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Sample records for school cohesion scale

  1. Reliability and validity of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion Scale in a sample of Salvadoran secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrivillaga Marcela

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982 completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales. Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001 and illicit drug use (p Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on

  2. School social cohesion, student-school connectedness, and bullying in Colombian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Cuevas Jaramillo, Maria Clara; Ortiz Gómez, Yamileth; Case, Katie; Wilkinson, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Student-school connectedness is inversely associated with multiple health risk behaviors, yet research is limited on the relative contributions of a student's connectedness with school and an overall context of school social cohesion to peer victimization/bullying. We examined associations of perceived school cohesion and student-school connectedness with physical victimization, verbal victimization, and social exclusion in the past six months in adolescents in grades 6-11 (N = 774) attending 11 public and private urban schools in Colombia. Cross-sectional data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using mixed-effects linear regression models. Higher perceived school cohesion was inversely related with exposure to three bullying types examined (p verbal victimization among girls only (p bullying types after controlling for student-school connectedness (p ≤ 0.05). Enhancing school cohesion may hold benefits for bullying prevention beyond a student's individual school connectedness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Multi-level aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils' feelings of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. AIMS. To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social cohesion between and within schools, in order to explain a pupil's feelings of safety at school. SAMPLES. Data were collected aided by a national Dutch survey in secondary education carried out via the Internet. In 2008, digital questionnaires were completed by about 78,800 pupils, 6,200 teachers and educational support staff, and 600 school managers. METHODS. Data were checked for reliability and representativity. Social cohesion was indicated by self-reported measures of individual pupils and by aggregating scale and item scores of school managers, teachers, and other support staff within schools. Multi-level analysis using individual pupil data and school-level data was performed using MLwiN. RESULTS. A pupil's age, educational attainment level, experience of mild physical violence, prosocial rules of conduct and joint control of these rules, and school measures against playing truant, show positive influences on a pupil's feelings of safety at school. Negative influences are exerted by not feeling most at home in The Netherlands, peers taking drugs and weapons into school, and by experiencing social violence, severe physical violence, and sexual violence. Negative school effects exist simultaneously in severe physical violence experienced by teachers and other staff, and in curriculum differentiation applied by teachers and other staff; a positive school effect is school size. Some interaction effects between pupil and school-level variables were explored. CONCLUSIONS. The variance at school level is relatively low compared with the variance at pupil level. However, a much higher percentage of variance at school level than at

  4. School social fragmentation, economic deprivation and social cohesion and adolescent physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

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    Pabayo, Roman; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered every year between 2002 and 2008 among n = 14,924 students aged 12 to 18 from a sample of 70 schools. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Multilevel modeling was utilized to account for the clustering of students within schools. Schools were categorized as being low, moderate or high economic deprivation, social fragmentation and social cohesion. Those who indicated that they do no participate in any physical activity during the week were identified as being physically inactive. In baseline multilevel cross-sectional analyses, adolescents attending schools in the highest (compared to the lowest) levels of socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation were more likely to be physically inactive (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.72; and OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.98, 1.56, respectively). Conversely, students attending schools with the highest cohesion were less likely to be physically inactive (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.99). In longitudinal analysis, physically active students who attended schools with the highest social fragmentation were more likely to become physically inactive over two years (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.51). The school socioeconomic environment appears to be an important contextual influence on participation in no physical activity among adolescents. Following adolescents beyond two years is necessary to determine if these environments have a lasting effect on physical activity behavior.

  5. Influence of Sediment Cohesion on Deltaic Morphodynamics and Stratigraphy Over Basin-Filling Time Scales

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    Li, Qi; Matthew Benson, W.; Harlan, Margaret; Robichaux, Patrick; Sha, Xiaoyu; Xu, Kehui; Straub, Kyle M.

    2017-10-01

    Results from physical and numerical experiments suggest that sediment cohesion influences deltaic morphodynamics by promoting the development and maintenance of channels. As a result, cohesion is thought to increase the magnitude and time scales of internally generated (autogenic) processes and the dimensions of their stratigraphic products. We test these hypotheses by examining the surface processes and stratigraphic products from a suite of physical experiments where the influence of cohesion is isolated over temporal and spatial scales important for basin filling. Given the stochastic nature of autogenic sediment transport processes, we develop and employ a range of statistical tools and metrics. We observe that (1) an increase in sediment cohesion decreases lateral channel mobility and thus increases the time necessary to regrade deltaic surfaces; (2) enhanced channelization, due to sediment cohesion, increases the time necessary for the deposits of autogenic processes to average together and produce stratigraphic products with shapes set by the generation of regional accommodation; (3) cohesion promotes the transport of suspended sediment to terrestrial overbank and marine environments, which decreases the volume of channel, relative to overbank and marine deposits in the stratigraphic record. This increase in overbank and marine deposition changes the spatial distribution of sand in stratigraphy, with higher cohesion linked to enhanced segregation of fine particles from coarse sand in the experimental deposits. Combined, these results illustrate how the cohesion of sediment is fundamental in setting autogenic spatial and temporal scales and needs to be considered when inverting stratigraphic architecture for paleo-environmental history.

  6. Small-Scale Sounding Tests on Soft Saturated Cohesive Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kessel, T.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledgeof the yield strength of subaqueous sediment beds is essential to calculate their sensitivity to erosion and failure. Also for dredging operations yield strength is a parameter of the utmost importance. This report describes measurements of the yield strength profiles of cohesive sediment

  7. Does Decentralisation Enhance a School's Role of Promoting Social Cohesion? Bosnian School Leaders' Perceptions of School Governance

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    Komatsu, Taro

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand whether and how decentralised school governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enhances the schools' role of promoting social cohesion. This includes increasing "horizontal" trust among different ethnic groups and "vertical" trust between civilians and public institutes. The study examined…

  8. Explaining Teacher Turnover: School Cohesion and Intrinsic Motivation in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Waite, Anisah; Irribarra, David Torres

    2016-01-01

    Lifting achievement in many schools depends on reducing the exit of effective teachers. We examine the extent to which teacher perceptions of school cohesion and intrinsic motivators stemming from two theoretical traditions contribute to the intent to leave one's school. We find that elementary teachers report higher levels of organizational…

  9. Multi-Level Aspects of Social Cohesion of Secondary Schools and Pupils' Feelings of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Background: School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. Aims: To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social…

  10. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former House of Delegates school

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    Ramodungoane Tabane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal of creating a non-racial and equitable school environment is embedded in the South African Constitution. This ideal is informed by a desire to overcome the divisions of the apartheid past by pursuing policies and strategies that will promote the achievement of social cohesion, without denying space for various identities. Schools are seen as important vehicles for driving social cohesion amongst learners and it is therefore important that all learners, irrespective of their race, experience a sense of belonging in the school. Using a case study and an interactive qualitative analysis research methodology, we explored the experiences of black and Indian learners in a desegregated former House of Delegates school to determine the successes and possible challenges of ensuring racial integration at the school level and therefore its contribution to social cohesion. The study demonstrates the importance of eight concepts (namely, the school as a welcoming space; belonging; respect; security; equality in the way we socialise; tender loving care; motivation; and freedom to the study of racial integration and social cohesion. This article focuses on the contribution that sense of belonging has on creating a school environment that is enabling, contributing to learner achievement and concludes that sense of belonging, integration, and social cohesion are intertwined and important in creating an environment that is welcoming and a "home" to diverse learners and educators.

  11. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion

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    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  12. Sense of Belonging and Social Cohesion in a Desegregated Former House of Delegates School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabane, Ramodungoane; Human-Vogel, Salome

    2010-01-01

    The ideal of creating a non-racial and equitable school environment is embedded in the South African Constitution. This ideal is informed by a desire to overcome the divisions of the apartheid past by pursuing policies and strategies that will promote the achievement of social cohesion, without denying space for various identities. Schools are…

  13. Multilevel aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils’ feelings of safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; De Wit, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    Mooij, T., Smeets, E., & De Wit, W. (2011). Multi-level aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils’ feelings of safety. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 369-390. doi:10.1348/000709910X526614

  14. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

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    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  15. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

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    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  16. TEACHERS AS AGENTS OF CHANGE: PROMOTING PEACEBUILDING AND SOCIAL COHESION IN SCHOOLS IN RWANDA

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    Jolly Rubagiza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education is seen to play a crucial role in the reconstruction of post-conflict countries, particularly in transforming people’s mindsets and rebuilding social relations. In this regard, teachers are often perceived as key agents to bring about this transformative change through their role as agents of peace. This paper seeks to understand how teachers are positioned to promote peacebuilding and social cohesion in Rwandan schools in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi. The paper draws on data collected for an on-going broader study researching the role of teachers in peacebuilding in post-conflict contexts of Rwanda and South Africa. The methods used for data collection were semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions, questionnaires and classroom observations. Theoretically the paper is informed by the broader research framework on sustainable peacebuilding in post-conflict situations, using the four dimensions of recognition, redistribution, representation and reconciliation (4Rs. The findings show that the policy environment is conducive to peacebuilding and recognises the important role of teachers and education in general, in the social, political and economic reconstruction of post-genocide Rwanda. However, there are a number of inter-related factors that pertain to teachers’ professional development, teacher management and the school environment that pose challenges to sustainable peacebuilding and social cohesion.

  17. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10 year old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure...

  18. Does Parents' Social Cohesion Influence Their Perception of Neighborhood Safety and Their Children's Active Commuting to and From School?

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    Salahuddin, Meliha; Nehme, Eileen; Ranjit, Nalini; Kim, Young-Jae; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Dowdy, Diane; Lee, Chanam; Ory, Marcia; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2016-12-01

    The role of parents' perceptions of the neighborhood environment in determining children's active commuting to and from school (ACS) is understudied. This study examined the association between parents' perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion, perceived neighborhood safety, and their children's ACS. This cross-sectional analysis (n = 857 from 81 elementary schools in Texas) examined baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project. Participants had a mean age of 9.6 (0.6) years, and 50% were girls. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to assess gender-stratified associations between parent's perceived social cohesion and children's ACS and their perception of neighborhood safety. A positive significant association was observed between levels of perceived social cohesion and children's ACS for boys (P = 0.047); however, an inverse significant association was observed among girls (P = 0.033). Parents of boys living in neighborhoods with medium to high social cohesion were more likely to perceive their neighborhood as safe compared with parents living in neighborhoods with low social cohesion, though nonsignificant. Perceived neighborhood safety for walking and biking was associated with greater ACS among boys (P = 0.003). Our study findings indicate that both social and physical environments are important factors in determining ACS among boys.

  19. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  20. Scaling laws for the mechanics of loose and cohesive granular materials based on Baxter's sticky hard spheres.

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    Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Tan, Shurun; Tsang, Leung

    2017-09-01

    We have conducted discrete element simulations (pfc3d) of very loose, cohesive, granular assemblies with initial configurations which are drawn from Baxter's sticky hard sphere (SHS) ensemble. The SHS model is employed as a promising auxiliary means to independently control the coordination number z_{c} of cohesive contacts and particle volume fraction ϕ of the initial states. We focus on discerning the role of z_{c} and ϕ for the elastic modulus, failure strength, and the plastic consolidation line under quasistatic, uniaxial compression. We find scaling behavior of the modulus and the strength, which both scale with the cohesive contact density ν_{c}=z_{c}ϕ of the initial state according to a power law. In contrast, the behavior of the plastic consolidation curve is shown to be independent of the initial conditions. Our results show the primary control of the initial contact density on the mechanics of cohesive granular materials for small deformations, which can be conveniently, but not exclusively explored within the SHS-based assembling procedure.

  1. A Molecular-Scale Understanding of Cohesion and Fracture in P3HT:Fullerene Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-04-21

    Quantifying cohesion and understanding fracture phenomena in thin-film electronic devices are necessary for improved materials design and processing criteria. For organic photovoltaics (OPVs), the cohesion of the photoactive layer portends its mechanical flexibility, reliability, and lifetime. Here, the molecular mechanism for the initiation of cohesive failure in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OPV active layers derived from the semiconducting polymer poly-(3-hexylthiophene) [P3HT] and two mono-substituted fullerenes is examined experimentally and through molecular-dynamics simulations. The results detail how, under identical conditions, cohesion significantly changes due to minor variations in the fullerene adduct functionality, an important materials consideration that needs to be taken into account across fields where soluble fullerene derivatives are used.

  2. Displacement, county social cohesion, and depression after a large-scale traumatic event.

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    Lê, Félice; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a common and potentially debilitating consequence of traumatic events. Mass traumatic events cause wide-ranging disruptions to community characteristics, influencing the population risk of depression. In the aftermath of such events, population displacement is common. Stressors associated with displacement may increase risk of depression directly. Indirectly, persons who are displaced may experience erosion in social cohesion, further exacerbating their risk for depression. Using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi (N = 708), we modeled the independent and joint relations of displacement and county-level social cohesion with depression 18-24 months after Hurricane Katrina. After adjustment for individual- and county-level socio-demographic characteristics and county-level hurricane exposure, joint exposure to both displacement and low social cohesion was associated with substantially higher log-odds of depression (b = 1.34 [0.86-1.83]). Associations were much weaker for exposure only to low social cohesion (b = 0.28 [-0.35-0.90]) or only to displacement (b = 0.04 [-0.80-0.88]). The associations were robust to additional adjustment for individually perceived social cohesion and social support. Addressing the multiple, simultaneous disruptions that are a hallmark of mass traumatic events is important to identify vulnerable populations and understand the psychological ramifications of these events.

  3. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws in materials undergoing large scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of determining cohesive laws by the J-integral approach for materials having non-linear stress-strain behaviour (e.g. polymers and composites) by the use of a DCB sandwich specimen, consisting of stiff elastic beams bonded to the non-linear test material, loaded with pure...... bending moments. For a wide range of parameters of the non-linear material, the plastic unloading during crack extension is small, resulting in J integral values (fracture resistance) that deviate maximum 15% from the work of the cohesive traction. Thus the method can be used to extract the cohesive laws...... directly from experiments without any presumption about their shape. Finally, the DCB sandwich specimen was also analysed using the I integral to quantify the overestimation of the steady-state fracture resistance obtained using the J integral based method....

  4. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws under large-scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to obtain the mode I cohesive law of elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The approach is based on the validity of the J integral for materials having a non-linear stress-strain relationship without...

  5. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws under large-scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    unloading of any material point. This assumption is not met exactly as there is a small where the material unloads. To examine the error of the method, a numerical parameter study is performed for a wide range of material and specimen parameters. The error of the method is below 16% and thus the method can......A method is developed to obtain the mode I cohesive law of elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The approach is based on the validity of the J integral for materials having a non-linear stress-strain relationship without...

  6. Does emotional intelligence change during medical school gross anatomy course? Correlations with students' performance and team cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A; Porter, Samuel G; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Individual EI scores were then compared with composite course performance grade and team cohesion survey results. Mean pre-course EI score was 140.3 out of a possible 160. During the course, mean individual EI scores did not change significantly (P = 0.17) and no correlation between EI scores and academic performance was noted (P = 0.31). In addition, EI did not correlate with team cohesion (P = 0.16). While business has found significant utility for EI in increasing performance and productivity, its role in medical education is still uncertain. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Creating Cohesive Citizens in England? Exploring the Role of Diversity, Deprivation and Democratic Climate at School

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    Keating, Avril; Benton, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, cohesion and integration have been a key concern for policymakers in countries across Europe and North America. The rapid increase in immigration, coupled with the perception of rapid social change and instability, is seen to have presented communities and governments with a range of "new" challenges. In the…

  8. Predictive Power of Family Cohesion and Flexibility on Children’s’ Self - Esteem and Happiness in Female High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

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    S Jahedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ‌Background & aim: The role of family in shaping affective and cognitive characteristics of children, especially girls, who the future health of community depends on their mental health, is evident. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of family cohesion and flexibility on self-esteem and happiness of children in high school girl students in Shiraz. Methods: In the present correlational study design, 303 cases of Shiraz secondary girl students who lived with their parents were chosen through the multistage random cluster sampling method. They responded to questionnaires for consistency of family, positives flexibility, Cooper Smith Self-esteem and Oxford Happiness scale. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Results Family consistency had significant positive power predictive for criterion variables self-esteem and happiness (p <0.05, whereas the flexibility had no such significance. Conclusion: Quality of operation of parents, communication and interaction in family life is one of the best determinants of behavior, health and well-being of children, including their self-esteem and happiness. Key words: Family cohesion, Family flexibility, Self-esteem, Happiness, Child

  9. "People at the Heart of Our Processes", a Case Study of How a Nursery School and Children's Centre Promotes Community Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan Bio, Martine

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a doctoral case study of how an English integrated nursery school and children's centre fulfils its legal duty to promote community cohesion. The provocation for the enquiry derives from the author's growing unease over the perceived limitations of a target-driven culture currently pervading English schools. A case is made…

  10. On the cohesion of fluids and their adhesion to solids: Young's equation at the atomic scale.

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    Fernandez-Toledano, J-C; Blake, T D; Lambert, P; De Coninck, J

    2017-07-01

    Using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we model a 9.2nm liquid bridge between two solid plates having a regular hexagonal lattice and analyse the forces acting at the various interfaces for a range of liquid-solid interactions. Our objective is to study the mechanical equilibrium of the system, especially that at the three-phase contact line. We confirm previous MD studies that have shown that the internal pressure inside the liquid is given precisely by the Laplace contribution and that the solid exerts a global force at the contact line in agreement with Young's equation, validating it down to the nanometre scale, which we quantify. In addition, we confirm that the force exerted by the liquid on the solid has the expected normal component equal to γ lv sinθ 0 , where γ lv is the surface tension of the liquid and θ 0 is the equilibrium contact angle measured on the scale of the meniscus. Recent thermodynamic arguments predict that the tangential force exerted by the liquid on the solid should be equal to the work of adhesion expressed as Wa 0 =γ lv (1+cosθ 0 ). However, we find that this is true only when any layering of the liquid molecules close to liquid-solid interface is negligible. The force significantly exceeds this value when strong layering is present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cohesion, flexibility, communication and socioeconomic status of families and cognitive development in preschool and early school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Zalewska-Łunkiewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: According to David H. Olson’s circumplex model of family systems, there are particular dimensions that form the basis for good adaptation and growth, namely flexibility, cohesion, communication and family life satisfaction. The study explores the connections between these dimensions of family functioning, socioeconomic status of the family and educational achievements (reading, writing and numeracy skills of preschool and early school-age children. Method: The subjects were 105 children, aged 5–6, and 105 parents of these children from the Silesian region in Poland. The parents filled out Family Rating Scales – Skale Oceny Rodziny, SOR (Margasiński, 2009, i.e. the Polish adaptation of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale known as FACES IV (Olson and Gorall, 2006, and demographic questions to assess the family’s socioeconomic status (SES. The children completed a computer-adaptive test of school ability at the start of school (Test Umiejętności na Starcie Szkolnym, TUNSS, Kaczan and Rycielski, 2014. Results: Multivariate structural equation modeling (SEM was performed, confirming both SES and SOR to influence the children’s level of school skills at the start of school. The children’s age (expressed in months presented as an important variable in the model. These factors explain 78% of variance of early school abilities. The number of books and mother’s education level were found to be the variables the most closely linked to school abilities amongst the SES factors. Children with a balanced family system background reached better scores in school abilities than children from unbalanced family systems.

  12. Scale & Care: Charter Schools & New Urbanism.

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    Garber, Michael P.; Anderson, R. John; DiGiovanni, Thomas G.

    The Charter School movement combined with New Urbanist designers have uncovered the importance of scale in creating school environments that are more responsive to the needs of children. This paper examines the possibilities for mutual benefit for school and community by integrating school-building into the new urbanist tool kit. The discussion…

  13. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple factor structures were found for both teacher- and classroom assistant–rated scales, with one-factor solutions for both scales. Paired t tests revealed that on average, classroom assistants rated classroom cohesion stronger than teachers. The CCS may be an effective tool for measuring cohesion between classroom staff and may have an important impact on various clinical and implementation outcomes in school settings. PMID:26213443

  14. The relationship between social, policy and physical venue features and social cohesion on condom use for pregnancy prevention among sex workers: a safer indoor work environment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to report on a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale that characterises the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers' (SWs') condom use for pregnancy prevention. Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale was used to build six multivariable models with generalised estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and physical venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17), access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.28) and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.29). The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalisation of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (eg, legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  16. A J integral based method to measure fracture resistance and cohesive laws in materials exhibiting large scale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    A method is developed to extract the fracture resistance and mode I cohesive law of nonlinear elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The method is based on the J integral which is valid for materials having a non-linear s......A method is developed to extract the fracture resistance and mode I cohesive law of nonlinear elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The method is based on the J integral which is valid for materials having a non...

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  18. Towards a Cohesive Theory of Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McLeod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom suggests that group cohesion is strongly related to performance. This may be based on the notion that better cohesion leads to the sharing of group goals. However, empirical and meta-analytic studies have been unable to consistently demonstrate a relationship between cohesion and performance. Partially, this problem could be attributed to the disagreement on the precise definition of cohesion and its components. Further, when the cohesion construct is evaluated under Cohen’s Cumulative Research Program (CRP, it is surprisingly found to belong to the category of early-to-intermediate stage of theory development. Therefore, a thorough re-examination of the cohesion construct is essential to advance our understanding of the cohesion-productivity relationship. We propose a qualitative approach because it will help establish the definitions, enable us to better test our theories about cohesion and its moderators, and provide insights into how best to enlist cohesion to improve team performance.

  19. Understanding Cohesion in English

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Morijiro

    1981-01-01

    Cohesion is Hasan's term. The concept of cohesion, however, is not well-formed and its mechanism is still to be studied. In this paper, the author says: 1. Both cohesion and a tie are semantic concepts. 2. Cohesion in a text is a set of ties between sentences. Based on the definitions, the author discusses the formal and lexicogrammatical factors which generate cohesion.

  20. Economies of Scale and Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholkes, Robert J.; Sederberg, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Economies of scale frequently have been advanced as a rationale for rural school consolidation. This article defines the economies of scale principle; describes its application to public education; and reviews selected studies, 1959-86, from a rural education perspective. Notes the possible overstatement of economics of scale in some studies.…

  1. Cohesion policy contributing to territorial cohesion : Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.; Peyrony, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discusses the present and uncertain future of EU Cohesion policy. The Barca Report argues for all developmental policies, including EU Cohesion policy, to be place-based. This makes for territorial cohesion becoming an important element in the equation. Territory is after all the

  2. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  3. Investigating Some Technical Issues on Cohesive Zone Modeling of Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates some technical issues related to the use of cohesive zone models (CZMs) in modeling fracture processes. These issues include: why cohesive laws of different shapes can produce similar fracture predictions; under what conditions CZM predictions have a high degree of agreement with linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis results; when the shape of cohesive laws becomes important in the fracture predictions; and why the opening profile along the cohesive zone length needs to be accurately predicted. Two cohesive models were used in this study to address these technical issues. They are the linear softening cohesive model and the Dugdale perfectly plastic cohesive model. Each cohesive model constitutes five cohesive laws of different maximum tractions. All cohesive laws have the same cohesive work rate (CWR) which is defined by the area under the traction-separation curve. The effects of the maximum traction on the cohesive zone length and the critical remote applied stress are investigated for both models. For a CZM to predict a fracture load similar to that obtained by an LEFM analysis, the cohesive zone length needs to be much smaller than the crack length, which reflects the small scale yielding condition requirement for LEFM analysis to be valid. For large-scale cohesive zone cases, the predicted critical remote applied stresses depend on the shape of cohesive models used and can significantly deviate from LEFM results. Furthermore, this study also reveals the importance of accurately predicting the cohesive zone profile in determining the critical remote applied load.

  4. Social Isolation and Social Cohesion: The Effects of K-12 Neighborhood and School Segregation on Intergroup Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Gonzalez, Amaryllis Del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The United States is becoming increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, and increasingly racially isolated across race-ethnic boundaries. Researchers have argued that both diversity and racial isolation serve to undermine the social cohesion needed to bind American citizens to one another and to society at large. Focus of…

  5. Learning to do well or learning to do good? Estimating the effects of schooling on civic engagement, social cohesion, and labor market outcomes in the presence of endowments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R

    2012-03-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors ("endowments") influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling may

  6. Cohesive Devices In EFL Students’ Expository Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nurcholish Adiantika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the use of cohesive devices in students’ expository writing. In particular, the study focuses on types of cohesive device used by the students and how cohesive devices contribute to their writing. This study employs qualitative research through a case study design. Public senior high school in Kuningan is chosen as the site for this study. Nine students of twelfth grade are involved in the study as the respondents. Documents of nine students’ expository writings are the data of this study. The data are analyzed by using the concept of cohesive devices proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976 which covers reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. Analyses show that the respondents only use four cohesive devices in their writing i.e. reference, substitution, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. These devices also contribute to the process of keeping track of the participants, avoiding repetition and text redundancy, enhancing logical connection between parts of text, and engaging the readers to the core argument of the text. The study infers that it is still problematic although most of the students apply many cohesive devices in their writing. This is because students have not received sufficient training concerning how to use appropriate cohesive devices. Therefore, they should be guided to utilize appropriate cohesive devices in their writing.

  7. Introducing Large-Scale Innovation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Riviou, Katherina; Cherouvis, Stephanos; Chelioti, Eleni; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-08-01

    Education reform initiatives tend to promise higher effectiveness in classrooms especially when emphasis is given to e-learning and digital resources. Practical changes in classroom realities or school organization, however, are lacking. A major European initiative entitled Open Discovery Space (ODS) examined the challenge of modernizing school education via a large-scale implementation of an open-scale methodology in using technology-supported innovation. The present paper describes this innovation scheme which involved schools and teachers all over Europe, embedded technology-enhanced learning into wider school environments and provided training to teachers. Our implementation scheme consisted of three phases: (1) stimulating interest, (2) incorporating the innovation into school settings and (3) accelerating the implementation of the innovation. The scheme's impact was monitored for a school year using five indicators: leadership and vision building, ICT in the curriculum, development of ICT culture, professional development support, and school resources and infrastructure. Based on about 400 schools, our study produced four results: (1) The growth in digital maturity was substantial, even for previously high scoring schools. This was even more important for indicators such as vision and leadership" and "professional development." (2) The evolution of networking is presented graphically, showing the gradual growth of connections achieved. (3) These communities became core nodes, involving numerous teachers in sharing educational content and experiences: One out of three registered users (36 %) has shared his/her educational resources in at least one community. (4) Satisfaction scores ranged from 76 % (offer of useful support through teacher academies) to 87 % (good environment to exchange best practices). Initiatives such as ODS add substantial value to schools on a large scale.

  8. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  9. The Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Group Cohesiveness and Workplace Deviance Behavior of Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Çigdem; Sirin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a structural model for organizational citizenship behavior, group cohesiveness and workplace deviance behavior. The study group consists of 639 Turkish teachers working in primary and secondary public schools. In the study, the "Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale" and the "Group Cohesiveness…

  10. Capabilities and social cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Lanzi

    2011-01-01

    The paper connects the concepts of well-being and social cohesion. By using Sen's capability approach to well-being, and analysing the socio-psychological literature on cohesiveness in groups and communities, we explain when social cohesion has positive effects on the development of social capabilities and human well-being. Furthermore, we discuss cases and conditions in which stronger social cohesion may delay the achievement of the kind of goals Sen has in mind. Finally, we suggest a multid...

  11. Validation of the Perceived School Bullying Severity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li Ming; Liu, Kun Shia; Cheng, Ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Research on school bullying has tended to focus on its prevalence or frequency while ignoring its perceived severity. This study attempted to construct a perceived School Bullying Severity Scale (SBSS). The original 24-item instrument, revised from the Victim Scale of the School Bullying Scales, covered the four categories of physical, verbal,…

  12. Scale Economies in Public Education: Evidence from School Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Bosworth, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Begins with a discussion of cost and efficiency in education. Presents an empirical model to estimate school-level economies of scale. Applies model to expenditure data set by school from 17 Wyoming school districts. Finds that it costs more per student in a small school than in large schools to achieve similar educational outcomes, thus…

  13. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...... the nature of the cohesive sediment with respect to the transport processes is presented. In addition, the flocculation process and the rheological behaviour of cohesive sediments is outlined. The second part contains the laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments were conducted with respect...

  14. Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Iain

    2009-01-01

    When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

  15. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  16. Social cohesion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nol Reverda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the current discussions and policies towards social exclusion and cohesion in Europe. In a first section will briefly be identified how the wording in the social work discourse changed from originally the thinking in terms of poverty to the ideas of social cohesion nowadays.

  17. Development of Universal Values in School Management Scale (UVISMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Current study aims to develop a scale to identify the universal values of school administrators in school management. In order to develop the scale, academic resources were reviewed and a 40-item draft data collection instrument was created by taking the views and suggestions of 5 school administrators, 5 academicians and 5 education inspectors…

  18. Comparison of family functioning in families of depressed patients and nonclinical control families in China using the Family Assessment Device and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Na; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Liang, Su-gai; SiTu, Ming-jing; Huang, Yi; Mansfield, Abigail K; Keitner, Gabor

    2014-02-01

    Family functioning influences the course and long-term outcome for patients with depression. It is important to understand the family functioning of depressed patients from the viewpoint both of patients and their family members. The objective of this study was to explore the association between family functioning and depression in a sample of Chinese families, using the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II (FACES II). This study was conducted in a sample of 61 depressed patients and their family members and 61 nonclinical controls in mainland China. It compared the perception of depressed patients and their family members and evaluated agreement between family members. Results indicate that in mainland China, functioning among families with a depressed family member is poorer than that of control families. Depressed patients reported less satisfaction than did their family members. There were significant differences on 4 of the 7 FAD scales among depressed patients and their family members, whereas no discrepancies were found on the FACES II. For the FAD, low agreement between patients and family members was found on all scales except behavioral control. Moderate agreement appeared on all dimensions of FACES II except for ideal cohesion and dissatisfaction with cohesion for the families of depressed patients. Depression is associated with impaired family functioning in families in mainland China. When applying the FAD and FACES II to samples of Chinese families, clinicians should be aware that the FAD may be more sensitive to detecting problems in some areas than the FACES II.

  19. Personality scale validities increase throughout medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Ones, Deniz S; Dilchert, Stephan

    2009-11-01

    Admissions and personnel decisions rely on stable predictor-criterion relationships. The authors studied the validity of Big Five personality factors and their facets for predicting academic performance in medical school across multiple years, investigating whether criterion-related validities change over time. In this longitudinal investigation, an entire European country's 1997 cohort of medical students was studied throughout their medical school career (Year 1, N = 627; Year 7, N = 306). Over time, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness factor and facet scale scores showed increases in operational validity for predicting grade point averages. Although there may not be any advantages to being open and extraverted for early academic performance, these traits gain importance for later academic performance when applied practice increasingly plays a part in the curriculum. Conscientiousness, perhaps more than any other personality trait, appears to be an increasing asset for medical students: Operational validities of conscientiousness increased from .18 to .45. In assessing the utility of personality measures, relying on early criteria might underestimate the predictive value of personality variables. Implications for personality measures to predict work performance are discussed.

  20. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  1. Sustainability of National Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mihai Cristea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, cohesion policy is the third country after the domestic and social policy, as this policy is a tool for economic growth and also a balancing factor. Through its solidarity funds contribute to the other sectorial policies: the Common Agricultural Policy, social policy, environmental policy. This article aims to demonstrate the importance of cohesion policy in the national economy and how to improve its implementation by ensuring sustainable development and sustainable economic growth

  2. The Development of the Perceived School Experiences Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Amorose, Anthony; Iachini, Aidyn; Ball, Annahita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes two studies related to the development of the Perceived School Experiences Scale (PSES). The PSES may be used by social workers to assess youths' perceptions of three school-related protective factors, including school connectedness, academic press, and academic motivation. Method: In Study 1, exploratory and…

  3. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  4. Cohesive Referencing Errors During Narrative Production as Clinical Evidence of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-11-01

    Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender. Group performance was compared. The associations between measures of cohesive referencing and clinically gathered indices of the degree of central nervous system abnormality were examined. Results show clear associations between elevated rates of cohesive referencing errors and central nervous system abnormality. Elevated error rates were more common in children with FASD than those without, and prevalence increased predictably across groups with more severe central nervous system abnormality. Risk is particularly elevated for those with microcephaly or a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Cohesive referencing errors during narrative are a viable behavioral marker of the kinds of central nervous system abnormality associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, having significant potential to become a valuable diagnostic and research tool.

  5. 家長網路管教、學校投入與青少年危險網路行為之關係:家庭凝聚力之調節效果分析 Relationships Between Parental Internet Intervention, School Engagement, and Risky Online Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Moderatoring Role of Family Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林漢唐 Han-Tang Lin

    2016-12-01

    also tested as a moderator in the relationship between parental Internet intervention and risky online behavior. The participants of this study were 1,006 junior high school students in Taiwan, and included participants from offshore islands. Self-made scales were used, namely the Risky Online Behavior Scale, Parental Internet Intervention Scale, Family Cohesion Scale, and School Engagement Scale. The main findings of the study are as follows: (1 Nearly half of adolescents showed at least one online risky behavior; (2 Upper grade students scored higher than lower grade students in all types of risky online behaviors; (3 Smartphone owners showed higher levels of risky online behaviors in passive cyberbullying, making Internet friends, Internet stickiness addiction, online pornography, and online privacy intrusion than nonowners did; (4 Risky online behavior was associated significantly with parental monitoring, behavioral disengagement, and emotional disaffection in school; (5 Significant and negative relationships were found between parental restriction, family cohesion, behavioral engagement and emotional engagement in school, and online risky behavior; (6 The strongest predictor for adolescent risky online behavior was school disaffection, followed by parental monitoring, restriction, and family cohesion; (7 The relationships between parental Internet intervention, school engagement, and risky online behaviors among adolescents were moderated by family cohesion. On the basis of the findings of this study, suggestions are presented for schools, families, and future research.

  6. 家長網路管教、學校投入與青少年危險網路行為之關係:家庭凝聚力之調節效果分析 Relationships Between Parental Internet Intervention, School Engagement, and Risky Online Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Moderatoring Role of Family Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林漢唐 Han-Tang Lin

    2016-12-01

    also tested as a moderator in the relationship between parental Internet intervention and risky online behavior. The participants of this study were 1,006 junior high school students in Taiwan, and included participants from offshore islands. Self-made scales were used, namely the Risky Online Behavior Scale, Parental Internet Intervention Scale, Family Cohesion Scale, and School Engagement Scale. The main findings of the study are as follows: (1 Nearly half of adolescents showed at least one online risky behavior; (2 Upper grade students scored higher than lower grade students in all types of risky online behaviors; (3 Smartphone owners showed higher levels of risky online behaviors in passive cyberbullying, making Internet friends, Internet stickiness addiction, online pornography, and online privacy intrusion than nonowners did; (4 Risky online behavior was associated significantly with parental monitoring, behavioral disengagement, and emotional disaffection in school; (5 Significant and negative relationships were found between parental restriction, family cohesion, behavioral engagement and emotional engagement in school, and online risky behavior; (6 The strongest predictor for adolescent risky online behavior was school disaffection, followed by parental monitoring, restriction, and family cohesion; (7 The relationships between parental Internet intervention, school engagement, and risky online behaviors among adolescents were moderated by family cohesion. On the basis of the findings of this study, suggestions are presented for schools, families, and future research.

  7. Mixing Metaphors: Building Infrastructure for Large Scale School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Neumerski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to increase understanding of the possibilities and challenges of building educational infrastructure--the basic, foundational structures, systems, and resources--to support large-scale school turnaround. Building educational infrastructure often exceeds the capacity of schools, districts, and state education…

  8. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rafael Jaimes; Berger, Nicolas; Izard, Edouard; Douce, Jean-François; Koltsov, Alexey; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azema, Emilien; Nezamabadi, Saeid; van Loo, Frédéric; Pellenq, Roland; Radjai, Farhang

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite) granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  9. KIPP Schools Shift Strategy for Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    The author reports how the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP), a widely touted network of mostly charter schools that targets low-income communities, is adjusting both its growth and leadership-training strategies as it ramps up its work around the country. As part of those changes, the San Francisco-based nonprofit organization the week of April…

  10. Examining Economies of Scale in School Consolidation: Assessment of Indiana School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Timothy; DeBoer, Larry; Hirth, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for reducing costs through school district consolidation by employing economies of scale. Utilizing Indiana school district data primarily from 2004 through 2006, we find evidence for scale economies with optimal enrollment being 1,942 students, with a per pupil estimated cost at $9,414. The 95% confidence…

  11. Adhesion and Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony von Fraunhofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.

  12. Social cohesion matters in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Yang, Tzu-Hsuan

    2013-10-28

    The concept of social cohesion has invoked debate due to the vagueness of its definition and the limitations of current measurements. This paper attempts to examine the concept of social cohesion, develop measurements, and investigate the relationship between social cohesion and individual health. This study used a multilevel study design. The individual-level samples from 29 high-income countries were obtained from the 2000 World Value Survey (WVS) and the 2002 European Value Survey. National-level social cohesion statistics were obtained from Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development datasets, World Development Indicators, and Asian Development Bank key indicators for the year 2000, and from aggregating responses from the WVS. In total 47,923 individuals were included in this study. The factor analysis was applied to identify dimensions of social cohesion, which were used as entities in the cluster analysis to generate a regime typology of social cohesion. Then, multilevel regression models were applied to assess the influences of social cohesion on an individual's self-rated health. Factor analysis identified five dimensions of social cohesion: social equality, social inclusion, social development, social capital, and social diversity. Then, the cluster analysis revealed five regimes of social cohesion. A multi-level analysis showed that respondents in countries with higher social inclusion, social capital, and social diversity were more likely to report good health above and beyond individual-level characteristics. This study is an innovative effort to incorporate different aspects of social cohesion. This study suggests that social cohesion was associated with individual self-rated after controlling individual characteristics. To achieve further advancement in population health, developed countries should consider policies that would foster a society with a high level of social inclusion, social capital, and social diversity. Future research could

  13. Social cohesion matters in health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The concept of social cohesion has invoked debate due to the vagueness of its definition and the limitations of current measurements. This paper attempts to examine the concept of social cohesion, develop measurements, and investigate the relationship between social cohesion and individual health. Methods This study used a multilevel study design. The individual-level samples from 29 high-income countries were obtained from the 2000 World Value Survey (WVS) and the 2002 European Value Survey. National-level social cohesion statistics were obtained from Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development datasets, World Development Indicators, and Asian Development Bank key indicators for the year 2000, and from aggregating responses from the WVS. In total 47,923 individuals were included in this study. The factor analysis was applied to identify dimensions of social cohesion, which were used as entities in the cluster analysis to generate a regime typology of social cohesion. Then, multilevel regression models were applied to assess the influences of social cohesion on an individual’s self-rated health. Results and discussion Factor analysis identified five dimensions of social cohesion: social equality, social inclusion, social development, social capital, and social diversity. Then, the cluster analysis revealed five regimes of social cohesion. A multi-level analysis showed that respondents in countries with higher social inclusion, social capital, and social diversity were more likely to report good health above and beyond individual-level characteristics. Conclusions This study is an innovative effort to incorporate different aspects of social cohesion. This study suggests that social cohesion was associated with individual self-rated after controlling individual characteristics. To achieve further advancement in population health, developed countries should consider policies that would foster a society with a high level of social inclusion

  14. Review of Cohesion in Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi Rizi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Indexers often disagree on judging terms that best reflect the content of a document. Difference of opinion highlights one of the characteristics of indexing which is indexing cohesion. Also known as consistency, little study of the subject matter has been undertaken in the past few years. However, its importance has been recently acknowledged in effective information retrieval and expansion of access points to the document content. The present paper investigates cohesion in indexing. In addition of presenting the definitions offered by experts, it takes note of the factors influencing indexing cohesion. Methods for measuring cohesion are offered.

  15. Leadership, cohesion and groupthink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchevici Iulia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Groupthink Phenomenon refers to the tendency of the members of a group to reach solidarity and cohesion, the trend that makes to bypass any questions which would lead to disputes. In such cases, if the members expect counter-arguments regarding a certain issue, they avoid to raise the matter. If it is believed that a question cannot be answered – it isn’t asked. Originally, Janis the author of the term, explains this process through the environment that has been established within groups that are in the leading position, but later, puts a strong emphasis towards the tendency to maintain the unanimity of the decision of the group. As preceding conditions of this decision-making process are listed the following: the high cohesion of the group, its isolation from other external sources of information, the lack of an impartial leadership, lack of appropriate legal framework and procedures in the decision - making process, and also “homogeneity of members, background and their ideology”. The Groupthink is manifested by: Illusion of Invulnerability, Collective Rationalization, Illusion of morality, Out – Group Stereotypes, Strong pressures towards conformism, Self – Censorship, Illusions of unanimity, and the presence of “Mind Guards”. In order to understand the decisions of a group, it is important that some analysis of Groupthink to be done, because in this way, can be controlled or eliminated the communicational distortion that occurs at a time among members forming these groups.

  16. Document Cohesion Flow: Striving towards Coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Scott; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Allen, Laura; McNamara, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Text cohesion is an important element of discourse processing. This paper presents a new approach to modeling, quantifying, and visualizing text cohesion using automated cohesion flow indices that capture semantic links among paragraphs. Cohesion flow is calculated by applying Cohesion Network

  17. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schools are seen as im portant vehicles for driving social cohesion amongst learners and it is therefore important that all learners, irrespective of their race, experience a sense of belonging in the school. Using a case study and an interactive qualitative analysis research methodology, we explored the experiences of black ...

  18. Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

  19. Homework Emotion Regulation Scale: Psychometric Properties for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Homework Emotion Regulation Scale (HERS) using 796 middle school students in China. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the existence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HERS: Emotion Management and Cognitive Reappraisal. Concerning the…

  20. Multidimensional Scaling of High School Students' Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur; Gilbert, Kimberly A.; Silva, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Although cheating on tests and other forms of academic dishonesty are considered rampant, no standard definition of academic dishonesty exists. The current study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of academic dishonesty in high school students, utilizing an innovative methodology, multidimensional scaling (MDS). Two methods were used to…

  1. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  2. Perceived Family Cohesion Moderates Environmental Influences on Prosocial Behavior in Nigerian Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; Taylor, Jeanette; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Park, Min-Seo; Haberstick, Brett C

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that perceived family cohesion is positively related to prosocial behavior in adolescents. In this study, we investigated heritability of prosocial behavior (PB) and perceived family cohesion (FC) among Nigerian twins attending public schools in Lagos State, Nigeria (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.7 years), and explored the issue of whether children's perception of cohesive family environment moderated genetic and environmental influences on (PB). The PB scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the FC scale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III were completed by 2,376 twins (241 monozygotic (MZ) male, 354 MZ female, 440 dizygotic (DZ) male, 553 DZ female, and 788 opposite-sex DZ twins). A general sex-limitation and the bivariate genotype by environment interaction (G×E) models were applied to the data. The general sex-limitation model showed no significant sex differences, indicating that additive genetic and non-shared environmental influences were, 38% (95% CI = 31, 46) and 62% (95% CI = 54, 69) for PB and 33% (95% CI = 24, 40) and 67% (95% CI = 60, 76) for FC in both sexes. These estimates were similar to those found in Western and Asian twin studies to date. The correlation between PB and FC was 0.36. The best-fitting bivariate G×E model indicated that FC significantly moderated non-shared environmental influence unique to PB (E×E interaction). Specifically, non-shared environmental contributions to PB were highest when FC was lowest, and decreased as the levels of FC increased. However, genetic variances in PB were stable across all levels of FC. These findings suggest that FC reduces individual differences in PB by changing non-shared environmental experiences rather than genetic factors in PB.

  3. Tracking cohesive subgroups over time in inferred social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alvin; Chignell, Mark; Wang, Hao

    2010-04-01

    As a first step in the development of community trackers for large-scale online interaction, this paper shows how cohesive subgroup analysis using the Social Cohesion Analysis of Networks (SCAN; Chin and Chignell 2008) and Data-Intensive Socially Similar Evolving Community Tracker (DISSECT; Chin and Chignell 2010) methods can be applied to the problem of identifying cohesive subgroups and tracking them over time. Three case studies are reported, and the findings are used to evaluate how well the SCAN and DISSECT methods work for different types of data. In the largest of the case studies, variations in temporal cohesiveness are identified across a set of subgroups extracted from the inferred social network. Further modifications to the DISSECT methodology are suggested based on the results obtained. The paper concludes with recommendations concerning further research that would be beneficial in addressing the community tracking problem for online data.

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the School Bullying Scales: A Rasch Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Kun-Shia; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to develop three school bullying scales--the Bully Scale, the Victim Scale, and the Witness Scale--to assess secondary school students' bullying behaviors, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. The items of the three scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies, victims, and…

  5. Immigration, social cohesion, and naturalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    conditions for naturalization and introduced tougher language requirements and knowledge of society tests. The article discusses how concerns for social cohesion might function as a part of justifications of such restrictive naturalization requirements. It argues that standard concerns with generalized......The standard appeal to social cohesion in relation to immigration concerns admittance and residence. But social cohesion is sometimes also invoked as a relevant concern in relation to the attainment of citizenship in the state through naturalization. Many western states have recently tightened...... social trust do not connect with issues of naturalization at all. Other conceptions of social cohesion are either politically controversial, problematic as part of the justification of stricter naturalization requirements, or in fact justify less demanding naturalization requirements....

  6. COHESION POLICY AND GREEN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Florina BRAN; Popa, Cristina,; Carmen Valentina RADULESCU

    2010-01-01

    The international literature reveal numerous debates on sustainability of EU Cohesion Policy, among this debates another issues is reveal the absorption capacity of member state. According to the objectives of Cohesion Policy the financial programmes will contribute to economical growth, absorption of best available technology, create an attractive business environment and jobs. More than 30% of the regional policy budget for 2007-2013, €105 billion will be invested in the "green economy”. Th...

  7. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  8. Balancing Cohesion and Tension in Multimodal Rhetoric. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Semiotic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    What patterns of multimodal rhetoric characterizes the most successful texts meant for learning--inside or outside school? This article argues that the balance between cohesion and tension in the interplay between modes is an issue at the core of this challenging question. Texts meant for learning need both cohesion and tension in order to be both…

  9. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  10. The Acquisition of Textual Cohesion in French as a Foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studied group already possesses good writing and oral skills in three languages: English, Kiswahili and the mother-tongue (vernacular). In a corpus of narrative texts collected among students of two secondary schools in Nairobi, we analyze the use of markers of nominal cohesion (anaphors). With due attention to the ...

  11. Towards filtered drag force model for non-cohesive and cohesive particle-gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Ali; Gu, Yile; Milioli, Christian C.; Kolehmainen, Jari; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2017-10-01

    Euler-Lagrange simulations of gas-solid flows in unbounded domains have been performed to study sub-grid modeling of the filtered drag force for non-cohesive and cohesive particles. The filtered drag forces under various microstructures and flow conditions were analyzed in terms of various sub-grid quantities: the sub-grid drift velocity, which stems from the sub-grid correlation between the local fluid velocity and the local particle volume fraction, and the scalar variance of solid volume fraction, which is a measure to identify the degree of local inhomogeneity of volume fraction within a filter volume. The results show that the drift velocity and the scalar variance exert systematic effects on the filtered drag force. Effects of particle and domain sizes, gravitational accelerations, and mass loadings on the filtered drag are also studied, and it is shown that these effects can be captured by both sub-grid quantities. Additionally, the effect of cohesion force through the van der Waals interaction on the filtered drag force is investigated, and it is found that there is no significant difference on the dependence of the filtered drag coefficient of cohesive and non-cohesive particles on the sub-grid drift velocity or the scalar variance of solid volume fraction. The assessment of predictabilities of sub-grid quantities was performed by correlation coefficient analyses in a priori manner, and it is found that the drift velocity is superior. However, the drift velocity is not available in "coarse-grid" simulations and a specific closure is needed. A dynamic scale-similarity approach was used to model drift velocity but the predictability of that model is not entirely satisfactory. It is concluded that one must develop a more elaborate model for estimating the drift velocity in "coarse-grid" simulations.

  12. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The cohesiveness of sourcing teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Sourcing teams are introduced as an approach to achieving the interdepartmental integration necessary for companies to address the complexity of strategic sourcing. Companies aim at facilitating teams capable of balancing the goals and tasks of the team with departmental expectations; however......, the practical implementation is often unsuccessful leading to poor performance. Originating in PSM literature, factors influencing sourcing team performance are categorised into three: top management support, organisational structures, and those related to team members. In this paper, the concept...... of cohesiveness is introduced as an explanatory factor and, consequently, linkages between team cohesiveness and team performance are proposed....

  14. Social Determinants of Depression: Social Cohesion, Negative Life Events, and Depression Among People Living with HIV/Aids in Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Rasaki O; Issa, Baba A; Olanrewaju, Ganiyu T; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Odeigah, Louis O; Sule, Abdullateef G

    2014-01-01

    People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continue to face persistent and deep rooted social barriers. Incidentally, studies in social determinants of depression are very limited, necessitating this study, which examined social determinants of depression and the impact of these determinants on depression. This was a hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study of three hundred adult HIV/AIDS patients, attending the HIV clinic of Kwara State Specialist Hospital, Sobi, Ilorin, Nigeria. Depressive symptoms were measured by the PHQ-9 rating scale. Three variables of social determinants of depression: socio-economic status (years of school and self-reported economic status of family), social cohesion, and negative life events were examined. The self-reported economic status of the family varied from good 35(11.7%), average 162(54%), and poor among 103(34.3%) of the respondents. Social cohesion was low in 199(66.3%), fair in 65(21.7%) and high among 36(12%) of the respondents. There was significant association between social cohesion, negative life events, and depression. Income was the most significant socio-economic determinant. Majority had very low social cohesion and more negative life events, while those with below average years of schooling were more depressed. These are statistically significant. Social determinants of depression should be given a lot of emphasis, when addressing the issue of depression, if we are to meaningfully tackle this increasing scourge in our society.

  15. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    (EU). The objective of territorial cohesion, which builds on the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities, avoiding territorial imbalances and by making sectoral policies, which have a spatial impact and regional...

  16. Redundancy and the Cohesion Cloze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Marsha

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the usefulness of using grammatical cohesion to evaluate the macro- or discourse-level, and the micro-level reading comprehension of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students. Finds a relationship between anaphora and coherence that contributes to reading difficulty. (MG)

  17. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    based on the values stressed in Confucian philosophy teachings . For people with a high 19 Long Term Orientation score social obligations...Cohesion and Performance in Multinational Units? An old idiom offers that “birds of a feather flock together,” another one says that “opposites attract

  18. Facilitating or hindering social cohesion?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the contribution of the Community Work Programme (CWP) to social cohesion, a ... employment safety net to unemployed people in order ... CWP taught us. We can work together with the community.24. It was evident in the six communities that networks between people increased as a result of the.

  19. Labour migration, communities and perceptions of social cohesion in England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The unexpected scale of labour migration from eastern Europe to the UK following EU enlargement in 2004 was thought to pose a threat to the cohesiveness of those local communities hosting larger influxes of migrants. Nevertheless, areas rich in community capacity may have

  20. Cohesive energy of zincblende (AIIIBV and AIIBVI) structured solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecoh in kcal/mol) of AIIIBV and AIIBVI semiconductors with the product of ionic charges (Z1Z2) and nearest-neighbour distance d (Å). The cohesive energy values of these solids exhibit a linear relationship when plotted on a log–log scale against ...

  1. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  2. A scale for assessing Italian schools and classes inclusiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cottini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in detail the procedures for developing and validating a tool for assessing the inclusive process pertaining to school contexts called “Inclusive Process Assessment Scale”. The Scale, which is the outcome of the joined work of the authors, sets itself both as an assessing and self-assessing tool, useful for allowing on one hand specific types of evaluation and, on the other, promoting thoughts on inclusive education’s quality indicators, thus contributing to the planning and ongoing adjustment of the educational project of the school and the class. The tool, in its computer version as well, allows for the planning of researches that can collect evidences supporting the full inclusion organization of Italian schools.Una scala per valutare l’inclusività delle scuole e delle classi italianeIl contributo presenta in dettaglio le procedure di costruzione e validazione di uno strumento per valutare i processi inclusivi riferiti ai contesti scolastici, chiamato “Scala di Valutazione dei Processi Inclusivi”. Frutto del lavoro congiunto svolto dagli autori, la Scala si pone come uno strumento valutativo e autovalutativo utile a consentire da un lato, la realizzazione di specifiche forme di misurazione e, dall’altro, la promozione di processi di riflessione sugli indicatori di qualità dell’educazione inclusiva, per contribuire alla progettazione e alla regolazione in itinere del progetto educativo della scuola e della classe. Lo strumento, anche nella sua versione digitale, consente di pianificare ricerche, che possono raccogliere evidenze in grado di avvalorare l’organizzazione scolastica italiana di full inclusion.

  3. Social Cohesion as the Goal: Can Social Cohesion Be Directly Pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    This article establishes an understanding of social cohesion in general and discusses organizations and activities that are known to promote social cohesion before introducing organizations that claim to work toward social cohesion as one of their main priorities. The Council of Europe's Directorate General of Social Cohesion represents a…

  4. Team cohesiveness, team size and team performance in team-based learning teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Haidet, Paul; Borges, Nicole J; Carchedi, Lisa R; Roman, Brenda J B; Townsend, Mark H; Butler, Agata P; Swanson, David B; Anderson, Michael P; Levine, Ruth E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among variables associated with teams in team-based learning (TBL) settings and team outcomes. We administered the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Test first to individuals and then to teams of Year three students at four medical schools that used TBL in their psychiatry core clerkships. Team cohesion was analysed using the Team Performance Scale (TPS). Bivariate correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the relationships among team-level variables (mean individual TPS scores for each team, mean individual NBME scores of teams, team size, rotation and gender make-up) and team NBME test scores. A hierarchical linear model was used to test the effects of individual TPS and individual NBME test scores within each team, as well as the effects of the team-level variables of team size, team rotation and gender on team NBME test scores. Individual NBME test and TPS scores were nested within teams and treated as subsampling units. Individual NBME test scores and individual TPS scores were positively and statistically significantly (p team NBME test scores, when team rotation, team size and gender make-up were controlled for. Higher team NBME test scores were associated with teams rotating later in the year and larger teams (p teams at four medical schools suggest that larger teams on later rotations score higher on a team NBME test. Individual NBME test scores and team cohesion were positively and significantly associated with team NBME test scores. These results suggest the need for additional studies focusing on team outcomes, team cohesion, team size, rotation and other factors as they relate to the effective and efficient performance of TBL teams in health science education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Persistent telomere cohesion triggers a prolonged anaphase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells. PMID:24173716

  6. Cohesive Devices in Learners’ Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnasari Nugraheni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In ESL context, learners may have less attention to the use of conjunctions. In fact, the use of conjunctions in L2 learners’ writings is crucial since it is one type of cohesive devices. This paper aims to find the cohesive devices of conjunctions used by the learners. Through analyzing eight learners’ essays, the writer found 37 forms and 12 types of conjunctions in the learners’ essays. The most significant form of conjunctions was‘and’, whereas the most significant types of conjunction as ‘addition’. Moreover, the writer also found some inappropriate use of conjunctions, which are grouped into five, namely, unclassified, wrong mechanism, L1 interference, wrong forms of conjunctions, and grammatical error.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180106

  7. N-body simulations of cohesion in dense planetary rings: A study of cohesion parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2012-06-01

    We present results from a large suite of simulations of Saturn's dense A and B rings using a new model of particle sticking in local simulations (Perrine, R.P., Richardson, D.C., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 212, 719-735). In this model, colliding particles can be incorporated into or help fragment rigid aggregations on the basis of certain user-specified parameters that can represent van der Waals forces or interlocking surface frost layers. Our investigation is motivated by laboratory results that show that interpenetration of surface layers can allow impacting frost-covered ice spheres to stick together. In these experiments, cohesion only occurs below specific impact speeds, which happen to be characteristic of impact speeds in Saturn's rings. Our goal is to determine if weak bonding is consistent with ring observations, to constrain cohesion parameters in light of existing ring observations, to make predictions about particle populations throughout the rings, and to discover other diagnostics that may constrain bonding parameters. We considered the effects of five parameters on the equilibrium characteristics of our ring simulations: speed-based merge and fragmentation limits, bond strength, ring surface density, and patch orbital distance (i.e., the A or B ring), some with both monodisperse and polydisperse comparison cases. In total, we present data from 95 simulations. We find that weak cohesion is consistent with observations of the A and B rings (e.g., French, R.G., Nicholson, P.D. [2000]. Icarus 145, 502-523), and we present a range of simulation parameters that reproduce the observed size distribution and maximum particle size. It turns out that the parameters that match observations differ between the A and B rings, and we discuss the potential implications of this result. We also comment on other observable consequences of cohesion for the rings, such as optical depth and scale height effects, and discuss whether very large objects (e.g., "propeller

  8. Global expression for representing cohesive-energy curves. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1993-01-01

    Schlosser et al. (1991) showed that the R dependence of the cohesive energy of partially ionic solids may be characterized by a two-term energy relationship consisting of a Coulomb term arising from the charge transfer, delta-Z, and a scaled universal energy function, E*(a *), which accounts for the partially covalent character of the bond and for repulsion between the atomic cores for small R; a* is a scaled length. In the paper by Schlosser et al., the normalized cohesive-energy curves of NaCl-structure alkali-halide crystals were generated with this expression. In this paper we generate the cohesive-energy curves of several families of partially ionic solids with different crystal structures and differing degrees of ionicity. These include the CsCl-structure Cs halides, and the Tl and Ag halides, which have weaker ionic bonding than the alkali halides, and which have the CsCl and NaCl structures, respectively. The cohesive-energy-curve parameters are then used to generate theoretical isothermal compression curves for the Li, Na, K, Cs, and Ag halides. We find good agreement with the available experimental compression data.

  9. Development and Initial Examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Celeste M.; Briggs, Candyce; Ricks, Elizabeth; Middleton, Kyndra; Fisher, Sycarah; Connell, James

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the initial development and examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale (SPMCS), a 45-item self-report measure for evaluating school psychologists' multicultural competence in the primary domains of school psychology practice (i.e., assessment, consultation, intervention). A sample of 312 school…

  10. Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…

  11. Development and Validation of the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess work role motivation in school principals: the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP). The WRMS-SP is designed to measure intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation (identified, introjected, and external), and amotivation with respect to…

  12. Gender Invariance of Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben; Shek, Daniel; Ma, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the measurement invariance of "Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale" (FSPV) across genders using the mean and covariance structure analysis approach. Method: A total of 2,845 Chinese high school adolescents aged 11 to 15 years completed the FSPV scale. Results: Results of the…

  13. Mode I Cohesive Law Characterization of Through-Crack Propagation in a Multidirectional Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min

    2014-01-01

    A method is proposed and assessed for the experimental characterization of through-the-thickness crack propagation in multidirectional composite laminates with a cohesive law. The fracture toughness and crack opening displacement are measured and used to determine a cohesive law. Two methods of computing fracture toughness are assessed and compared. While previously proposed cohesive characterizations based on the R-curve exhibit size effects, the proposed approach results in a cohesive law that is a material property. The compact tension specimen configuration is used to propagate damage while load and full-field displacements are recorded. These measurements are used to compute the fracture toughness and crack opening displacement from which the cohesive law is characterized. The experimental results show that a steady-state fracture toughness is not reached. However, the proposed method extrapolates to steady-state and is demonstrated capable of predicting the structural behavior of geometrically-scaled specimens.

  14. Moving the limits of cohesive zone modeling - from idealized to actual cohesive laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F.

    2011-07-01

    Cohesive laws form a relatively new type of material law, encompassing both strength and fracture toughness. Cohesive laws are particularly well suited for describing delamination of laminated composites, sandwich structures and adhesive joins. This paper provides an overview of the current status for cohesive laws for the modelling of fracture in engineering materials and structures. Topics covered are pure Mode I cohesive laws, Mixed Mode cohesive laws as well as the use of a cohesive law for describing rate-dependent fracture and cyclic crack growth (fatigue). Selected experimental results are presented. Measurement methods, models and unresolved issues are discussed. (Author)

  15. Functional Assessment of School Attendance Problems: An Adapted Version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, David A.; Vreeke, Leonie J.; Maric, Marija; Boelens, Harrie; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.

    2017-01-01

    The "School Refusal Assessment Scale" (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth's school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Recent studies indicate problems with the wording…

  16. Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    . The results demonstrate that the cohesive behavior of silt in the settling process is attributed to both the cohesion among silt particles themselves and the particle polydispersity. To guide to the macro-scale modeling of cohesive silt sedimentation, the collision frequency functions obtained in the numerical simulations are also presented based on the micromechanics of particles. The results obtained by using CFD-DEM indicate that the binary collision theory over-estimated the particle collision frequency in the flocculation process at high solid volume fraction.

  17. Cohesion Policy Contributing to Territorial Cohesion – Future Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barca Report advocates for developmental policies to be ‘place-based’: integrated as far as they affect ‘places’. The debate on territorial cohesion is equally concerned with integrating relevant policies and actions. This requires well-established democratic institutions and adequate responses to the demands of technical systems and of markets. Following Lisbeth Hooghe and Gary Marks, the respective arrangements are described as Governance Type I and Type II. All levels of government, including that of the EU, partake in both types, but relations between them are problematic, particularly in the context of Europe 2020: Will this EU strategy be mainly a matter for Directorate-Generals and their various clients pursuing their policies (Governance Type II, or will Cohesion policy, with its more integrated and decentralised approach, involving many levels of government and stakeholders (Governance Type I form platforms for integrating them? This paper presents four scenarios; each based on a combination of strong/weak Governance Type I and Type II, which are labelled as the ‘Anglo-Saxon’, ‘Saint-Simonian’, ‘Rhineland’ and the ‘European’ Scenarios. The authors prefer the latter, but the best one can hope for in the short term is for this option not to fall by the wayside.

  18. Measuring team cohesion: observations from the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Grossman, Rebecca; Hughes, Ashley M; Coultas, Chris W

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review literature relevant to cohesion measurement, explore developing measurement approaches, and provide theoretical and practical recommendations for optimizing cohesion measurement. Cohesion is essential for team effectiveness and performance, leading researchers to focus attention on understanding how to enhance it. However, cohesion is inconsistently defined and measured, making it difficult to compare findings across studies and limiting the ability to advance science and practice. We reviewed empirical research through which we uncovered specific information about cohesion's conceptualization, measurement, and relationships with performance, culminating in a set of current trends from which we provide suggestions and possible solutions to guide future efforts and help the field converge toward greater consistency. Cohesion demonstrates more significant relationships with performance when conceptualized using social and task (but not other) dimensions and when analyses are performed at the team level. Cohesion is inherently temporal, yet researchers rarely measure cohesion at multiple points during the life of a team. Finally, cohesion matters in large, dynamic collectives, complicating measurement. However, innovative and unobtrusive methodologies are being used, which we highlight. Practitioners and researchers are encouraged to define cohesion with task and social subdimensions and to measure with behavioral and attitudinal operationalizations. Individual and team-oriented items are recommended, though team-level analyses are most effective. Innovative/unobtrusive methods should be further researched to enable cohesion measurement longitudinally and in large, dynamic collectives. By applying our findings and conclusions, researchers and practitioners will be more likely to find consistent, reliable, and significant cohesion-to-performance relationships. This work is not subject to U.S. copyright restrictions.

  19. Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics that effect crew cohesion and performance. Flight surgeons have stated...

  20. Psychological characteristics of group cohesion athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic components of group cohesion in sport teams. An analysis of publications on cohesion within the groups where an interconnection of individual goals of each participant group with common goals and the end result of teamwork. The concept of harmony in the team sports, where the rate of group cohesion is dependent on such integrative index as psychological climate. It is established that a number of athletes to achieve high results require high cohesion, unity, value-normative orientation, deep identification and responsibility for the results of the joint group activities.

  1. Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shih

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.

  2. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  3. Success at Scale in Charter Schooling. Education Outlook. No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    KIPP KEY Academy in Washington, D.C. North Star Academy in Newark. Roxbury Prep in Boston. Amistad Academy in New Haven. These, and perhaps two hundred other high-performing schools nationwide, are the bright lights of the charter school movement. Despite social and economic disadvantages, their students not only trounce their district peers on…

  4. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2007-01-01

    for a centrally cracked sheet is established applying semi-analytical, bridged and fictitious crack modeling. The semi-analytical crack model is compared with a FEM analysis and it is demonstrated, that the standard fictitious crack implementation in FEM packages (in this case DIANA) provides a good approximation......Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used...... typically for multi scale problems such as crack propagation in fiber reinforced composites. Mortar and concrete, however, are multi-scale materials and the question naturally arises, if bridged crack models in fact are more suitable for concrete and mortar as well? In trying to answer this question a model...

  5. Students' Genre Expectations and the Effects of Text Cohesion on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Gräsel, Cornelia; Rothstein, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This study raises the question what makes school texts comprehensible by analyzing whether students' genre expectations about literary or expository texts moderate the impact of different forms of text cohesion on reading comprehension, even when the texts are similar regarding their genre. 754 students (Grade 9) from comprehensive schools read…

  6. Local Text Cohesion, Reading Ability and Individual Science Aspirations: Key Factors Influencing Comprehension in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sophie S.; Kowalski, Rebecca; Paterson, Kevin B.; Basran, Jaskaran; Filik, Ruth; Maltby, John

    2015-01-01

    In response to the concern of the need to improve the scientific skills of school children, this study investigated the influence of text design (in terms of text cohesion) and individual differences, with the aim of identifying pathways to improving science education in early secondary school (Key Stage 3). One hundred and four secondary school…

  7. Validation of a brief form of the Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was the validation of a brief form of the Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion questionnaire using data from 5065 men from the "Cohort Study on Substance-Use Risk Factors." A 9-item scale covering three factors was proposed. Excellent indices of internal consistency were measured (α = .93). The confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable fit indices supporting measurement invariance across French and German forms. Significant correlations were found between the brief form of the Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion questionnaire, and satisfaction and self-reported health, providing evidence of the concurrent validity of the scale. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion, and depression and suicide attempts were negatively associated, sustaining the protective effect of perceived social cohesion.

  8. Education and Social Cohesion: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyenko, Olena

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion is understood as the social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from connections among individuals. When students attend higher education institutions, they go through a process of socialization, and it is vital to ensure that they acquire the core values that underpin the social cohesion. This…

  9. Academic Social Cohesion within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical foundations of "social cohesion" as it relates to higher education institutions. In so doing it seeks (a) to understand the core elements of social cohesion--social capital, human capital and ethical behavioral norms that serve a common good--and (b) to establish a flexible framework for understanding the…

  10. Cohesive Writing: Why Concept Is Not Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    To write cohesively means doing many things at once--wrestling with ideas, balancing form and function, pushing words this way and that, attending to syntax and diction, and employing imagery and metaphor until a coherent message emerges. Though full of promise, student writing typically lacks cohesion, and the question is whether the fault lies…

  11. Why are Rich Countries more Politically Cohesive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    We document empirically that rich countries are more politically cohesive than poorer countries. In order to explain this regularity, we provide a model where political cohesion is linked to the emergence of a fully  functioning market economy. Without market exchange, the welfare of inherently...

  12. Networks, space, and residents' perception of cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Adam; Hipp, John R; Smith, Emily J; Butts, Carter T; Nagle, Nicholas N; Almquist, Zack

    2014-06-01

    Community scholars increasingly focus on the linkage between residents' sense of cohesion with the neighborhood and their own social networks in the neighborhood. A challenge is that whereas some research only focuses on residents' social ties with fellow neighbors, such an approach misses out on the larger constellation of individuals' relationships and the spatial distribution of those relationships. Using data from the Twin Communities Network Study, the current project is one of the first studies to examine the actual spatial distribution of respondents' networks for a variety of relationships and the consequences of these for neighborhood and city cohesion. We also examine how a perceived structural measure of cohesion-triangle degree-impacts their perceptions of neighborhood and city cohesion. Our findings suggest that perceptions of cohesion within the neighborhood and the city depend on the number of neighborhood safety contacts as well as on the types of people with which they discuss important matters. On the other hand, kin and social friendship ties do not impact cohesion. A key finding is that residents who report more spatially dispersed networks for certain types of ties report lower levels of neighborhood and city cohesion. Residents with higher triangle degree within their neighborhood safety networks perceived more neighborhood cohesion.

  13. The LA aggression scale for elementary school and upper secondary school students: Examination of psychometric properties of a new multidimensional measure of self- reported aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kozina Ana

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a new multidimensional scale LA (lestvica agresivnosti [Aggression Scale]) for measuring self-reported aggression in elementary and upper secondary school students in Slovenia. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using three elementary school samples (preliminary study: N=2777; main study: N=10427 and validity and test-retest study: N=191) representative of 4th and 8th grade students in Slovenia and one upper secondary school sam...

  14. Transfer and Cohesion in Interdisciplinary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Harnow Klausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges of interdisciplinary education is to create sufficient cohesion between disciplines. It is suggested that cohesion depends on the transfer of knowledge (in a broad sense, which includes skill and competences among the disciplines involved. Some of the most characteristic types of such transfer are identified and analyzed: Transfer of factual knowledge, theories, methods, models, skills, modes of collaboration and organization, meta-competences, disciplinary self-consciousness, problem selection, framework construction and motivation. Though some of these types of transfer may have a greater or smaller potential for creating cohesion, different kinds of cohesion may serve different interests, and there is no reason to assume that e.g. joint problem solving or theoretical integration should be more conducive to cohesion than e.g. contributions to motivation or disciplinary self-consciousness.

  15. Academic self-efficacy for high school scale: search for psychometrics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soely Polydoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Brand Personality Scale: evidence from a business school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Albert; Pitt, Leyland F; Berthon, Pierre; Berthon, J-P

    2007-06-01

    The Brand Personality Scale has received considerable attention and has been frequently used and cited in the branding literature. This paper describes an investigation of the psychometric characteristics of the Brand Personality Scale in a business school context where umbrella branding is used. A sample (N=262) of students attending the MBA program of a major business school in eastern USA completed the scale. Results indicate problems with the scale's dimensionality, poor reliability, convergent and nomological validity of the Ruggedness dimension, and lack of support for discriminant validity. Managerial and research implications and limitations are noted.

  17. Materials cohesion and interaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jarl B; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Gornov, Evgeny

    2008-09-01

    The most important methods to determine the cohesive interactions of materials and adhesive interactions between different substances are reviewed. The term cohesion is generalized as representing the unifying interaction forces of a single material and adhesion forces between different substances due to attraction. The aim is to interlink a number of frequently used interaction parameters in order to promote the understanding of materials research executed within different scientific (Material, Colloid, Sol-Gel and Nano) communities. The modern interdisciplinary research requires a removal of the historical obstacles represented by widely differing nomenclature used for the same material properties. The interaction parameters of different models are reviewed and representative numerical values computed from tabulated thermodynamic and spectroscopic material constants. The results are compared with published values. The models are grouped to represent single and two component systems, respectively. The latter group includes models for films on substrates and work of adhesion between liquids and solids. In most cases rather rough approximations have been employed, mostly relating to van der Waals substances for which the gas state is common reference state. In order to improve the predictability of the key Hamaker constant, a novel model for interpreting the dielectric spectrum is presented. The interrelation between thermodynamic, electronic, spectroscopic and dielectric parameters is illustrated by model calculations on typical inorganic materials of current interest as model compounds. The ionic solids are represented by NaCl and KCl, while ZnO, FeO, Fe(2)O(3), Fe(3)O(4), Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), TiO(2), ZrO(2), SnO, SnO(2) represent ceramic oxides and semiconductors. The model compounds thus illustrate the effect of bond type (covalent or ionic) and valence (charge number and sign) of the constituent elements. However, since the focus is placed on a phenomenological

  18. Aesthetic Leadership (AL): Development and Implementation of Aesthetic Leadership Scale (ALS) of the School Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Soner; Oztoprak-Kavak, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to develop a scale for measuring the aesthetic leadership (AL) characteristics of the school directors and to show that it can be applicable. The population of the study is composed of the teachers who are on duty in the elementary, secondary and high schools located in Izmit, Kocaeli. Sample of this descriptive study comprises 400…

  19. Validation of Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Social systems, particularly family, school, and peer, are especially critical in influencing adolescents to participate in volunteer service; however, no objective measures of this construct exist. Objectives: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism scale (FSPV) among Chinese…

  20. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Metacognition Scale for Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Eylem; Akpinar, Ercan; Tatar, Nilgun; Ergin, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the Metacognition Scale (MS) which is designed for primary school students. The sample of the study consisted of 426 primary school students in Izmir, Turkey. In order to examine the construct validity of the MS, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. For the validity of…

  1. Developing a Scale for Innovation Management at Schools: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool for use in determining the competency beliefs of school administrators about innovation management. The scale applied to a study group of 216 school administrators, after work Centered on assessing intelligibility and specialized opinion. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  2. Development of the Nonverbal Communication Skills of School Administrators Scale (NCSSAS): Validity, Reliability and Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale intended for identifying the school administrators' nonverbal communication skills, and establish the relationship between the nonverbal communication skills of school administrators and job performance of teachers. The study was conducted in three stages. The first stage involved the creation…

  3. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  4. Neighborhood cohesion as a buffer against hostile maternal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Sessa, Frances M; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Steinberg, Laurence; Avenevoli, Shelli

    2004-03-01

    This study explored the moderating effects of children's neighborhoods on the link between hostile parenting and externalizing behavior. Participants were 1st- or 2nd-grade children in an urban northeastern community. Children were administered the Parenting and Neighborhood scales of the Child Puppet Interview, and mothers completed questionnaires on neighborhood quality and parenting practices. Census tract measures of neighborhood quality and teachers' reports of children's externalizing behavior also were obtained. Results indicated that children's and mothers' perceptions of neighborhood involvement-cohesion buffered the link between hostile parenting and externalizing problems. Children's externalizing behavior was unrelated to census tract variables. Findings highlight the protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion and the utility of including young children's perspectives in research on neighborhoods and families.

  5. Gwinnett County Public Schools: A Systemic Approach to Scaling Effective School Leadership. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George W. Bush Institute, Education Reform Initiative, 2015

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness among educators and policymakers that effective school leaders are critical to school success and student achievement. Many studies illustrate the important benefits of effective school leadership for teachers, pointing to the significant influence on teacher satisfaction, development, and retention. This case study…

  6. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Perceptions of Neighborhood Cohesion: Implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Gonzales, Gilbert

    2017-12-08

    A large body of research documents the relationship between health and place, including the positive association between neighborhood cohesion and health. However, very little research has examined neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. This paper addresses that gap by examining differences in perceived neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. We use data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 28,164 respondents aged 18 years and older) to examine bivariate differences by sexual orientation in four measures of neighborhood cohesion. We then use ordered logistic regression models to assess the relationship between sexual orientation and a scaled measure of neighborhood cohesion, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements, health status, region, and neighborhood tenure. We find that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults are less likely to say that they live in a close-knit neighborhood (54.6 vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001), they can count on their neighbors (74.7 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), they trust their neighbors (75.5 vs. 83.7%, p < 0.001), or people in their neighborhood help each other out (72.9 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), compared to heterosexual adults. Even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, neighborhood cohesion scores are lower for LGB adults compared to heterosexual adults (odds ratio of better perceived neighborhood cohesion for sexual minorities: 0.70, p < 0.001). Overall, LGB adults report worse neighborhood cohesion across multiple measures, even after adjusting for individual characteristics and neighborhood tenure. Because living in a cohesive neighborhood is associated with better health outcomes, future research, community-level initiatives, and public policy efforts should focus on creating welcoming neighborhood environments for sexual minorities.

  7. Scaling Personalization: Exploring the Implementation of an Academic and Social-Emotional Innovation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Stacey A.; Brown, Stephanie; Petrova, Kitchka

    2017-01-01

    Scaling in educational settings has tended to focus on replication of external programs with less focus on the nature of adaptation. In this article, we explore the scaling of Personalization for Academic and Social-emotional Learning (PASL), a systemic high school reform effort that was intentionally identified, developed, and implemented with…

  8. The Development and Validation of a Mechanical Critical Thinking Scale for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuang-Chao; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Chang, Shu-Fen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanical critical thinking scale for high school students. A stratified random sampling method was used to establish the norms. After pre-tests and item analysis, the scale was determined to have five subtest sections (i.e., recognition of assumptions, induction, deduction, interpretation, and…

  9. The Development and Validity Investigation of a Classroom Communication Apprehension Scale for Japanese High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of a classroom communication apprehension scale. Subjects were 196 high school students in Japan. The original English version of a classroom communication apprehension scale (M. R. Neer, 1987) consisted of 20 items representing 2 hypothesized dimensions of classroom communication…

  10. Toward Instructional Leadership: Principals' Perceptions of Large-Scale Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytula, Michelle; Noonan, Brian; Hellsten, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the perceptions that Saskatchewan school principals have regarding large-scale assessment reform and their perceptions of how assessment reform has affected their roles as principals. The findings revealed that large-scale assessments, especially provincial assessments, have affected the principal in Saskatchewan…

  11. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo-Blanco, Aitor; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, Friederike; Romero, José Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Do adversarial environmental conditions create social cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile. Using a variety of methods and controlling for a number of socio-economic variables, we find that exposure to earthquakes has a positive effect on several indicators of social cohesion. Social cohesion increases after a big earthquake and slowly erodes in periods where environmental conditions are less adverse. Our results contribute to the current debate on whether and how environmental conditions shape formal and informal institutions.

  12. Neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2017-12-18

    Perceptions of neighborhood disorder (trash, vandalism) and cohesion (neighbors trust one another) are related to residents' health. Affective and behavioral factors have been identified, but often in studies using geographically select samples. We use a nationally representative sample (n = 9032) of United States older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine cardiometabolic risk in relation to perceptions of neighborhood cohesion and disorder. Lower cohesion is significantly related to greater cardiometabolic risk in 2006/2008 and predicts greater risk four years later (2010/2012). The longitudinal relation is partially accounted for by anxiety and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economies of Scale in Private and Charter Spanish Schools Under an Ownership and Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Magallón-Rezusta, G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates economies of scale in primary and secondary Spanish schools, distinguishing between ownership (private/charter school and management (nonreligious/religious. We have used the Survey of Private Education Funding and considered both the number of students per school unit (class and the total number of students enrolled at the school. The overall results show that unit cost per student in smaller centres is around 45% higher than the average and nearly 20% lower than the average in schools with between 1,000 and 1,400 students enrolled. These larger schools had the lowest overal cost per student. As far as ownership is concerned, private schools show an average cost per pupil around 20% higher than charter schools, due to their higher average cost per teacher and lower student unit/teacher ratio. In both private and charter schools, size also influences a school’s economic performance, private schools being more greatly affected. The possible influence of school size and class size on Spanish student performance in PISA 2009 is also studied.

  14. Evaluating Lexical Cohesion in Nigerian Newspaper Genres: Focus on the Editorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Malah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applied linguists paying scholarly attention to newspaper genres have often argued that findings emerging from such studies would be of pedagogical significance because most of the newspaper genres share certain conventional features with school genres. Similarly, this study explored lexical cohesion in newspaper editorials, and it is understood that the findings could help learners in handling persuasive writings. The study sought to identify the dominant sources of lexical cohesion in the editorials, and also to examine how lexical cohesion is utilized to achieve coherence in the editorials. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL, the study applied Eggins’ (2004 model of lexical cohesion and analyzed 30 editorial texts of 20, 354 words drawn from three major Nigerian newspapers: The Guardian, The Nation, and Vanguard. The analysis revealed 2, 685 ties across 849 sentences. The data demonstrated that the major types of lexical cohesion in the editorials include: repetition (49.5%, expectancy relations (15. 8%, class/sub-class (11%, and synonymy (10.8%. It was further revealed that lexical cohesion devices, which formed into chains (586 and isolated ties (837, were utilized in building coherence in the editorial texts. It was finally shown how findings of the study could be beneficial in ESP, EAP, and EGP learning, especially in persuasive writings.

  15. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of recent debates on multiculturalism and value-pluralism, the pressing questions now focuses on whether social cohesion and the notion of justice are sustainable and can be upheld, at least from a European perspective. There are many theoretical and academic responses, mainly from...... liberals, on how to accommodate the different demands of various ethnic and religious groups and at the same time sustain a minimum of social cohesion and justice. One voice is missing and that is a conservative perspective. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a modern conservative analysis...... of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  16. A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF TERRITORIAL COHESION

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    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is a complex concept that cannot be explained by a single definition. During the previous decades, territorial issues represented, undoubtedly, subjects of interest for various policy documents, actions and funding of the European Union, but the asymmetric impact of recent global crisis, doubled by the launch of the Green Paper (2008 and its inclusion in the Lisbon Treaty, in 2009, has underlined the importance of territorial cohesion, as one of the three main pillars of the new cohesion policy. In this context, this article tries to create a holistic perspective on territorial cohesion by analyzing the available studies and to determine its relevance to the European objective of strengthening the regions, promoting territorial integration and producing coherent policies, thus contributing to the sustainable development and global competitiveness of the European Union.

  17. Targeted Sister Chromatid Cohesion by Sir2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Chen, Yu-Fan; Gartenberg, Marc R.

    2011-01-01

    The protein complex known as cohesin binds pericentric regions and other sites of eukaryotic genomes to mediate cohesion of sister chromatids. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cohesin also binds silent chromatin, a repressive chromatin structure that functionally resembles heterochromatin of higher eukaryotes. We developed a protein-targeting assay to investigate the mechanistic basis for cohesion of silent chromatin domains. Individual silencing factors were tethered to sites where pairing of sister chromatids could be evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. We report that the evolutionarily conserved Sir2 histone deacetylase, an essential silent chromatin component, was both necessary and sufficient for cohesion. The cohesin genes were required, but the Sir2 deacetylase activity and other silencing factors were not. Binding of cohesin to silent chromatin was achieved with a small carboxyl terminal fragment of Sir2. Taken together, these data define a unique role for Sir2 in cohesion of silent chromatin that is distinct from the enzyme's role as a histone deacetylase. PMID:21304892

  18. Spending Changes and Scale Economies When School Districts Consolidate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Educational policy makers continue to promote non-instructional service consolidation as one method to reduce operating costs through "economies of scale". Unfortunately, there is essentially no empirical evidence on the size or source of cost savings associated with such measures. Using panel data from 2004-2010, this mixed methods…

  19. Large-scale CO2 measurement campaigns in Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Toftum, Jørn; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In two large measurement campaigns performed in 2009 and 2014 more than 1500 spot measurements of CO2 were made by pupils in Danish primary school classes. In 2009 56% of the measurements exceeded the recommended value of 1000 ppm CO2. This percentage had increased to 60% in 2014. Changing...... the behaviour of the pupils had a positive effect, as the proportion of classrooms exceeding 1000 ppm CO2 in separate measurement (students outside and airing in the break preceding the measurement lesson in which the measurement was made) was 39%. The principle of ventilation had a substantial impact...

  20. Cohesion in Teaching and Evaluation: Problems and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Jerome L.

    Good and poor explanatory essays of 40 college freshmen were analyzed for 18 cohesive ties and chains to determine the appropriateness of the cohesion system for teaching and evaluating writing. The questions that were specifically addressed were, (1) How do writers use the cohesive resources of the language? and (2) How is cohesion related to…

  1. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the

  2. [Perceived barriers to active commuting to school: reliability and validity of a scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Estevan, Isaac; Álvarez, Octavio; Castillo, Isabel

    To examine the reliability and validity of a scale to measure perceived barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish young people. The validity of the scale was assessed in a sample of 465 adolescents (14-18 years) using a confirmatory factor analysis and studying its association with self-reported active commuting to school. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated in a sub-sample that completed the scale twice separated by a one-week interval. The results showed that the barriers scale had satisfactory fit indices, and two factors were determined. The first included environment- and safety-related items (α=0.72), while the other concerned planning and psychosocial items (α=0.64). Active commuting to school showed significant correlations with the total score of the barriers scale (rho=-0.27; p <0.001), with the environmental/safety barriers (rho=-0.22; p <0.001), as well as with the planning/psychosocial barriers (rho=-0.29; p <0.001). Test-retest ICCs for the barriers ranged from 0.68 to 0.77. The developed scale has acceptable validity and good reliability to assess barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish young people. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of dry cohesion on the micro- and macro-mechanical properties of dense polydisperse powders & grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievitsbosch Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how cohesive granular materials behave is of interest for many industrial applications, such as pharmaceutical or food and civil engineering. Models of the behaviour of granular materials on the microscopic scale can be used to obtain macroscopic continuum relations by a micro-macro transition approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM is used to inspect the influence of cohesion on the micro and macro behaviour of granular assemblies by using an elasto-plastic cohesive contact model. Interestingly, we observe that frictional samples prepared with different cohesion values show a significant difference in pressure and coordination number in the jammed regime; the differences become more pronounced when packings are closer to the jamming density, i.e. the lowest density where the system is mechanically stable. Furthermore, we observe that cohesion has an influence on the jamming density for frictional samples, but there is no influence on the jamming density for frictionless samples.

  4. Influence of dry cohesion on the micro- and macro-mechanical properties of dense polydisperse powders & grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievitsbosch, Robert; Smit, Hendrik; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan; Taghizadeh, Kianoosh

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how cohesive granular materials behave is of interest for many industrial applications, such as pharmaceutical or food and civil engineering. Models of the behaviour of granular materials on the microscopic scale can be used to obtain macroscopic continuum relations by a micro-macro transition approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to inspect the influence of cohesion on the micro and macro behaviour of granular assemblies by using an elasto-plastic cohesive contact model. Interestingly, we observe that frictional samples prepared with different cohesion values show a significant difference in pressure and coordination number in the jammed regime; the differences become more pronounced when packings are closer to the jamming density, i.e. the lowest density where the system is mechanically stable. Furthermore, we observe that cohesion has an influence on the jamming density for frictional samples, but there is no influence on the jamming density for frictionless samples.

  5. Adaptation Studies of the Aggression and Victimization Scales for Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KURNAZ

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR had acceptable validity and reliability properties. As relational aggression and victimization were found to be related with several mental health problems among school children, both scales could be utilized in the evaluation of overt and relational dimensions of both agression and victimization among Turkish elementary school children. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 106-115 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 106-115

  6. Structural neighbourhood conditions, social cohesion and psychological distress in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Özcan; Prins, Richard G; Voorham, Toon A J J; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress are well reported, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The main purposes of this study were to investigate associations between structural neighbourhood conditions and psychological distress, and to explore the potential mediating role of neighbourhood social cohesion. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged ≥ 16 years (response 49%) from the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Structural environmental factors under study were neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood green, urbanity and home maintenance. Neighbourhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighbourhood level by using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations of neighbourhoods characteristics with psychological distress, adjusted for individual level characteristics. High neighbourhood SES and neighbourhood social cohesion were associated with decreased psychological distress. Adjusted for individual level characteristics and neighbourhood SES, only neighbourhood social cohesion remained significantly associated with psychological distress. Neighbourhood social cohesion accounted for 38% of the differences in the association between neighbourhood SES and psychological distress. High neighbourhood social cohesion is significantly associated with decreased psychological distress among residents of the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Reducing neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress may require increasing social interactions among neighbourhood residents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with low neighborhood cohesion among women living with HIV impacted by social-structural inequities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Palmer, Alexis K; Collins, Alexandra B; Salters, Kate; Zhang, Wendy; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S; Parashar, Surita

    2018-03-01

    Built and social environments, including one's perception of their environment, are important determinants of health. The intersection of gender and HIV status may complicate the role of neighborhood cohesion in safety, personal well-being, and health outcomes for populations impacted by social and structural inequities. Among women in particular, social cohesion within the neighborhood they reside in may have a greater influence on health outcomes compared to their male counterparts. We sought to examine perception of neighborhood cohesion (validated scale with a range 0-100, with higher scores indicating higher perceived neighborhood cohesion) among women living with HIV, impacted by social-structural inequities, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, and enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive Ancillary health services (LISA) study in British Columbia, Canada. Cross-sectional data on neighborhood cohesion and socio-demographic data were collected in an interviewer-administered survey. Of the 1,000 LISA participants interviewed, 908 (including 249 women and 659 men) had complete data for the variables of interest. At the bivariate level, women had worse perceived neighborhood cohesion scores compared to men (median: 56 [95% CI: 44-66] vs. 60 [95% CI: 47-71]). Multivariable model results indicated that for women living with HIV in our sample, greater neighborhood cohesion scores were positively associated with stable housing (β coefficient = 7.85; 95% CI: 3.61, 12.10, p cohesion.

  8. Increases in New Social Network Ties are Associated with Increased Cohesion among Intervention Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Sommer, Evan C.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many behavior change programs are delivered in group settings to manage implementation costs and to foster support and interactions among group members to facilitate behavior change. Understanding the group dynamics that evolve in group settings (e.g., weight management, Alcoholics Anonymous) is important, yet rarely measured. This paper examined the relationship between social network ties and group cohesion in a group-based intervention to prevent obesity in children. Method The data reported are process measures from an ongoing community-based randomized controlled trial. 305 parents with a child (3-6 years) at risk of developing obesity were assigned to an intervention that taught parents healthy lifestyles. Parents met weekly for 12 weeks in small consistent groups. Two measures were collected at weeks 3 and 6: a social network survey (people in the group with whom one discusses healthy lifestyles); and the validated Perceived Cohesion Scale (Bollen & Hoyle, 1990). We used lagged random and fixed effects regression models to analyze the data. Results Cohesion increased from 6.51 to 6.71 (t=4.4, p<0.01). Network nominations tended to increase over the 3-week period in each network. In the combined discussion and advice network, the number of nominations increased from 1.76 to 1.95 (z=2.59, p<0.01). Cohesion at week 3 was the strongest predictor of cohesion at week 6 (b=0.55, p<0.01). Number of new network nominations at week 6 was positively related to cohesion at week 6 (b=0.06, p<.01). In sum, being able to name new network contacts was associated with feelings of cohesion. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate how network changes affect perceived group cohesion within a behavioral intervention. Given that many behavioral interventions occur in group settings, intentionally building new social networks could be promising to augment desired outcomes. PMID:26286298

  9. Does social cohesion modify the association between area income deprivation and mental health? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Dunstan, Frank; Lloyd, Keith; Williams, Gareth; Watkins, John; Palmer, Stephen

    2007-04-01

    Despite the increasing belief that the places where people live influence their health, there is surprisingly little consistent evidence for their associations with mental health. We investigated the joint effect of community and individual-level socio-economic deprivation and social cohesion on individual mental health status. Multilevel analysis of population survey data on 10,653 adults aged 18-74 years nested within the 325 census enumeration districts in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. The outcome measure was the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) subscale of the SF-36 instrument. A social cohesion subscale was derived from a factor analysis of responses to the Neighbourhood Cohesion scale and was modelled at individual and area level. Area income deprivation was measured by the percentage of low income households. Poor mental health was significantly associated with area-level income deprivation and low social cohesion after adjusting for individual risk factors. High social cohesion significantly modified the association between income deprivation and mental health: the difference between the predicted mean area mental health scores at the 10th and 90th centiles of the low income distribution was 3.7 in the low cohesion group and 0.9 in the high cohesion group (difference of the difference in means = 2.8, 95% CI: 0.2, 5.4). Income deprivation and social cohesion measured at community level are potentially important joint determinants of mental health. Further research on the impact of the social environment on mental health should investigate causal pathways in a longitudinal study.

  10. Can a Syllabus Change Impact on Students' Perceptions of Science? Fragmented and Cohesive Conceptions of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjula Devi; Stewart, Chris; Wilson, Rachel; Gokalp, Muhammed Sait

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the literature paid attention to students' conceptions of the nature of disciplines. This study aimed to investigate how students' cohesive and fragment conceptions of physics changed with a major change in senior high school physics syllabus. We obtained measures of conceptions of physics by utilizing a 20-item questionnaire…

  11. Dialogic Education as an Approach to Multiculturalism for Social Cohesion in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostocka, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores approaches to cultural diversity and its relation to the concept of social cohesion in the context of a multicultural school community. It uses insights from an empirical research on multicultural education conducted in Namibia as context for a discussion on tools in educational practice that would support diversity while…

  12. Cohesion, Satisfaction with Family Bonds, and Emotional Well-Being in Families with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeleur, C. L.; Jeanpretre, N.; Perrez, M.; Schoebi, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper investigated whether higher cohesion and satisfaction with family bonds were associated with the daily experience of emotional well-being in varying social circumstances. Using a sample of school-age adolescents (N = 95) and both their parents, data were gathered daily over 1 week using a diary approach in addition to self-report…

  13. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  14. Deconstructing social cohesion: towards an analytical framework for assessing social cohesion policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Academics as well as policy-makers consider social cohesion to be an important quality of cities. A high level of social cohesion is associated with a wide variety of positive characteristics of cities: for instance low crime rates, high economic growth, low unemployment and

  15. Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

  16. Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S.; Hawes, Armani M.; Smith, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Background The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviors. Though important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighborhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people’s behaviors. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighborhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighborhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighborhood characteristics, such as perceived neighborhood social cohesion. Methods Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study—a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50—were used to analyze 5,276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for four years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychosocial factors. Results In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education, and total wealth, each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.63–0.94. The association between perceived neighborhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioral, biological, and psychosocial covariates. Conclusions Higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. PMID:25135074

  17. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Research in the last three decades has shown that negative neighborhood factors such as neighborhood violence, noise, traffic, litter, low neighborhood socioeconomic status, and poor air quality increase the risk of poor health. Fewer studies have examined the potential protective effect that neighborhood factors can have on health, particularly stroke. We examined whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower stroke incidence after adjusting for traditional risk and psychological factors that have been linked with stroke risk. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used. Analyses were conducted on a subset of 6740 adults who were stroke-free at baseline. Analyses adjusted for chronic illnesses and relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Over a four-year follow-up, higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of stroke. Each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (O.R.) of 0.85 for stroke incidence (95% CI, 0.75-0.97, p cohesion remained significant after adjusting for a comprehensive set of risk factors. Therefore, perceived neighborhood social cohesion plays an important role in protecting against stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. INTANGIBLE ASSETS THROUGH THE COHESION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stingaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTANGIBLE ASSETS THROUGH THE COHESION POLICY Roth Anne-Marie-Monika West University of Timisoara Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Popescu (Stingaciu Ana-Maria West University of Timisoara Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Intangible assets in general and intellectual capital in particular are important to both society and organizations. It can be a source of competitive advantage for business and stimulate innovation that leads to wealth generation. Technological revolutions, the rise of the knowledge-based economy and the networked society have all led to the same conclusion that intangibles and how they contribute to value creation have to be appreciated so that the appropriate decisions can be made to protect and enhance them. The Cohesion Policy represents the main EU measure to ensure a balanced and sustainable growth in Europe by promoting harmonious development and reducing the regional disparities. The general objective of the paper is to highlight the important role of the Cohesion Policy in the development of intangible assets. The objectives and the instruments of the Cohesion Policy are designed to support programs on regional development, economic change, enhanced competitiveness and territorial cooperation through the European Union, to develop human resources and employability. Keywords: intangible assets, intellectual capital, Cohesion policy, development; JEL Classification: O43, G32, D24, O34

  19. Cohesion and agglomeration of wet powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, Pascal S.; Biance, Anne-Laure

    2018-01-01

    Wet high-shear granulation consists in vigorously mixing grains and a liquid binder to create agglomerates of various sizes. The process results from a balance between cohesion of the wet granular agglomerates and fragmentation due to the high mixing. By performing a simple test with glass beads and various liquids, we first focus on the static cohesion of wet granular media. Contrary to previous works, we extend the study to larger values of the liquid fraction w . After the well-documented plateau, the cohesive strength increases again with w , a behavior we capture by a simple model. We then focus on the dynamical cohesion of the media and we design an agglomeration process that consists in vibrating a bead/liquid mixture at a large amplitude. The vibrations induce not only the fluidization of the wet granular material but also the formation of aggregates. As expected, their size is affected by the liquid content, the frequency, and the amplitude of the vibrations, similarly to high-shear granulation data. However, the number of beads in an agglomerate does not depend on the bead size, showing a self-similar mechanism of agglomeration. The role of the static cohesion strength in this dynamical process remains therefore ambiguous.

  20. Crack-cocaine users have less family cohesion than alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nino C; Scherer, Juliana N; Pachado, Mayra P; Guimarães, Luciano S; Siegmund, Gerson; de Castro, Melina N; Halpern, Silvia; Benzano, Daniela; Formigoni, Maria L; Cruz, Marcelo; Pechansky, Flavio; Kessler, Felix H

    2017-01-01

    Many studies correlate characteristics of family functioning and the development of drug addiction. This study sought to evaluate and compare the family environment styles of two groups of psychoactive substance users: 1) alcohol-only users and 2) crack-cocaine users. Three hundred and sixty-four users of alcohol, crack-cocaine, and other drugs, recruited from research centers in four Brazilian capitals participated in this study. Subjects were evaluated through the Family Environment Scale and the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6). ASI-6 t-scores were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests. A final model was obtained using a logistic regression analysis. All analyses were adjusted for partner, age, and psychiatric t-score. We found a significant difference between groups in the cohesion subscale (p = 0.044). The post-hoc test revealed a difference of 1.06 points (95%CI 0.11-2.01) between groups 1 (6.45±0.28) and 2 (5.38±0.20). No significant between-group differences were observed in the other subscales. However, categorical analyses of variables regarding family dynamic showed that crack users more often reported that sometimes people in their family hit each other (30.4% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.007) and that people in their family frequently compared each other regarding work and/or school achievement (57.2% vs. 42.6%, p = 0.041). These results suggest that families of crack-cocaine users are less cohesive than families of alcohol users. This type of family environment may affect treatment outcome, and should thus be adequately approached.

  1. Identifying the Characteristics of Effective High Schools: Report from Year One of the National Center on Scaling up Effective Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Stacey; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Scaling up Effective Schools (NCSU) is a five-year project working to develop, implement, and test new processes to scale up effective practices in high schools that districts will be able to apply within the context of their own unique goals and circumstances. This report describes the activities and findings of the first…

  2. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF A SOCIAL SKILLS SCALE FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Lin, C-K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a social skills scale for high school students in Taiwan. This study adopted stratified random sampling. A total of 1,729 high school students were included. The students ranged in age from 16 to 18 years. A Social Skills Scale was developed for this study and was designed for classroom teachers to fill out. The test-retest reliability of this scale was tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine construct validity. The Social Skills Scale had good overall test-retest reliability of .92, and the internal consistency of the five subscales was above .90. The results of the factor analysis showed that the Social Skills Scale covered the five domains of classroom learning skills, communication skills, individual initiative skills, interaction skills, and job-related social skills, and the five factors explained 68.34% of the variance. Thus, the Social Skills Scale had good reliability and validity and would be applicable to and could be promoted for use in schools.

  3. Prevention of Smoking in Middle School Students: Psychometric Assessment of the Temptations to Try Smoking Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Heather A.; Babbin, Steven F.; Redding, Colleen; Pavia, Andrea; Oatley, Karin; Meier, Kathryn; Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of psychometrically sound measures is critical to the development of effective interventions. The current study examined the psychometric properties, including factorial invariance, of a six item Temptations to Try Smoking Scale on a sample of middle school students. The sample of 6th grade students (N = 3527) was from 20 Rhode Island middle schools and was 52% male and 84% white. The Temptations to Try Smoking Scale consisted of two correlated subscales: Positive Social and Curiosity/Stress. Structural equation modeling was implemented to evaluate the factorial invariance across four different subgroups defined by gender (male/female), race (white/black), ethnicity (Hispanic/Non-Hispanic), and school size (200 6th graders). A model is factorially invariant when the measurement model is the same in each of the subgroups. Three levels of invariance were examined in sequential order: 1) Configural Invariance (unconstrained nonzero factor loadings); 2) Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings); and 3) Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors). Strong Factorial Invariance provided a good fit to the model across gender (CFI = .96), race (CFI = .96), ethnicity (CFI = .94), and school size (CFI = .97). Coefficient Alphas for the two subscales, Positive Social and Curiosity/Stress, were .87 and .86, respectively. These findings provide empirical support for the construct validity of the Temptations to Try Smoking Scale in middle school students. PMID:22265238

  4. An evaluation scale of family environment for identification of children at risk of school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Edna Maria; Ferreira, Marlene de Cássia Trivellato; Bacarji, Keiko Mali Garcia D'Avila

    2005-04-01

    This study describes the development of the Home Environment Resources Scale, a Brazilian measure for families with children ages 6 to 12 years. The scale measures aspects of support for school achievement, made available to the child at home. A first version of the measure with 11 subscales was administered to 100 mothers or guardians of children with poor school achievement in a clinical setting. Analysis of the items in the first version resulted in a final version comprising 8 subscales with acceptable indices of internal consistency. Two validity studies were conducted. One aimed at verifying to what extent the Home Environment Resources Scale could discriminate the home environment of students referred to a mental health clinic on account of poor school performance. The sample included mothers of 53 referred and 23 nonreferred children. The two groups differed significantly in home resources and on four subscales. The other study assessed the validity, i.e., prediction of the academic outcome of children entering Grade 1. 70 children and their mothers participated. Results indicate that school achievement and social competence at school are mediated by family support.

  5. Scale development for measuring children's Internet and video game addiction, and cross-sectional change in the scale values from primary to high school students

    OpenAIRE

    戸部, 秀之; 堀田, 美枝子; 竹内, 一夫

    2010-01-01

    The scales to measure 'Internet addiction' and 'video game addiction' for school children were developed using item response theory (IRT). The participants in this study were 2,947 school children from fourth grader of primary school to second grader of high school. They answered the questionnaire including the scale items for each addiction and the usage of Internet and video game, and so on. The data of children who used Internet (N=1,521) or video games (N=1,742) were analyzed for each sca...

  6. Social cohesion, social participation and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Elise; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin; Fonner, Virginia; Adams, Darrin; Sithole, Bhekie; Mnisi, Zandile; Maziya, Sibusiso Lulu; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Social cohesion and social participation are social factors that may help reduce HIV risks and optimize health-seeking behaviors. We examined the association between these factors and HIV testing in the last 12 months among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Swaziland using a cross-sectional survey conducted with 326 men, 18 years of age or older reporting having sex with another man in the last 12 months. Social capital analyses included measures of social cohesion and social participation. The social cohesion measurement scale was created through exploratory factor analysis using polychoric correlations to determine unidimensionality and Cronbach's Alpha to assess internal consistency. The measurement scale was divided at the 25th and 75th percentiles using "high," "medium" and "low" levels of social cohesion for between-group comparisons. The social participation index included four questions regarding participation, resulting in a participation index ranging from 0 to 4. In the final multivariate logistic regression model, an increase in the level of social participation was found to be significantly associated with HIV testing in the last 12 months, adjusting for age, income, reporting a casual partner, family exclusion and rejection by other MSM due to sexual orientation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.7, p cohesion had almost twice the odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, p cohesion, though the overall social cohesion variable was not found to be significant using a Wald test in either the adjusted or unadjusted logistic regression models. These data suggest that building solidarity and trust within and between groups may be a strategy to improve uptake of HIV testing.

  7. Estimating prevalence of serious emotional disturbance in schools using a brief screening scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Green, Jennifer Greif; Kessler, Ronald C; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2010-06-01

    Information about the prevalence of serious mental illness (SMI) among adults or serious emotional disturbance (SED) among youth in small domains such as counties, states, or schools is valuable for mental health policy planning purposes, but prohibitively expensive to collect with semi-structured surveys. Commonly used synthetic estimation methods yield imprecise estimates. An improved method is described here that combines information about socio-demographic covariates with screening scale scores obtained from a sample of individuals, using a prediction equation derived from a Bayesian multilevel regression model with bivariate outcomes fitted to a larger population survey. This method is illustrated using K6 screening scale scores to predict school-level prevalence of SED in the sample of 282 schools that participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Respondents completed a diagnostic interview that was used to define DSM-IV SED. SED prevalence varied significantly across schools and was strongly correlated with aggregate K6 scores (rho = 0.70). Calculations suggest that near-maximum precision of school-level SED prevalence estimates could be attained with K6 samples of 200 students per school. This modeling approach holds great promise for generating accurate estimates of SMI/SED in small-area planning units based on K6 scores collected in ongoing health tracking surveys.

  8. Homework Management Scale: Confirming the Factor Structure with Middle School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a psychometric evaluation of the Homework Management Scale (HMS) for mathematics, consisting of five subscales for measuring homework management strategies. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with a sample of middle school students (N = 796). Results indicated that the factor structure of the Chinese version of the HMS…

  9. Homework Distraction Scale: Confirming the Factor Structure With Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Homework Distraction Scale (HDS) using 796 middle school students. Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the presence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HDS: Conventional Distraction and Tech-Related Distraction. Results of…

  10. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Homework Management Scale for High School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuyi; Xu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Homework Management Scale (HMS). The HMS was designed to assess students' homework management strategies. Based on a randomized split of 884 high school students in China, we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group 1 (n = 442) and confirmatory factor analysis on…

  11. A Validity Study of Attitudes toward Science Scale among Iranian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaghatdar, Muhammad J.; Soltani, Asghar; Abedi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is providing a scale for measuring attitudes toward science among Persian secondary school students. A total of 300 (150 girls and 150 boys) of second grade students from all disciplines including science and mathematics in secondary education, participated in the study. Research instrument was, translated Persian version…

  12. Development of Want-Need Perception Scale for Primary and Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirtas, Hülya; Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    In the development of the national economies, the economy education in school curricula has an important place, because students may not have received the necessary economic realities and requirements. For that reason, it is necessary to determine the perception of wants and needs of children. In this study, it was aimed to develop a scale for…

  13. Development and Validation of Science Homework Scale for Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Yasemin; Sungur, Semra; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate Science Homework Scale (SHS) which assesses middle-school (grades 6-8) students' perceptions of teachers' homework practices and homework self-regulation in science. Students' perceptions of teachers' homework practices included homework quality and feedback on homework while students' homework…

  14. The Leadership-Culture Dimensional Screening Scale: Measuring Transactional and Transformational Leadership within School Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lorrie C.

    The Leadership-Culture Dimensional Screening Scale (LCDSS) measures the relationship between frontier and settlement school cultures; transactional and transformational leadership styles; and the four work roles (supervisor, administrator, manager, and leader) formed by the intersection of the model's culture and leadership dimensions. This…

  15. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  16. Alliance and group cohesion in relationship education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Antle, Becky; Barbee, Anita

    2013-09-01

    Relationship education programs have been shown as an effective way to increase relationship functioning. There is less known about how process factors, such as alliance with the leader or group dynamics, affect outcomes in these interventions. We examined group cohesion and alliance with the leader in a relationship education program tailored for individuals. Specifically, we examined whether participants' ratings (n = 126) of the group cohesion and alliance with the leader were associated with changes in relationship adjustment, relationship confidence, and communication quality from pre- to postintervention. The results demonstrated that participants' perceptions of the cohesion among the members in their relationship education group, but not the leader-participant alliance, made a significant contribution to the changes in participants' relationship functioning. These results suggest that the group dynamics among the members in the group are important ingredients in relationship education. Implications for relationship programs are provided. © FPI, Inc.

  17. Cohesion in the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    known as the "human relations" school of management. The works of Abraham Maslow and Kurt Lewin con- tributed significantly to the development of this...reviews from below a necessary condition to maintain organizational vitality and to prevent ossification. Unfortunately, they say, conditions for...the questions. Please use a #2 pencil when filling in each answer space . Do not fill out the areas of the answer sheet which are above, below, or to

  18. Usages of people names as cohesive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sipavicius Seide

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usages of people names (proper name, nickname and pseudonym as cohesive elements. In this brief study, some usages of people names which ocurred in journalistic texts are analysed from an onomastic point of view. Emphasis  is placed on cultural, social and historic values of such usages. Data presented are parcial results of a broader research whose objective is to analyse textually and rethorically lexical cohesion tools observed in a sample of journalistic texts published by three Brazilian magazines (Istoé, Época and Veja during the second semester of 2008.

  19. Music Performance Anxiety Scale for High School Students: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Palancı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a Music Performance Anxiety Scale (MPAS for high school students, and to conduct a validity and reliability study. In this respect, a scale will be developed to be used for high school students (adolescents, and differences between the genders will be examined. The study was conducted on 546 high school students. Of these students, 185 (33.9% were male, 361 (66.1% were female, and the average age was 16.81 with the ages ranging from 15 to 20. Correlational values of the scale items among themselves and with item totals were examined as a preliminary analysis. As a result of the EFA’s principal components technique, promax rotation technique and the analyses, a construct with three factors explaining a total of 42.74% of the total variance was attained. The structure attained was validated by CFA, and fit indices were found to be within the acceptance interval. In the reliability study, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as .86 for the entire scale, 27% for the lower-upper group comparison and test-retest analyses were conducted. The t-test was performed to attain the difference between genders. As a result of the study, a valid and reliable scale was seen to have been developed and a difference between the genders was apparent.

  20. Variations in Academic Performance Trajectories during High School Transition: Exploring Change Profiles Via Multidimensional Scaling Growth Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the baseline change profiles of academic performance (math and English) trajectories during the high school transition for the students who went from middle school to high school. Using multidimensional scaling growth profile analysis, we identified a no-change group plus 4 other groups with different change profile types: 1…

  1. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  2. Delayed Effects of a Low-Cost and Large-Scale Summer Reading Intervention on Elementary School Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James S.; Guryan, Jonathan; White, Thomas G.; Quinn, David M.; Capotosto, Lauren; Kingston, Helen Chen

    2016-01-01

    To improve the reading comprehension outcomes of children in high-poverty schools, policymakers need to identify reading interventions that show promise of effectiveness at scale. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a low-cost and large-scale summer reading intervention that provided comprehension lessons at the end of the school year and…

  3. [The School Refusal Assessment Scale: Psychometric properties and validation of a modified version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollmann, Martin; Sicking, Alexander; Hebebrand, Johannes; Reissner, Volker

    2017-07-01

    Psychometric properties of the original and a modified version of the «Einschätzungsskala der Schulverweigerung» (German version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale, SRAS; Kearney & Silverman, 1993; Overmeyer et al., 1994) were analyzed in order to identify alternative ways to revise the SRAS/ESV compared to the existing revision SRAS-R (Kearney, 2002). The SRAS/ESV consists of a parent and a child version and measures four functions of school refusal (avoidance of negative affect related to school settings, escape from aversive social or evaluative situations, attention-getting behavior, positive tangible reinforcement). Data from N = 124 (parent version) respectively N = 156 (child version) patients of a specialized psychiatric outpatient unit for children and adolescents with school-avoiding behavior were obtained. Analyzes included characteristics of items and scales, face-, factorial-, and construct-validity (correlations with other questionnaires, e. g., YSR, CBCL were analyzed). Many items seem to measure overall anxiety instead of the functional aspects of school refusal, one item measures expansive behavior. Four factors were obtained, but they did not reflect the assumed structure of the ESV (e. g., overlap of the two avoidance-related scales). Post-hoc-analyzes with a modified version (elimination of several items with problematic content validity) suggested three factors, convergent and discriminative validity of the modified version was confirmed. Because only some of the afore-mentioned problems have been addressed in the revised version (SRAS-R; Kearney, 2002), a new revision and extension of the German version of the questionnaire covering more aspects of school avoidance behavior (e. g., bullying, depression, somatic complaints, psychosocial factors) is discussed.

  4. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Psychological Distress among Urban Adults: The Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Prins, Rick G; Voorham, Toon A J J; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10-50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health.

  5. Role of Education in Building Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Social Cohesion is the expression of that tradition of tolerance in all religions and cultures that are the basis of peace and progress. It is foreign to know culture and native to all nations. Tolerance and mercy have always and in all cultures being ideals of Government rules and human behavior. Professional educator often comments on the poor…

  6. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  7. Cohesion in Interlanguage: A Study of Conjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Leslie M.

    A study of textual cohesion in the oral discourse of learners of English as a second language had as subjects 19 Asians from 4 language backgrounds, who were living and, in most cases, studying English in the United States. Analysis of taped conversations focused on the use of conjunctive adjuncts of three kinds: (1) simple adverbs (e.g., and,…

  8. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calo-Blanco, A.; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, F.; Romero, J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku e0176885. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : social cohesion * trust * climate Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  9. The Corporate Stake in Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2005-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a function that transcends, but includes, making profits, creating jobs, and producing goods and services. The effectiveness with which corporations perform this function determines their contribution (or lack of contribution) to social cohesion. This article therefore presents a discussion of some of the…

  10. Investigating Team Cohesion in COCOMO II.2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdeal-Carden, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    Software engineering is team oriented and intensely complex, relying on human collaboration and creativity more than any other engineering discipline. Poor software estimation is a problem that within the United States costs over a billion dollars per year. Effective measurement of team cohesion is foundationally important to gain accurate…

  11. Microzonation Analysis of Cohesionless and Cohesive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Choy Soon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban seismic risk is a continuous worldwide issue, numerous researchers are putting great effort in dealing with how to minimise the level of the threat. The only way to minimise the social and economic consequences caused but the seismic risk is through comprehensive earthquake scenario analysis such as ground response analysis. This paper intends to examine the characteristic of shear wave velocity and peak ground acceleration on cohesionless and cohesiveness soil. In order to examine the characteristic of shear wave velocity and peak ground acceleration on cohesionless and cohesiveness soil, ground response analysis was performed using Nonlinear Earthquake Site Response Analysis (NERA and Equivalent-linear Earthquake Site Response Analysis (EERA. The value of ground acceleration was initially high at bedrock and vanishes during the propagation process. It is thus, the measured acceleration at surface is therefore much lower as compare to at bedrock. Result shows that seismic waves can travel faster in harder soil as compared to softer soil. Cohesive soil contributes more to the shaking amplification than cohesionless soil such as sand and harder soil. This is known as local site effect. The typical example is the Mexico Earthquake that happened in 1985. As conclusion, peak ground acceleration for cohesive soil is higher than in cohesionless soil.

  12. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality.

  13. Class Cohesion Metrics for Software Engineering: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Izadkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Class cohesion or degree of the relations of class members is considered as one of the crucial quality criteria. A class with a high cohesion improves understandability, maintainability and reusability. The class cohesion metrics can be measured quantitatively and therefore can be used as a base for assessing the quality of design. The main objective of this paper is to identify important research directions in the area of class cohesion metrics that require further attention in order to develop more effective and efficient class cohesion metrics for software engineering. In this paper, we discuss the class cohesion assessing metrics (thirty-two metrics that have received the most attention in the research community and compare them from different aspects. We also present desirable properties of cohesion metrics to validate class cohesion metrics.

  14. Reliability and validity of a scale for health-promoting schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Shin, Young-Jeon; Choi, Bo Youl; Cho, Ho Soon Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite a growing body of research regarding the health-promoting schools (HPS) concept from the World Health Organization (WHO), research on measuring of the HPS is limited. This study aims to develop a scale for assessing the status of the HPS based on the WHO guidelines and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the scale. After completing the translation and back-translation process, the content validity of the 50-item scale for HPS (SHPS) was assessed by an expert committee review and pretested with 17 teachers. A stratified, random sampling design was used. A total of 728 teachers from 94 schools completed a self-administered questionnaire. The total sample was randomly divided into three groups for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and cross-validation. The EFA suggested seven factors, including 37 items, and the CFA confirmed these factors. In a second-order factor analysis, the second-order seven-factor model had acceptable fit indices (root mean square error of approximation 0.07, comparative fit index 0.98) with stability over validation sample and whole sample. Thus, the first-order seven factors (school nutrition services [three-item, α = 0.87], healthy school policies [six-item, α = 0.87], school's physical environment [10-item, α = 0.91], school's social environment [four-item, α = 0.88], community links [six-item, α = 0.91], individual health skills and action competencies [three-item, α = 0.89], and health services [five-item, α = 0.86]) loaded significantly onto the second-order factor (HPS [37-item, α = 0.97]). In conclusion, the SHPS is a reliable and valid measurement tool for assessing the states of the HPS in the Korean school context. It will be useful for comprehensively assessing schools' needs and monitoring the progress of school health interventions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A STUDY OF THE DISCHARGE OF COHESIVE POWDERS UNDER SIMULTANEOUS AERATION AND VIBRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marring, E.; Hoffmann, A.C; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of applying simultaneous aeration and vibration on the discharge of cohesive powders from a laboratory scale cylindrical silo has been studied experimentally. The powders investigated were batches of potato starch powder of different moisture contents and therefore different degrees of

  16. A comparative risk assessment framework for wildland fire management: the 2010 cohesive strategy science report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Calkin; Alan A. Ager; Matthew P. Thompson; Mark A. Finney; Danny C. Lee; Thomas M. Quigley; Charles W. McHugh; Karin L. Riley; Julie M. Gilbertson-Day

    2011-01-01

    The FLAME Act of 2009 requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the U.S. Department of Interior to submit to Congress a Cohesive Wildfire Management Strategy. In this report, we explore the general science available for a risk-based approach to fire and fuels management and suggest analyses that may be applied at multiple scales to inform...

  17. A prospective study of group cohesiveness in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in psychological distress and social participation in adults diagnosed with clinical depression during and after participating in a therapeutic horticulture programme, and to investigate if the changes covaried with levels of group cohesiveness during the intervention. An intervention with a single-group design was repeated with different samples in successive years (pooled n = 46). In each year, five groups of 3-7 participants went through the intervention. Data were collected before, twice during, and immediately after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture programme, as well as at 3-months' follow up. Mental health assessments included the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Subscale of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Positive Affect Scale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Therapeutic Factors Inventory-Cohesiveness Scale. The analysis of the pooled data confirmed significant beneficial change in all mental health variables during the intervention. Change from baseline in depression severity persisted at 3-months' follow up. Increased social activity after the intervention was reported for 38% of the participants. The groups quickly established strong cohesiveness, and this continued to increase during the intervention. The average level of group cohesiveness correlated positively, but not significantly, with change in all mental health outcome variables. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Hawes, Armani M; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-11-01

    The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviours. Although important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighbourhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people's behaviours. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighbourhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighbourhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighbourhood characteristics, such as perceived neighbourhood social cohesion. Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used to analyse 5276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for 4 years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioural, biological and psychosocial factors. In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education and total wealth, each SD increase in perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94. The association between perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioural, biological and psychosocial covariates. Higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Education and Social Cohesion: Re-Centering the Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Andy; Preston, John

    2001-01-01

    Social Capital theory has tended to treat social cohesion as a mere aggregation of individual and community level characteristics, ignoring the long tradition of theory on social solidarity and social cohesion at the societal level. However, the key indicators of social capital – associational membership and social trust – do not co-vary cross nationally and societies rich in community level social capital are not always cohesive societies. Social capital and societal cohesion are not necessa...

  20. Hydraulic geometry of cohesive channels undergoing base level drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachtman, Dina; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2013-09-01

    This study extends earlier contributions on dynamic adjustments of fluvial channels to base level changes. We have investigated an in situ response of self-formed cohesive channels to a base level drop, conditions analogous to a gradual change in uplift and/or climate. Empirical hydraulic geometry equations for clayey-cohesive natural streams are presented using data from eight channels draining perennial brackish springs and discharge into the Dead Sea. Investigation of downstream variations in gradient and stream power relations suggests existence of three distinct reaches in which channel adjustment to base level drop is shared inequitably among hydraulic geometry variables. Values of the flow velocity exponent m are low (0.11 ≤ m ≤ 0.24), the mid-channel reach having the lowest exponent. The depth exponent f has the lowest value (f ≈ 0.3) for the uppermost channel reaches, the rest having higher values (f ≈ 0.4). The smallest width exponent (b = 0.35) characterizes the upper reaches. These values and their spatial distribution exhibit a regular pattern. We show that the lowermost channel reach adjusts by profile steepening and channel narrowing (f > b); the prevailing mechanism in the mid-channel reaches is lateral (width) adjustment, cross sections transiently transforming toward equilibrium; the uppermost reaches have wide and shallow channel cross sections because of series of bank collapses and resultant sediment aggradation, bringing rise to decreased local gradient, forcing further channel widening. The results of this study not only allow inference about how cohesive channels regulate their geometry, but also reveal the means by which hydraulic forces overcome substrate resistance, adjusting slope and channel dimensions and, as such, have implication for reach-scale channel morphology and models of stream power.

  1. Cohesion of Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Correlation Between Cohesion and Other Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsman, Katarina L M; Öhrlund, Åke

    2017-10-20

    There are several published articles on characterization of fillers, describing methods for both chemical and physicochemical characterization. Recently a lot of focus has been on the development of methods for measuring cohesion of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the drop-weight method and the correlation between cohesion and other physicochemical properties using a variety of HA fillers. HA fillers covering several product families and manufacturing techniques were used. The HA fillers also covered a range of HA concentrations from 12 to 24 mg/mL. Cohesion was determined using sensory evaluation and the drop-weight method. Other physicochemical properties evaluated were rheology and the swelling factor. In this study, it was verified that values obtained by the drop-weight method reflect the perceived cohesion very well. The correlation with rheology is affected by the HA concentration in the products. A remarkably good correlation between swelling factor and cohesion was found. Cohesion correlates with other physicochemical methods. It could be discussed whether there is a need for a separate cohesion method because other already established physicochemical methods such as rheology and swelling factor can describe the underlying properties that affect cohesion.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  2. Measuring the impact of spatial network layout on community social cohesion: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crispin H V; Fone, David L; Chiaradia, Alain J F

    2014-04-11

    There is now a substantial body of research suggesting that social cohesion, a collective characteristic measured by the levels of trust, reciprocity and formation of strong social bonds within communities, is an important factor in determining health. Of particular interest is the extent to which factors in the built environment facilitate, or impede, the development of social bonds. Severance is a characteristic of physical environments which is hypothesized to inhibit cohesion. In the current study we test a number of characteristics of spatial networks which could be hypothesized to relate either to severance, or directly to community cohesion. Particular focus is given to our most promising variable for further analysis (Convex Hull Maximum Radius 600 m). In the current study we analysed social cohesion as measured at Enumeration District level, aggregated from a survey of 10,892 individuals aged 18 to 74 years in the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Cohort Study, 2001. In a data mining process we test 16 network variables on multiple scales. The variable showing the most promise is validated in a test on an independent data set. We then conduct a multivariate regression also including Townsend deprivation scores and urban/rural status as predictor variables for social cohesion. We find convex hull maximum radius at a 600 m scale to have a small but highly significant correlation with social cohesion on both data sets. Deprivation has a stronger effect. Splitting the analysis by tertile of deprivation, we find that the effect of severance as measured by this variable is strongest in the most deprived areas. A range of spatial scales are tested, with the strongest effects being observed at scales that match typical walking distances. We conclude that physical connectivity as measured in this paper has a significant effect on social cohesion, and that our measure is unlikely to proxy either deprivation or the urban/rural status of communities. Possible

  3. [Adaptation of the MSCI for the measurement of cohesion in Spanish young soccer players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Quinteiro, Eva María; Rodríguez Casal, Mauro; Andrade, Elena M; Arce, Constantino

    2006-08-01

    This work describes the Spanish adaptation and studies the psychometric properties of Yukelson, Weinberg, and Jackson's Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument (MSCI) with a sample of 173 soccer players. The Spanish version is composed of 22 items grouped in four factors: quality of teamwork (performance aspects), attraction to the group, valued roles and quality of teamwork (interpersonal relationships), that accounted for 53.30% of the total variance. Reliability coefficients (Cronbach's Alphas) for the factors ranged from .84 (factor 1) to .56 (factor 4). Suggestions are made for future research on the validity of the scale, mainly in terms of convergence with other multidimensional measures of sport cohesion.

  4. Towards Understanding and Studying Cohesion in Schizophrenic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    Cohesion analysis has been used to investigate the language of schizophrenics and that associated with other psychiatric syndromes. Cohesion, one means of creating text, cannot account for all aspects of the pretheoretical notion of coherence. As a research tool, cohesion meets the dual criteria of an analysis of language in context and…

  5. Intact Discourse Cohesion and Coherence Following Bilateral Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Discourse cohesion and coherence give communication its continuity providing the grammatical and lexical links that hold an utterance or text together and give it meaning. Researchers often link cohesion and coherence deficits to the frontal lobes by drawing attention to frontal lobe dysfunction in populations where discourse cohesion and…

  6. Territorial cohesion post - 2013 : To whomsoever it may concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    Conceived as a motion for resolution, the paper considers territorial cohesion now being on the statute book, the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion, Barca making the case for integrated, place-based strategies, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and the future of Cohesion policy. The

  7. Cohesion in Compositions of Turkish and Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Eyyup

    2011-01-01

    Cohesion refers to the relationships established between sentences and paragraphs via the units in the surface structure of the text. This study evaluated texts written by Uzbek origin immigrant students and Turkish students living in Hatay in terms of the use of cohesion devices (ellipsis, conjunctions, lexical cohesion, reference, substitution).…

  8. Psychometric testing of the modified Care Dependency Scale among hospitalized school-aged children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the modified Care Dependency Scale in a pediatric setting and to explore the extent of dependency of school-aged children regarding their self-care. The data were collected from 130 hospitalized children, aged 6-12 years. The reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha, which showed a high level of consistency. The subsequent inter-rater reliability revealed moderate-to-substantial agreement. The criterion-related validity was tested by comparing the sum scores of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics and the Visual Analog Scale. Factor analysis was used to investigate the construct validity and resulted in a one-factor solution. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics is a valid and reliable measure that offers a comprehensive assessment from a nursing perspective and enables nurses to help children acquire independence.

  9. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress of home life and gender role socializations, family cohesion, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-04-05

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling. Exposure to stress at home that was perceived to result from sociocultural prescriptions of gender role norms largely accounted for anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls, whereas this relation was non-significant among boys. Significant indirect relations through low family cohesion to anxiety symptoms were observed for girls and boys but not to depressive symptoms for boys. These findings suggest that differences in gender role socializations at home may account for individual differences in associations between exposure to stress at home and anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as explain the differential indirect relations through low family cohesion. Improving family cohesion while reducing stress at home may contribute to reducing stress and thus anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  11. Reliability and validity of academic motivation scale for sports high school students’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Fehime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test validity and reliability of Academic Motivation Scale (AMS for sports high school students. The research conducted with 357 volunteered girls (n=117 and boys (n=240. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that Chi square (χ2, degrees of freedom (df and χ2/df ratio were 1102.90, 341 and 3.234, respectively. Goodness of Fit Index, Comparative Fit Index, Non-normed Fit Index and Incremental Fit Index were between 0.92-0.95. Additionally, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index, An Average Errors Square Root and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation were 0.88, 0.070 and 0.079, respectively. Subscale reliability coefficients were between 0.77 and 0.86. Test-retest correlations of AMS were found between 0.79 and 0.91. Results showed that scale was suitable for determination of sports high school students’ academicals motivation levels.

  12. A Turkish Scale for Elementary School Students’ Self Perceptions of Computer Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Keser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the self-perceptions of elementary school sixth-, seventh- and eighth-grade students who are aged between 12 and 15 about computer game addiction. In the research, the game addiction scale was employed in order to determine students’ self-perceptions. The scale was administered to 1467 elementary school students. Of the participants students in the research, 16,8% described themselves as individuals experiencing problems in computer game addiction. On the other hand, it was determined that the factors of age and gender create significant differences in students’ self-perceptions, whereas the factors of socioeconomic level and grade level do not.

  13. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students ( N = 499). The Chinese GRSS was found to have high internal consistency. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the six-factor solution of the original GRS-S. Comparison of the GRS-S scores and measures of academic performance provide preliminary support for the criterion validity of the Chinese-translated GRS-S. Significant age and gender differences on the Chinese GRS-S were found. Results provide preliminary support for the Chinese version of the GRS-S as a reliable and valid measure of giftedness for Chinese students.

  14. Is social cohesion one latent concept? Investigating the dimensionality of social cohesion using Kearns and Forrest Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Reeskens, Tim; Botterman, Sarah; Hooghe, Marc

    2008-01-01

    One of the most abundantly used concepts in contemporary social sciences and among policy experts is 'social cohesion'. However, it is difficult to grasp how social cohesion is defined or measured. In this paper, we follow the line of reasoning of urban sociologists Kearns and Forrest (2000), who ascribed five dimensions to social cohesion. Although frequently used in theoretical discussions, methodological rigorous tests on the dimensionality of these five social cohesion dimensions are abse...

  15. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students

    OpenAIRE

    Stover JB; de la Iglesia G; Rial Boubeta A; Fernández Liporace M

    2012-01-01

    Juliana Beatriz Stover,1 Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1 Antonio Ria,l Boubeta,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace11Buenos Aires University and National Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela, SpainAbstract: The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the u...

  16. Teacher's Influence Scale from Their Colleagues and Principals: Its Relation with School Performance in Public Schools of the Albanian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanaili, Valbona

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the relation between school performance and the Teacher's Influence Scale on certain issues from their colleagues and principals in the public educational system of Albania. For this purpose, a questionnaire was used. The sample consisted of 428 teachers, teaching at 20 public schools in the pre-university educational…

  17. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  18. Heterochromatin and the cohesion of sister chromatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin, once thought to be the useless junk of chromosomes, is now known to play significant roles in biology. Underlying much of this newfound fame are links between the repressive chromatin structure and cohesin, the protein complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion. Heterochromatin-mediated recruitment and retention of cohesin to domains flanking centromeres promotes proper attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic and meiotic spindles. Heterochromatin assembled periodically between convergently transcribed genes also recruits cohesin, which promotes a novel form of transcription termination. Heterochromatin-like structures in budding yeast also recruit cohesin. Here the complex appears to regulate transcriptional silencing and recombination between repeated DNA sequences. The link between heterochromatin and cohesin is particularly relevant to human health. In Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome, heterochromatic cohesion is selectively lost due to mutation of the acetyltransferase responsible for cohesin activation. In this review I discuss recent work that relates to these relationships between heterochromatin and cohesin.

  19. Cohesion and Metaphor Aspects in Andabhuana Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Mahardika

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion and metaphor are the unique and interesting parts of language aspects in Andhabhuan text to research. They are quite dominant aspects in the story in developing its literature aesthetic. This research is based on the arts technical and analytical method. The result of the research on those two aspects shows that traditional aesthetic style in arts, as described in Andabhuana verses emphasize on the reference, meaning, selection and variation of words. The language parts used are aimed at bringing the text ideology to humanity perspective, especially the ?iwatattwa values as parts of Hindu teaching. Hence the cohesion and metaphor in Andabhuana text  are  semiotic description to transform to Balinese Hindus as most of them follow ?iwatattwa belief.

  20. Social cohesion and interpersonal conflicts in projects

    OpenAIRE

    Ojiako, Udechukwu; Manville, Graham; Zouk, Nadine; Chipulu, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    One particular area of project management literature that has continued to gain momentum in literature is its social dimension; with a number of scholars emphasising the fact that there is a considerable social dimension to every project activity. Within this context, the authors examine parameters that drive social facets of projects with a particular focus on social cohesion, interpersonal conflicts and national culture. Data from 167 project managers working in Kuwait were collected utilis...

  1. Cohesion network analysis of CSCL participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalu, Mihai; McNamara, Danielle S; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Allen, Laura K

    2017-04-13

    The broad use of computer-supported collaborative-learning (CSCL) environments (e.g., instant messenger-chats, forums, blogs in online communities, and massive open online courses) calls for automated tools to support tutors in the time-consuming process of analyzing collaborative conversations. In this article, the authors propose and validate the cohesion network analysis (CNA) model, housed within the ReaderBench platform. CNA, grounded in theories of cohesion, dialogism, and polyphony, is similar to social network analysis (SNA), but it also considers text content and discourse structure and, uniquely, uses automated cohesion indices to generate the underlying discourse representation. Thus, CNA enhances the power of SNA by explicitly considering semantic cohesion while modeling interactions between participants. The primary purpose of this article is to describe CNA analysis and to provide a proof of concept, by using ten chat conversations in which multiple participants debated the advantages of CSCL technologies. Each participant's contributions were human-scored on the basis of their relevance in terms of covering the central concepts of the conversation. SNA metrics, applied to the CNA sociogram, were then used to assess the quality of each member's degree of participation. The results revealed that the CNA indices were strongly correlated to the human evaluations of the conversations. Furthermore, a stepwise regression analysis indicated that the CNA indices collectively predicted 54% of the variance in the human ratings of participation. The results provide promising support for the use of automated computational assessments of collaborative participation and of individuals' degrees of active involvement in CSCL environments.

  2. The Importance of Cohesion in Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Asami

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes academic essays written by Japanese university students. One of their weak points lies on a lack of coherence in their writings. In order to investigate the characteristics of their writings in English, I conducted a micro-level analysis based on a student's essay and a macro-level analysis by using learner corpus consisting of 21 students' essays. The findings show that Japanese students have difficulty with using cohesive devices such as reference and conjunction.

  3. The level of new science leadership behaviors of school principals: A scale development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpil Şerife

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum physics opened Newton physics up for discussion, thus triggering the new science at the beginning of the 20th century. Philosophy of science, which was named as the new science in the 20th century, caused fundamental changes in research methods and paradigms. The methods and set of values brought by the new science affected social sciences as well. In conjunction with this mentioned change and development, the field of education and the view of schools were influenced. In the same vein, identifying the thoughts of school principals on leadership styles based on new science was considered as a primary need and set the objective of this research. In this regard, a “The Levels of New Science Leadership Behaviors of School Principals Scale” was developed. Following the literature review, the scale with 54 items was prepared and underwent expert review. Finally it was applied to 200 school principals who were working in primary and secondary schools in the Anatolian side of Istanbul. The data acquired were analyzed through SPSS 15.0 and Lisrel 8.51 programs. The results of the analysis revealed that the scale was comprised of a total of 27 items and had 5 factors (dimensions. The reliability analysis indicated internal consistency value (Cronbach Alpha as .94. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out in Lisrel program. According to results of confirmatory factor analysis, the X2/df ratio was calculated as 2, 24 which showed that the measurement model was in accord with the data.

  4. Perceptions of communication, family adaptability and cohesion: a comparison of adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R; Robb, Sheri L; Monahan, Patrick O; Dossey, Amy; Haase, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    To describe and compare adolescent and parent perspectives on communication, family adaptability and cohesion, as well as relationships among these variables, during the first month of an adolescent's cancer diagnosis. Seventy adolescent-parent dyads were enrolled as part of a larger multi-site study. The adolescents ranged in age from 11 to 19, and 61% were males. Parents were predominately mothers (83%). Dyads were predominately non-Hispanic Caucasian (63%). Measures included the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES II). Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations, intra-class correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses were completed. Adolescent scores on communication, family adaptability and cohesion were significantly lower than parent scores. The inter-dyadic agreement between adolescents and parents was low. Communication, family adaptability and cohesion were examined separately for adolescents and for parents, and significant relationships were found. Both adolescent- and parent-perceived communication was significantly associated with family adaptability and cohesion outcomes. Differences were found in adolescent and parent perceptions of communication, family adaptability and cohesion. When both adolescents and parents had better perceived communication, this was associated with better perceived family adaptability and cohesion. Results suggest that the development of interventions to enhance adolescent-parent communication could help foster better family adaptability and cohesion, which may ultimately impact their psychological adjustment. In addition, understanding the degree to which adolescents and parents disagree on their perceptions, including the results that parents generally have more favorable perceptions, may be a useful starting point when developing interventions.

  5. Early agglomeration monitor of coarse cohesive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xi; You Changfu; Yang Ruichang, E-mail: xiwang06@mails.tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: youcf@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: yangrc@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Key laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-01

    This paper established a three-dimensional visualization experimental system. Paraffin particles were chosen as a test of raw material to simulate the movement and bonded process of coarse cohesive particles. Experimental study on fluidization process of coarse cohesive particles has been done by high-speed camera. The study shows that: from the normal fluidization to shut-down, it can be divided into two phases. The former is a slower phase of the bond and the formation of core grew up phase; the second stage is the huge bonded core turn to bridge fast and shutdown happens with great velocity. Then, comparison of different methods has been done to deal with the experimental date of pressure, the results show that: Compared to the average pressure and pressure deviation method, S attractor method that is based on chaotic theory could monitor the agglomeration much earlier, reflect the degrees of bond with the specific numerical value and also demonstrate the velocity of agglomeration. Thus, it could be applied to the early monitor of agglomeration of coarse cohesive particles.

  6. Validation of the Spanish version of the Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM in Chilean adolescents and its association with school-related outcomes and substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School membership appears to be an important factor in explaining the relationship between students and schools, including school staff. School membership is associated with several school-related outcomes, such as academic performance and expectations. Most studies on school membership have been conducted in developed countries. The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM scale (18 items: 13 positively worded items, 5 negatively worded items has been widely used to measure this construct, but no studies regarding its validity and reliability have been conducted in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. This study investigates the psychometric properties, factor structure and reliability of this scale in a sample of 1250 early adolescents in Chile. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provide evidence of an excellent fit for a one-factor solution after removing the negatively worded items. The internal consistency of this new abbreviated version was 0.92. The association analyses demonstrated that high school membership was associated with better academic performance, stronger school bonding, a reduced likelihood of school misbehavior and reduced likelihood of substance use. Analyses showed support for the reliability and validity of the PSSM among Chilean adolescents.

  7. Development of the Educational and Career Interest Scale in Science, Technology, and Mathematics for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youn Joo; Jia, Yueming; Lorentson, Mhora; LaBanca, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The Educational and Career Interest scale, a self-report instrument measuring high school students' educational and career interest in STEM, was developed and validated in two studies conducted during 2010 and 2011. Study 1 included data from 92 high school students, in which exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted with an initial…

  8. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form in Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the reliability and validity of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) in Chinese high school students. One hundred and eighty-three high school students from a city in northeastern China participated in the study. The results indicate that scores on the CDSES-SF are reliable (internal consistency…

  9. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.; Su, Xuefen; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Jie; Qin, Zuguo

    2016-01-01

    Background Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents’ daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents’ well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. Methods A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods. Results Two factors, Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI) and Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI), were clearly identified by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, pnetworking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use. Conclusions The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. It would facilitate more research in this field worldwide and specifically in the Chinese population. PMID:27798699

  10. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H; Su, Xuefen; Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Jie; Qin, Zuguo

    2016-01-01

    Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents' daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents' well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods. Two factors, Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI) and Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI), were clearly identified by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, pnetworking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use. The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. It would facilitate more research in this field worldwide and specifically in the Chinese population.

  11. The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2010-04-01

    Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

  12. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stover JB

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Beatriz Stover,1 Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1 Antonio Ria,l Boubeta,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace11Buenos Aires University and National Research Council (CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela, SpainAbstract: The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality.Keywords: Academic Motivation, self-determination, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency

  13. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  14. The management of cohesion in written narratives in students with specific language impairment: Differences between childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favart, Monik; Potocki, Anna; Broc, Lucie; Quémart, Pauline; Bernicot, Josie; Olive, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the management of cohesion by children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) when writing a narrative in a communicative situation. Twelve children with SLI (from 7 to 11 years old) and 12 adolescents with SLI (from 12 to 18 years old) were chronological age-matched with 24 typically developing (TD) children and 24 TD adolescents. All participants attended mainstream classes: children in elementary schools and adolescents in middle and high schools. Analyses of cohesion focused on both density and diversity of connectives, punctuation marks and anaphors. Results attested that children with SLI were greatly impaired in their management of written cohesion and used specific forms previously observed in narrative speech such as left dislocations. By contrast, and not expected, the management of written cohesion by adolescents with SLI was close to that of their TD peers. The communicative writing situation we set up, which engaged participants to take into account the addressee, also made possible for adolescents with SLI to manage cohesion in writing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Dongil; Aum, Narae; Choi, Jung-Seok; Cheng, Cecilia; Ko, Huei-Chen; Watanabe, Hiroko

    2017-03-01

    The Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) was developed in Korea for assessing addictive internet behaviors. This study aims to adopt K-Scale and examine its psychometric properties in Japanese adolescents. In 2014, 589 (36.0% boys) high school students (Grade 10-12) from Japan completed a survey, including items of Japanese versions of K-Scale and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale). Model fit indices of the original four-factor structure, three-factor structure obtained from exploratory factor analysis, and improved two-factor structure of K-Scale were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, with internal reliability of included items reported. The convergent validity of K-Scale was tested against self-rated internet addiction, and S-Scale using multiple regression models. The results showed that a second-order two-factor 13-item structure was the most parsimonious model (NFI=0.919, NNFI=0.935, CFI=0.949, and RMSEA=0.05) with good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). The two factors revealed were "Disturbance of Adaptation and Life Orientation" and "Withdrawal and Tolerance". Moreover, the correlation between internet user classifications defined by K-Scale and self-rating was significant. K-Scale total score was significantly and positively associated with S-Scale total (adjusted R2=0.440) and subscale scores (adjusted R2=0.439). In conclusion, K-Scale is a valid and reliable assessment scale of internet addiction for Japanese high school students after modifications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Family adaptability and cohesion in families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn

    2015-06-01

    South Korea's low birth rate, aging society, and female migration to urban areas due to industrialization have caused an accelerated inflow of Asian female immigrants into Korea to marry Korean men, especially in rural areas. This study was performed to determine how family function of multicultural families changes over time and what factors affect the changes in family function of multicultural families. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a 1st wave study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) scores were measured. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the 1st wave study results. The mean family adaptability score was 24.6 in the 1st wave study and 26.1 at the 3-year follow-up. The average family cohesion score was 31.0 in the 1st wave study and 36.7 at the 3-year follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in family cohesion after 3 years (P cohesion scores. Family adaptability did not change over time; however, conversely, family cohesion increased. The age difference between husband and wife and the subjective SES had a positive association with the changes in family cohesion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. The Mathematics of Motion in Middle School: Findings from a Large Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschelle, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    The SimCalc Project (http://www.simcalc.umassd.edu) has developed an integration of technology and curriculum based upon learning science principles and aimed at democratizing access to the mathematics of change and variation. Beginning in middle school, we introduce the topics of proportionality, function, and rate of change though multiple representations. In a large scale randomized experiment, we are testing replacement units based upon this approach with approximately 100 7th grade and 80 8th grade teachers. This talk will discuss results from our work and implications for science instruction, for example, for the feasibility of a physics-first sequence beginning in 9th grade.

  18. Linking Anger Trait with Somatization in Low-Grade College Students: Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Cuilian; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-02-25

    Between 22% and 58% of patients in primary care settings complain of somatic symptoms. Previous research has found that somatization was associated with anger traits and family functions. However, studies that specifically assess the moderating effect of family function in how anger traits become somatic complaints are lacking. This study was designed to examine whether the variances in family cohesion and family adaptability moderated the strength of the relationship between anger traits and somatization. A cross-section design was conducted and 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai. All participants finished questionnaires including Symptom Check List- 90 (SCL-90), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2, Chinese version) and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (FACES II, Chinese Version) to assess their degree of current somatization, anger trait and family function. Hierarchical linear regression analysis (Enter) was conducted respectively for men and women to examine the moderation effect of family cohesion and family adaptability in the association between anger and somatization. Somatic symptoms were significantly linked in the expected directions with depression and anger trait for both genders. Family cohesion and family adaptability were negatively associated with somatic symptoms. For female college students family cohesion was found to moderate the link between anger trait and somatization, but for male college students the moderation effect of family cohesion was marginally significant. The moderating role of family adaptability was significant for neither male nor female after current depressive symptoms were accounted for. Proneness to anger is an independent predictor of somatization. For women, a high level of family cohesion was a protective factor which could reduce the influence of anger trait on somatic symptoms. Without comorbidity of current depression, family

  19. Improving Cohesion in Our Writing: Findings from an Identity Text Workshop with Resettled Refugee Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Shannon M.; Eley, Caitlin

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of data in an after-school writing workshop wherein resettled refugee teens were reading and writing identity texts to prepare for achieving their postsecondary goals suggests that a discursive practice of the connective press was productive in helping teens develop cohesion in their writing. Although true communicative competence in an…

  20. Mothers and Sons: A Look at the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems, Marital Satisfaction, Maternal Depression, and Family Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…

  1. Age-Related Loss of Cohesion: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2017-07-22

    Aneuploidy is a leading genetic cause of birth defects and lower implantation rates in humans. Most errors in chromosome number originate from oocytes. Aneuploidy in oocytes increases with advanced maternal age. Recent studies support the hypothesis that cohesion deterioration with advanced maternal age represents a leading cause of age-related aneuploidy. Cohesin generates cohesion, and is established only during the premeiotic S phase of fetal development without any replenishment throughout a female's period of fertility. Cohesion holds sister chromatids together until meiosis resumes at puberty, and then chromosome segregation requires the release of sister chromatid cohesion from chromosome arms and centromeres at anaphase I and anaphase II, respectively. The time of cohesion cleavage plays an important role in correct chromosome segregation. This review focuses specifically on the causes and effects of age-related cohesion deterioration in female meiosis.

  2. The LA aggression scale for elementary school and upper secondary school students: Examination of psychometric properties of a new multidimensional measure of self- reported aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a new multidimensional scale LA (lestvica agresivnosti [Aggression Scale] for measuring self-reported aggression in elementary and upper secondary school students in Slovenia. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using three elementary school samples (preliminary study: N=2777; main study: N=10427 and validity and test-retest study: N=191 representative of 4th and 8th grade students in Slovenia and one upper secondary school sample (N=3253 representative of the final year of upper secondary school in Slovenia. The exploratory analyses using principal component analyses (PCA revealed a four-factor structure: verbal aggression, physical aggression, internal aggression and aggression towards authority that were interrelated. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA showed that the items of the scale formed four factors that were related to the higher order factor. The structure turned out to be stable over different age groups. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, concurrent validity and test-retest stability.

  3. Questioning EU Regional Cohesion Policy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    GRAMA Izabella Gilda; Laura PATACHE

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the territorial impact of the European Cohesion Policy in Romania. Since the inception of this policy and the first programming period (1989 - 1993) the key problem: ‘to reduce the disparities between the levels of development of the different regions’ has usually been measured in terms of GDP per head (relative to the EU average). In the future, will be recommended, that GDP per head in PPS being complement with other measures of welfare and sta...

  4. Solidarity and Social Cohesion in Late Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the formulation of a non-excluding concept of solidarity which is of relevance to contemporary society. The assumption is that in the present individualized and culturally diverse society there is an urgent need for a new form of solidarity to create...... social cohesion. The central theme is that contemporary solidarity is about recognition and a fair distribution of chances for recognition. This ideal may function as a normative standard for critical research and as a guideline for people in their moral struggles. What ultimately needs to be done...

  5. Mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing in the soil core of earth-rockfill dams is a common problem affecting the safety of the dams. Based on fracture tests, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil was suggested. Using this criterion, the mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cubic soil specimens were investigated. The results indicate that the propagation of the crack in a cubic specimen under water pressure occurs in a mixed mode I-II if the crack face is not perpendicular to any of the principal stresses, and the crack most likely to propagate is the one that is perpendicular to the minor principal stress and propagates in mode I.

  6. Development of the technical leadership skills scale in vocational and technical high school administrators: Reliability and validity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe ÖZDEMİR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a scale for the determination technical leadership skills of vocational and technical high school administrators. For the study, the sample was comprised of a total of 236 vocational education teachers working at nine out of 22 technical and vocational high schools located in the Şahinbey and Şehitkamil districts of Gaziantep Province. The criteria for sample selection were twofold: (1 The selected schools are the longest established in the districts, and (2 the participant teachers had been working with the same school administrators at these schools for at least one year. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were performed by the researcher in order to determine the construct validity of the scale. EFA results indicated that the scale had three sub-dimensions. The sub-dimensions were “Pedagogical and Social Skills”, “Managerial Skills”, and “Professional Skills”. The final form of the scale consisted of 40 items. Internal consistency coefficients of the scores taken from the sub-dimensions varied between .94 and .95. Research results concluded that the Technical Leadership Skills Scale (TLSS is a valid and reliable measurement instrument to determine technical leadership skills of vocational and technical high school administrators.

  7. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  8. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  9. Scaling up School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Experiences of Seven States with Documented Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Kincaid, Donald; Sugai, George; Lewis, Timothy; Eber, Lucille; Barrett, Susan; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto; Richter, Mary; Sullivan, Erin; Boezio, Cyndi; Algozzine, Bob; Reynolds, Heather; Johnson, Nanci

    2014-01-01

    Scaling of evidence-based practices in education has received extensive discussion but little empirical evaluation. We present here a descriptive summary of the experience from seven states with a history of implementing and scaling School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) over the past decade. Each state has been…

  10. Identification of Gifted Students in Oman: Gender and Grade Differences on the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Pfeiffer, Steven; Alzubaidi, Abdul-Qawi; Elwan, Reda Abu; Ambosaidi, Abdullah; Al-Washahi, Mariam; Al-Kharosi, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that teacher-completed gifted screening scales can reduce undernomination of students with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) in the identification of gifted students in Oman. The participants of the study represented…

  11. Determinants of group cohesion on the football team.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown analysis of the determinants of cohesion and their manifestation in athletes - football players. We consider personal factors and their relationship to credible group cohesion among players. Established that the determinants of group cohesion are a factor with "emotional instability - emotional stability," the experience of the team, normative behavior (factor G, the factor Q2: «conformism - non-conformism," resistance to conflict, factor A "closed - sociability" and the factor F: «restraint - expressiveness."

  12. Personality in teams: its relationship to social cohesion, task cohesion, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study continued past research on the relationship between personality composition in teams and social cohesion and team performance (Barrick, Stewart, Neubert, & Mount, 1998). Results from the Barrick et al. sample (N = 50) were compared with data from two new samples, one comprising drilling

  13. [BREV: a rapid clinical scale for cognitive function evaluation in preschool and school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Vol, S; Livet, M O; Motte, J; Vallée, L; Gillet, P; Marquet, T

    2002-02-01

    BREV, standing for the French "Batterie Rapide d'Evaluation des Fonctions Cognitive", is a rapid test to screen children with disorders of higher functions and to define the patterns of these disorders. We describe here two phases of the validation procedure. The first phase consisted in measuring the internal validity of the scale by testing 500 normal school children free of disability. The validation process provided appropriate values for each of the 18 subtests assessing cognitive functions (oral language, non-verbal abilities, attention and memory, education and memory, educational achievment) in ten age groups from 4 to 8 years. All subtests with the same content for any revealed values which increased significantly with age. Inter-reliability was tested by retesting 70 children. The second phase of validation, comparing BREV results and those from a large classical neuropsychological battery, tested specificity and sensitivity. Each of the BREV subtests were correlated with the similar subtest of the classical battery. Correlations between verbal and non-verbal scores and verbal and performance intellectual quotient (Weschler scale) were very significant. Sensitivity and specificity of BREV were above 75p.100;. This confirms the reliability of this battery for children, with good sensitivity and specificity. BREV is a reliable test, with carefully established norms, appropriate for preschool and school-age children.

  14. [Development of the scale of strategies for enhancing self-esteem among medical school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ju; Jang, Eun-Young; Park, Yong-Chon

    2013-06-01

    From the point of view that medical students are under the pressure of academic achievement and vulnerable to subjective distress, there is need for evaluate their strategies for enhancing self-esteem when they failed academically. This study was to develop the scale for enhancing self-esteem and to confirm the convergent, discriminant and criteria validity. Data were collected from 279 students at a medical school in Seoul. The scale of strategies for enhancing self-esteem (SSES) comprised comparison with inferior, doubting academic failure, accepting failure, and attribution to incidental factors. Also, to confirm the validities, participants responded to items measuring self-esteem, narcissism, 5 personality factors, depression and adjustment. By explanatory factor analysis of SSES, composed of three factors-comparison, doubting, and acceptance-and in the confirmatory factor analysis, 3 dimensions were best fit. Notably, comparison and doubting strategies were positively associated with depression and negatively associated with adjustment. In contrast, acceptance strategies were negatively associated with depression and positively associated with adjustment. Additionally, comparison and doubting strategies were positively associated with narcissism. The SSES of medical school students after academic failure yields 3 dimensions reliably and consistently. Also, it shows satisfactory convergent and concurrent validities.

  15. Spanish Validation of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Marzo, Juan Carlos; Medrano, Laura; Espada, José Pedro

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) in a community sample of 315 Spanish children aged 5 to 12 years. Thirty-seven teachers from eleven schools completed the SAS-TR and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for each child. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure, but a better fit model was obtained after removing four items. The scale was found to have high internal consistency (α = 0.91) and satisfactory test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for the Spanish sample. Convergent validity was supported by positive significant correlations between the SAS-TR and the Emotional Symptoms subscale of the SDQ. Lower correlations between the SAS-TR and the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale supported the divergent validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Spanish version of the SAS-TR is a reliable and valid instrument for teachers to assess anxiety in Spanish children.

  16. Adaptation Studies of the Aggression and Victimization Scales for Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KURNAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies emphasize the importance of evaluation for relational /social behaviors (e.g., rejection, as wellas overt behaviors (e.g., hitting in the assessment of peer aggression and victimization among school children. For thisreason the present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the two scales, namely Children’s Social Behavior Scale-Self Report -CSBS-SR (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995 and Children’s Self Experience Questionnaire-Self Report -CSEQ-SR(Crick & Grotpeter, 1996 for Turkish Elementary school children. CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR include overt and relationaldimensions of peer aggression and victimization respectively.Methods: A representative sample consisting of a total of 422 (boys n=205; girls n=207 and 415 children (n=210; girlsn=205 attending public and private elementary schools in Ankara were recruited for the validity and reliability studies ofthe CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR respectively. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (ROBVQ; Olweus, 1996 wereutilized for the criterion validity.Results: Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the five factor model suggested for the CSBS-SR and three factormodel for the CSEQ-SR met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit. A moderate correlation of the CSBS-SR withROBVQ-Bully Subscale (r=.47 and moderate to high correlation of the CSEQ-SR with ROBVQ-Victim Subscale (r=.70supported both scale’s criterion validitiy. CSBS-SR’s and CSEQ-SR’s test-retest reliability were found to be .64 and.80 and internal consistency assessed by Cronbach Alpha were found to be .84 and .90 respectively. T-test analysesfor independent groups demonstrated that boys had higher mean scores for overt aggression than girls (t(423=3.025,p<.05. On the other hand girls had higher mean scores for relational victimization than boys (t(413=3.213, p<.01. Therewere significant positive correlation of mean relational aggression scores with fathers’ education (r=.14 and family income(r=.15

  17. Cohesion Devices On The Lyrics Of Bob Marley's Songs

    OpenAIRE

    WIBIARTA, ARDITYA

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Cohesion, Cohesion Devices, Lyric, Bob Marley. This study is about cohesion devices found in the lyrics of Bob Marley's songs. The objectives are to reveal the kinds of grammatical and lexical cohesion used in the lyrics of Bob Marley's songs.In conducting this study, the researcher uses descriptive qualitative method, because the data in the form of words, phrases, and sentences. The data of this study is taken form the lyrics of five Bob Marley's songs, they are: Get Up, Stand Up,...

  18. Family cohesion and the loneliness of adolescents from temporarily disconnected families due to economic migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołęga Zofia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a comparative analysis of the two groups students coming from temporarily disconnected families due to foreign work parents (TDF, n = 68; male = 30, female = 38 and teenagers with the same social environment (NDF, n = 179, male = 89, female = 90, but without the experience of separation time (N= 247. The subject of the analysis was: the cohesion of a family from the perspective of the evaluated adolescent and three factors of psychological loneliness: social loneliness (sense of social marginalization and isolation, emotional loneliness (solitude and existential loneliness (sense of self-alienation. The Loneliness Scale (SBS was used based on an original concept of multidimensional sense of loneliness. The questionnaire for the survey of family cohesion (KSR were used too. The age (12-14 and 15-17, gender, family structure and the family lifestyle were controlled. Obtained results revealed significantly lower cohesion and significantly higher existential loneliness in group of teenagers from temporarily disconnected families (TDF. Not confirmed the supposition that made in earlier studies of temporarily disconnected families due to economic migration, that these teenagers suffer from a sense of emotional loneliness There has also confirmed the belief that the level of family cohesion and a sense of loneliness in adolescents is associated with atypical organization of family life associated with the duration of migration of parent/parents, frequency of contact with family members working abroad: mothers, fathers or broth parents, the duration of stays at home

  19. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  20. Development and Validation of the Coping with Acculturative Stress in American Schools (Casas-A) Scale on a Latino Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…

  1. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Li

    Full Text Available Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents' daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents' well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS and validate it among junior middle school students in China.A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods.Two factors, Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI and Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI, were clearly identified by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, p<0.001. As expected, the SNAIS and its subscale scores were correlated significantly with emotional connection to social networking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use.The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. It would facilitate more research in this field worldwide and specifically in the Chinese population.

  2. The Role of Adolescent Friendship Group Integration and Cohesion in Weapon-Related Violent Crime as a Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I

    2017-08-01

    Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.

  3. A season-long team-building intervention: examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senécal, Julie; Loughead, Todd M; Bloom, Gordon A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal-setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai's trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal-setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

  4. Psychobiological Assessment and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual-Reality Team Cohesion Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Using a Virtual- Reality Team Cohesion Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Josh Woolley MD/PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Northern California Institute for...NUMBER Psychobiological Assessment & Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual- Reality Team Cohesion...While much work has been done in defining, quantifying, and increasing unit cohesion, the precise psychobiological mechanisms that subserve unit

  5. Understanding Social Cohesion Differences in Common Interest Housing Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.I.; Eshuis, J.; Twist, van M.J.W.; Anquetil, V.

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide upsurge of common interest housing developments (CIDs) has stirred up debates regarding community development and social cohesion. Critics have argued that CIDs lack social cohesion because people regulate the community via rules and contracts rather than through social relationships

  6. Characterizing delamination of fibre composites by mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is used for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws and bridging laws for the characterisation of crack bridging in composites. The approach is based on an application of the J integral. The obtained cohesive laws were found to possess high peak stress values. Mixed mode cohe...

  7. A cohesive finite element formulation for modelling fracture and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In recent years, cohesive zone models have been employed to simulate fracture and delamination in solids. This paper presents in detail the formulation for incorporating cohesive zone models within the framework of a large deformation finite element procedure. A special Ritz-finite element technique is employed ...

  8. The Frequency of Cohesion Weakness in Psychiatric Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Giampiero; Fine, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychiatric patients' utterances during an interview indicated that the percentage of unclear cohesive ties was significantly higher among schizophrenics than in a group of patients with mixed diagnoses (mostly affective disorders). Cohesive weakness was a more frequent characteristic of the language of schizophrenic speakers.…

  9. Towards a universal description of cohesive-particle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Casey; Liu, Peiyuan; Kellogg, Kevin; Lattanzi, Aaron; Hrenya, Christine

    2017-11-01

    A universal framework for describing cohesive granular flows seems unattainable based on prior works, making a fundamental continuum theory to predict such flows appear unachievable. For the first time, universal behavior of cohesive-grain flows is demonstrated by linking the macroscopic (many-grain) behavior to grain-grain interactions via two dimensionless groups: a generalized Bond number BoG - ratio of maximum cohesive force to the force driving flow - and a new Agglomerate number Ag - ratio of critical cohesive energy to the granular energy. Cohesive-grain flow is investigated in several systems, and universal behavior is determined via collapse of a cohesion-dependent output variable from each system with the appropriate dimensionless group. Universal behavior is observed using BoG for dense (enduring-contact-dominated) flows and Ag for dilute (collision-dominated) flows, as BoG accounts for the cohesive contact force and Ag for increased collisional dissipation due to cohesion. Hence, a new physical picture is presented, namely, BoG dominates in dense flows, where force chains drive momentum transfer, and Ag dominates in dilute systems, where the dissipative collisions dominate momentum transfer. Apparent discrepancies with past treatments are resolved. Dow Corning Corporation.

  10. Student leadership and advocacy for social cohesion: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article utilises the insights of sociology and social psychology in defining social cohesion, outlining the ideal state and making a case for the role of student leadership in social cohesion. It draws from personal experience as former Dean of Students while it relies mostly, not entirely, on secondary sources in the ...

  11. Referential cohesion in isiZulu translated health texts | Ndlovu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... component of lexical cohesion which complements reference cohesion). The researcher used, mainly, Barlow's ParaConc's software program to analyse the data, and the shorter selected texts were analysed manually. The researcher discovered that the translators translated the English pronouns with isiZulu subject and ...

  12. Cohesion in Online Student Teams versus Traditional Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have found that the electronic methods in use for online team communication today increase communication quality in project-based work situations. Because communication quality is known to influence group cohesion, the present research examined whether online student project teams are more cohesive than traditional teams. We tested…

  13. Team cohesion and performance during a university soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cohesion-performance relationship in team sport is fairly well established, although information on this topic within the African soccer context is limited. The study aimed to compare successful and less successful soccer teams on team cohesion and various descriptive variables (age, previous championship experience ...

  14. A comparative analysis of cohesion in academic and newspaper texts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents findings on a comparative analysis of cohesion in academic and newspaper texts on road traffic accidents. Cohesive devices are the surface structure features that link different parts of a text and make it flow logically. They are the necessary reins that hold the clauses of a text together. Coherence, on ...

  15. Making sense of the duality of social cohesion

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lacking cohesion would be one that displayed social disorder and conflict, disparate moral values, extreme social inequality, low ... Yet these same close ties can sanction and enable violence as citizens cohere to ... gradual unravelling of the cohesion that tenuously existed under the leadership of the South African National.

  16. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Due to the ever increasing cost of laboratory equipment to determine soil parameters such as cohesion and maximum dry density and the enormous time and energy dissipated in such experiment, this research work was attempted in order to investigate the possible correlation between cohesion and maximum dry density.

  17. Numerical and experimental investigation of yielding for cohesive dry powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Hao; Singh, A.; Luding, Stefan; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Kalman, H.; Levy, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of particle cohesion on the steady state shear strength of a granular material. For cohesive powders, the steady state shear loci (termination loci) from DEM simulations are nonlinear with a peculiar pressure dependence due to the non-linear increase of contact adhesion with

  18. Forgiveness and Cohesion in Familial Perceptions of Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Worthington, Everett L.; Hook, Joshua N.; Campana, Kathryn L.; West, Steven L.; Gartner, Aubrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the relationships between forgiveness, family cohesion, and alcohol. In Study 1 (N = 190), participants reported lower levels of trust and forgiveness for family members who misuse alcohol. In Study 2 (N = 141), the authors present a model demonstrating family cohesion and trait forgiveness related to state forgiveness of an…

  19. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  20. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  1. Anaphoric Referencing: A Cohesive Device in Written and Spoken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    textual, it is said to have "endophoric ties". Let us look at. Hasan's example again: "I had a little nut tree". "Nothing will it bear". The nut tree and it are co-referential. Halliday & Hasan. (1985:82) summarized the grammatical cohesive devices and the types of cohesive ties they yield in a table as: COMPONENTIAL RELATIONS.

  2. A cohesive finite element formulation for modelling fracture and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent years, cohesive zone models have been employed to simulate fracture and delamination in solids. This paper presents in detail the formulation for incorporating cohesive zone models within the framework of a large deformation finite element procedure. A special Ritz-finite element technique is employed to control ...

  3. Psychometric analysis of the Scale of Teacher´s Perception of School Adjustment (PROF-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Cava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teacher' perception of their students' school adjustment can be an important indicator of psychosocialwell-being and provide useful information for the development of interventions to improve theirpsychosocial adjustment. This is the reason why it is essential within the school adjustment to consider notonly students' academic achievement but also their level of social integration in the classroom, the qualityof their relationship with the teacher, and the level of family involvement in their education. The objectiveof this research is to provide a reliable instrument for measuring a full school adjustment and analyze itsrelationship with two important indicators of psychosocial adjustment, self-concept and attitudes towardauthority. This study involved 87 teachers who assessed the school adjustment of students (N = 2378adolescents using the PROF-A scale. Findings show that this scale consists of four factors, social integration,academic competence, family involvement, and teacher-student relationship, showing significant positivecorrelations with self-concept and positive attitudes toward authority.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School-Based Assessment Evaluation Scale Among Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hasnida Che Md. Ghazali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The school-based assessment (SBA system is a holistic assessment system that is conducted in schools by subject teachers in assessing the students cognitive (intellect, affective (emotional and spiritual and psychomotor (physical aspects. It is in line with the National Philosophy of Education and the Standards-based School Curriculum in Malaysia. In order to evaluate the implementation of SBA, a measurement scale was validated. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. 776 primary and secondary school teachers were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS version 18. The aim of this paper was to explore different factor structures of the SBA evaluation scale by using the second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results indicated that the SBA evaluation model was a valid and reliable scale. The input measurement model was validated with two factors (personnel qualifications and physical infrastructure, process measurement model was validated with six factors (‘attitude’, ‘understanding’, ‘skills’, ‘challenges’, ‘moderation’ and ‘monitoring’ and product measurement model was validated with two factors (‘students’ attitude’ and ‘students’ motivation’. This study provides support for using a valid instrument in evaluating the implementation of SBA in schools. Furthermore, the CFA procedures used supported the conceptual framework set out earlier. Thus, it presents clearly the importance of the evaluation process of any education system to follow all the dimensions outlined in the evaluation model proposed by Daniel Stufflebeam.       Sistem Penilaian Berbasis Sekolah (SBA adalah sistem penilaian holistik yang dilakukan di sekolah-sekolah oleh guru mata pelajaran dalam menilai kognitif (kecerdasan, afektif (emosional dan spiritual dan psikomotorik (fisik siswa. Hal ini sejalan dengan Filsafat Pendidikan Nasional dan Kurikulum

  5. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factor structure of a multidimensional gender identity scale in a sample of Chinese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Xie, Dong; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to "Felt Pressure" and "Intergroup Bias" in the original model. The third factor "Gender Compatibility" appeared to be a combination of "Gender Typicality" and "Gender Contentment" in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  7. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  8. [Food education: health and social cohesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Eva Zafra

    2017-01-01

    Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall - nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.

  9. European Cohesion Policy: A Proposed Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bouroşu (Costăchescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current approach of European Cohesion Policy (ECP is intended to be a bridge between different fields of study, emphasizing the intersection between "the public policy cycle, theories of new institutionalism and the new public management”. ECP can be viewed as a focal point between putting into practice the principles of the new governance theory, theories of economic convergence and divergence and the governance of common goods. After a short introduction of defining the concepts used, the author discussed on the created image of ECP by applying three different theories, focusing on the structural funds implementation system (SFIS, directing the discussion on the evaluation part of this policy, by proposing a model of performance evaluation of the system, in order to outline key principles for creating effective management mechanisms of ECP.

  10. Measurement of Cohesion in Asteroid Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Gaier, James; Waters, Deborah; Harvey, Ralph; Zeszut, Zoe; Carreno, Brandon; Shober, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a large fraction of asteroids, and even Phobos, have such low densities (asteroids are thought to be made up of unconsolidated smaller particles of varying size referred to as rubble piles. Images of the asteroid Itokawa reinforce this hypothesis. What holds the rubble piles together? Gravitational forces alone are not strong enough to hold together rubble pile asteroids, at least not those that are rapidly spinning Van der Waals forces and or Electrostatic forces must therefore be responsible for holding them together. Previous work suggests that electrostatic forces, which are orders of magnitude stronger are far more likely. Charge build-up is a likely consequence of the interaction of airless bodies with the solar wind plasma, analogous to what has been proposed to occur on the moon. Objective: Experimentally measure cohesive forces relevant to those holding rubble pile asteroids together

  11. Food education: health and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zafra Aparici

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall – nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.

  12. In Favor of Establishment: Regulation of Chromatid Cohesion in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Villegas, Pablo; De, Kuntal; Pradillo, Mónica; Liu, Desheng; Makaroff, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, the correct regulation of sister chromatid cohesion, whereby sister chromatids are paired and held together, is essential for accurate segregation of the sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes into daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis, respectively. Sister chromatid cohesion requires a cohesin complex comprised of structural maintenance of chromosome adenosine triphosphatases and accessory proteins that regulate the association of the complex with chromosomes or that are involved in the establishment or release of cohesion. The cohesin complex also plays important roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, regulation of gene expression and chromosome condensation. In this review, we summarize progress in understanding cohesion dynamics in plants, with the aim of uncovering differences at specific stages. We also highlight dissimilarities between plants and other eukaryotes with respect to the key players involved in the achievement of cohesion, pointing out areas that require further study. PMID:28588601

  13. Using the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised in school children referred for assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Chen, Shirley; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Schachar, Russell J

    2009-04-01

    Predictive validity of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) was evaluated against a semi-structured clinical teacher interview in school children referred for diagnostic assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that extreme scale values would increase diagnostic certainty and that classification errors would be associated with comorbid conditions. Children (n = 1038), aged 6 to 12 years, were screened using the CTRS-R and their teachers were interviewed. Three levels of T scores on the 3 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) subscales of the CTRS-R were compared with DSM-IV symptom thresholds by interview. Where subscale scores and interviews showed highest agreement, presence of comorbid disruptive behavioural disorders, reading disability, language impairment, and low IQ were investigated for children classified correctly, compared with incorrectly. T scores of 60 and above on all CTRS-R DSM-IV subscales offered high sensitivity, from 91% to 94%. Only on subscales M (hyperactive-impulsive) and N (total) did T scores of less than 60 offer posttest probabilities of less than 10%, confirming that a child does not reach diagnostic threshold by interview. T scores of 80 and more offered high specificity, from 88% to 93%, but did not provide high posttest probabilities that children reach diagnostic criteria. Classification errors were associated with more language impairment among false positives than true positives on the M (18.9%, compared with 11.3%, P = 0.04) and N (19.0%, compared with 9.5%, P = 0.023) subscales, and more reading disabilities among false positives than among true positives on the N subscale (35.2%, compared with 21.6%, P = 0.009). The ability of the CTRS-R to predict whether clinically referred children reach DSM-IV criteria for ADHD at school is limited.

  14. Development and Initial Validation of the Coping with Academic Demands Scale: How Students in Accelerated High School Curricula Cope with School-Related Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International…

  15. [Scale of organizational learning in schools. Organizational learning is a key element for the development of organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Ahumada, Luis; Olivares, Rodrigo; González, Alvaro

    2012-05-01

    Organizational learning is a key element for the development of organizations. School organizations are not exempt from this challenge and they currently face a highly dynamic and demanding context of education policies that emphasize the school's ability to learn. Thus, research on organizational learning in educational contexts requires valid instruments that are sensitive to the specifics of schools as organizations. In this study, we adapted and validated a scale of organizational learning in a sample of 119 Chilean municipal schools (N= 1,545). The results suggest a structural model made up of three factors: culture of learning, strategic clarity, and group learning. These factors predicted dimensions of educational achievement, as measured through the National Assessment System of Educational Achievement (SNED). Results are discussed in view of the literature on school improvement.

  16. The tool for the automatic analysis of text cohesion (TAACO): Automatic assessment of local, global, and text cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S

    2016-12-01

    This study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Cohesion (TAACO), a freely available text analysis tool that is easy to use, works on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux), is housed on a user's hard drive (rather than having an Internet interface), allows for the batch processing of text files, and incorporates over 150 classic and recently developed indices related to text cohesion. The study validates TAACO by investigating how its indices related to local, global, and overall text cohesion can predict expert judgments of text coherence and essay quality. The findings of this study provide predictive validation of TAACO and support the notion that expert judgments of text coherence and quality are either negatively correlated or not predicted by local and overall text cohesion indices, but are positively predicted by global indices of cohesion. Combined, these findings provide supporting evidence that coherence for expert raters is a property of global cohesion and not of local cohesion, and that expert ratings of text quality are positively related to global cohesion.

  17. Validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for school students in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Suzanne C; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonagh, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    Fiji is a multilingual nation with few assessment tools addressing children's communication. This article describes the validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for Fiji English, Standard Fijian, and Fiji Hindi. Informants were caregivers of 65 typically developing multilingual children (aged 5;3-10;5) attending a Fiji primary school. The students spoke an average of 2.9 languages (range = 1-5). Their main language was Standard Fijian (41.5%), Fiji Hindi (23.1%), Fiji English (20.0%), or Fijian dialect (15.4%). An ICS mean score of 4.6 was obtained for main language (ICS-ML) and 4.4 for Fiji English (ICS-FE) indicating that students were usually to always intelligible. There were no significant differences between main language, number of languages spoken, gender, age, or socio-economic status. Both scales had good internal consistency, but were not correlated with speech accuracy measures possibly due to ceiling effects. Further validation with younger children is recommended. The ICS may be a useful tool for Fiji with comparative results to other international studies.

  18. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Bakar, Hamidah Abu; Shilkofski, Nicole A; Coady, Niamh; Rampal, Krishna; Wright, Scott

    2015-01-01

    While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES) for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%). After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%), with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%). The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92) and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85). The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  19. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Tackett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  20. Relationships of family conflict, cohesion, and chaos in the home environment on maternal and child food-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia; Zhang, Man; Jin, Yanhong; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2017-10-10

    This study examined how food-related behaviours differed in mothers and their preschool children by levels of family functioning (cohesion and conflict) and household disorganization (chaos). A nationally representative sample of mothers of preschoolers completed an online survey assessing food-related behaviours of themselves and their children. Maternal and child diet, eating behaviours, and health status; household availability of fruits/vegetables, salty/fatty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages; family mealtime atmosphere; and family conflict, cohesion, and household chaos were assessed with valid, reliable scales. Cluster analyses assigned families into low, middle, and high conflict, cohesion, and chaos groups. Participants (n = 550) were 72% White, and 82% had some post-secondary education. Regression analysis examining the association of cluster grouping levels on diet-related behaviour measures revealed that positive home environments (i.e., low family conflict, high family cohesion, and low household chaos) were associated with healthier food-related behaviours (e.g., increased fruits/vegetables intake), whereas negative home environments (i.e., high family conflict, low family cohesion, and high household chaos) were associated with unhealthy food-related behaviours (e.g., greater % total calories from fat) even after controlling for sociodemographic and related behavioural factors. Findings suggest family functioning and household chaos are associated with food-related behaviours. This frequently overlooked component of family interaction may affect intervention outcomes and objectives of educational and interventional initiatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. DEVELOPING A “SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION SKILLS SCALE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS”: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLTEN FERYAL GÜNDÜZ; KIYMET SELVİ

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop “The Scale of Determining Self-Directed Learning Implementing Skills” for primary school students. Data were gathered by a survey method. In order to develop this scale, draft items was developed through a literature survey (tarama), observations and interviews done with teachers, parents and students, and presented to experts for evaluation. After alterations based on experts’ suggestions, a pilot study with 16 primary students was held to revise t...

  2. Role of interatomic bonding in the mechanical anisotropy and interlayer cohesion of CSH crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardhana, C.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Misra, A. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Aryal, S.; Rulis, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Ching, W.Y., E-mail: ccdxz8@mail.umkc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Atomic scale properties of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), the main binding phase of hardened Portland cement, are not well understood. Over a century of intense research has identified almost 50 different crystalline CSH minerals which are mainly categorized by their Ca/Si ratio. The electronic structure and interatomic bonding in four major CSH crystalline phases with structures close to those found in hardened cement are investigated via ab initio methods. Our result reveals the critical role of hydrogen bonding and importance of specifying precise locations for water molecules. Quantitative analysis of contributions from different bond types to the overall cohesion shows that while the Si-O covalent bonds dominate, the hydrogen bonding and Ca-O bonding are also very significant. Calculated results reveal the correlation between bond topology and interlayer cohesion. The overall bond order density (BOD) is found to be a more critical measure than the Ca/Si ratio in classifying different CSH crystals.

  3. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An Investigation of Cohesion and Rhetorical Moves in Thesis Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfiyah Luthfiyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating cohesion and rhetorical moves in thesis abstracts of English Education students. This study employed a qualitative research design in which 10 abstracts were chosen as samples. The cohesion is analyzed based on Halliday's and Hasan's  concept while rhetorical moves are analyzed based on Swales' and Feak's framework. The results show that all cohesive devices are used except substitution. Among those devices, reference is the most frequently used. The results also show that some cohesive devices are used incorrectly. As a result, seven abstracts (70% are still in medium category of cohesion level while three abstracts (30% are in high category of cohesion level. Furthermore, 7 abstracts are organized in different move patterns which do not follow the Swales' and Feak's framework. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that most of the abstract samples achieve medium category level of cohesion, and the rhetorical moves in most of the abstracts samples are not organized well. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v2i2.3086

  5. Critical conditions of incipient motion of cohesive sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minxi; Yu, Guoliang

    2017-09-01

    The critical condition of incipient motion of cohesive sediments was investigated in a laboratory study. One-hundred experimental runs were performed with sediment samples by varying the yield stress to determine the relationship between the critical condition of incipient motion and the rheological properties of the cohesive sediments. The results indicate that yield stress is a factor that has a major influence on the incipient motion of cohesive sediments. In addition, the critical Shields parameter is found to be exponentially proportional to the yield stress and inversely proportional to the median grain size. The effect of yield stress on the critical Shields parameter is significant for the cohesive sediments and becomes progressively weaker with increasing median grain size. Furthermore, an empirical formula for calculating the critical Shields parameter of cohesive sediments that includes a rheological term and a gravity term is proposed by introducing the yield stress. According to this formula, a modified Shields diagram is obtained in which the values of the critical Shields parameter for cohesive sediments vary within a band that contains countless curves (instead of on a single line) to reflect the influence of the yield stress. This modification of the traditional Shields curve is effective for fine sediments, but the effects tend to vanish for coarse sediments as the behavior of sediments changes from cohesive to noncohesive. Finally, potential further investigations are discussed.

  6. Unit cohesion, traumatic exposure and mental health of military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesarajah, J; Waller, M; Zheng, W Y; Dobson, A J

    2016-06-01

    The benefit of military unit cohesion to morale and psychological resilience is well established. But it remains unclear whether unit cohesion modifies the association between deployment-related traumatic exposure and mental health problems. To examine the association between unit cohesion, traumatic exposure and poor mental health [symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress and alcohol dependency] and assess whether the relationship between traumatic exposure and poor mental health differs by level of unit cohesion. A self-reported cross-sectional survey of Australian military personnel deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan between 2001 and 2009. Among 11411 participants, those with low levels of unit cohesion had higher odds of PTSD symptoms [aOR (95% CI): 2.54 (1.88, 3.42)], very high psychological distress [aOR (95% CI): 4.28 (3.04, 6.02)] and a high level of alcohol problems [aOR (95% CI): 1.71 (1.32, 2.22)] compared with those reporting high unit cohesion on deployment. Higher exposure to traumatic events on deployment was associated with greater risk of PTSD symptoms, very high levels of psychological distress and high levels of alcohol problems in this cohort. However, there was no evidence of a statistically significant interaction between unit cohesion and traumatic exposures in influencing poor mental health. Our findings suggest that both unit cohesion and traumatic exposure are independently associated with poor mental health. Efforts to improve military unit cohesion may help to improve the mental health resilience of military personnel, regardless of their level of traumatic exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL COHESION ATTEMPTS IN LEBANON: REFLECTIONS ON THE 1994 AND 2010 EDUCATION REFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Shuayb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the end of the Lebanese civil war, education was put forward as a major means for rebuilding Lebanon and promoting social cohesion and unity. A huge education development plan was launched in 1994 culminating in a new national curriculum in 1997 and the production of new textbooks.  Although the quality of education improved in public schools, dropout rates continued to be high, particularly amongst the most disadvantaged groups. As education inequality soared, a new education reform strategy was launched in 2010. This paper investigates how social cohesion has been tackled in the two reforms (1994 and 2010. In defining social cohesion, the study adopts Nancy Fraser’s framework of social justice which includes redistribution, recognition, and participation. In addition, Novelli, Lopes Cardozo and Smith’s (2014 fourth component of social justice ‘reconciliation’ is added to the analytical framework. Findings revealed an emphasis on distributive justice by widening access to education including during early years and tackling causes of dropout, specifically in the 2010 reform. Reconciliation, in particular nationalism and promoting one narrative of the past, is given a major priority. Conflict is reduced to religious intolerance while structured barriers to social justice, including the use of languages that are considered foreign as mediums of instruction, the marginalisation of disadvantaged groups, a lack of participation, and sectarian nepotism, were downplayed. Critical reflections on the past has been suppressed in favour of building a national memory.  

  8. The influence of family adaptability and cohesion on anxiety and depression of terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Yoon; Jeong, Young-Jin; Lee, Junyong; Moon, Nayun; Bang, Inho; Kim, Hyunju; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Yong-I; Jeon, Tae-Hee

    2017-10-04

    This study investigated the effect of family members on terminally ill cancer patients by measuring the relationship of the presence of the family caregivers, visiting time by family and friends, and family adaptability and cohesion with patient's anxiety and depression. From June, 2016 to March, 2017, 100 terminally ill cancer patients who were admitted to a palliative care unit in Seoul, South Korea, were surveyed, and their medical records were reviewed. The Korean version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale was used. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. The results of the chi-square analysis showed that the presence of family caregivers and family visit times did not have statistically significant effects on anxiety and depression in terminally ill cancer patients. In multiple logistic regression, when adjusted for age, sex, ECOG PS, and the monthly average income, the odds ratios (ORs) of the low family adaptability to anxiety and depression were 2.4 (1.03-5.83) and 5.4 (1.10-26.87), respectively. The OR of low family cohesion for depression was 5.4 (1.10-27.20) when adjusted for age, sex, ECOG PS, and monthly average household income. A higher family adaptability resulted in a lower degree of anxiety and depression in terminally ill cancer patients. The higher the family cohesion, the lower the degree of depression in the patient. The presence of the family caregiver and the visiting time by family and friends did not affect the patient's anxiety and depression.

  9. School-wide PBIS: An Example of Applied Behavior Analysis Implemented at a Scale of Social Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H; Sugai, George

    2015-05-01

    School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is an example of applied behavior analysis implemented at a scale of social importance. In this paper, PBIS is defined and the contributions of behavior analysis in shaping both the content and implementation of PBIS are reviewed. Specific lessons learned from implementation of PBIS over the past 20 years are summarized.

  10. Development and Validation of the Computer Technology Literacy Self-Assessment Scale for Taiwanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Sui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the development and validation of an instrument to identify various dimensions of the computer technology literacy self-assessment scale (CTLS) for elementary school students. The instrument included five CTLS dimensions (subscales): the technology operation skills, the computer usages concepts, the…

  11. Taking School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention to Scale: District-Wide Implementation of Keep a Clear Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Keri L.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Gately, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Public schools are under increased pressure to implement evidence-based substance abuse prevention programs. A number of model programs have been identified, but little research has examined the effectiveness of these programs when "brought to scale" or implemented district-wide. The current paper summarizes the application of the Adelman and…

  12. An Examination of the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (Short Form) among Italian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Alessandro Lo; Pace, Francesco; Mondo, Marina; Nota, Laura; Casarubia, Provvidenza; Ferrari, Lea; Betz, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the factor structure of Career Decision Self-Efficacy scale-short form in a sample of Italian high school adolescents. confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the degree to which a one-factor structure and a five-factor structure provided the best fit. In view of available research the five-factor structure…

  13. A Model of Continuous Improvement in High Schools: A Process for Research, Innovation Design, Implementation, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Cannata, Marisa; Rutledge, Stacey A.; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a model for continuous improvement that guides the work of the National Center on Scaling Up Effective Schools, or NCSU. NCSU is a research and development center funded by the Institute for Education Sciences, the research arm of the United States Department of Education. At the core of the Center's work is an innovative…

  14. Determination of mode-I cohesive strength for interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J. B.; Thouless, M. D.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    The cohesive strength is one of the governing parameters controlling crack deflection at interfaces, but measuring its magnitude is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel approach to determine the mode-I cohesive strength of an interface by using a 4-point single-edge-notch beam...... in response to this stress, before the main crack starts to grow. Observations using 2D digital-image correlation showed that an ''apparent" strain across the interface initially increases linearly with the applied load, but becomes nonlinear upon the initiation of the interface crack. The cohesive strength...

  15. Towards an integrated approach to cohesion and coherence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occur in the translation of cohesive markers from the source text (ST) into the target text (TT) because of ..... they are used in English and other languages including Hebrew, Brazilian Portuguese,. Japanese, German and Arabic. The merit of ...

  16. Student leadership and advocacy for social cohesion: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This follows a national conflict of many decades which only ended after the release of. Mandela from prison ...... The limits of social cohesion: Conflict and mediation in pluralist societies. Colorado ... Israeli and Palestinian youth. Oxford, Oxford ...

  17. Fast determination of structurally cohesive subgroups in large networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovits, Robert S; Moody, James; Oztan, B Tolga; White, Douglas R

    2016-11-01

    Structurally cohesive subgroups are a powerful and mathematically rigorous way to characterize network robustness. Their strength lies in the ability to detect strong connections among vertices that not only have no neighbors in common, but that may be distantly separated in the graph. Unfortunately, identifying cohesive subgroups is a computationally intensive problem, which has limited empirical assessments of cohesion to relatively small graphs of at most a few thousand vertices. We describe here an approach that exploits the properties of cliques, k-cores and vertex separators to iteratively reduce the complexity of the graph to the point where standard algorithms can be used to complete the analysis. As a proof of principle, we apply our method to the cohesion analysis of a 29,462-vertex biconnected component extracted from a 128,151-vertex co-authorship data set.

  18. Cohesive Ties and Chains in Good and Poor Freshman Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Jerome L.

    1987-01-01

    Compares cohesive ties and chains in the good and poor essays of college freshmen. Results indicate that longer chains, greater variety of words, and greater maturity or word choice characterize good writing. (SRT)

  19. 18Regional integration and social cohesion: Perspectives from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of social cohesion, its prevalence at regional and national levels in Africa and Latin. America, and how it ... respectively, African and Latin American regional integration, and the construction of social .... differs in character from previous efforts.

  20. Cohesive stresses and size effect in quasi-brittle materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Size effect; fracture mechanics; cohesive stresses; cementitious material. ... D Natekar2. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 803090427, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 803090427, USA ...

  1. Growing Pains: Scaling up the Nation's Best Charter Schools. Education Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Sector, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Amistad Academy is a bright shining star in public school reform. Founded in 1999 in a renovated warehouse in a blighted New Haven, Connecticut, neighborhood by a group of Yale law school students, the 289-student charter school has won the praise of the last two federal education secretaries. Educators throughout the country have traveled to the…

  2. An Institutional Theory Analysis of Charter Schools: Addressing Institutional Challenges to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis A.; Zuckerman, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework derived from institutional theory in sociology that offers two competing policy contexts in which charter schools operate--a bureaucratic frame versus a decentralized frame. An analysis of evolving charter school types based on three underlying theories of action is considered. As charter school leaders…

  3. Utilization of Large Cohesive Interface Elements for Delamination Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law.......This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law....

  4. COHESIVE STRENGTH OF DENTIN RESISTÊNCIA COESIVA DA DENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando; TURBINO Miriam Lacalle; MATSON Edmir

    1997-01-01

    The bond strength of dentin adhesives to dentin has increased after each generation. Although dentin substratum is part of the bonding process, little importance has been given to measure dentin cohesive strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cohesive strength of dentin in human canines. Seventeen non carious canines were selected. All of them had been extracted for more than one year. The teeth were ground until dentin square samples with approximately 2 X 2 mm were obtained. Th...

  5. Frequency-Dependent Cohesive Zone Models for Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, S.; Davey, K.; Zou, Z.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with a new cohesive zone model (CZM) to better describe the effects of rate and cyclic loading. Rate is known to affect the manner in which cracks propagate in materials, yet there presently exists no rate-dependent cohesive model for fatigue simulation. The frequency of the applied cyclic load is recognised to influence crack growth rates with crack growth significantly different at lower frequencies due to microstructural effects or other damage mechanisms such as creep or corrosion. A rate-dependent trapezoidal cohesive model is presented that has the ability to capture this behaviour and shows slower rates of crack propagation with higher loading frequencies. This is achieved by allowing the cohesive fracture energy to increase with frequency up to a specified limit. On unloading the cohesive model retains material separation, which accumulates with the number of loading cycles, leading to final failure. An experimental fatigue investigation is currently underway to validate the new cohesive model, which has been coded in a UMAT subroutine and implemented in ABAQUS.

  6. Sororin actively maintains sister chromatid cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, Rene; Kreidl, Emanuel; Ivanov, Miroslav P; Ekker, Heinz; Idarraga-Amado, Maria Helena; Busslinger, Georg A; Wutz, Gordana; Cisneros, David A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-03-15

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  7. Determinants of Sir2-Mediated, Silent Chromatin Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2016-08-01

    Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Cohesion: a method for quantifying the connectivity of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Cristina M; McMahon, Katherine D

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict microbial community dynamics lags behind the quantity of data available in these systems. Most predictive models use only environmental parameters, although a long history of ecological literature suggests that community complexity should also be an informative parameter. Thus, we hypothesize that incorporating information about a community's complexity might improve predictive power in microbial models. Here, we present a new metric, called community 'cohesion,' that quantifies the degree of connectivity of a microbial community. We analyze six long-term (10+ years) microbial data sets using the cohesion metrics and validate our approach using data sets where absolute abundances of taxa are available. As a case study of our metrics' utility, we show that community cohesion is a strong predictor of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (R(2)=0.47) between phytoplankton communities in Lake Mendota, WI, USA. Our cohesion metrics outperform a model built using all available environmental data collected during a long-term sampling program. The result that cohesion corresponds strongly to Bray-Curtis dissimilarity is consistent across the six long-term time series, including five phytoplankton data sets and one bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing data set. We explain here the calculation of our cohesion metrics and their potential uses in microbial ecology.

  9. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  10. A Scale Development for 21st Century Skills of Primary School Students: A Validity and Reliability Study1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. Dilek Belet Boyacı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to develop a measurement tool to assess 21st Century learning and innovation skills of primary school students. Study data was collected from 632 fourth grade students in five different primary schools during 2014 – 2015 academic year and data obtained from 609 fourth grade students were utilized in the study. The scale was developed in six stages. These were; establishing the scale items, consultation of experts, pretest stage, determination of structural validity, reliability assessment, and finalization of the scale, respectively. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the whole scale, which consisted of three factors, was calculated as 0.95. 0.89. As a result of the current study, a Likert-type 21st Century learning and innovation skills scale with 39 items was developed. 20 items of the scale were related to creativity and innovation skills, 12 were related to critical thinking and problem solving skills, and 7 were related to cooperation and communication skills.

  11. Science curiosity in learning environments: developing an attitudinal scale for research in schools, homes, museums, and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Toomey Zimmerman, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale was created and validated as a 12-item scale to measure scientific curiosity in youth. The scale was developed through (a) adapting the language of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II [Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987-998] for youth and (b) crafting new items based on scientific practices drawn from U.S. science standards documents. We administered a preliminary set of 30 items to 663 youth ages 8-18 in the U.S.A. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model: stretching, embracing, and science practices. The findings indicate that the SCILE scale is a valid measure of youth's scientific curiosity for boys and girls as well as elementary, middle school, and high school learners.

  12. [Full-scale simulation in German medical schools and anesthesia residency programs : Status quo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschnegger, H; Meyer, O; Zech, A; Urban, B; Rall, M; Breuer, G; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    Simulation has been increasingly used in medicine. In 2003 German university departments of anesthesiology were provided with a full-scale patient simulator, designated for use with medical students. Meanwhile simulation courses are also offered to physicians and nurses. Currently, the national model curriculum for residency programs in anesthesiology is being revised, possibly to include mandatory simulation training. To assess the status quo of full-scale simulation training for medical school, residency and continuing medical education in German anesthesiology. All 38 German university chairs for anesthesiology as well as five arbitrarily chosen non-university facilities were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their centers' infrastructure and courses held between 2010 and 2012. The overall return rate was 86 %. In university simulation centers seven non-student staff members, mainly physicians, were involved, adding up to a full-time equivalent of 1.2. All hours of work were paid by 61 % of the centers. The median center size was 100 m2 (range 20-500 m2), equipped with three patient simulators (1-32). Simulators of high or very high fidelity are available at 80 % of the centers. Scripted scenarios were used by 91 %, video debriefing by 69 %. Of the participating university centers, 97 % offered courses for medical students, 81 % for the department's employees, 43 % for other departments of their hospital, and 61 % for external participants. In 2012 the median center reached 46 % of eligible students (0-100), 39 % of the department's physicians (8-96) and 16 % of its nurses (0-56) once. For physicians and nurses from these departments that equals one simulation-based training every 2.6 and 6 years, respectively. 31 % made simulation training mandatory for their residents, 29 % for their nurses and 24 % for their attending physicians. The overall rates of staff ever exposed to simulation were 45 % of

  13. New evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Juliana Gabrielle; de Paiva, Haroldo Neves; Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Zarzar, Patricia Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened susceptibility to peer influence, which makes adolescents vulnerable to initiating or maintaining risky habits such as heavy drinking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of social capital with longitudinal changes in the frequency of binge drinking among adolescents at public and private high schools in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. This longitudinal study used two waves of data collected when the adolescents were 12 and 13 years old. At the baseline assessment in 2013 a classroom survey was carried out with a representative sample of 588 students. In 2014, a follow-up survey was carried out with the same adolescents when they were aged 13 years. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-C (AUDIT C) was employed for the evaluation of alcohol intake. Our predictor variables included sociodemographic and economic characteristics (gender, type of school, mother's education, family income) and Social Capital. For evaluation of social capital, we used the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS). Descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed (p cohesion in the community/neighborhood subscale were 3.4 times more likely (95%CI 1.96-6.10) to binge drink themselves. Our results provide new evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.

  14. Validation and application of a measurement scale on environmental practices for high school teachers in Patos, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edevaldo Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to create, validate and apply a measurement scale on environmental practices for teachers of various educational areas (exact sciences, humanities, natural sciences and Portuguese, from six public high schools in the city of Patos, Paraíba. To that end, it was created a questionnaire related to the topic, consisting of 24 items in the Likert scale model, being statistically validated as its consistency and reliability by factor analysis and by the α-Cronbach’s test. The assessed measurement scale has been validated (n = 34 with the exclusion of five items, getting excellent α-Cronbach’s coefficient (0.95. In the application of the questionnaire (n = 68, most teachers had social and environmental practices little consistent with environmentally sustainable practices. The results suggest that the high school teachers of the surveyed public schools have inadequate knowledge and/or practices for teaching Environmental Education, revealing that, probably, the students are not receiving basic environmental knowledge for their critical and reflective thinking on the various environmental problems.

  15. How Technicians Can Lead Science Improvements in Any School: A Small-Scale Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth; Quinnell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how seven schools in England improved their science provision by focusing on the professional development of their science technicians. In September 2013, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation funded the National Science Learning Centre to lead a project connecting secondary schools with experienced senior science technicians…

  16. Tipping the Scales: National Trends of Declining Social Studies Instructional Time in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Tina L.; Fitchett, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    By means of data from the most comprehensive source of teacher data in the nation, Schools and Public School Teacher Staffing Survey (SASS), we designed a follow-up quantitative study to test the effects of two decades of national policy mandates on instructional time allotments for core academic subjects. We used data from the SASS data from…

  17. Recruiting Participants for Large-Scale Random Assignment Experiments in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Gallagher, H. Alix; Murphy, Robert; Harris, Christopher; Kamdar, Danae; Trinidad, Gucci

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment is a key challenge for researchers conducting any large school-based study. Control is needed not only over the condition participants receive, but also over how the intervention is implemented, and may include restrictions in other areas of school and classroom functioning. We report here on our experiences in recruiting participants…

  18. Impact of an Afterschool Program on Middle School MAP Scale Scores for Math and Communication Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    With the ever-increasing demands of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) being placed on school districts, many are looking to afterschool programs to help students meet increasing standards. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of an afterschool program on Middle School academic achievement. Principally, this study sought to…

  19. Going to Scale with TQM. The Pinellas County Schools' Journey toward Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Jim; Collins, Chris

    Quality improvement, or Total Quality Management (TQM), has been used for years in the corporate world to help companies achieve better customer satisfaction, increase market share, and improve profitability. More recently, TQM has emerged as a promising strategy for school improvement and educational reform. In 1991, the school district of…

  20. Development and validation of the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales among registered nurses with multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, and to validate the psychometrics of those scales among registered nurses with multiple roles. The concepts, generation of items, and the scale domains of work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales were constructed based on a review of the literature. The validity and reliability of the scales were examined by administering them to 201 registered nurses who were recruited from 8 university hospitals in South Korea. The content validity was examined by nursing experts using a content validity index. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to establish the construct validity. The correlation with depression was examined to assess concurrent validity. Finally, internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The work-family-school role conflicts scale comprised ten items with three factors: work-school-to-family conflict (three items), family-school-to-work conflict (three items), and work-family-to-school conflict (four items). The role-related social support scale comprised nine items with three factors: support from family (three items), support from work (three items), and support from school (three items). Cronbach's alphas were 0.83 and 0.76 for the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, respectively. Both instruments exhibited acceptable construct and concurrent validity. The validity and reliability of the developed scales indicate their potential usefulness for the assessment of work-family-school role conflict and role-related social support among registered nurses with multiple roles in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in human airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical powders used in inhalation therapy are in the size range of 1-5 microns and are usually cohesive. Understanding the cohesive behaviour of pharmaceutical powders during their transportation in human airway is significant in optimising aerosol drug delivery and targeting. In this study, the transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in a human airway model is simulated by a well-established numerical model which combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD and discrete element method (DEM. The van der Waals force, as the dominant cohesive force, is simulated and its influence on particle transport and deposition behaviour is discussed. It is observed that even for dilute particle flow, the local particle concentration in the oral to trachea region can be high and particle aggregation happens due to the van der Waals force of attraction. It is concluded that the deposition mechanism for cohesive pharmaceutical powders, on one hand, is dominated by particle inertial impaction, as proven by previous studies; on the other hand, is significantly affected by particle aggregation induced by van der Waals force. To maximum respiratory drug delivery efficiency, efforts should be made to avoid pharmaceutical powder aggregation in human oral-to-trachea airway.

  2. Improving the effectiveness of school infrastructure planning using information systems based on priority scale in Salatiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipto, Katoningsih, Sri; Ratnaningrum, Anggry

    2017-03-01

    With large number of schools and many components of school infrastructure supporting with limited funds,so, the school infrastructure development cannot be done simultaneously. Implementation of development must be based on priorities according to the needs. Record all existing needs Identify the condition of the school infrastructure, so that all data recorded bias is valid and has covered all the infrastructure needs of the school. SIPIS very helpful in the process of recording all the necessary needs of the school. Make projections of school development, student participants to the HR business. Make the order needs based on their level of importance. Determine the order in accordance with the needs of its importance, the most important first. By using SIPIS can all be arranged correctly so that do not confuse to construct what should be done in advance but be the last because of factors like and dislike. Make the allocation of funds in detail, then when submitting the budget funds provided in accordance with demand.

  3. Depth-dependent erodibility: representing burnt soils as a two-layered cohesive/non-cohesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, P.; Sheridan, G. J.; Moody, J. A.; Smith, H. G.; Lane, P. N.

    2011-12-01

    Immediately after wildfire there is an abundant supply of non-cohesive ash, soil and gravel which is easily entrained by overland flow. Under these conditions the sediment flux on hillslopes can be assumed to be equal to the transport capacity of the flow. However, the supply of material is finite and at some point the hillslope could shift towards a system where entrainment is restricted by armouring and soil cohesion. In this study we test the notion that burnt hillslopes can be represented as a two-layered system of non-cohesive and cohesive soils. Using a combination of i) shear vane measurements, ii) confined hillslope flow experiments and iii) a laboratory flume, we demonstrate how erosion on burnt hillslopes primarily takes place in a distinct layer of non-cohesive soil with erosion properties that are very different to the underlying soil matrix. Shear vane measurements were taken at 5 soil depths at more than 50 points along transects in order to quantify the depth and spatial distribution of non-cohesive soil in two small (0.5 ha) and steep (30 deg) convergent basins (SE Australia) that were burnt at high severity. The measurements showed that the recently burnt hillslopes were mantled with non-cohesive soil to an average depth of 18mm and 20mm at the two sites which were situated in different geologic terrain but in similar eucalyptus dominated forests. In the hillslope flow experiments, the rapid entrainment of non-cohesive material resulted in very high sediment concentration (50-60% by volume) in the initial surge from the test area. During the flow experiments the sediment concentration decreased exponentially with time until the erosion rate reached a steady state reflecting the erodibility of the underlying cohesive soil. The formation of shallow rills and the presence of large clasts (>16cm) within the test area resulted in incomplete removal of the non-cohesive material at shear stress 50 Ncm-2 all material was removed, and the erosion depth at

  4. Cohesiveness in financial news and its relation to market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Smuc, Tomislav

    2014-05-22

    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets.

  5. Cohesiveness in Financial News and its Relation to Market Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets.

  6. Cohesive and coherent connected speech deficits in mild stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Megan S; Young, Breanne; Robinson, Gail A

    2017-05-01

    Spoken language production theories and lesion studies highlight several important prelinguistic conceptual preparation processes involved in the production of cohesive and coherent connected speech. Cohesion and coherence broadly connect sentences with preceding ideas and the overall topic. Broader cognitive mechanisms may mediate these processes. This study aims to investigate (1) whether stroke patients without aphasia exhibit impairments in cohesion and coherence in connected speech, and (2) the role of attention and executive functions in the production of connected speech. Eighteen stroke patients (8 right hemisphere stroke [RHS]; 6 left [LHS]) and 21 healthy controls completed two self-generated narrative tasks to elicit connected speech. A multi-level analysis of within and between-sentence processing ability was conducted. Cohesion and coherence impairments were found in the stroke group, particularly RHS patients, relative to controls. In the whole stroke group, better performance on the Hayling Test of executive function, which taps verbal initiation/suppression, was related to fewer propositional repetitions and global coherence errors. Better performance on attention tasks was related to fewer propositional repetitions, and decreased global coherence errors. In the RHS group, aspects of cohesive and coherent speech were associated with better performance on attention tasks. Better Hayling Test scores were related to more cohesive and coherent speech in RHS patients, and more coherent speech in LHS patients. Thus, we documented connected speech deficits in a heterogeneous stroke group without prominent aphasia. Our results suggest that broader cognitive processes may play a role in producing connected speech at the early conceptual preparation stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single gain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three- dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction. Electrostatic forces are generally under-estimated for their role in causing agglomeration of dispersed grains in particulate clouds, or their role in affecting the internal frictional relationships in packed granular masses. We believe that electrostatic, in particular dipole-mediated processes

  8. Dimensionality of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) for school teachers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner de Lara Machado; Bruno Figueiredo Damásio; Juliane Callegaro Borsa; Joilson Pereira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    ...) in a sample of school teachers (N = 517). An exploratory factor analysis done by the extraction method of minimum rank factor analysis, using polychoric correlation matrix and parallel analysis criterion for factor retention, indicated a one...

  9. The problematic internet entertainment use scale for adolescents: prevalence of problem internet use in Spanish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa

    2013-02-01

    Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent.

  10. A cohesive zone framework for environmentally assisted fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Busto, Susana; Betegón, Covadonga; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    by chemical potential gradients, (iii) a mechanical behavior characterized by finite deformation J2 plasticity, (iv) a phenomenological trapping model, (v) an irreversible cohesive zone formulation for fatigue, grounded on continuum damage mechanics, and (vi) a traction-separation law dependent on hydrogen......We present a compelling finite element framework to model hydrogen assisted fatigue by means of a hydrogen- and cycle-dependent cohesive zone formulation. The model builds upon: (i) appropriate environmental boundary conditions, (ii) a coupled mechanical and hydrogen diffusion response, driven...

  11. Cohesive zone modelling and the fracture process of structural tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigh, Ulf; Biel, Anders; Svensson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Structural tapes provide comparable toughness as structural adhesives at orders of magnitude lower stresses. This is potentially useful to minimize the effects of differences in thermal expansion in the joining of mixed materials. The strength properties are modelled using the cohesive zone model....... Thus, a cohesive zone represents the tape, i.e. stresses in the tape are transmitted to the substrates through tractions determined by the separations of the surfaces of substrates. This simplification allows for structural analysis of large complex structures. The relation between the traction...

  12. Multiscale damage and strength of lamellar bone modeled by cohesive finite elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Elham; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2013-12-01

    A computational multiscale model of damage mechanisms and strength of lamellar bone is presented. The analysis incorporates the hierarchical structure of bone spanning the nanoscale (mineralized collagen fibril), the sub-microscale (single lamella) and the microscale (lamellar structure) levels. Due to the presence of several constituents (collagen, hydroxyapatite minerals, and non-collagenous proteins) and the different microstructural features at each scale, various deformation and failure mechanisms occur in bone at its several levels of hierarchy. The model takes into account the dominant damage mechanisms at the above mentioned three scales and predicts the strength of bone by using a cohesive finite element method. Elastic moduli of bone at these three different scales are also obtained as part of these calculations. The obtained modeling results compare well with other theoretical and experimental data available in the literature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social and built-environment factors related to children's independent mobility: The importance of neighbourhood cohesion and connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, En-Yi; Witten, Karen; Oliver, Melody; Carroll, Penelope; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Badland, Hannah; Parker, Karl

    2017-07-01

    This study examines aspects of neighbourhood social environments (namely, neighbourhood safety, cohesion and connection) and child-specific built environment attributes in relation to children's independent mobility. The results suggest that children aged 8-13 years with parents who perceive their neighbourhood as more cohesive and more connected, and are located closer to school, engaged in higher levels of independently mobile trips. The qualitative component of this research revealed that for NZ European, Māori, Samoan and other Pacific parents, 'people danger' was the most common concern for letting their children go out alone, whereas for Asian and Indian parents, 'traffic danger' was the most common reason for their concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Getting to Scale with Moral Education: The Demands of Reproducibility and The Case of The Chicago Manual Training School, 1884-1904

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamant, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Background: Getting educational reforms "to scale" continues to be a primary preoccupation of scholars, but such studies tend to remain focused on the organizational or other characteristics of the school(s) receiving a given innovation. Purpose: This article brackets the organizational elements of reform dissemination to consider the…

  15. Design and validation of a scale of perception of risk in school físico-deportivas activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study has been the design of an instrument that let us to know the capacity of perception of children’s risk, as the element for the promotion of safety and prevention of injuries at school sports activities. Method: It has been designed a questionnaire based on items of significant images of the school sports context. The Testate sample was 637 both sexes’ students, from 8 to 14 years old. The psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of validity of content with experts and a principal component factor analysis. Results: we obtained a questionnaire of 32 items adjusted to the topics of scientific reliability and validity. Conclusions: this is a valid instrument to detect easily the perception of the risk at sports facilities and situations of physical activity, serving as a base for teachers for the class organization, taking into account this aspect

  16. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  17. Validation of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale among Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sandra; Yuen, Mantak

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS; Turner, Alliman-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi, & Ergun, 2003) was translated and modified to form the 24-item Chinese version of the scale. As in the case of the original CRPSS, the Chinese version includes 4 subscales (Instrumental Assistance, Emotional Support, Verbal Encouragement, and Career-Related…

  18. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounded territories, does space overall contain a dynamic network with fuzzy internal, as well as external boundaries, with implications for territorial cohesion? After all, if the former were to be true, territorial cohesion would refer to qualities of what is inside bounded territories. If it were to be the latter, then the meaning of territorial cohesion would include qualities of the relations within a complex network of socially constructed, sometimes ephemeral constructs. There are implications for the ways subsidiarity and multi-level governance are invoked in EU discourse where there is a similar failure to question the underlying notion of territory. What is relevant here is the distinction between a ‘territorial’ and ‘relational’ geography. Considered opinion suggests that these alternatives can and, in view of the persistence of the principle of territorial representation, must be reconciled. However, though firmly entrenched, some constitutional theorists question the very principle. The debate is far from conclusive but at least it shows that discussion, even of this apparently fundamental principle is possible.

  19. Cracks in Ductile Polymers Using Cohesive Zone Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Derek

    2010-03-01

    Ductile polymer fracture is studied by using a relatively new technique in which cohesive elements are placed between elastic solid elements, along the mesh boundaries. Polymer chain elongation is described using cohesive model parameters that are calibrated to simulate the conical crack observed in a single fiber fragmentation experiment that uses a ductile polyester matrix. This approach limits the crack trajectory to align with the mesh, thus severely limiting the accuracy. We propose a new crack trajectory method to describe polymer chain elongation by incorporating both normal and shear traction contributions in a strictly cohesive zone model approach. Our formulation shows that local polymer chain orientation depends on the ratio of mode I and mode II stiffness penalty parameters and tractions. The corresponding stress state reaches a critical value that is represented by a material parameter. The new crack tip extends to a location where the critical stress is reached at a maximum distance from the existing crack tip. Implementation is performed by adding the proposed crack trajectory method to an extended finite element code (X-FEM) with cohesive element modeling.

  20. Comfortably cosmopolitan? How patterns of 'social cohesion' vary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may be a surprising but not unprecedented outcome of strong social cohesion, which may allow knowledge of crime incidents to spread through community networks as a shared sense of victimisation and thus raise the likelihood of survey reporting above the real rate of crime incidence. Further research should test ...

  1. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    we socialise; tender loving care; motivation; and freedom) to the study of racial integration and social cohesion. .... about their participation and level of acceptance in the group influences their sense of belonging and therefore ... particular sport or music as “belonging” to a certain racial group. Dolby. (2001) found that ...

  2. Instruments used in the research on Cohesive Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    A research program was started to study the behaviour of cohesive sediments at the Delft University of Technology in 1989. As part of this project a well-provided physico-chemicallaboratory was built within the Hydromechanics Laboratory and adequate instrumentation was purchased. These new

  3. Facilitating or hindering social cohesion? The impact of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the contribution of the Community Work Programme (CWP) to social cohesion, a term that is widely used in post-apartheid South Africa.1 The article is based on a study that examined the contribution of the CWP to violence prevention. The study by researchers from the Centre for the Study of Violence ...

  4. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually

  5. Bridge pier scour in cohesive soil: a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bridge failure due to local scour has stimulated the enthusiasm of many researchers to study the causes of scouring and to predict the ultimate scour depth at bridge foundation. A brief review of the state of artwork of investigation conducted on local scour at bridge pier in cohesive bed material is presented. Scour process ...

  6. Teacher Governance Factors and Social Cohesion: Insights from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Anjum; Durrani, Naureen

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in…

  7. Possibilities for Social Cohesion in Education: Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina, segregation along ethno-nationalistic lines and divergent pedagogies within the education system have presented challenges to social cohesion and the long-term stability of a society that is still struggling to rebuild, reconcile, and regain trust (Jancic, 2008). This article examines the current state of the…

  8. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Broly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  9. The Relationship between Social Cohesion and Computer-Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Emre; Adalier, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between social cohesion and computer-internet usage among university students. The research was conducted among university students in North Cyprus. The sample for the research consists of 38.8% (n=80) female, 61.2 % (n=126) male, 206 university students by using the criterion sampling method.…

  10. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus) in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  11. Fear, crime, and social cohesion in urban South Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Social cohesion” broadly refers to the factors that hold a society together, including shared values and identity, feelings of belonging, civic participation, and political legitimacy. A body of theory based on the experience of communities in high-income countries suggests that strong social cohesion can act as ...

  12. Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A large body of research in countries of the global North has explored the role of social cohesion as a factor linking violence, inequality, and poverty. Efforts to strengthen community ties and trust in institutions have since entered the mainstream of violence prevention programs. But to date, little research has been done in ...

  13. Ultrafine Cohesive Powders: From Interparticle Contacts to Continuum Behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhoniuk, Rostyslav; Tomas, Jürgen; Luding, Stefan; Kappl, Michael; Heim, Lars; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Continuum mechanical models and appropriate measuring methods to determine the material parameters are available to describe the flow behaviour of cohesive powders. These methods are successfully applied to design process equipment as silos. In addition, “microscopic” studies on the particle

  14. Coach-Initiated Motivational Climate and Cohesion in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Jewitt, Eryn; Evans, M. Blair; Wolf, Svenja; Bruner, Mark W.; Loughead, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The general purpose of the present study was to examine the link between cohesion and motivational climate in youth sport. The first specific objective was to determine if relationships demonstrated in previous research with adult basketball and handball participants would be replicated in a younger sample and with a more heterogeneous…

  15. Political Speculations on Music and Social Cohesion | Shabangu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political Speculations on Music and Social Cohesion. Mohammad Shabangu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  16. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ortiz & Suresh (1993) adopted a linear cohesive law for intergranular fracture behaviour. Camacho & Ortiz (1996) ... to simulate the shear stress-separation law of the FRP-concrete interface. Closed-form solu- ..... The adhesive layer is considered to have a small stiffness and is considered as a soft isotropic material.

  17. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biuidA +. ∫. AP φ(w)dA. (1). Where, W = the strain energy density function defined in the body, εij = strain field,. Fi = the body force, ui = an admissible displacement field for the system, bi = boundary force distribution defined in the part of boundary AT . The potential φ can be defined for any given cohesive law σ = f (w) as:.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Group Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amanda; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative learning experiences increase student learning, but what happens when students fail to collaborate? The authors investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and group cohesion by studying 44 undergraduate teams who were completing semester-long projects in their business classes at a small private university in the…

  19. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  20. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping experiments were used to quantify the packing and cohesive properties of the starches. The volume reduction ability was estimated using the Kawakita equation. Results: The shape factor of the starches provided a proportionality constant between the particle size and surface area. The rank order of the particle ...

  1. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-04-01

    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presents numerical study on the fracture parameters of concrete compact tension test specimens of different sizes using cohesive crack model. As softening function is the main ingredient of the ... Shailendra Kumar1 S V Barai1. Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 ...

  3. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States.

  4. Social interactions in urban parks: Stimulating social cohesion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Buijs, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    People from all ethnic backgrounds spend some of their leisure time in green areas. This study found that urban parks are more inclusive green places than non-urban green areas, and that urban parks can promote social cohesion. The objective of the research was to establish the extent to which urban

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Team Cohesion and Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most constantly studied constructs in team dynamic research is cohesiveness, because it's not only associated with group level outcomes such as performance but also with individuals outcomes. Self-presentation involves the selective presentation of particular characteristics of oneself that would make the ...

  6. Exploring direction between cohesion and collective efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The direction between cohesion and collective efficacy measured at the beginning and the end of a season and their association with team performance as measured by final classification was examined. The sample comprised 146 soccer players, aged between 15 and 18 years (mean=16.96±0.76). The Spanish version of ...

  7. Botswana team sport players' perception of cohesion and imagery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...

  8. Social cohesion, sexuality, homo- phobia and women's sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social cohesion, sexuality, homo- phobia and women's sport in South. Africa. Abstract. In the post-Apartheid era sport has been consistently celebrated as an avenue for fostering social change, curing various social ills, and uniting. South Africans across the divides of race, class, gender and geography. The argument for ...

  9. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of

  10. Outdoor education camp and group cohesion: an investigation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to investigate the effect of outdoor education camp toward group cohesion among second year undergraduate teacher trainees from selected Teacher Education Institutes of Malaysia. A pre-test and post-test approach with non-equivalent control group was utilised among 350 second year undergraduate ...

  11. Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... Social cohesion can play an important role in building and maintaining vibrant communities. But research in Cape Town and Rio de Janeiro led by South Africa's Human Sciences Research Council and Brazil's Laboratory for the Analysis of Violence demonstrates how social bonds and stark inequalities ...

  12. Explaining Couple Cohesion in Different Types of Gay Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…

  13. Written Cohesion in Children with and without Language Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing…

  14. Sense of Cohesion among Community Activists Engaging in Volunteer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Drorit; Itzhaky, Haya; Zanbar, Lea; Schwartz, Chaya

    2012-01-01

    The present article attempts to shed light on the direct and indirect contribution of personal resources and community indices to Sense of Cohesion among activists engaging in community volunteer work. The sample comprised 481 activists. Based on social systems theory, three levels of variables were examined: (1) inputs, which included personal…

  15. Community Cohesion in Post-16 Education: Principles and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper is the product of a two year investigation into the contribution of post-16 education to community cohesion. The investigation took place between 2010 and 2012 and was funded by the University Centre at Blackburn College in England. Fieldwork was undertaken in three East Lancashire colleges and focused on students aged…

  16. Course Cohesion: An Elusive Goal for Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nan; Lloyd, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A program's development and implementation in a higher education institution is usually launched with great fanfare, goodwill and a huge effort on the part of the whole development team to ensure a worthwhile cohesive set of learning experiences aligned to the desired course learning outcomes. It is often not long before the glue starts to come…

  17. The Relationship between Task Cohesion and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Hardy, James; Carron, Albert V.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group-Task and Group Integration-Task) and the degree to which they viewed their perceptions of the presence of pre-competition anxiety symptoms as facilitative or debilitative. Survey data indicated that the more positive their perceptions of…

  18. Family Cohesion and Level of Communication Between Parents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the level of communication between parents and their adolescent children and how such communication affects family cohesion. A sample of 200 subjects made up of adolescents and parents were selected through cluster, stratified and random sampling techniques from ten Local Government Areas ...

  19. Evolution of the floc size distribution of cohesive sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mietta, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the flocculation process of cohesive sediment (mud) and in particular on the time evolution of the floc size distribution. Mud is mainly observed in estuarine environment and its settling velocity is strongly affected by its floc size distribution. Small flocs (1-50

  20. Education, Social Cohesion, and the Future Role of International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes social cohesion issues within education, concerns over how education performs this function, and implications for international organizations. The paper reviews the purposes of public education, discusses some modern challenges to these traditional functions and why it may be important for international organizations to assume a new…

  1. Social cohesion, sexuality, homophobia and women's sport in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the post-Apartheid era sport has been consistently celebrated as an avenue for fostering social change, curing various social ills, and uniting South Africans across the divides of race, class, gender and geography. The argument for using sport to foster social cohesion in South Africa rests on two main assumptions: firstly, ...

  2. Family Cohesion, Adaptability and Composition in Adolescents from Callao, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Zegarra, David; Paz-Jesús, Angel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze if there are significant differences between family cohesion and adaptability according to the type of family composition (nuclear, extended, single parent and non-nuclear). This is a non-experimental and empirical research, in which a non-probabilistic, cross-sectional, selective and associative strategy…

  3. Element test experiments and simulations: From dry towards cohesive powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Kumar, Nishant; Luding, Stefan; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2011-01-01

    Findings from experiments and particle simulations for dry and cohesive granular materials are presented with the goal to reach quantitative agreement between simulations and experiments. Results for the compressibility, tested with the FT4 Powder Rheometer are presented. The first simulation

  4. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus) in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated. PMID:26067565

  5. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    most researches are geared towards solving the twin problem of saving time and cost. This research that was undertaken to investigate the correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion of remoulded. Nsukka clays consider primarily the cost due to the high cost of carrying out undrained triaxial test. The cost for ...

  6. Waterbury Public Schools and Connecticut Academy for Education: School Improvement Support Team (SIST). External Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Research and Evaluation, Chaplin, CT.

    The Connecticut Academy for Education implemented the School Improvement Support Team (SIST) in the Waterbury, Connecticut, Public Schools during the 1998-99 school year. The main goal of the SIST is to provide a comprehensive and cohesive set of programs and activities for improving student performance in the Waterbury Public Schools. The…

  7. An examination of the relationship between athlete leadership and cohesion using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughead, Todd M; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt D; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using social network analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership quality network and task and social cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social and external) and their association with task and social cohesion networks. In Study 1, the results demonstrated that the general leadership quality network was positively related to task and social cohesion. The results from Study 2 indicated positive correlations between the four leadership networks and task and social cohesion networks. Further, the motivational leadership network emerged as the strongest predictor of the task cohesion network, while the social leadership network was the strongest predictor of the social cohesion network. The results complement a growing body of research indicating that athlete leadership has a positive association with cohesion.

  8. Desmoglein-2 interaction is crucial for cardiomyocyte cohesion and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipp, Angela; Schinner, Camilla; Spindler, Volker; Vielmuth, Franziska; Gehmlich, Katja; Syrris, Petros; Mckenna, William J; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hartlieb, Eva; Waschke, Jens

    2014-11-01

    We determined the contribution of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-2 to cell-cell cohesion in cardiomyocytes. In the intercalated disc, providing mechanical strength and electrical communication between adjacent cardiomyocytes, desmoglein-2 is closely associated with N-cadherin and gap junctions. We studied intercalated discs of HL-1 cardiomyocytes by immunostaining of desmoglein-2 and N-cadherin. Cohesion was measured using a liberase-based dissociation-assay and compared with cell-free single-molecule atomic force microscopy measurements. L-tryptophan caused irregular desmoglein-2 condensation, weakened cell-cell cohesion and impaired both homophilic desmoglein-2 and N-cadherin trans-interaction, whereas l-phenylalanine had no effect. L-tryptophan did not affect N-cadherin localization and its inhibitory effect on cell-cohesion and desmoglein-2 binding, but not on N-cadherin interaction, was blocked by a desmoglein-specific tandem peptide. Moreover, Ca(2+)-depletion, desmoglein-2 knockdown, a desmoglein-specific single peptide and certain desmoglein-2 mutations associated with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy reduced cell-cell cohesion, whereas cell adhesion was strengthened by desmoglein-2 overexpression. Since single peptide did not interfere with N-cadherin trans-interaction, these data indicate that (i) desmoglein-2 binding is crucial for cardiomyocyte cohesion and (ii) L-tryptophan reduced both desmoglein-2 and N-cadherin binding, whereas single and tandem peptide can be used to specifically target desmoglein-2-mediated adhesion. L-tryptophan and single peptide also induced ultrastructural alterations of areae compositae. Functional analyses at the organ level revealed reduced cardiomyocyte function and inefficient response to adrenergic stimulation in both L-tryptophan- and single peptide-challenged murine Langendorff hearts paralleled by redistribution of connexin 43 in L-tryptophan-treated heart slices. Our data demonstrate that desmoglein-2 plays a

  9. Spitting for Science: Danish High School Students Commit to a Large-Scale Self-Reported Genetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Jørgensen, Frank G; Cheng, Jade Y; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Scientific outreach delivers science to the people. But it can also deliver people to the science. In this work, we report our experience from a large-scale public engagement project promoting genomic literacy among Danish high school students with the additional benefit of collecting data for studying the genetic makeup of the Danish population. Not only did we confirm that students have a great interest in their genetic past, but we were also gratified to see that, with the right motivation, adolescents can provide high-quality data for genetic studies.

  10. Spitting for Science: Danish High School Students Commit to a Large-Scale Self-Reported Genetic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Athanasiadis

    Full Text Available Scientific outreach delivers science to the people. But it can also deliver people to the science. In this work, we report our experience from a large-scale public engagement project promoting genomic literacy among Danish high school students with the additional benefit of collecting data for studying the genetic makeup of the Danish population. Not only did we confirm that students have a great interest in their genetic past, but we were also gratified to see that, with the right motivation, adolescents can provide high-quality data for genetic studies.

  11. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William

    2008-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually...... Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross...

  12. Teachers' Attitude towards ICT Use in Secondary Schools: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Kemal; Semerci, Ali; Gürol, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument that measures secondary school teachers' attitudes towards ICT use in teaching and learning process. A cross-sectional survey design was employed with a group of 173 teachers. Based on the literature review, a pool of 21 items was proposed and reviewed by a board of experts. As to…

  13. Three Scales to Measure Burnout of Primary School Teachers: Empirical Evidence on Their Adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platsidou, Maria; Daniilidou, Athena

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing the psychometric properties of three measures of burnout administered in 320 Greek primary school teachers, namely the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach and Jackson 1982), the Burnout Measure (Pines and Aronson 1988) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (Kristensen et al. 2005). Confirmatory factor analysis tested a…

  14. Mindful Leaders in Highly Effective Schools: A Mixed-Method Application of Hoy's M-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, W. Sean; Kelsey, Cheryl; Herrington, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study utilizing teacher ratings of principal mindfulness from 149 public schools in Texas and follow-up qualitative data analysis through semi-structured interviews conducted with the top 10 percent of princeipals identified as mindful. This research is based on the theoretical framework of mindfulness as…

  15. Size Matters: Economies of Scale in Schools and Colleges. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Glyn; Fletcher, Mick; Lester, Stan

    2006-01-01

    This report reviews the relationship in England between institutional size and the cost of Level 3 (mainly A-level) provision in three major settings: sixth form colleges (SFCs), general further education colleges (GFECs) and school sixth forms (SSFs). The study models how institutions might behave, given the funding regime and cost structures. It…

  16. Inculcation of Values across the School Curriculum: Development and Validation of Teachers' Orientation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sahari

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher orientation to the inculcation of values across school curriculum-a function of the teacher knowledge and attitudes-has been conceptualised as his or her (1 identification with the goals of the curriculum, and (2 conformity with the predetermined instructional behaviours. Based on this framework, the study explored the construct of teacher orientation to the inculcation of values across school subjects. More specifically, the study examined the likelihood of two underlying dimensions explaining the presence of variability in teacher orientation and the reliability of the dimensions. Using a 15-item instrument developed earlier for a descriptive inquiry, the present study measured and analysed responses from 103 secondary school teachers from two randomly selected schools. To arrive at the conclusions, the study applied principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha procedures. The results suggested that teacher orientation to value inculcation is a multidimensional construct. The more reliable dimensions of Teacher Orientation were found to be goal identification, conformity to planning tasks, and conformity to delivery tasks. The results add new information to, and may serve as a guide for future research.

  17. Factorial Validity of the Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale for Urban School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The revised 20-item Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale was administered to 2538 urban minority students in grades 8 to 10. Results supported the existence of two underlying factors, enjoyment and fear. (GDC)

  18. Cohesion in Italian Adult Learners' and Native Speakers' Compositions: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Nicoletta

    1994-01-01

    Presents data from a cross-sectional study of the use of cohesion in Italian texts written by second-language adult learners and by native speakers. The study's goal was to compare learners and native speakers in their use of cohesion and to observe the developmental sequences in the use of cohesion. Data interpretation is presented. (64…

  19. Contributions of Self-Explanation to Comprehension of High- and Low-Cohesion Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Briner, Stephen; Best, Rachel; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how the contribution of self-explanation to science text comprehension is affected by the cohesion of a text at a local level. Psychology undergraduates read and self-explained a science text with either low or high local cohesion. Local cohesion was manipulated by the presence or absence of connectives and referential words or…

  20. Exploring the Effect of Background Knowledge and Text Cohesion on Learning from Texts in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparinatou, Alexandra; Grigoriadou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effect of background knowledge and local cohesion on learning from texts. The study is based on construction-integration model. Participants were 176 undergraduate students who read a Computer Science text. Half of the participants read a text of maximum local cohesion and the other a text of minimum local cohesion.…

  1. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  2. Groupthink: Effects of Cohesiveness and Problem-Solving Procedures on Group Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Michael R.; Esser, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Tested Janis' groupthink formulation with 126 students by manipulating group cohesiveness and adequacy of decision procedures in a factorial design. Results showed highest quality decisions were produced by groups of intermediate cohesiveness. Highly cohesive groups without adequate decision procedures (the groupthink condition) tended to make the…

  3. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team

  4. Scaling up a School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention in Rural Tanzania: A Process Evaluation Describing the Implementation Realities for the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renju, Jenny; Nyalali, Kija; Andrew, Bahati; Kishamawe, Coleman; Kimaryo, Micheal; Remes, Pieter; Changalucha, John; Obasi, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and mechanisms of factors that facilitate or inhibit the scale-up and subsequent implementation of school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) interventions. We present process evaluation findings examining the factors that affected the 10-fold scale-up of such an intervention, focussing on…

  5. Mapping the Paths from Styles of Anger Experience and Expression to Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: The Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Cuilian; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version). Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability. PMID:28512441

  6. Mapping the Paths from Styles of Anger Experience and Expression to Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: The Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Cuilian; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version). Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients' family cohesion and adaptability.

  7. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response.

  8. Mapping the Paths from Styles of Anger Experience and Expression to Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: The Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version. Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability.

  9. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010–2013). Lippman and colleagues’ Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs’ connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20–29, range 4–45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95–0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response. PMID:26499335

  10. A psychometric analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--parent version in a school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Nakamura, Brad J; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E

    2011-02-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the DSM diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder. The RCADS-P was recently developed and has previously demonstrated strong psychometric properties in a clinic-referred sample (Ebesutani et al., Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, 249-260, 2010b). The present study examined the psychometric properties of the RCADS-P in a school-based population. As completed by parents of 967 children and adolescents, the RCADS-P demonstrated high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and good convergent/divergent validity, supporting the RCADS-P as a measure of internalizing problems specific to depression and five anxiety disorders in school samples. Normative data are also reported to allow for the derivation of T-scores to enhance clinicians' ability to make classification decisions using RCADS-P subscale scores.

  11. Psychometric Features of a Scale for Characterizing the Meaning of School Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In School Motivation context, we know that it is not enough with taking in consideration the student’s task motivation. It is necessary also consider the perspective of the reasons of students that give sense to the school learning, and this way improve or re-thinking the didactic designs.In this frame, we have developed a tool (SAS-student that allows characterizing the School Learning Sense. The validation of this instrument was done on a sample of 405 Chilean students (male and female of 6th primary (11 years and 5th secondary (16 years, representatives of different Socio Economics Status. The psychometrics characteristics of this tool show the same factorial structure in both levels, appropriates reliabilities coefficients and a high level of discrimination. These results come to support the construct validity and reliability of a test that not only is useful for the research but also it gives to teachers potentially relevant information for theirs pedagogic planning.

  12. Teachers' perceptions and use of a large-scale science education reform initiative for middle schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, Carolyn Sue

    Reform efforts in science education have been increasing over the past decade. This quantitative design study explored middle school teachers' perceptions and attitudes about one such reform effort. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from teachers and their classrooms. The population consisted of all of the middle school science teachers who had completed at least one two-week session of professional development in the University of Alabama in Huntsville in-service region. The teachers were all involved in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). This initiative provided professional development and complete science modules, including materials for all K-8 teachers of science to use. Middle school teachers' (grades 6-8) perceptions, attitudes, and information about classroom decisions in teaching science using the AMSTI were obtained through the uses of the AMSTI Science Questionnaire, teacher interviews and classroom observations using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). Quantitative data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, Tukey HSD statistical analyses. Qualitative data involved transcribing, coding, and determination of emerging themes. The AMSTI Science Questionnaire was found to have evidence of reliability and validity for the determination of the impact of professional development on teachers' perceptions and attitudes towards teaching science in their classrooms. Results of this study demonstrated that the more professional development experienced by the teachers was related to the number of lessons that the teachers used from the AMSTI modules. The amount of professional development was also related to the amount of time spent teaching and quality of the teaching as rated using the Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol. The more professional development the teachers received, the higher they self-reported their level of expertise in teaching the AMSTI science modules. Some of the strengths of the

  13. Homework Emotion Regulation Scale: Confirming the Factor Structure with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2017-01-01

    The current investigation studied psychometric properties of the Homework Emotion Regulation Scale (HERS) for math homework, with 915 tenth graders from China. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the presence of two separate yet related subscales for the HERS: Emotion Management and Cognitive Reappraisal. The latent factor means for both…

  14. Influencing Public School Policy in the United States: The Role of Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review the influence of state, national and international large-scale assessments (LSAs) on education policy and research. They distinguish between two main uses of LSAs: as a means for conducting research that informs educational reform and LSAs as a tool for implementing standards and enforcing accountability. The authors discuss the…

  15. Linking Chromosome Duplication and Segregation via Sister Chromatid Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication during S phase generates two identical copies of each chromosome. Each chromosome is destined for a daughter cell, but each daughter must receive one and only one copy of each chromosome. To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells are equipped with a mechanism to pair the chromosomes during chromosome duplication and hold the pairs until a bi-oriented mitotic spindle is formed and the pairs are pulled apart. This mechanism is known as sister chromatid cohesion, and its actions span the entire cell cycle. During G1, before DNA is copied during S phase, proteins termed cohesins are loaded onto DNA. Paired chromosomes are held together through G2 phase, and finally the cohesins are dismantled during mitosis. The processes governing sister chromatid cohesion ensure that newly replicated sisters are held together from the moment they are generated to the metaphase–anaphase transition, when sisters separate. PMID:24906310

  16. Grain boundary embrittlement and cohesion enhancement in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Anthony; Lozovoi, Alexander [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Schweinfest, Rainer [Science+Computing ag, Hagellocher Weg 71-5, 720270 T ubingen (Germany); Finnis, Michael [Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    There has been a long standing debate surrounding the mechanism of grain boundary embrittlement and cohesion enhancement in metals. Embrittlement can lead to catastrophic failure such as happened in the Hinkley Point disaster, or indeed in the case of the Titanic. This kind of embrittlement is caused by segregation of low solubility impurities to grain boundaries. While the accepted wisdom is that this is a phenomenon driven by electronic or chemical factors, using language such as charge transfer and electronegativity difference; we believe that in copper, at least, both cohesion enhancement and reduction are caused by a simple size effect. We have developed a theory that allows us to separate unambiguously, if not uniquely, chemical and structural factors. We have studied a large number of solutes in copper using first principles atomistic simulation to support this argument, and the results of these calculations are presented here.

  17. Task-Based Cohesive Evolution of Dynamic Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Applications of graph theory to neuroscience have resulted in significant progress towards a mechanistic understanding of the brain. Functional network representation of the brain has linked efficient network structure to psychometric intelligence and altered configurations with disease. Dynamic graphs provide us with tools to further study integral properties of the brain; specifically, the mathematical convention of hyperedges has allowed us to study the brain's cross-linked structure. Hyperedges capture the changes in network structure by identifying groups of brain regions with correlation patterns that change cohesively through time. We performed a hyperedge analysis on functional MRI data from 86 subjects and explored the cohesive evolution properties of their functional brain networks as they performed a series of tasks. Our results establish the hypergraph as a useful measure in understanding functional brain dynamics over tasks and reveal characteristic differences in the co-evolution structure of task-specific networks.

  18. The limits of social capital: Durkheim, suicide, and social cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Howard I; Sterk, Claire E

    2005-07-01

    Recent applications of social capital theories to population health often draw on classic sociological theories for validation of the protective features of social cohesion and social integration. Durkheim's work on suicide has been cited as evidence that modern life disrupts social cohesion and results in a greater risk of morbidity and mortality-including self-destructive behaviors and suicide. We argue that a close reading of Durkheim's evidence supports the opposite conclusion and that the incidence of self-destructive behaviors such as suicide is often greatest among those with high levels of social integration. A reexamination of Durkheim's data on female suicide and suicide in the military suggests that we should be skeptical about recent studies connecting improved population health to social capital.

  19. Social cohesion and self-rated health: The moderating effect of neighborhood physical disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Ralston, Margaret L; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey and its companion datasets, we examined how neighborhood disorder, perceived danger and both individually perceived and contextually measured neighborhood social cohesion are associated with self-rated health. Results indicate that neighborhood disorder is negatively associated with health and the relationship is explained by perceived cohesion and danger, which are both also significant predictors of health. Further, individually perceived cohesion emerges as a more important explanation of self-rated health than neighborhood-level social cohesion. Finally, neighborhood disorder and perceived cohesion interact to influence health, such that cohesion is especially beneficial when residents live in neighborhoods characterized by low to moderate disorder; once disorder is at high levels, cohesion no longer offers protection against poor health. We interpret our findings as they relate to prior research on neighborhoods, psychosocial processes, and health, and discuss their implications for intervention efforts that address disorder in urban communities.

  20. Rheology of cohesive granular materials across multiple dense-flow regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yile; Chialvo, Sebastian; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the dense-flow rheology of cohesive granular materials through discrete element simulations of homogeneous, simple shear flows of frictional, cohesive, spherical particles. Dense shear flows of noncohesive granular materials exhibit three regimes: quasistatic, inertial, and intermediate, which persist for cohesive materials as well. It is found that cohesion results in bifurcation of the inertial regime into two regimes: (a) a new rate-independent regime and (b) an inertial regime. Transition from rate-independent cohesive regime to inertial regime occurs when the kinetic energy supplied by shearing is sufficient to overcome the cohesive energy. Simulations reveal that inhomogeneous shear band forms in the vicinity of this transition, which is more pronounced at lower particle volume fractions. We propose a rheological model for cohesive systems that captures the simulation results across all four regimes.

  1. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  2. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  3. Characterization of cohesive powders for bulk handling and DEM modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, S.C.; Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Wojtkowski, Mateusz Bronislaw; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Montes, E.C.; Ramaioli, Marco; Ahmadian, H.; Ooi, J.Y.; Bischoff, M; Ramm, E.; Onate, E.; Owen, R; Wriggers, P.

    2013-01-01

    The flow behaviour of granular materials is relevant for many industrial applications including the pharmaceutical, chemical, consumer goods and food industries. A key issue is the accurate characterisation of these powders under different loading conditions and flow regimes, for example in mixers, pneumatic conveyors and silo filling and discharge. This paper explores the experimental aspects of cohesive powder handling at different compaction levels and flow regimes, namely inertial and qua...

  4. The Relation between Sociometric Choices and Group Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    leadership . The U.S. Army will be able to use the research results to an extent as validation of its typical questionnaire-based measures of cohesion...the group, c) socially valued traits , d) similarity of attitudes and social background between members, e) social adjustment of the individual to the... Stogdill , 1972). Seashore (1954), who showed the importance of productivity norms, also noticed that there was less variation in productivity in the

  5. Living on the Edge: Cohesion and Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-05

    temper judgment. The British deployed elite units to the Falklands. The traditions of the regimental system did much to enhance cohesion and reduce...example, the US Army should also inculcate soldiers with a sense of military history. In so doing, the soldier’s pride in the traditions of his unit is...several generations, even under leaders of average ability and through long periods of peace. This means that military leaders must capitalize on the

  6. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Heemst, van, D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of which DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered particularly deleterious. The causative agents can be of endogenous origin, such as metabolically produced free radicals, and of exogenous origi...

  7. Family Change and Implications for Family Solidarity and Social Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishSocial cohesion can be viewed in terms of common projects and networks of social relations that characterize families, communities and society. In the past decades, the basis for family cohesion has shifted from organic to mechanical or from breadwinner to collaborative model. As in many Western countries, data on family change in Canada point to a greater flexibility in the entry and exit from relationships, a delay in the timing of family events, and a diversity of family forms. After looking at changes in families and in the family setting of individuals, the paper considers both intra-family cohesion and families as basis for social cohesion. Implications are raised for adults, children and publicp olicy.FrenchLa cohésion sociale peut se voir à travers les projets communs et les réseaux desrelations sociales qui caractérisent les familles, les communautés et les sociétés.La base de cohésion familiale est passée d’organique à mécanique, pour utiliserles termes de Durkheim, ou vers un modèle de collaboration plutôt qu’unepartage asymétrique de tâches. Comme dans d’autres sociétés orientales, lafamille au Canada est devenue plus flexible par rapport aux entrées et sortiesd’unions, il y a un délais dans les événements familiaux, et une variété deformes de familles. Après un regard sur les changements dans les familles etdans la situation familiale des individus, nous considérons la cohésion intrafamilialeet la famille comme base de cohésion sociale. Nous discutons desimpacts sur les adultes, les enfants et la politique publique.

  8. System size effects on the mechanical response of cohesive-frictional granular ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Kandasami, Ramesh Kannan; Mahendran, Rupesh Kumar; Murthy, Tejas

    2017-06-01

    Shear resistance in granular ensembles is a result of interparticle interaction and friction. However, even the presence of small amounts of cohesion between the particles changes the landscape of the mechanical response considerably. Very often such cohesive frictional (c-ϕ) granular ensembles are encountered in nature as well as while handling and storage of granular materials in the pharmaceutical, construction and mining industries. Modeling of these c-ϕ materials, especially in engineering applications have relied on the oft-made assumption of a "continua" and have utilized the popular tenets of continuum plasticity theory. We present an experimental investigation on the fundamental mechanics of c-ϕ materials specifically; we investigate if there exists a system size effect and any additional length scales beyond the continuum length scale on their mechanical response. For this purpose, we conduct a series of 1-D compression (UC) tests on cylindrical specimens reconstituted in the laboratory with a range of model particle-binder combinations such as sandcement, sand-epoxy, and glass ballotini-epoxy mixtures. Specimens are reconstituted to various diameters ranging from 10 mm to 150 mm (with an aspect ratio of 2) to a predefined packing fraction. In addition to the effect of the type of binder (cement, epoxy) and system size, the mean particle size is also varied from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. The peak strength of these materials is significant as it signals the initiation of the cohesive-bond breaking and onset of mobilization of the inter particle frictional resistance. For these model systems, the peak strength is a strong function of the system size of the ensemble as well as the mean particle size. This intriguing observation is counter to the traditional notion of a continuum plastic typical granular ensemble. Microstructure studies in a computed-tomograph have revealed the existence of a web patterned `entangled-chain' like structure, we argue that this ushers

  9. Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Preventive Healthcare Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    Neighborhood social cohesion has been linked with better health and health behaviors, but its association with patterns of preventive healthcare use remains understudied. The hypothesis was that people with higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion would display increased use of preventive healthcare services. Participants (N=7,168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study-a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults aged >50 years-and tracked for one wave (2 years). Analyses were conducted in 2016. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, each SD increase in neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain influenza vaccinations (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.04, 1.15) or cholesterol tests (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.02, 1.19). Further, women were more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.01, 1.19) or Pap tests (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.00, 1.17). However, men were not more likely to receive prostate exams (OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.96, 1.17). With additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive healthcare services and enhance the quality of life among people moving through the ranks of this aging society. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cohesion in News Articles: A Discourse Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Subrayan Michael

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion is deemed to be outside of the structure of text because structure in text is provided by grammar. The design of cohesion in text is connected to semantic ties or “relations of meanings that exist within the text, and that define it as a text” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976. The study discusses an analysis done on two Malaysian newspaper articles from the New Straits Times. The study investigates the discourses apparent in the texts and the methods in which discourses are represented through particular linguistic choices. The purpose of the study is to identify discourses that stand for universally held assumptions about how different texts are created and how these discourses signify connection of specific practices and/or encompass a policy for change. Halliday & Hasan (1976 convey texture to the method in which diverse fundamentals in a text are connected or attached jointly to shape a cohesive unity, which also conveys the fact that the texts express completely to the setting in which it is located. Both articles project several connections in the field, in the theme and in the method of writing which are reflected in their corresponding ritual of structural and lexico-grammatical resources.

  11. Interactivity in Second Language via Social Identity and Group Cohesiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojas Alfaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y analizan la influencia de la identidad y la unión de grupo como factores que facilitan o dificultan los procesos interactivos en el aprendizaje del inglés como segunda lengua. Se señala la conexión entre el aprendizaje interactivo de un idioma y factores como identidad social, personal, y unión de grupo. El efecto de la integración del grupo y la identidad en el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma son esenciales dado que pocos estudios se han referido al efecto de tales variables en la interacción de grupo. Con el estudio de un caso realizado en dos grupos de estudiantes adultos se diagnosticó el estado de cohesión del grupo y su impacto en el aprendizaje interactivo. This research explores the influence of identity and group cohesion as factors that facilitate or hinder interactive processes in ESL classrooms. In particular, this paper addresses the connection between interactive language learning, social and personal identity, and group cohesiveness. The effect of group cohesion and identity in second language learning has been addressed in relatively few studies on the impact of those membership variables in determining interactivity in communicative language teaching. A case study carried out in two college level classes diagnosed the status of group membership and its impact on interactivity.

  12. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  13. Modelling interfacial cracking with non-matching cohesive interface elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh Phu; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Bordas, Stéphane; Heidarpour, Amin

    2016-11-01

    Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these interfacial cracks usually employs compatible or matching cohesive interface elements. In this paper, incompatible or non-matching cohesive interface elements are proposed for interfacial fracture mechanics problems. They allow non-matching finite element discretisations of the opposite crack faces thus lifting the constraint on the compatible discretisation of the domains sharing the interface. The formulation is based on a discontinuous Galerkin method and works with both initially elastic and rigid cohesive laws. The proposed formulation has the following advantages compared to classical interface elements: (i) non-matching discretisations of the domains and (ii) no high dummy stiffness. Two and three dimensional quasi-static fracture simulations are conducted to demonstrate the method. Our method not only simplifies the meshing process but also it requires less computational demands, compared with standard interface elements, for problems that involve materials/solids having a large mismatch in stiffnesses.

  14. Importance of Polη for damage-induced cohesion reveals differential regulation of cohesion establishment at the break site and genome-wide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Enervald

    Full Text Available Genome integrity depends on correct chromosome segregation, which in turn relies on cohesion between sister chromatids from S phase until anaphase. S phase cohesion, together with DNA double-strand break (DSB recruitment of cohesin and formation of damage-induced (DI cohesion, has previously been shown to be required also for efficient postreplicative DSB repair. The budding yeast acetyltransferase Eco1 (Ctf7 is a common essential factor for S phase and DI-cohesion. The fission yeast Eco1 ortholog, Eso1, is expressed as a fusion protein with the translesion synthesis (TLS polymerase Polη. The involvement of Eso1 in S phase cohesion was attributed to the Eco1 homologous part of the protein and bypass of UV-induced DNA lesions to the Polη part. Here we describe an additional novel function for budding yeast Polη, i.e. formation of postreplicative DI genome-wide cohesion. This is a unique Polη function not shared with other TLS polymerases. However, Polη deficient cells are DSB repair competent, as Polη is not required for cohesion locally at the DSB. This reveals differential regulation of DSB-proximal cohesion and DI genome-wide cohesion, and challenges the importance of the latter for DSB repair. Intriguingly, we found that specific inactivation of DI genome-wide cohesion increases chromosomal mis-segregation at the entrance of the next cell cycle, suggesting that S phase cohesion is not sufficient for correct chromosome segregation in the presence of DNA damage.

  15. Importance of Polη for Damage-Induced Cohesion Reveals Differential Regulation of Cohesion Establishment at the Break Site and Genome-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Yuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Ström, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Genome integrity depends on correct chromosome segregation, which in turn relies on cohesion between sister chromatids from S phase until anaphase. S phase cohesion, together with DNA double-strand break (DSB) recruitment of cohesin and formation of damage-induced (DI) cohesion, has previously been shown to be required also for efficient postreplicative DSB repair. The budding yeast acetyltransferase Eco1 (Ctf7) is a common essential factor for S phase and DI-cohesion. The fission yeast Eco1 ortholog, Eso1, is expressed as a fusion protein with the translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase Polη. The involvement of Eso1 in S phase cohesion was attributed to the Eco1 homologous part of the protein and bypass of UV-induced DNA lesions to the Polη part. Here we describe an additional novel function for budding yeast Polη, i.e. formation of postreplicative DI genome-wide cohesion. This is a unique Polη function not shared with other TLS polymerases. However, Polη deficient cells are DSB repair competent, as Polη is not required for cohesion locally at the DSB. This reveals differential regulation of DSB–proximal cohesion and DI genome-wide cohesion, and challenges the importance of the latter for DSB repair. Intriguingly, we found that specific inactivation of DI genome-wide cohesion increases chromosomal mis-segregation at the entrance of the next cell cycle, suggesting that S phase cohesion is not sufficient for correct chromosome segregation in the presence of DNA damage. PMID:23326240

  16. Motor Importance of motor assessment in school children: analysis of the reliability of the motor development scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassandra Nunes Amaro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the motor performance of school chil-dren aged 6 to 10 years without learning difficulties (n=101, and to analyze the reliability of the Motor Development Scale (MDS (Rosa Neto, 2002. Descriptive statistics with calculation of the mean, standard deviation, and range was used for data analysis. The internal consistency of the MDS was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and the correlation between variables was determined by Pearson’s linear correlation, with p<0.05. The results showed (1 that motor development was within normal limits in 96% of the children, and (2 a high correlation betwe-en chronological age and general motor age, indicating good internal consistency. These data demonstrate the logic and structured design of the MDS, confirming its reliability.

  17. Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon kyeong Rhie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Korean adolescents have severe nighttime sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness because of their competitive educational environment. However, daytime sleep patterns and sleepiness have never been studied using age-specific methods, such as the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS. We surveyed the daytime sleepiness of Korean adolescents using a Korean translation of the PDSS. Methods: We distributed the 27-item questionnaire, including the PDSS and questions related to sleep pattern, sleep satisfaction, and emotional state, to 3,370 students in grades 5-12. Results: The amount of nighttime sleep decreased significantly with increasing age. During weekday nights, 5- 6th graders slept for 7.95¡?#?.05; h, 7-9th graders for 7.57¡?#?.05; h, and 10-12th graders for 5.78¡?#?.13; h. However, the total amounts of combined daytime and nighttime sleep during weekdays were somewhat greater, 8.15¡?#?.12; h for 5- 6th graders, 8.17¡?#?.20; h for 7-9th graders, and 6.87¡?#?.40; h for 10-12th graders. PDSS scores increased with age, 11.89¡?#?.56; for 5- 6th graders, 16.57¡?#?.57; for 7-9th graders, and 17.71¡?#?.24; for 10-12th graders. Higher PDSS scores were positively correlated with poor school performance and emotional instability. Conclusion: Korean teenagers sleep to an unusual extent during the day because of nighttime sleep deprivation. This negatively affects school performance and emotional stability. A Korean translation of the PDSS was effective in evaluating the severity of daytime sleepiness and assessing the emotional state and school performance of Korean teenagers.

  18. Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Seonkyeong; Lee, Sihyoung; Chae, Kyu Young

    2011-01-01

    Korean adolescents have severe nighttime sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness because of their competitive educational environment. However, daytime sleep patterns and sleepiness have never been studied using age-specific methods, such as the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS). We surveyed the daytime sleepiness of Korean adolescents using a Korean translation of the PDSS. We distributed the 27-item questionnaire, including the PDSS and questions related to sleep pattern, sleep satisfaction, and emotional state, to 3,370 students in grades 5-12. The amount of nighttime sleep decreased significantly with increasing age. During weekday nights, 5-6(th) graders slept for 7.95±1.05 h, 7-9(th) graders for 7.57±1.05 h, and 10-12(th) graders for 5.78±1.13 h. However, the total amounts of combined daytime and nighttime sleep during weekdays were somewhat greater, 8.15±1.12 h for 5-6(th) graders, 8.17±1.20 h for 7-9(th) graders, and 6.87±1.40 h for 10-12(th) graders. PDSS scores increased with age, 11.89±5.56 for 5-6(th) graders, 16.57±5.57 for 7-9(th) graders, and 17.71±5.24 for 10-12(th) graders. Higher PDSS scores were positively correlated with poor school performance and emotional instability. Korean teenagers sleep to an unusual extent during the day because of nighttime sleep deprivation. This negatively affects school performance and emotional stability. A Korean translation of the PDSS was effective in evaluating the severity of daytime sleepiness and assessing the emotional state and school performance of Korean teenagers.

  19. Scaling-Up Youth-Led Social Justice Efforts through an Online School-Based Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluh, Mariah; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Ozer, Emily J

    2016-06-01

    The exploration of social networking sites (SNS) in promoting social change efforts offers great potential within the field of community psychology. Online communities on SNS provide opportunities for bridging across groups, thus fostering the exchange of novel ideas and practices. Currently, there have only been limited efforts to examine SNS within the context of youth-led efforts. To explore the potential of SNS to facilitate the diffusion of social justice efforts between distinct youth groups, we linked three school-based youth-led participatory action research projects involving 54 high school students through a SNS. This study offers an innovative methodological approach and framework, utilizing social network analysis and strategic sampling of key student informants to investigate what individual behaviors and online network features predict student adoption of social change efforts. Findings highlight prospective facilitators and barriers to diffusion processes within a youth-led online network, as well as key constructs that may inform future research. We conclude by providing suggestions for scholars and practitioners interested in examining how SNS can be used to enhance the diffusion of social justice strategies, youth-led engagement efforts, and large-scale civic organizing. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  20. Cohesive Fracture Study of a Bonded Coarse Silica Sand Aggregate Bond Interface Subjected to Mixed-Mode Bending Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives in the design of composite structures is the prevention of premature bond failure. Therefore, the characterization of cohesive behavior is an important field of study in structural engineering. Using fracture mechanics principles, the cohesive behavior of an epoxy bonded coarse silica sand aggregate bond interface is studied in this paper, with a focus on finding a general analytical form of idealizing its behavior when used in a specimen possessing asymmetric and inhomogeneous qualities. Two series of small-scale specimens were experimentally tested under mixed-mode bending (MMB conditions, where it was found that there was negligible influence exerted on the fracture energy of the interface due to changes in the mixed-mode ratio or initial crack length. Using finite element analysis (FEA methods, an appropriate bilinear traction-separation model was developed to both validate as well as obtain a set of consistent parameters applicable to all tested specimens. Comparison of the Global Method and the Local Method, used to obtain partitioned Mode I and Mode II fracture energy values from MMB specimens, were made, with the conclusion that both methods are adequate in the calculation of the total fracture energy though the Local Method should be used to obtain accurate partitioned Mode I and Mode II fracture energy values. Idealization of the bond interface using the cohesive parameters derived can be accurately achieved by the use of both contact interactions and cohesive elements in two-dimensional and three-dimensional FE models, though the results obtained using contact interactions would be expected to exhibit greater global stiffness.

  1. Psychometric Validation of the Chinese Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) with Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of internet infrastructure has fuelled a popular concern that young Asian internet users are experiencing Internet addiction due to excessive Internet use. In order to understand the phenomenon, psychometric validation of a 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), with 417 Chinese adolescents has been performed. Compared to other instruments for use with Chinese populations, e.g. the 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the CIUS is relatively concise, and easy to use for measuring and diagnosing Internet addiction. The present psychometric validation has found good factorial stability with a one-factor solution for the CIUS. The internal consistency and model fit indices were very good, and even better than any previous CIUS validations. The Chinese CIUS is a valid and reliable self-reporting instrument for examining compulsive Internet use among Chinese adolescents. Other findings included: male adolescents tend to experience more compulsive Internet use than their female counterparts, and CIUS scores were positively correlated with the daily Internet use time and negatively correlated with the academic performance of the participants. No significant relationships between the CIUS, ICT accessibility, family economic condition, parental occupation or religion were found.

  2. Pds5 regulators segregate cohesion and condensation pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kevin; Skibbens, Robert V

    2015-06-02

    Cohesins are required both for the tethering together of sister chromatids (termed cohesion) and subsequent condensation into discrete structures-processes fundamental for faithful chromosome segregation into daughter cells. Differentiating between cohesin roles in cohesion and condensation would provide an important advance in studying chromatin metabolism. Pds5 is a cohesin-associated factor that is essential for both cohesion maintenance and condensation. Recent studies revealed that ELG1 deletion suppresses the temperature sensitivity of pds5 mutant cells. However, the mechanisms through which Elg1 may regulate cohesion and condensation remain unknown. Here, we report that ELG1 deletion from pds5-1 mutant cells results in a significant rescue of cohesion, but not condensation, defects. Based on evidence that Elg1 unloads the DNA replication clamp PCNA from DNA, we tested whether PCNA overexpression would similarly rescue pds5-1 mutant cell cohesion defects. The results indeed reveal that elevated levels of PCNA rescue pds5-1 temperature sensitivity and cohesion defects, but do not rescue pds5-1 mutant cell condensation defects. In contrast, RAD61 deletion rescues the condensation defect, but importantly, neither the temperature sensitivity nor cohesion defects exhibited by pds5-1 mutant cells. In combination, these findings reveal that cohesion and condensation are separable pathways and regulated in nonredundant mechanisms. These results are discussed in terms of a new model through which cohesion and condensation are spatially regulated.

  3. Modelling of composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive zone model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of the cement bound base material in composite concrete block pavement systems, using a cohesive zone model. The functionality of the proposed model is tested on experimental and numerical investigations of beam bending tests....... The pavement is modelled as a simple slab on grade structure and parameters influencing the response, such as analysis technique, geometry and material parameters are studied. Moreover, the analysis is extended to a real scale example, modelling the pavement as a three-layered structure. It is found...... block pavements. It is envisaged that the methodology implemented in this study can be extended and thereby contribute to the ongoing development of rational failure criteria that can replace the empirical formulas currently used in pavement engineering....

  4. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Tsuboya, Toru; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-05-15

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  5. Double-jeopardy: The joint impact of neighborhood disadvantage and low social cohesion on cumulative risk of disease among African American men and women in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sharrelle; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Earls, Felton

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined the joint impact of neighborhood disadvantage and low social cohesion on health. Moreover, no study has considered the joint impact of these factors on a cumulative disease risk profile among a large sample of African American adults. Using data from the Jackson Heart Study, we examined the extent to which social cohesion modifies the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and cumulative biological risk (CBR)-a measure of accumulated risk across multiple physiological systems. Our analysis included 4408 African American women and men ages 21-85 residing in the Jackson, MS Metropolitan Area. We measured neighborhood disadvantage using a composite score of socioeconomic indicators from the 2000 US Census and social cohesion was assessed using a 5-item validated scale. Standardized z-scores of biomarkers representing cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neuroendocrine systems were combined to create a CBR score. We used two-level linear regression models with random intercepts adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral covariates in the analysis. A three-way interaction term was included to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and CBR differed by levels of social cohesion and gender. The interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, social cohesion and gender was statistically significant (p = 0.05) such that the association between living in a disadvantaged neighborhood and CBR was strongest for men living in neighborhoods with low levels of social cohesion (B = 0.63, SE: 0.32). In gender-specific models, we found a statistically significant interaction between neighborhood disadvantage and social cohesion for men (p = 0.05) but not for women (p = 0.50). Neighborhoods characterized by high levels of economic disadvantage and low levels of social cohesion contribute to higher cumulative risk of disease among African American men. This suggests that they may face a unique set of challenges

  6. Equity at Scale: How Public Charter School Networks Can Innovate and Improve Services for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul T.; Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2015-01-01

    When public charter schools first opened in the early 1990s, each was unique and independent. But as successful public charter schools continued to grow and expand their impact beyond a single site, and as organizations developed school designs that could be implemented at multiple locations, networks of public charter schools emerged. The public…

  7. An Inclusive Secondary School in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošová Eva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a characterization of an inclusive secondary school in Bratislava and provides information about the forms and methods used in the work of the teachers, school psychologists, special teachers with regard to students with special needs (students with Attention and Hyperactivity Disorder, i.e. ADHD, with learning difficulties, with emotional and behaviour difficulties, etc., who are educated together with mainstream students. It also provides information on the first results of the measurements of the socio-emotional health of the students in the inclusive school, both as to its overall level (covitality index and as to the level of the four psychological dimensions of mental health. The pilot project of the inclusive school confirms that inclusive secondary schools and inclusive education operating within the intentions of positive psychology help the students to develop their cognitive and socio-emotional competences, to create favourable attitudes to diversity, to form the students’ scale of positive values and to encourage positive interpersonal relationships, social cohesion and social classroom climate.

  8. Companionship in the neighborhood context: Older adults’ living arrangements and perceptions of social cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromell, Lea; Cagney, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of neighborhood social cohesion on the perceived companionship of nearly 1,500 community-dwelling older adults from the Neighborhood, Organization, Aging and Health project (NOAH), a Chicago-based study of older adult well-being in the neighborhood context. We hypothesized that the relationship between neighborhood-level social cohesion and individual residents’ reports of companionship would be more pronounced among those who lived alone than those who resided with others. Controlling for age, gender, education, race, marital status, length of neighborhood residence, and self-rated health, neighborhood social cohesion predicted companionship among those who lived alone; for a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion, the odds of reporting companionship increased by half. In contrast, social cohesion did not predict the companionship of those who resided with others. The results suggest that older adults who live alone particularly profit from the benefits of socially cohesive neighborhood environments. PMID:24860203

  9. Longitudinal association between neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood in old age: A Japanese prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Yokoyama, Yuri; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood, little is known about this longitudinal association in old age. This study examined the association between perceived neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood and the stress-buffering effect of perceived neighborhood cohesion on depressive mood among older Japanese people using the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study datasets. We analyzed 655 participants aged 65-84 at baseline. Although perceived neighborhood cohesion at baseline was not associated with depressive mood at follow-up, high neighborhood cohesion partially offset the deleterious effect of anticipated daily stressors on depressive mood. This effect was stronger for long-term residents of the neighborhood. Interventions to strengthen neighborhood cohesion may help reduce the deleterious effect of stressors on older residents' depressive mood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sororin pre-mRNA splicing is required for proper sister chromatid cohesion in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrin, Erwan; Demidova, Maria; Watrin, Tanguy; Hu, Zheng; Prigent, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, which depends on cohesin, is essential for the faithful segregation of replicated chromosomes. Here, we report that splicing complex Prp19 is essential for cohesion in both G2 and mitosis, and consequently for the proper progression of the cell through mitosis. Inactivation of splicing factors SF3a120 and U2AF65 induces similar cohesion defects to Prp19 complex inactivation. Our data indicate that these splicing factors are all required for the accumulation of cohesion factor Sororin, by facilitating the proper splicing of its pre-mRNA. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of Sororin corrects defective cohesion caused by Prp19 complex inactivation. We propose that the Prp19 complex and the splicing machinery contribute to the establishment of cohesion by promoting Sororin accumulation during S phase, and are, therefore, essential to the maintenance of genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. Modeling brittle constrained fracture with cohesive zone models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratschi, Benjamin

    A load-independent parameter quantifying constraint is first defined on the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics. The apparent fracture toughness and constraint is then computed for center cracked, single edge notch tensile, four point bending and double cantilever beam polymethyl methacrylate specimens of various dimensions. The apparent fracture toughness is shown to decrease with increasing constraint. Using cohesive zone models (CZMs) with rate-independent traction-separation laws of various shapes, it is shown that the constraint has no effect on the loads necessary to advance a crack, unless the cohesive zone length is excessively large. For realistic values of cohesive strength and critical opening displacement, the only relevant parameter is the fracture energy. The analysis is refined by employing a rate-dependent CZM that aims at modeling the craze in front of the crack tip. The rate and pressure dependence of craze initiation is accounted for by combining a rate-independent multiaxial with a rate-dependent uniaxial criterion. Craze growth in width is modeled using a linear spring and a nonlinear viscous element in series. Fibril breakdown is assumed to occur by disentanglement of polymer chains. Shear yielding in the bulk is modeled by the Arruda-Boyce model. The model results are found to be unaffected by the stress at which a craze is initiated. No significant plastic deformation is predicted for any of the explored specimens. Differences in the crack tip fibril stress histories among specimens of various constraints are found to be caused by different loading rates, even for cases where significant plastic deformation occurs. It is thus concluded that the crack tip fibril stress history is independent of constraint, unless the crack is grown over a significant distance.

  12. Relationship Among Team Collective Efficacy, Cohesion, and Coaching Competency in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Clayton T.

    2007-01-01

    A team's performance in any sport can be predicted by many factors. Some of these factors include team collective efficacy, team cohesiveness, and coaching competency. Currently, there is little research investigating the relationships among teams' beliefs about their capabilities, their level of cohesion, and their perceptions of coaching competency on overall sport performance. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship among collective efficacy, cohesion, and coaching on sp...

  13. The relationship between coach and peer leadership and team cohesion within elite Swedish floorball players

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to (1) examine the direct relationship between coach transformational leadership and peer transformational leadership on team cohesion within elite Swedish floorball players, (2) examine potential differences between coach leadership behaviours and peer leadership behaviours on team cohesion, and (3) examine gender differences in perceived coach leadership behaviours, peer leadership behaviours and team cohesion.  A cross-sectional design was used and data was collecte...

  14. An examination of the relationship between athlete leadership and cohesion using social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Loughead, Todd M.; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt; Boen, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using Social Network Analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership network and measures of task and social cohesion using the Group Environment Questionnaire. In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social, and external) and their association with task and social cohesion....

  15. The Use of Cohesive Devices in Descriptive Writing by Omani Student-Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhair Abdul Amir Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    This study examines college-level Arabic L1 users’ command of cohesive devices by exploring the extent to which Omani student-teachers of English and native English speakers differ in their use of cohesive devices in descriptive English writing. Halliday and Hasan’s framework of cohesion was used to analyze the essays written by the two groups. A qualitative research methodology was utilized to analyze the writing of t...

  16. Assessment of Psychopathological Problems in the School Context: The Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale--Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida Timoteo; Faisca, Luis Madeira; Valadas, Sandra Teodosio

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form (APS-SF) were studied in a sample of 656 Portuguese adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, assessed in school context. Also, the aim of the study was to gather data concerning age- and gender-related differences in the expression of psychopathological…

  17. Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Preliminary Cut Scores to Support Data-Informed Decision Making in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Cantwell, Emily Dawn; Schatschneider, Christopher; Menzies, Holly; Crittenden, Meredith; Messenger, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-I6) of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991). Participants included 227 sixth- through 12th-grade students from nine schools across…

  18. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

  19. Item response drift in the Family Affluence Scale: A study on three consecutive surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Makransky, Guido; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Comparable data on socio-economic position (SEP) is essential to international studies on health inequalities. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) has used the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) on material assets. The present study used data collected from adolescents in eight countries...

  20. The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR): translation and psychometric properties of the Iranian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamini, Zahra; Mohamadi, Ashraf; Ebadi, Abbas; Fathi- Ashtiani, Ali; Tavousi, Mahmoud; Montazeri, Ali

    2012-07-18

    The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) was designed to assess anxiety in children at school. The SAS-TR is a proxy rated measure and could assess social anxiety, generalized anxiety and also gives a total anxiety score. This study aimed to translate and validate the SAS-TR in Iran. The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of students participated in the study. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and test-retest analysis. Validity was assessed using content validity. The factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In all 200 elementary students aged 6 to 10 years were studied. Considering the recommended cut-off values, overall the prevalence of high anxiety condition in elementary students was found to be 21 %. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Iranian SAS-TR was 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.81. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (generalized and social anxiety) that jointly accounted for 55.3 % of variances observed. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure of the questionnaire. In general the findings suggest that the Iranian version of SAS-TR has satisfactory reliability, and validity for measuring anxiety in 6 to 10 years old children in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in future studies.