smooth pursuit was performed while undergoing fMRI imaging via a 3 Tesla scanner. Smooth pursuit eye movements to three stimulus difficulty levels were measured with regard to RMS error, gain, and lag. Results: No meaningful differences were found for any of the standard analyses used to assess smooth pursuit eye movements. For fMRI, greater activation was seen in the oculomotor region of the cerebellar vermis and areas of the FEF for football players as compared to either control group, who did not differ on any measure. Conclusion: Greater cerebellar activity among football players while performing an oculomotor task could indicate that they are working harder to compensate for some subtle, long-term subconcussive deficits. Alternatively, top athletes in a sport requiring high visual motor skill could have more of their cerebellum and FEF devoted to oculomotor task performance regardless of subconcussive history. Overall, these results provide little firm support for an effect of accumulated subconcussion exposure on brain function. Keywords: Smooth pursuit, fMRI, Collegiate athletics

  17. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  18. Asthma in United States olympic athletes who participated in the 1998 olympic winter games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, J M; Ryan, E J

    2000-08-01

    About one of every 5 athletes who participated in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or took asthma medications. No previous study has determined the prevalence of asthma in all US athletes who participated in an Olympic Winter Games. We sought to determine how many US athletes who participated in the 1998 Olympic Winter Games had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or indicated taking a medication used to treat asthma. We evaluated responses to questions that asked about allergic and respiratory diseases in the United States Olympic Committee Medical History Questionnaire that was completed by all 196 athletes who represented the United States at the 1998 Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan. Forty-three (21.9%) of the 196 athletes had a previous diagnosis of asthma, and 36 (18. 4%) recorded use of an asthma medication at some time in the past. Forty-four (22.4%) reported use of an asthma medication, a diagnosis of asthma, or both (our basis for the diagnosis of asthma). Thirty-four (17.4%) of the athletes were currently taking an asthma medication at the time that they completed the questionnaire or indicated that they took these medications on a permanent or semipermanent basis and were considered to have active asthma. Athletes who participated in Nordic combined, cross-country, and short track events had the highest prevalence of having been told that they had asthma or had taken an asthma medication in the past (60.7%) in contrast with only one (2.8%) of the 36 athletes who participated in bobsled, biathlon, luge, and ski jumping. Eighteen (24%) of 75 athletes who participated in alpine, long track, figure skating, snow boarding, and curling had a previous diagnosis of asthma or recorded use of an asthma medication. We conclude that asthma appeared to have been more common in athletes who participated in the 1998 Winter Games than in athletes who participated in

  19. Visual efficiency among teenaged athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Omar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare visual efficiency, specifically accom-modation, vergence, and oculomotor functions among athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on sports vision screening was used to evaluate the visual skills of 214 elementary students (107 athletes, 107 non-athletes, aged between 13 and 16y. The visual screening assessed visual parameters such as ocular motor alignment, accommodation, and vergence functions. RESULTS: Mean visual parameters were compared between age-group matched athletes (mean age 14.82±0.98y and non-athletes (mean age 15.00±1.04y. The refractive errors of all participants were corrected to maximal attainable best corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0. Accommodation function assessment evaluated amplitude of accommodation and accommodation facility. Vergence functions measured the near point of convergence, vergence facility, and distance fusional vergence at break and recovery point. Ocular motor alignment was not statistically significant between both groups. Athletes had a statistically significant amplitude of accommodation for both the right eye (t=2.30, P=0.02 and the left eye (t=1.99, P=0.05. Conversely, non-athletes had better accommodation facility (t=-2.54, P=0.01 and near point of convergence (t=4.39, P<0.001 when compared to athletes. Vergence facility was found to be better among athletes (t=2.47, P=0.01. Nevertheless, non-athletes were significantly better for both distance negative and positive fusional vergence. CONCLUSION: Although the findings are still inconclusive as to whether athletes had superior visual skills as compared to non-athletes, it remains important to identify and elucidate the key visual skills needed by athletes in order for them to achieve higher performance in their sports.

  20. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  1. Guest Editorial: The Exploitation of the Black Athlete: Some Alternative Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailes, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    At the cost of losing the chance to develop nonathletic marketable skills, Black athletes allow themselves to be exploited in the hopes of gaining stardom and wealth. Mass media, sports heroes, and peer pressure can help athletes channel their field talent into the classroom. Some successful high school programs are described. (PS)

  2. Coaches' Immediacy Behaviors as Predictors of Athletes' Perceptions of Satisfaction and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether coaches' immediacy behaviors serve as predictors of athletes' satisfaction and team cohesion levels. Participants included 307 male and female high school athletes who completed measures assessing perceptions of their coaches' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors, as well as their own levels of…

  3. Promoting the Academic Engagement and Success of Black Male Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…

  4. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent...

  5. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  6. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  7. Athletic Coaching Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes a study conducted to identify the competencies appropriate for an athletic coach and to incorporate those competencies into a competency based coaching education program for the four-year colleges and universities within the New York state systems. (JMF)

  8. Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Itay; Hartigan, David E; Chaharbakhshi, Edwin O; Ashberg, Lyall; Ortiz-Declet, Victor; Domb, Benjamin G

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the minimum 2-year postoperative clinical outcomes and the rate of return to sports in athletes who underwent capsular plication for the treatment of ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia during hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and labral pathology. Since 2008, data were prospectively collected on patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and/or labral tears. Inclusion criteria were as follows: athlete at the high school, collegiate, or professional levels preoperatively, underwent capsular plication, and preoperatively recorded patient-reported outcome scores including modified Harris hip score (mHHS), nonarthritic athletic hip score (NAHS), hip outcome score-sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria were as follows: 1, and previous hip conditions. Sports activity and competitive levels were collected at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Fifty-one hips (49 patients) met the inclusion criteria, and 41 hips (39 patients) had minimum 2-year follow-up (80.4% follow-up). Mean mHHS increased from 67.1 preoperatively to 83.5 (P arthroscopies allowed the patients to return to sports at follow-up. Thirty-four (82.9%) hip arthroscopies allowed the patients to maintain their competitive physical abilities at follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes and VAS in athletes significantly improved at a minimum of 2 years after capsular plication as a part of hip arthroscopy addressing varying pathologies. In addition, most patients returned to sports at similar or higher competitive levels. These results suggest that capsular plication is a favorable treatment option in athletes with ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of athletes with symptomatic intra-articular hip pathology and athletic pubalgia/sports hernia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M; Pierce, Bradley R; Giveans, M Russell

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment in athletes with associated intra-articular hip pathology and extra-articular sports pubalgia. Between December 2003 and September 2009, 37 hips (mean patient age, 25 years) were diagnosed with both symptomatic athletic pubalgia and symptomatic intra-articular hip joint pathology. There were 8 professional athletes, 15 collegiate athletes, 5 elite high school athletes, and 9 competitive club athletes. Outcomes included an evaluation regarding return to sports and modified Harris Hip Score, Short Form 12 score, and visual analog scale score. We evaluated 37 hips at a mean of 29 months (range, 12 to 78 months) after the index surgery. Thirty-one hips underwent thirty-five athletic pubalgia surgeries. Hip arthroscopy was performed in 32 hips (30 cases of femoroacetabular impingement treatment, 1 traumatic labral tear, and 1 borderline dysplasia). Of 16 hips that had athletic pubalgia surgery as the index procedure, 4 (25%) returned to sports without limitations, and 11 (69%) subsequently had hip arthroscopy at a mean of 20 months after pubalgia surgery. Of 8 hips managed initially with hip arthroscopy alone, 4 (50%) returned to sports without limitations, and 3 (43%) had subsequent pubalgia surgery at a mean of 6 months after hip arthroscopy. Thirteen hips had athletic pubalgia surgery and hip arthroscopy at one setting. Concurrent or eventual surgical treatment of both disorders led to improved postoperative outcomes scores (P pubalgia or intra-articular hip pathology in this patient population, outcomes were suboptimal. Surgical management of both disorders concurrently or in a staged manner led to improved postoperative outcomes scoring and an unrestricted return to sporting activity in 89% of hips. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-country variation in additive effects of socio-economics, health behaviors, and comorbidities on subjective health of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-02-21

    This study explored cross-country differences in the additive effects of socio-economic characteristics, health behaviors and medical comorbidities on subjective health of patients with diabetes. The study analyzed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The participants were 9,179 adults with diabetes who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. China, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, United States, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, India, Ghana, South Africa, and Russia). We fitted three logistic regressions to each country. Model I only included socio-economic characteristics (i.e. age, gender, education and income). In Model II, we also included health behaviors (i.e. smoking, drinking, and exercise). Model III included medical comorbidities (i.e. hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis), in addition to the previous blocks. Our models suggested cross-country differences in the additive effects of socio-economic characteristics, health behaviors and comorbidities on perceived health of patients with diabetes. Comorbid heart disease was the only condition that was consistently associated with poor subjective health regardless of country. Countries show different profiles of social and behavioral determinants of subjective health among patients with diabetes. Our study suggests that universal programs that assume that determinants of well-being are similar across different countries may be over-simplistic. Thus instead of universal programs that use one protocol for health promotion of patients in all countries, locally designed interventions should be implemented in each country.

  11. Are gender differences in upper-body power generated by elite cross-country skiers augmented by increasing the intensity of exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Myhre, Kenneth; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all Pgender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis in adolescent athletes: review of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kevin; Gregory, Andrew; Desai, Neerav; Diamond, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria and ranges in severity from asymptomatic to life threatening with acute kidney failure. While a common condition in adult populations, it is understudied in pediatrics and the majority of adolescent cases are likely exercise-induced, caused by strenuous exercise in athletes. Recently, in our pediatric sports medicine practice, we have seen numerous cases of late adolescent high school athletes who present with severe muscle pain and were found to have elevated creatine kinase levels. The cases review potential contributing factors including characteristics of the workout, use of supplements, caffeine, medication, and metabolic or genetic predisposition. Treatment for exercised-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely requires more than rehydration. Return to play should be progressive, individualized, and include acclimatization and monitoring of hydration status, though guidelines require further review.

  13. Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Pperformance data showed no consistent congruence with athletes' anxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Using Elite Athletes to Promote Drug Abstinence: Evaluation of a Single-Session School-Based Drug Use Prevention Program Delivered by Junior Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…

  15. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  16. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  17. Expected prevalence from the differential diagnosis of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes during preparticipation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Gregory D; Chen, Stephen S; Hewett, Timothy E

    2012-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common disorder in female athletes with an undefined cause. The relative prevalence of specific patellofemoral disorders associated with anterior knee pain in adolescent females remains undetermined. To determine the prevalence of specific patellofemoral disorders obtained using the differential diagnosis of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes during preparticipation screening. Descriptive epidemiology study. Preparticipation screening evaluations at a county public school district in Kentucky. A total of 419 unique middle and high school-aged female athletes. Participants were evaluated by physicians for anterior knee pain over 3 consecutive basketball seasons. Given the longitudinal nature of this study, some participants were tested longitudinally over multiple years. Over the course of 3 basketball seasons, 688 patient evaluations were performed. Of these, 183 (26.6%) were positive for anterior knee pain. A statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of anterior knee pain by school level, with 34.4% (n = 67) in high school-aged athletes versus 23.5% (n = 116) in middle school-aged athletes (P patellar tendinopathy, with 38 cases (9.7%) in high school-aged and 31 (3.1%) in middle school-aged athletes (P < .05). Anterior knee pain was present in 26.6% of the adolescent female athletes screened over 3 years. Symptoms of anterior knee pain likely persist after middle school-aged onset and reach peak prevalence during the high school years.

  18. Airway inflammation and upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermon, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) is regarded as the most common medical condition affecting both highly trained and elite athletes, in particular those participating in endurance events. The causes of these disturbances, also occurring during training, remain unclear. Viruses such as rhinovirus, adenovirus and para-influenza virus are frequently reported as the source of URTI. However, in a few comprehensive laboratory and epidemiological studies which reported at least a 30% incidence of URTI, no identifiable pathogens were either reported or studied. A recent, longitudinal study investigated symptomatology and pathogenic etiology in sedentary controls, recreational and elite athletes. The highest incidence of URTI occurred in elite athletes. However; only 11 out of 37 illness episodes overall had pathogenic origins, and most of the unidentified upper respiratory illnesses were shorter in duration and less severe than infectious ones. This concept of inflammation without infection in athletes is quite new and leads us to consider other explanatory pathophysiological conditions. Increases in airway neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes have been described under resting conditions in endurance sports, swimmers and cross-country skiers. These inflammatory patterns may be due to pollutants or chlorine-related compounds in swimmers. After intense exercise similar airways cellular profiles have been reported, with a high amount of bronchial epithelial cells. This increase in airway inflammatory cells in athletes can result from a hyperventilation-induced increase in airway osmolarity stimulating bronchial epithelial cells to release chemotactic factors. Fortunately, in most cases, these inflammatory cells express rather low level of adhesion molecules, explaining why airway inflammation may appear blunted in athletes despite numerous inflammatory cellular elements. However it can be hypothesized that a transient loss of control of this local inflammation, due

  19. Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R

    2014-03-01

    Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.

  20. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschberger, R.; Henning, A.; Graff, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  1. Stress fractures in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschberger, R; Henning, A; Graff, K H

    1984-12-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis.

  2. Epistaxis in the Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H; Taunton, J E

    1988-12-01

    In brief: Epistaxis is common among nonathletes as well as athletes, but because athletes may be more likely to sustain nasal/facial trauma, they probably are more at risk for epistaxis than nonathletes. An epistaxis tray containing the proper equipment should be kept readily available to be used to stop bleeding that does not stop spontaneously. Supplies should include cotton pledgets, antibiotic ointment, a nasal suction tip, a suction source, a topical anesthetic/vasoconstrictor, and more. In some cases reduction of an associated nasal fracture may be required before bleeding will stop. The author outlines the local and systemic causes of epistaxis, the field and hospital treatment for anterior and posterior epistaxis, and the possible complications.

  3. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  4. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  5. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  6. College Sports Inc.: The Athletic Department vs. the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Murray

    1990-01-01

    Big-time intercollegiate athletics has become College Sports Inc., a huge entertainment conglomerate with operating methods and objectives totally separate from, and often opposed to, the educational aims of the schools housing its franchises. This article dispels prevailing myths and seeks a new role definition for intercollegiate athletics…

  7. Caring for Student-Athletes following a Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piebes, Sarah K.; Gourley, Meganne; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2009-01-01

    The school nurse plays a dynamic role in the care and treatment of a concussed athlete. Concussions in the adolescent populations are of special concern due to their potential impact on mental development and cognitive function, as well as an increased risk of serious complications including second impact syndrome. The complexity of a concussion…

  8. Concussion and the Young Athlete: Critical Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Caroline; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    One in six high school football players in the United States will sustain a concussion at some point during their playing career. The consequences of concussion can be catastrophic, especially since the symptoms are rarely visible and often overlooked. To ensure the safety of athletes in youth and interscholastic sports programs, having Certified…

  9. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  10. Examining Container Port Resources and Environments to Enhance Competitiveness: A Cross-Country Study from Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo CHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of container ports using a cross-country analysis with theoretical foundations. Tangible and intangible resources are discussed as determinants of container port competitiveness using the resource-based view and the institutional theory. This study analyzes the relationships among six variables: container port competitiveness, traffic volume, quality of infrastructure, linear shipping connectivity, operating efficiency, and institutional influence. This study retrieved country-level data on different indicators and countries from several trade and maritime databases. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is used to test various hypotheses and to evaluate the casual relationships among six variables. Additionally, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression is used to test the moderating effects of institutional influence.

  11. The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport

  12. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

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    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers a head injury, whether or not it is associated to loss of consciousness. These athletes should not return to their sports activities immediately, and a few days of mental and physical leave are recommended in order to ensure full recovery. Repeat head injuries should be avoided, since there is evidence that in some athletes they can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The present review focuses on the different definitions of concussion, management and long-term consequences. It also contains the Spanish version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2.

  13. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  14. [Medical interests in gymnastics and athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, H

    2001-01-01

    Since time immemorial authors have noticed the usefulness of physical activity. In the 18th century C von Linné was a spokesman for bodily exercise, and in the beginning of the 19th century P. H . Ling shaped the Swedish gymnastics and founded the Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet in 1813. He aimed at harmonious bodies according to the models of the classic antiquity. Many physicians, I. and F. Holmgren saw the value of the gymnastics. Completing the Ling gymnastics, there was a growing interest in physical performance, i.e., athletics. Above all, the contributions of the officer V. Balck, culminating at the olympic games in Stockholm 1912, made athletics a national movement. Since 1913 it receives an annual economic support from the state. Some physicians feared from overexertion in athletics but they appreciated physical performance. However, they demanded that you should be wholly full-grown prior to great exortions. An important part of the Ling program was remedial gymnastics which was more and more estimated after P. Haglund had asserted its value. T. Sjöstrand's studies became a good basis for evaluating the effect of physical training in both healthy and sick persons. It was not until the 1950s that the first studies, later confirmed, gave holds for the view that physical training was good for public health. But the average life span does not seem to be influenced by physical activities. Now and then training had earlier been used as therapy for disparate sorts of diseases but most rationally for disturbed functions of the locomotor system. Training became an important part of medical rehabilitation only after the second world war. Gymnastics and athletics at school have always had a solid support by physicians. The subject has nowadays so few hours that it cannot result in safe training habits for the future.

  15. Two distinct phenotypes of asthma in elite athletes identified by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Mariana; Stang, Julie; Horta, Luís; Stensrud, Trine; Severo, Milton; Mowinckel, Petter; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luís; Moreira, André; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of asthma in athletes have been insufficiently studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize asthma phenotypes in elite athletes using latent class analysis (LCA) and to evaluate its association with the type of sport practiced. In the present cross-sectional study, an analysis of athletes' records was carried out in databases of the Portuguese National Anti-Doping Committee and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. Athletes with asthma, diagnosed according to criteria given by the International Olympic Committee, were included for LCA. Sports practiced were categorized into water, winter and other sports. Of 324 files screened, 150 files belonged to asthmatic athletes (91 Portuguese; 59 Norwegian). LCA retrieved two clusters: "atopic asthma" defined by allergic sensitization, rhinitis and allergic co-morbidities and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels; and "sports asthma", defined by exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and airway hyperesponsiveness without allergic features. The risk of developing the phenotype "sports asthma" was significantly increased in athletes practicing water (OR = 2.87; 95% CI [1.82-4.51]) and winter (OR = 8.65; 95% CI [2.67-28.03]) sports, when compared with other athletes. Two asthma phenotypes were identified in elite athletes: "atopic asthma" and "sports asthma". The type of sport practiced was associated with different phenotypes: water and winter sport athletes had three- and ninefold increased risk of "sports asthma". Recognizing different phenotypes is clinically relevant as it would lead to distinct targeted treatments.

  16. Gender, ethnicity, self-esteem and disordered eating among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig; Crosby, Ross; Engel, Scott; Mitchell, James; Powers, Pauline; Wittrock, David; Wonderlich, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to compare ethnic and gender differences regarding self-esteem and various disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among elite college athletes. A total of 1445 student athletes from 11 Division I schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. White female athletes reported significantly lower self-esteem than Black female, Black male and White male athletes. Black female athletes' self-esteem was equal to both Black and White male athletes. White female athletes reported significantly higher drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and more disturbed eating behaviors than Black female and both groups of male athletes. The current study demonstrates that White female athletes appear to be most at risk for having difficulty with eating disorders. Their reporting of significantly lower self-esteem indicates that this may be a risk factor that is more characteristic of this ethnic group. Questions are raised about what factors exist in the Black female culture that protect them from low self-esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.

  17. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  18. Intercollegiate Athletics and Modeling Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research about student athletes contends that participation enhances both learning and character development, including leadership, interpersonal skills, social self-esteem, discipline, personal health, motivation, dedication, and life lessons. Other research expresses concern about the cognitive outcomes of student athletes relative to…

  19. Injury prevalence in young athletes

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    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  20. Athletics Reform and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…

  1. Do Basic Skills Predict Youth Unemployment (16- to 24-Year-Olds) Also when Controlled for Accomplished Upper-Secondary School? A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti; Gabrielsen, Egil; Mykletun, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    Basic skills and educational level are closely related, and both might affect employment. Data from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey were used to examine whether basic skills in terms of literacy and numeracy predicted youth unemployment (16-24 years) while controlling for educational level. Stepwise logistic regression showed that in…

  2. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  3. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea

  4. Doping knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Ugandan athletes': a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa

    2015-09-22

    Despite the development of advanced drug testing systems, both deliberate and inadvertent doping in sports is increasing in elite, amateur and school sports. As a result, alternative approaches that seek to influence an athlete's attitudes are needed to address the growing doping concerns that threaten both the health and well being of the athlete as well as the legitimacy of the sport. Therefore, the current study set out to establish the doping attitudes, knowledge and practices of professional Ugandan athletes, gathering information that may guide the design of more efficient doping prevention programs. This was a cross-sectional study of 384 professional Ugandan athletes from four contact team sports (basketball, football, handball and rugby) and two individual sports (athletics and cycling). An Interviewer administered questionnaire used contained; questions about the doping behavior, the performance enhancement attitude scale (PEAS), and doping use belief (DUB) statements. Approximately 60 % of the athletes reported familiarity with information on doping and that most of this information came from fellow colleagues (41.9 %), individual or team coaches (29.7 %) or the media (15.6 %). However, nearly 80 % of these athletes could not correctly define doping. The overall mean PEAS score, a measure of doping attitudes, for all study participants was 39.8 ± 14.8. Female athletes (PEAS: 41.1 ± 15.1), athletes with a prior doping history (PEAS: 44.1 ± 15.6) and athletes from the sport of athletics (PEAS: 56.6 ± 17.4) had higher mean PEAS scores than their respective counterparts. Regarding doping behaviors/practices, 9.3 % of the study participants had been offered a doping agent at some point, although only 3.9 % of the athletes acknowledged recent use. The confessed use of doping agents in this study was low, which may suggest that fewer athletes use doping agents in Uganda. However, there is still an urgent need for educational anti

  5. Research Analysis of Conflicting Behaviour Peculiarities Among Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost always there is a certain degree of tension, irritation, and conflicts among athletes of various types of sports. The objective of the research is to evaluate conflicting behaviour of student wrestlers in the public safety faculties (PSF at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU and Mykolas Romeris University (MRU. In the introduction of the research, conflict descriptions, types, criteria, solutions, and psychological climate factors as theorized by different authors are introduced. Survey data on student athletes is analyzed. In addition to this, psychological climate and predominant features among wrestling teams in higher education schools are assessed and emerging conflict types and solutions are determined. Finally, the differences in athletes and coaches‘ evaluation of psychological climate and indications are described.

  6. Collegiate coaches' knowledge of the female athlete triad in relation to sport type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frideres, Jillian E; Mottinger, Sue G; Palao, José M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what coaches of female athletes know about the three components of the female athlete triad with regard to type of sport coached and the characteristics of the coach. The sample consisted of 309 NCAA Division I coaches of female athletes in the sports of: sports with subjective scoring of performance (gymnastics and diving), low body weight sports (cross country and rowing), revealing or fitted clothing (volleyball and swimming), and other (soccer and basketball). An original, self-report questionnaire, and a 4-point Likert scale to measure confidence in answer was used. The variables were: knowledge, confidence, and coach's characteristics (coach's gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the triad and triad components, and type of sport coached). Coaches of low body weight sports scored significantly higher than both coaches of sports requiring fitted clothing and "other" sports in the overall score. They further had significantly more confidence in their answers than coaches of "other" sports. No significant differences in the overall score in any of the types of sport or total values were found regarding gender, experience, and degree. Coaches who had received training about the triad or its components scored significantly higher than coaches who did not receive training. The results demonstrated a lack of information among coaches and that participating in formative training can help to reduce this problem. The results found can help in the design of continuing education for coaches.

  7. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  8. HIV/AIDS health care challenges for cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Khitdee, Chiraporn; Thaichinda, Chompoonut; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Jumriangrit, Pensom; Topothai, Thitikorn; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Putthasri, Weerasak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV/AIDS has been one of the world’s most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low-and middle-income countries. Methods A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in Asia and Latin America. Barriers of access to HIV/AIDS services comprised inadequate management of guidelines and referral systems, discriminatory attitudes, language differences, unstable legal status, and financial hardship. Though health systems management varied across countries, international partners consistently played a critical role in providing support for HIV/AIDS services to uninsured migrants and refugees. Conclusion It was evident that HIV/AIDS health care problems for migrants were a major concern in many developing nations. However, there was little evidence suggesting if the current

  9. Supporting the use of theory in cross-country health services research: a participatory qualitative approach using Normalisation Process Theory as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mair, Frances S; Dowrick, Christopher; Brún, Mary O'Reilly-de; Brún, Tomas de; Burns, Nicola; Lionis, Christos; Saridaki, Aristoula; Papadakaki, Maria; Muijsenbergh, Maria van den; Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn van; Gravenhorst, Katja; Cooper, Lucy; Princz, Christine; Teunissen, Erik; Mareeuw, Francine van den Driessen; Vlahadi, Maria; Spiegel, Wolfgang; MacFarlane, Anne

    2017-08-21

    To describe and reflect on the process of designing and delivering a training programme supporting the use of theory, in this case Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), in a multisite cross-country health services research study. Participatory research approach using qualitative methods. Six European primary care settings involving research teams from Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, The Netherlands and Scotland. RESTORE research team consisting of 8 project applicants, all senior primary care academics, and 10 researchers. Professional backgrounds included general practitioners/family doctors, social/cultural anthropologists, sociologists and health services/primary care researchers. Views of all research team members (n=18) were assessed using qualitative evaluation methods, analysed qualitatively by the trainers after each session. Most of the team had no experience of using NPT and many had not applied theory to prospective, qualitative research projects. Early training proved didactic and overloaded participants with information. Drawing on RESTORE's methodological approach of Participatory Learning and Action, workshops using role play, experiential interactive exercises and light-hearted examples not directly related to the study subject matter were developed. Evaluation showed the study team quickly grew in knowledge and confidence in applying theory to fieldwork.Recommendations applicable to other studies include: accepting that theory application is not a linear process, that time is needed to address researcher concerns with the process, and that experiential, interactive learning is a key device in building conceptual and practical knowledge. An unanticipated benefit was the smooth transition to cross-country qualitative coding of study data. A structured programme of training enhanced and supported the prospective application of a theory, NPT, to our work but raised challenges. These were not unique to NPT but could arise with the application of any

  10. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Cohort study. High school and collegiate athletic programs. A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse outcomes after SRC. Clinicians should examine baseline symptom levels to better identify patients for earlier referral and treatment for their

  11. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functional abilities six functional tests were used: resting heart rate, Cooper test, heart rate in the first minute after Cooper test, heart rate in the second minute after Cooper test, systolic arterial blood pressure, diastolic arterial blood pressure. For assessment of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines four tests were used: long jump, high jump, shot put and javelin. Data analysis was performed with canonical correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between functional abilities with all of tests in jumping and throwing athletic disciplines.

  12. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case-control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse 'weak' versus 'strong' athletes according to the median (weak median vs strong median ). 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weak median group compared with the strong median group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength-injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes.

  13. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  15. Exploring the relationship between cigarette prices and smoking among adults: a cross-country study of low- and middle-income nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Tesche, Jean; Perucic, Anne-Marie; Yurekli, Ayda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between cigarette prices and adult smoking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is relatively limited. This study offers new descriptive evidence on this relationship using data from a set of 13 LMICs. We use Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) cross-country data from approximately 200,000 participants aged 15 and older. Estimates on the relationship between prices and adult smoking were obtained from logit models of smoking participation and ordinary least squares models of conditional cigarette demand. Higher prices were associated with lower demand across countries, in terms of both smoking prevalence and daily number of cigarettes smoked among smokers. Our estimates suggest that the total price elasticity of cigarette demand in LMICs is approximately -0.53. We find that higher socioeconomic status (SES), represented through wealth and education effects is associated with lower chance of smoking overall, but among existing smokers, it may be associated with a larger number of cigarettes smoked. After controlling for a set of individual demographic and country characteristics, cigarette prices retain a significant role in shaping cigarette demand across LMICs. Because higher SES is associated with a reduced chance of smoking overall but also with increased daily consumption among current smokers, optimal tobacco tax policies in LMICs may face an added need to accommodate to shifting SES structures within the populations of these countries.

  16. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding’s hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants. PMID:27203597

  17. Energy efficiency in Germany 2000. Analysis based on the ODYSSEE database from the SAVE project 'Cross-country comparison on energy efficiency indicators'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhammer, W.; Schlomann, B.

    2001-02-01

    The German national report for the SAVE project 'Cross-country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators' represents the recent energy efficiency trends in Germany based on the indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. For the second time, the 2000 country report only includes the development of energy consumption and efficiency in Germany after the unification, i.e. for the period 1991 to 1999. The year 1990 unfortunately could not be considered because most of the economic and energy consumption data for Germany (especially the revised National Accounts) are only available since 1991. The results for Western Germany since 1970 are described in the former country reports (Eichhammer et al., 1998). The report starts with a review on data collection and the recent trends in the general context of energy efficiency, i.e. economic and energy consumption development, energy and environmental policy and energy price trends. Afterwards, the energy efficiency trends are described both at the level of the whole economy (Chapter 3) and at sectoral level (Chapter 4 to 8). (orig.)

  18. Service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-country qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, H; Abayneh, S; Gurung, D; Kola, L; Abdulmalik, J; Evans-Lacko, S; Semrau, M; Alem, A; Thornicroft, G; Hanlon, C

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to: (i) explore the experiences of involvement of mental health service users, their caregivers, mental health centre heads and policy makers in mental health system strengthening in three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, Nepal and Nigeria); (ii) analyse the potential benefits and barriers of such involvement; and (iii) identify strategies required to achieve greater service user and caregiver participation. A cross-country qualitative study was conducted, interviewing 83 stakeholders of mental health services. Our analysis showed that service user and caregiver involvement in the health system strengthening process was an alien concept for most participants. They reported very limited access to direct participation. Stigma and poverty were described as the main barriers for involvement. Several strategies were identified by participants to overcome existing hurdles to facilitate service user and caregiver involvement in the mental health system strengthening process, such as support to access treatment, mental health promotion and empowerment of service users. This study suggests that capacity building for service users, and strengthening of user groups would equip them to contribute meaningfully to policy development from informed perspectives. Involvement of service users and their caregivers in mental health decision-making is still in its infancy in LMICs. Effective strategies are required to overcome existing barriers, for example making funding more widely available for Ph.D. studies in participatory research with service users and caregivers to develop, implement and evaluate approaches to involvement that are locally and culturally acceptable in LMICs.

  19. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  20. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. © 2013 APJPH.

  1. Concurrent Development of Endurance Capacity and Explosiveness: Training Characteristics of World-Class Nordic-Combined Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Espen; Rasdal, Vegard; Svendsen, Ida S; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-07-01

    Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing. To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes' training and determine how endurance and non-endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized. Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non-endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes. Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non-endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.

  2. Stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome in Japanese adolescent athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-10-18

    To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese adolescent athletes. Cross-sectional study. Osaka, Japan. A school-based survey on menstruation and school life was conducted using a sample of 1818 Japanese female students who belonged to two public high schools in Japan. Among them, we recruited 394 athletes who had regular menstrual cycles (25-38 days) and completed a questionnaire about their premenstrual symptoms and their competitive career. Premenstrual symptoms and the occurrence of stress fracture. The prevalences of moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD were 8.9% and 1.3%, respectively, which were the same as in collegiate athletes in a previous study. Premenstrual symptoms disturbed 'Work efficiency or productivity, home responsibilities', 'Relationships with coworkers or family' and 'Athletic performance in training or competition' more severely than menstrual pain (p=0.031, p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). 66 athletes (16.8%) reported having experienced a stress fracture. The severity of 'Overeating or food cravings', 'Physical symptoms' and 'Performance in training or competition' in athletes with previous stress fractures were much higher than in those without a history of stress fractures (p=0.015, p=0.008 and p=0.006, respectively). In terms of premenstrual symptoms, 'Physical symptoms' was associated with an increased risk of stress fractures in athletes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62). The results from this study indicated that premenstrual symptoms may affect athletic performance and has the risk of stress fractures in adolescent athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  4. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  5. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  6. The Athletic Shoe in Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702

  7. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  8. The demographic characteristics of high-level and recreational athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: a sports-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawabi, Danyal H; Bedi, Asheesh; Tibor, Lisa M; Magennis, Erin; Kelly, Bryan T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in age, gender, and the need for bilateral surgery between high-level athletes grouped by sports with similar mechanical demands on the hip and recreational athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). By use of a hip-preservation center registry, a retrospective review of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI between March 2010 and April 2012 was performed. Athletes were categorized as high level (high school, collegiate, or professional) or recreational. We performed a subgroup analysis for high-level athletes, looking at differences among contact, cutting, impingement, overhead/asymmetric, endurance, and flexibility sports. The study included 288 high-level athletes and 334 recreational athletes. Being a high-level athlete was associated with a younger age (mean age, 20.2 years v 33.0 years; odds ratio, 0.69; P gender (61.5% v 53.6%; odds ratio, 1.75; P = .03). The percentage of high-level athletes undergoing bilateral surgery was higher than that of recreational athletes (28.4% v 15.9%); however, this association was found to be confounded by age on multivariate analysis. The most common sports for high-level athletes were soccer, hockey, and football. Athletes participating in cutting sports were significantly younger than athletes participating flexibility, contact, or impingement sports. When compared with recreational athletes undergoing arthroscopic treatment for FAI, high-level athletes are more likely to be younger, to be male, and to undergo bilateral surgery. When high-level athletes are grouped by the mechanical demands placed on the hip by their sport, athletes participating in cutting sports are more likely to be younger than those in the other groups. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  10. Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (V̇E, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min(-1)) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L·min(-1)) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for V̇E, V̇O2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ∼3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  11. Cost Analyses in the US and Japan: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis Applied to the PRONOUNCE Trial in Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lisa M; Rajan, Narayan; Winfree, Katherine; Davey, Peter; Ball, Mark; Knox, Hediyyih; Graham, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Health technology assessment is not required for regulatory submission or approval in either the United States (US) or Japan. This study was designed as a cross-country evaluation of cost analyses conducted in the US and Japan based on the PRONOUNCE phase III lung cancer trial, which compared pemetrexed plus carboplatin followed by pemetrexed (PemC) versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab (PCB). Two cost analyses were conducted in accordance with International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research good research practice standards. Costs were obtained based on local pricing structures; outcomes were considered equivalent based on the PRONOUNCE trial results. Other inputs were included from the trial data (e.g., toxicity rates) or from local practice sources (e.g., toxicity management). The models were compared across key input and transferability factors. Despite differences in local input data, both models demonstrated a similar direction, with the cost of PemC being consistently lower than the cost of PCB. The variation in individual input parameters did affect some of the specific categories, such as toxicity, and impacted sensitivity analyses, with the cost differential between comparators being greater in Japan than in the US. When economic models are based on clinical trial data, many inputs and outcomes are held consistent. The alterable inputs were not in and of themselves large enough to significantly impact the results between countries, which were directionally consistent with greater variation seen in sensitivity analyses. The factors that vary across jurisdictions, even when minor, can have an impact on trial-based economic analyses. Eli Lilly and Company.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to care for the terminally ill: a cross-country case comparison study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christopher A; Howell, Doris; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-02-01

    Why do many patients not die at their preferred location? Analyze system-level characteristics influencing the ability to implement best practices in delivering care for terminally ill adults (barriers and facilitators). Cross-country comparison study from a "most similar-most different" perspective, triangulating evidence from a scoping review of the literature, document analyses, and semi-structured key informant interviews. Case study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States. While similar with regard to leading causes of death, patient needs, and potential avenues to care, different models of service provision were employed in the four countries studied. Although hospice and palliative care services were generally offered with standard care along the disease continuum and in various settings, and featured common elements such as physical, psycho-social, and spiritual care, outcomes (access, utilization, etc.) varied across jurisdictions. Barriers to best practice service provision included legislative (including jurisdictional), regulatory (e.g. education and training), and financial issues as well as public knowledge and perception ("giving up hope") challenges. Advance care planning, dedicated and stable funding toward hospice and palliative care, including caregiver benefits, population aging, and standards of practice and guidelines to hospice and palliative care, were identified as facilitators. Successful implementation of effective and efficient best practice approaches to care for the terminally ill, such as shared care, requires concerted action to align these system-level characteristics; many factors were identified as being essential but not sufficient. Policy implementation needs to be tailored to the respective health-care system(s), monitored, and fine-tuned.

  13. Cross-Country Differences in the Additive Effects of Socioeconomics, Health Behaviors and Medical Comorbidities on Disability among Older Adults with Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart disease experience limited activities of daily living (ADL). This is a cross-country comparison of the additive effects of Socioeconomics, health behaviors, and the number of medical comorbidities on disability among patients with heart disease. The current study used a cross-sectional design. Data came from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The current analysis utilized data on elderly individuals (age ≥60 y) from 13 countries. The outcome was any ADL limitation (i.e. bathing, dressing, using toilet, transferring, lifting heavy things, shopping, and eating meals). Socioeconomics (i.e. age, gender, education, and income), health behaviors (i.e. exercise, smoking, and drinking), and number of chronic medical conditions (i.e. hypertension, respiratory, arthritis, stroke, and diabetes) were entered into country-specific logistic regressions, considering at least one limitation in ADL as the main outcome. Number of comorbid medical conditions and age were positively associated with disability in 85% of the countries. Physical activity and drinking were linked to disability in 54%and 31% of countries, respectively. Higher education and income were associated with lower disability in 31% and 23% of the countries, respectively. Female gender was associated with higher disability only in 15% of the countries. Smoking was not associated with disability, while the effects of socioeconomics, drinking, exercise, and medical comorbidities were controlled. Determinants of disability depend on the country; accordingly, locally designed health promotion interventions may be superior to the universal interventions for patients with heart disease. Medical comorbidities, however, should be universally diagnosed and treated.

  14. Patients' initial steps to cancer diagnosis in Denmark, England and Sweden: what can a qualitative, cross-country comparison of narrative interviews tell us about potentially modifiable factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArtney, John; Malmström, Marlene; Overgaard Nielsen, Trine; Evans, Julie; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie; Hajdarevic, Senada; Chapple, Alison; Eriksson, Lars E; Locock, Louise; Rasmussen, Birgit; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-11-19

    To illuminate patterns observed in International Cancer Benchmarking Programme studies by extending understanding of the various influences on presentation and referral with cancer symptoms. Cross-country comparison of Denmark, England and Sweden with qualitative analysis of in-depth interview accounts of the prediagnostic process in lung or bowel cancer. 155 women and men, aged between 35 and 86 years old, diagnosed with lung or bowel cancer in 6 months before interview. Participants recruited through primary and secondary care, social media and word of mouth. Interviews collected by social scientists or nurse researchers during 2015, mainly in participants' homes. Participants reported difficulties in interpreting diffuse bodily sensations and symptoms and deciding when to consult. There were examples of swift referrals by primary care professionals in all three countries. In all countries, participants described difficulty deciding if and when to consult, highlighting concerns about access to general practitioner appointments and overstretched primary care services, although this appears less prominent in the Swedish data. It was not unusual for there to be more than one consultation before referral and we noted two distinct patterns of repeated consultation: (1) situations where the participant left the primary care consultation with a plan of action about what should happen next; (2) participants were unclear about under which conditions to return to the doctors. This second pattern sometimes extended over many weeks during which patients described uncertainty, and sometimes frustration, about if and when they should return and whether there were any other feasible investigations. The latter pattern appeared more evident in the interviews in England and Denmark than Sweden. We suggest that if clear action plans, as part of safety netting, were routinely used in primary care consultations then uncertainty, false reassurance and the inefficiency and distress

  15. Differences in Exercise Identity between Secondary Physical Education Students and Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Gregory J., Sr.; Henrich, Timothy W.; Barton-Weston, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Texas (USA) public schools require high school students to take one year of physical education to graduate. However, students can meet this requirement by participating on a state sanctioned athletic team for a year. The Texas Education Agency states the physical education curriculum should teach affective attitudes and values that will encourage…

  16. Athletic Events and Spectacular Spectators: A Longitudinal Study of Fan Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    Athletic programs in the public schools and colleges are often justified by assertions that competitive team sports build character and sportsmanship for participants and spectators, and that sports reinforce such school and community ideals as the virtues of competition, patriotism, and the desirability of healthy living. Spectator behavior at…

  17. [The comprehensive approach to the rehabilitative treatment of junior athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaya, T E; Tsekhmeistruk, E A; Tren'kaeva, N A; Tyulyupo, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Kremeno, S V; Shakhova, S S; Chekcheeva, V D

    The objective of the present study was the development of the comprehensive program for the medico-psychological follow-up of the male and female junior athletes (rhythmic gymnastics) with the purpose of stabilizing their hormonal and emotional status, as well as improving sport performances based on the use of modern hardware-software technologies. The comprehensive examination of 72 female athletes at the mean age of 11.5±0.6 years attending R. Kuznetsov specialized school of rhythmic gymnastics of the Olympic reserve in the city of Seversk has been undertaken on the basis of Tomsk Research Institute of Balneology and Physiotherapy, the branch of Siberian Federal Research and Clinical Centre. The program of comprehensive medical psychological rehabilitation for the junior athletes of either sex engaged in sportive activities requiring precise technical actions has been elaborated. The method of the combined therapeutic treatment included physical exercises therapy, manual massage, dry carbonic bathtubs, psychological activities with the application of biological feedback trainings and cognitive trainings; it was intended for the correction of the hormonal status and the improvement of the psycho-emotional conditions of the athletes. The combined treatment based on the use of the modern hardware-software technologies was shown to promote the restoration and development of the psychophysical and psychological qualities of the male and female junior athletes indispensable for the maintenance of their high readiness for the efficient sports activities at the subsequent stages of the training cycle. In addition, such treatment enhances the adaptation resources of the athletes.

  18. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  19. Validation of the computer code system ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Final report; Validierung des Rechenprogrammsystems ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, H.; Bals, C.; Erdmann, W.; Horche, W.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pointner, W.; Schoeffel, P.; Skorek, T.; Weber, S.; Wielenberg, A.

    2010-04-15

    In the frame of the reactor safety project RS1173, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, analyses of international integral and separate effects tests have been performed for the validation of the code system ATHLET/ATHLET-CD. The work mainly comprised post-test calculations of selected experiments and the contributions to the working groups accompanying the experimental programs. For the assessment of the thermal-hydraulic models in ATHLET 8 integral tests and 4 separate effect tests have been considered. Together with the corroboration of the existing models, the validation analyses were mainly dedicated to the assessment of the modelling of non-condensable gases and their influence on two-phase natural circulation and on the primary heat removal through steam generators, as well as of the simulation of multi-dimensional flow processes. The validation calculations with respect to the simulation of multi-dimensional one- and two-phase flows aimed to investigate the range of applicability and limitations of the method of parallel channels in connection with the separate momentum equations for water and steam current used in ATHLET as well as to assess the status of the coupled version ATHLET/FLUBOX-3D. The ATHLET-CD validation analyses included the post-test calculations of 9 bundle tests, and was mainly focussed on the assessment of the improved and new models for core degradation, including the models for oxidation, melt formation and relocation for BWR components, as well as of the modelling of fission products and aerosol transport within the primary circuit taking into account chemical reactions within the module SOPHAEROS. As an additional contribution to code validation, the GRS methodology of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was applied exemplarily to two validation calculations, one with ATHLET and one with ATHLET-CD. The results of these uncertainty analyses endorse the capability of the code system to reproduce

  20. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  1. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingruber, I.E.; Wolf, C.; Gruber, H.; Czermak, B.V.; Mallouhi, A.; Jaschke, W.; Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress fractures may pose a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists since they are sometimes difficult to demonstrate on plain films and may simulate a tumour. They were first described in military personnel and professional athletes. Recently, there is an increasing incidence in the general population due to increasing sportive activities. Stress fractures occur most often in the lower extremities, especially in the tibia, the tarsal bone, the metatarsal bone, the femur and the fibula. In the upper extremities, they are commonly found in the humerus, the radius and the ulna. Some fractures of the lower extremities appear to be specific for particular sports, for example, fractures of the tibia affect mostly distance runners. Whereas stress fractures of the upper extremities are generally associated with upper limb-dominated sports. A correct diagnosis requires a careful clinical evaluation. The initial plain radiography may be normal. Further radiological evaluation could be performed by means of computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scanning. The latter two techniques are especially helpful for establishing a correct initial diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  2. Patellofemoral pain in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo; Liebau, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ) damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking. Causes of dynamic valgus include weak hip muscles and rearfoot eversion with pes pronatus valgus. These factors can also be observed in patients with PFOA. The available evidence suggests that patients with PFP are best managed with a tailored, multimodal, nonoperative treatment program that includes short-term pain relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), passive correction of patellar maltracking with medially directed tape or braces, correction of the dynamic valgus with exercise programs that target the muscles of the lower extremity, hip, and trunk, and the use of foot orthoses in patients with additional foot abnormalities. PMID:28652829

  3. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  4. Injury Rehabilitation Overadherence: Preliminary Scale Validation and Relationships With Athletic Identity and Self-Presentation Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Gao, Zan; Kenow, Laura; Kleinert, Jens; Granquist, Megan; Newton, Maria; Hannon, James

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evidence suggests that nonadherence to rehabilitation protocols may be associated with worse clinical and functional rehabilitation outcomes. Recently, it has been recognized that nonadherence may not only reflect a lack of rehabilitation engagement but that some athletes may “overadhere” to their injury-rehabilitation regimen or risk a premature return to sport. Presently, no measure of overadherence exists, and correlates of overadherence and risking a premature return to sport remain uncertain. Objective: To provide initial validation of a novel injury-rehabilitation overadherence measure (study 1) and to examine correlates of overadherence and risking a premature return to sport (study 2). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High school athletes (study 1) and collegiate athletes (study 2). Patients or Other Participants: In study 1, 118 currently injured US adolescent athletes competing in a range of high school sports participated. In study 2, 105 currently injured collegiate athletes (National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I–III) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Rehabilitation Overadherence Questionnaire was a novel instrument developed to assess injured athletes' tendency toward overadherence behaviors and beliefs. We used an adapted version of the Injury Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Scale to assess the tendency to risk a premature return to sport. Results: In study 1, the construct validity of the overadherence measure was supported using principal axis factoring. Moreover, bivariate correlation and regression analyses indicated that self-presentation concerns and athletic identity were positive predictors of adolescent rehabilitation overadherence and a premature return to sport. Study 2 provided support for the 2-factor structure of the overadherence measure found in study 1 via confirmatory factor analysis. Further support for the relationship among self-presentation concerns, athletic identity, and

  5. The Athlete's Perception of Coaches' Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekanska, Małgorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-12-18

    The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ± 1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches' Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach's behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to "a post-training session interest in the athlete" as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated "leniency and favoring" less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed "excessive criticism" as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches' "authoritarianism and distance" less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001).

  6. High incidence of injury at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of injuries at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days during the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Daily injury data were obtained from teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. There were 174 total injuries reported, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 26.5 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 22.7% to 30.8%). There was a significantly higher IR recorded in alpine skiing/snowboarding (IR of 41.1 (95% CI 33.7% to 49.6%) p=0.0001) compared to cross-country skiing/biathlon, ice sledge hockey or wheelchair curling. Injuries in the shoulder region were the highest single-joint IR (IR of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6% to 8.6%)), although total upper and lower body IR were similar (IR 8.5 vs 8.4 (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%)). Furthermore, the IR of acute injuries was significantly higher than other types of injury onset (IR of 17.8 (95% CI 14.7% to 21.4%)). In a Winter Paralympic Games setting, athletes report higher injury incidence than do Olympic athletes or athletes in a Summer Paralympic Games setting. The highest incidence of injury was reported in the alpine skiing/snowboarding sporting category. There was a similar incidence of injury in the upper and lower limbs. The joint with the greatest rate of injury reported was the shoulder joint. Our data can inform injury prevention programmes and policy considerations regarding athlete safety in future Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  8. Athletic pubalgia and associated rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more

  9. Sport specialization's association with an increased risk of developing anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-02-01

    To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.

  10. The Organizational Climate in Collegiate Athletics: An Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2018-01-01

      An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate.   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance.   Phenomenologic study.   Collegiate practice setting.   Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years.   Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility.   Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate.   The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.

  11. Team physicians in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E; Quigley, D Bradford; Wang, Frank; Balint, Christopher R; Boland, Arthur L

    2005-10-01

    There has been little documentation of what constitutes the clinical work of intercollegiate team physicians. Team physicians could be recruited based on the needs of athletes. A multidisciplinary team of physicians is necessary to treat college athletes. Most physician evaluations are for musculoskeletal injuries treated nonoperatively. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 2-year period, a database was created that recorded information on team physician encounters with intercollegiate athletes at a major university. Data on imaging studies, hospitalizations, and surgeries were also recorded. The diagnoses for physician encounters with all undergraduates through the university's health service were also recorded. More initial athlete evaluations were for musculoskeletal diagnoses (73%) than for general medical diagnoses (27%) (P respiratory infections and dermatologic disorders, or multiple visits for concussions. Football accounted for 22% of all physician encounters, more than any other sport (P athletes did not require a greater number of physician encounters than did the general undergraduate pool of students on a per capita basis. Intercollegiate team physicians primarily treat musculoskeletal injuries that do not require surgery. General medical care is often single evaluations of common conditions and repeat evaluations for concussions.

  12. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  13. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  14. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  15. Injured Athletes' Perceived Loss of Identity: Educational Implications for Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…

  16. The Impact of Athletic Facilities on the Recruitment of Potential Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ray; Messenger, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that athletic facilities and other college choice factors have on the recruitment of student-athletes to play Division I college hockey compared to the influence of other college choice factors. Although athletic facilities and their seeming importance in the recruitment of top level student-athletes are…

  17. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Buckley, Thomas A; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a public health problem, especially among student-athletes. Whereas most concussions resolve by 2 weeks, a minority of patients experience postconcussion syndrome (PCS), in which symptoms persist for months. The objective of this study was to elucidate factors predictive of PCS among a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in the academic years 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. METHODS The SRC data originated from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) in the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic seasons. The NCAA ISP is a prospective database made up of a convenience sample of schools across all divisions. All SRCs are reported by certified athletic trainers. The PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks. The non-PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with symptom resolution in ≤ 2 weeks. Those with symptoms that resolved in the intermediate area of 2-4 weeks were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS During the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons, 1507 NCAA student-athletes sustained an SRC, 112 (7.4%) of whom developed PCS (i.e., concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks). Men's ice hockey contributed the largest proportion of concussions to the PCS group (28.6%), whereas men's football contributed the largest proportion of concussions in the non-PCS group (38.6%). In multivariate analysis, recurrent concussion was associated with increased odds of PCS (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28-3.36). Concussion symptoms that were also associated with increased odds of PCS included retrograde amnesia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.34-5.64), difficulty concentrating (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.23-4.50), sensitivity to light (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57), and insomnia (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.30-3.68). Contact level, sex, and loss of consciousness were not associated with PCS. CONCLUSIONS Postconcussion syndrome

  18. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  19. Exploring Touch Communication Between Coaches and Athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    influential relational and emotional components (closeness, commitment, complementarity and .... of coaches and athletes, it is critical to understand how coaches and athletes .... relationship members in general are motivated to achieve and ...

  20. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)