WorldWideScience

Sample records for school choice option

  1. Charter Schools: A Viable Public School Choice Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Overviews the charter-school phenomenon and these schools' basic design. Discusses the government's role in education and identifies various school-choice options. Explores overall autonomy via legislative provisions and examines empirical evidence on charter schools' innovative features, teacher and student characteristics, and parental contracts…

  2. School Choice Options Limit Access to Higher Education for Various Groups of Students in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco; Picard, France

    2017-01-01

    The choice of selected school options by pupils in secondary school, particularly mathematics and physical sciences, have implications for future educational pathways in higher education [Felouzis, G. (1997). "L'efficacité des enseignants, Sociologie de la relation pédagogique." Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Moreau, G. (2005).…

  3. Reviving Magnet Schools: Strengthening a Successful Choice Option. A Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Magnet schools make up the largest system of choice in the U.S. They were originally conceived to accomplish the twin goals of innovation and integration. Over the years, however, the integrative mission of magnet programs has somewhat receded, particularly during the second Bush Administration. Meanwhile, political and financial support has…

  4. Many Options in New Orleans Choice System: School Characteristics Vary Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-­Trigatti, Paula; Harris, Douglas N.; Jabbar, Huriya; Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on the differences between charter schools and district schools, treating all charters within a community as essentially alike. In effect, these studies take a "top­-down" approach, assuming that the governance of the school (charter versus district) determines the nature of the school. This approach may be…

  5. School Choice Marches forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted…

  6. Education Savings Accounts: A Promising Way Forward on School Choice. WebMemo. No. 3382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Across the country, states are enacting and expanding school choice options for families. This year alone, 12 states and the District of Columbia have implemented new school choice options for children or expanded existing options, leading The Wall Street Journal to label 2011 "The Year of School Choice." Among the many school choice…

  7. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  8. 77 FR 26827 - Medicaid Program; Community First Choice Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 441 Medicaid Program; Community First Choice Option; Final Rule #0... [CMS-2337-F] RIN 0938-AQ35 Medicaid Program; Community First Choice Option AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... Affordable Care Act, which establishes a new State option to provide home and community-based attendant...

  9. 76 FR 10735 - Medicaid Program; Community First Choice Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 441 Medicaid Program; Community First Choice Option... Part 441 [CMS-2337-P] RIN 0938-AQ35 Medicaid Program; Community First Choice Option AGENCY: Centers for... Section 2401 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) which establishes a new State option to provide home and...

  10. Balancing the Equation. Supply and Demand in Tomorrow's School Choice Marketplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    School choice is an education reform premised on a simple proposition: give families more choices, and they will find schools that best fit their children's needs. In short, school choice aims to create a marketplace of schooling options. School choice programs will succeed or fail based on how well they are able to create this marketplace and how…

  11. School Choice: The Personal and the Political

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuls, James V.

    2018-01-01

    Enrollment in school choice programs is growing, so is overall support for school choice. Many have analyzed what demographic characteristics impact attitudes towards school choice. This article adds to the literature by exploring the interaction between personal decisions regarding school choice and broader support for school choice programs.…

  12. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  13. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Participants were 3 rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants' option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Students score more ( P = 0.000) and took less time ( P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more ( P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs.

  14. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  15. Soy Goes to School: Acceptance of Healthful, Vegetarian Options in Maryland Middle School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Kathleen; Chapman, Nancy; Levine, Elyse

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soyfoods provide healthful options for school breakfasts and lunches that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, fat, and calories and can help meet demands for vegetarian choices. Researchers tested acceptance of soy-based options substituted for popular lunch items with a diverse student population. Methods: Researchers conducted a…

  16. How Do Marginalized Families Engage in School Choice in Inequitable Urban Landscapes? A Critical Geographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The normalization of school choice in the education system is purported to provide more schooling options for all families, particularly those who do not have the means to move into affluent areas with "better" schools. Nonetheless, it is still unclear to what extent the policy of school choice has been effective in achieving the goal of…

  17. The Readability and Complexity of District-Provided School-Choice Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marc L.; Nagro, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public school choice has become a common feature in American school districts. Any potential benefits that could be derived from these policies depend heavily on the ability of parents and students to make informed and educated decisions about their school options. We examined the readability and complexity of school-choice guides across a sample…

  18. School choice & social stratification: how intra-district transfers shift the racial/ethnic and economic composition of schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristie J R; Larsen, Elisabeth S; Hausman, Charles

    2015-05-01

    The liberation model hypothesizes that school choice liberates students from underperforming schools by giving them the opportunity to seek academically superior schooling options outside of their neighborhoods. Subsequently, school choice is hypothesized to diminish stratification in schools. Data from one urban school district is analyzed to test these hypotheses. We specifically examine which factors influence the propensity for parents to participate in choice, and how school choice changes the racial/ethnic and economic composition of schools. We further examine how school choice influences similar changes within distinct sociogeographic areas within the district. We find that families who are zoned to more racially/ethnically and economically diverse schools in sociogeographically diverse areas are more likely to participate in school choice. We also find that intra-district choice is associated with a slight increase in social stratification throughout the district, with more substantial stratification occurring in the most demographically diverse areas and schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  20. Prospect relativity: how choice options influence decision under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick; Stott, Henry P; Reimers, Stian

    2003-03-01

    In many theories of decision under risk (e.g., expected utility theory, rank-dependent utility theory, and prospect theory), the utility of a prospect is independent of other options in the choice set. The experiments presented here show a large effect of the available options, suggesting instead that prospects are valued relative to one another. The judged certainty equivalent for a prospect is strongly influenced by the options available. Similarly, the selection of a preferred prospect is strongly influenced by the prospects available. Alternative theories of decision under risk (e.g., the stochastic difference model, multialternative decision field theory, and range frequency theory), where prospects are valued relative to one another, can provide an account of these context effects.

  1. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  2. Lesher Middle School: Commitment by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Lesher Middle School, a school of choice, as are all of the schools in the Poudre School District in Ft. Collins, Colorado. In 2004, it was a traditional junior high school with a declining enrollment that housed an application-based International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IB MYP) that resulted in tracking…

  3. Choice, Charters, and Public School Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, public schools changed in ways that dramatically reduced the control that parents have over their local schools. Regaining that control is one key to improving the quality of our schools, and giving students a choice of schools is one way of increasing the influence that parents have over the way schools are run. Several…

  4. Security. Review Software for Advanced CHOICE. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Ilse M.; And Others

    CHOICE Security is an Apple computer game activity designed to help secondary migrant students memorize their social security numbers and reinforce job and role information presented in "Career Notes, First Applications." The learner may choose from four time options and whether to have the social security number visible on the screen or…

  5. School Choice and Inequality in Educational Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Farias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available School choice has been growing all over the world. However, despite the strong implications school choice could have on future opportunities, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the school decisions are still not clear. Based on elements from different theories, this paper study factors related with a school- track choice. The study takes advantage of extensive administrative records, national tests, and an ad-hoc survey from Chile, a country with more than 30 years with an educational system based on choice. Results suggest that socioeconomic status, cultural values, the pressure of the environment, parents’ expectations, and self-perception are correlated with the school-track choice. Results suggest that the concept of equality of opportunities in an educational system based on choice should also consider equality in the capacity for taking these decisions

  6. School choice : challenge to Sharpeville public primary school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. This qualitative phenomenological study focuses on school choice as challenge to principals of Sharpeville public primary schools. Different aspects of these choices are explored. School choice is an important component of parental involvement in the education of their children. Parents and learners tend to be open about their right through the support of the Schools Act 84 of 1996. You may not discriminate on the basis of race trough the language policy at your school. This means th...

  7. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  8. Two Philosophical Errors Concerning School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Argues, in contrast to David Hargreaves, that libertarianism implies a mild presumption against school choice, and that notions of common good are significant to educational decision making only when deciding between sets of institutions that perform equally well at delivering their obligations. Links these issues to questions about school choice.…

  9. Comparing Item Performance on Three- Versus Four-Option Multiple Choice Questions in a Veterinary Toxicology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth; Dorman, David

    2018-06-09

    The number of answer options is an important element of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Many MCQs contain four or more options despite the limited literature suggesting that there is little to no benefit beyond three options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate item performance on 3-option versus 4-option MCQs used in a core curriculum course in veterinary toxicology at a large veterinary medical school in the United States. A quasi-experimental, crossover design was used in which students in each class were randomly assigned to take one of two versions (A or B) of two major exams. Both the 3-option and 4-option MCQs resulted in similar psychometric properties. The findings of our study support earlier research in other medical disciplines and settings that likewise concluded there was no significant change in the psychometric properties of three option MCQs when compared to the traditional MCQs with four or more options.

  10. Door Locking Options in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Doors serve a variety of needs and purposes in schools: (1) Exterior doors provide building security and protection from the elements; and (2) Interior doors control the movement of people among school spaces, help control noise and air flow, and act as flame and smoke barriers during a fire. In a lockdown, they serve as safety barriers. From a…

  11. A Case Study of School Choice and Special Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Lisa E.

    2017-01-01

    School choice is deeply rooted in the marketization theories originally presented by Milton Friedman in the 1950s. There are many school choice options available in Arizona. The purpose and primary research question of this case study explored how a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) and other factors influenced the parents' decisions to…

  12. Responsibility and School Choice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following argument for school choice, based on an appeal to the virtues of the market: allowing parents some measure of choice over their particular children's education ultimately serves the interests of all children, because creating a market mechanism in state education will produce improvements through the same pressures that lead…

  13. Who is Afraid of School Choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Diem; Stefan C. Wolter

    2011-01-01

    This study uses survey data to investigate attitudes among Swiss voters to different models offering more freedom of choice in the educational system. The findings indicate clear opposition to the use of taxpayer money to fund private schools, while free choice between public schools seems to appeal to a majority. The analyses show that the approval-opposition heterogeneity is mainly based on an explicable, rational calculation of personal utility. Approval rates are much higher among groups ...

  14. The Role of Nostalgia in School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Examines factors influencing choice of a new school, using data from a large-scale study in Wales. The "domino effect" sometimes covers three generations; decisions made today reflect, but are not identical to, past decisions. Simple reproduction cannot explain this diversity. Consumer nostalgia may lead schools to conservatism and…

  15. Latino Parents' Choice of Magnet School: How School Choice Differs across Racial and Ethnic Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Phillips, Kristie J. R.; Goldring, Ellen B.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, magnet schools have served predominantly Black and Anglo populations. Consequently, little research exists on Latino parent's engagement in school choice and their patterns of participation. Magnet schools are increasingly part of the landscape for improving school achievement for all students. Yet Latino enrollment rates in magnet…

  16. From School Choice to Student Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Paul E.; Montera, Viki L.

    2001-01-01

    Educational mass marketing approaches are like fast-food franchises; they offer homogeneous, standardized products that cannot satisfy every consumer's needs. A niche market looks inside the masses to address more individual, specialized choices missing from the menu. Variability, not uniformity, should guide development of public schooling. (MLH)

  17. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  18. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2005-01-01

    option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...... elicited by the laddering method increase explanatory power with regard to choice option attractiveness beyond the beliefs elicited by the Ajzen and Fishbein method, and that this additional explanatory power was due to those beliefs which relate the choice option to concepts with a higher level...

  19. Whose Choice?: Student Experiences and Outcomes in the New Orleans School Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Frank; Cook-Harvey, Channa; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    As charters and other public and private schools of choice have created a new landscape in many urban areas across the country, some districts have adopted the idea of creating "portfolios" of options. Central to the philosophy of a portfolio district is continuous improvement, as lowest-performing schools are transformed or replaced.…

  20. Choice Options to Meet Household Food Security in the Cattle Corridor of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mbolanyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the major options adopted by households in the rangelands of Uganda to meet their food needs, the factors that affect their choices and barriers to making use of various choices. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered among 180 pastoral households in selected rangeland area of Uganda. The options identified include restocking animals, changing planting dates, soil conservation, harnessing new technologies, planting trees and buying food stuffs. Analysis of results from the multinomial logistic model indicated that age, level of education, size of household, years in current location, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership, access to extension services and climate and weather information were key determinants of farmers’ choice of options to realize household food security. The major perceived barriers to choice options were lack of information on alternative options, poor technologies, climate variability, inadequate land, high food prices and low income. The analysis of choice of options to meet household food security suggests a number of different policy options such as strengthening production facilitation options available to pastoral communities including among others access to affordable credit, investing in yield-increasing technologies, introduction of livestock species that are better suited to drier conditions, raising awareness on climate related variations, creating opportunities for off-farm employment, encouraging pastoralists to grow more crops, and investing in irrigation.

  1. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this

  2. Capacity choice in (strategic) real options models : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, Nick; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter; Lavrutich, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The theory of real options determines the optimal time to invest in a project of given size. As a main result, it is found that in a more uncertain environment, it is optimal for a firm to delay its investment. In other words, uncertainty generates a “value of waiting.” Recently, contributions

  3. Freshwater Choices in China: Options That Will Impact South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    economies in the world. To sustain this economic growth and transform chronic hunger into food self-sufficiency, both China and India have embarked...FRESHWATER CHOICES IN CHINA: OPTIONS THAT WILL IMPACT SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA A Monograph by Mr. Steven M. Nystrom...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Freshwater Choices in China: Options that will Impact South and Southeast Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Participation in Ohio's Interdistrict Open Enrollment Option: An Investigation of the Supply-Side of Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Frances C.

    People inspired by rational-choice theory are advocating choice policies. Their recommendations are based on implicit assumptions about how school leaders would respond to a choice system. This survey research study investigated the demographic characteristics of open and closed districts during Ohio's first year of full interdistrict open…

  5. The Effects of Framing Vocational Choices on Young Adults' Sets of Career Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…

  6. On school choice and test-based accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W. Betebenner

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the two most prominent school reform measures currently being implemented in The United States are school choice and test-based accountability. Until recently, the two policy initiatives remained relatively distinct from one another. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, a mutualism between choice and accountability emerged whereby school choice complements test-based accountability. In the first portion of this study we present a conceptual overview of school choice and test-based accountability and explicate connections between the two that are explicit in reform implementations like NCLB or implicit within the market-based reform literature in which school choice and test-based accountability reside. In the second portion we scrutinize the connections, in particular, between school choice and test-based accountability using a large western school district with a popular choice system in place. Data from three sources are combined to explore the ways in which school choice and test-based accountability draw on each other: state assessment data of children in the district, school choice data for every participating student in the district choice program, and a parental survey of both participants and non-participants of choice asking their attitudes concerning the use of school report cards in the district. Results suggest that choice is of benefit academically to only the lowest achieving students, choice participation is not uniform across different ethnic groups in the district, and parents' primary motivations as reported on a survey for participation in choice are not due to test scores, though this is not consistent with choice preferences among parents in the district. As such, our results generally confirm the hypotheses of choice critics more so than advocates. Keywords: school choice; accountability; student testing.

  7. School Choice and the Branding of Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivitt, Julie R.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    How useful are "corporate brands" in markets? In theory, brands convey reliable information, providing consumers with shortcuts to time-consuming provider searches. We examine the usefulness of a corporate brand when parental school choice is expanded through K-12 tuition scholarships. Specifically, we evaluate whether Catholic schools…

  8. School choice: challenge to Sharpeville public school principals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Every group had its own educational system, adminis- tration and ... School choice enables children from poor families and different race groups to .... ings of the research as authentic experiences, as lived and perceived by informants. ..... another. (One sees beautiful smiles on faces of learners as they speak). We do not ...

  9. Indigenous Parents Navigating School Choice in Constrained Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony-Stevens, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Educational reform policies in the United States promote school choice as a central tool to empower low-income and minoritized families in order to close the achievement gap. However, research on school choice rarely reflects the voice of minoritized families and offers little evidence that choice significantly addresses inequities in educational…

  10. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  11. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  12. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  13. Using School Choice: Analyzing How Parents Access Educational Freedom. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the process parents must go through to participate in each of the nation's school choice programs, identifying problem areas in some programs. For the first time in one place, this report collects data on participation in each of the programs in current and previous years. Data are given for the number of students…

  14. On the choice of schools located outside the walkable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we consider a school choice problem and formulate it into a mathematical model, allowing it to be simplified and solved. The results obtained are useful for the household in making an objective choice of school for the child to be enrolled among several secondary schools located outside his walkable ...

  15. Does the amount of school choice matter for student engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    School choice may increase student engagement by enabling students to attend schools that more closely match their needs and preferences. But this effect on engagement may depend on the characteristics of the choices available. Therefore, we consider how the amount of educational choice of different types in a local educational marketplace affects student engagement using a large, national population of 8th grade students. We find that more choice of regular public schools in the elementary and middle school years is associated with a lower likelihood that students will be severely disengaged in eighth grade, and more choices of public schools of choice has a similar effect but only in urban areas. In contrast, more private sector choice does not have such a general beneficial effect. PMID:23682202

  16. Delay, doubt, and decision: how delaying a choice reduces the appeal of (descriptively) normative options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; Gilovich, Thomas; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2010-04-01

    To help explain a regularity in democratic elections, we examined whether choosing to delay making a choice between a focal option and an alternative tends to make people subsequently less likely to choose what they would otherwise have chosen. The results of two experiments demonstrated that participants who were induced to delay making a decision were indeed less likely to choose the descriptively normative option. An additional experiment that primed a sense of doubt in participants provided support for a self-perception account of this result. Electing to delay making a choice is interpreted as an indication of doubt--doubt that tends to be attributed to the most prominent option. Delay-induced doubt about the normative option makes it less likely to be selected.

  17. Sam Walton's Son Played Major Role in Setting Agenda on School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the school choice movement lost one of its leading champions when John T. Walton, an heir to the Wal-Mart retailing fortune, died in a plane crash at age 58. Advocates of expanded educational options say Mr. Walton, more than anyone else, was the driving force behind the Walton Family Foundation's education work, and its focus on…

  18. Social equality in the number of choice options is represented in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Madoka; Yomogida, Yukihito; Izuma, Keise; Murayama, Kou; Sugiura, Ayaka; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2014-04-30

    A distinct aspect of the sense of fairness in humans is that we care not only about equality in material rewards but also about equality in nonmaterial values. One such value is the opportunity to choose freely among many options, often regarded as a fundamental right to economic freedom. In modern developed societies, equal opportunities in work, living, and lifestyle are enforced by antidiscrimination laws. Despite the widespread endorsement of equal opportunity, no studies have explored how people assign value to it. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural substrates for subjective valuation of equality in choice opportunity. Participants performed a two-person choice task in which the number of choices available was varied across trials independently of choice outcomes. By using this procedure, we manipulated the degree of equality in choice opportunity between players and dissociated it from the value of reward outcomes and their equality. We found that activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) tracked the degree to which the number of options between the two players was equal. In contrast, activation in the ventral striatum tracked the number of options available to participants themselves but not the equality between players. Our results demonstrate that the vmPFC, a key brain region previously implicated in the processing of social values, is also involved in valuation of equality in choice opportunity between individuals. These findings may provide valuable insight into the human ability to value equal opportunity, a characteristic long emphasized in politics, economics, and philosophy.

  19. The Social Geography of Choice: Neighborhoods' Role in Students' Navigation of School Choice Policy in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippo, Kate L.; Griffin, Briellen

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on school choice policy, and on the geography of educational opportunity, by exploring how students understand their school choices and select from them within social-geographical space. Using a conceptual framework that draws from situated social cognition and recent research on neighborhood effects, this study…

  20. Addressing Trauma in Schools: Multitiered Service Delivery Options for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbergs, Erik J.; Fefer, Sarah A.

    2018-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of children are confronted with traumatic experiences each year in the United States. As trauma-informed care begins to take hold in schools, school mental health providers (e.g., school psychologists, counselors, and social workers) desire concrete service-delivery options for students affected by trauma. This article…

  1. Ranking the schools: How school-quality information affects school choice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.W.C.; van der Wiel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether information about the quality of high schools published in a national newspaper affects school choice in the Netherlands. We find that negative (positive) school-quality scores decrease (increase) the number of first-year students who choose a school after the year of

  2. Evaluation of five guidelines for option development in multiple-choice item-writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rafael J; Moreno, Rafael; Martín, Irene; Trigo, M Eva

    2009-05-01

    This paper evaluates certain guidelines for writing multiple-choice test items. The analysis of the responses of 5013 subjects to 630 items from 21 university classroom achievement tests suggests that an option should not differ in terms of heterogeneous content because such error has a slight but harmful effect on item discrimination. This also occurs with the "None of the above" option when it is the correct one. In contrast, results do not show the supposedly negative effects of a different-length option, the use of specific determiners, or the use of the "All of the above" option, which not only decreases difficulty but also improves discrimination when it is the correct option.

  3. The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the…

  4. The effect of including an opt-out option in discrete choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldwijk (Jorien); M.S. Lambooij (Mattijs); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); G.A. De Wit (G. Ardine)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractObjective: to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated tradeoffs. Methods: 781 Dutch Type 2

  5. A Review of the Empirical Research on Private School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalite, Anna J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Parents in the United States have had the legal right to choose the school their child attends for a long time. Traditionally, parental school choice took the form of families moving to a neighborhood with good public schools or self-financing private schooling. Contemporary education policies allow parents in many areas to choose from among…

  6. School Choice Outcomes in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jill M.; Vaughan, Debra Y.

    2013-01-01

    Today, over 80% of public school students in New Orleans attend charter schools, and just 37% of students attend school in their neighborhood (Louisiana Department of Education, 2011; Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives, 2011). This study examines school choice participation and outcomes in New Orleans by analyzing the extent…

  7. The Fiscal Impacts of School Choice in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the fiscal impacts of school choice in New Hampshire. The author uses one example from the 2003 New Hampshire legislative session to illustrate the fiscal impacts of school choice on New Hampshire and its communities. He develops a unique database of individual and household level responses from the 2000 Census of New…

  8. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A…

  9. Having Many Choice Options Seems Like a Great Idea, but...: Student Perceptions about the Level of Choice for a Project Topic in a Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, David S.; Gross, Barbara L.; Sawhney Celly, Kirti

    2014-01-01

    Many educators today emphasize student engagement and self-regulated learning, including giving students choices. However, research suggests that too much choice can have negative consequences such as feelings of stress and regret. An experimental design wherein students were offered different numbers of choice options when previewing, as in a…

  10. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay

    1997-01-01

    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  11. School Choice: Education's Trickle Down Theory for Urban Students Attending Private Schools? Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel, David E.; And Others

    This study investigated possible effects of school choice programs by surveying 200 private schools in large urban areas. The survey instrument requested information on school demography, possible effects of participation in a Choice program, costs, selection of students participating in Choice, and climate and parental involvement. Analysis of…

  12. School Library Automation: Is It an Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, L. Anne

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of school library automation, and suggests that an automated school library is the right of every child and teacher. Examines the role of the teacher librarian in the current environment; advantages of Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); and trends towards greater convergence in information technology applications in the…

  13. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.

    2016-01-01

    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  14. Basolateral amygdala supports the maintenance of value and effortful choice of a preferred option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Evan E; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2017-02-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is known to be involved in appetitive behavior, yet its role in cost-benefit choice of qualitatively different rewards (more/less preferred), beyond magnitude differences (larger/smaller), is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of BLA inactivations on effortful choice behavior. Rats were implanted with cannulae in BLA and trained to stable lever pressing for sucrose pellets on a progressive ratio schedule. Rats were then introduced to a choice: chow was concurrently available while they could work for the preferred sucrose pellets. Rats were infused with either vehicle control (aCSF) or baclofen/muscimol prior to test. BLA inactivations produced a significant decrease in lever presses for sucrose pellets compared to vehicle, and chow consumption was unaffected. Inactivation had no effect on sucrose pellet preference when both options were freely available. Critically, when lab chow was not concurrently available, BLA inactivations had no effect on the number of lever presses for sucrose pellets, indicating that primary motivation in the absence of choice remains intact with BLA offline. After a test under specific satiety for sucrose pellets, BLA inactivation rendered animals less sensitive to devaluation relative to control. The effects of BLA inactivations in our task are not mediated by decreased appetite, an inability to perform the task, a change in food preference, or decrements in primary motivation. Taken together, BLA supports the specific value and effortful choice of a preferred option. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

  16. School Choice May Not Be a Shangri-La

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2017-01-01

    For the past half century, the American public school system has been on the receiving end of a considerable amount of criticism. People of faith have often been at the forefront of expressing that criticism. Attached to their criticism religious people have often called for school choice programs that include faith-based schools as the…

  17. Determinants of Parental Choice in Schooling: The Coquitlam Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Susana

    Parents living in the Coquitlam School District in British Columbia can choose between public and private schools and between English language and French immersion programs in the public schools. This study investigates the choice-making behavior of parents enrolling their children in kindergarten in fall 1977 in terms of socioeconomic factors,…

  18. School Choice in Indianapolis: Effects of Charter, Magnet, Private, and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph

    2018-01-01

    School choice researchers are often limited to comparing one type of choice with another (e.g., charter schools vs. traditional public schools). One area researchers have not examined is the effects of different school types within the same urban region. We fill this gap by analyzing longitudinal data for students (grades 3-8) in Indianapolis,…

  19. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  20. Modeling school choice: A comparison of public, private-independent, private-religious and home-schooled students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive R. Belfield

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private–religious schooling, private–independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legalization across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to investigate the motivation for home-schooling, relative to the other schooling options. Here, we use two recent large-scale datasets to assess the school enrollment decision: the first is the National Household Expenditure Survey (1999, and the second is micro-data on SAT test-takers in 2001. We find that, generally, families with home-schoolers have similar characteristics to those with children at other types of school, but mother’s characteristics – specifically, her employment status – have a strong influence on the decision to home-school. Plausibly, religious belief has an important influence on the schooling decision, not only for Catholic students, but also those of other faiths.

  1. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maggard,. 1976). Kotler ... positioning strategy for a secondary boys' boarding school should seek to match its .... (in this case, the attributes parents consider important in boarding school selection), ..... Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (3rd ed).

  2. School Choice in an English Village: Living, Loyalty and Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In late modernity, the marketisation of public services has become a global policy phenomenon. In the case of schooling, this has resulted in parents discursively positioned as consumers of education making a choice between providers of education. To date the majority of research on parental choice has focused on the urban; this paper is concerned…

  3. Immigrant Charter Schools: A Better Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Third-grader Jaime of Denver, Colorado, was having a hard time concentrating in school. The son of Mexican immigrants, he had learned to speak English perfectly in his dual-language public school, but reading and writing was another story. When her mother knew about Cesar Chavez Academy, a new tuition-free charter school where the majority of…

  4. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with ...

  5. Reducing the number of options on multiple-choice questions: response time, psychometrics and standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Armour, Chris; Park, Yoon Soo; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2014-10-01

    Despite significant evidence supporting the use of three-option multiple-choice questions (MCQs), these are rarely used in written examinations for health professions students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reducing four- and five-option MCQs to three-option MCQs on response times, psychometric characteristics, and absolute standard setting judgements in a pharmacology examination administered to health professions students. We administered two versions of a computerised examination containing 98 MCQs to 38 Year 2 medical students and 39 Year 3 pharmacy students. Four- and five-option MCQs were converted into three-option MCQs to create two versions of the examination. Differences in response time, item difficulty and discrimination, and reliability were evaluated. Medical and pharmacy faculty judges provided three-level Angoff (TLA) ratings for all MCQs for both versions of the examination to allow the assessment of differences in cut scores. Students answered three-option MCQs an average of 5 seconds faster than they answered four- and five-option MCQs (36 seconds versus 41 seconds; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in item difficulty and discrimination, or test reliability. Overall, the cut scores generated for three-option MCQs using the TLA ratings were 8 percentage points higher (p = 0.04). The use of three-option MCQs in a health professions examination resulted in a time saving equivalent to the completion of 16% more MCQs per 1-hour testing period, which may increase content validity and test score reliability, and minimise construct under-representation. The higher cut scores may result in higher failure rates if an absolute standard setting method, such as the TLA method, is used. The results from this study provide a cautious indication to health professions educators that using three-option MCQs does not threaten validity and may strengthen it by allowing additional MCQs to be tested in a fixed amount

  6. Monopoly vs. Markets: The Empirical Evidence on Private Schools & School Choice. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This study presents new findings comparing public and private high schools using top-quality data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS), a long-term research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. The ELS project tracks individual data on thousands of students, allowing researchers to conduct much better analyses than are…

  7. Recruiting "Talent": School Choice and Teacher Hiring in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine school leaders' preferences and practices in an environment of widespread decentralization, privatization, and school choice. In New Orleans, such reforms have been enacted citywide since Hurricane Katrina, making it an ideal site to examine what happens when policy makers lift restrictions for…

  8. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  9. Filipino Parents' School Choice and Loyalty: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; de Castro, Belinda V.; Aquino, Kieshia Albert B.; Buenaventura, Melinda Anne R.; Duque, Anna Celina C.; Enriquez, Mark Lawrence D. R.

    2008-01-01

    This quantitative study aims to ascertain the significant relationship existing between parents' profile, and their school choice and school loyalty. Data were gathered using the researcher's two-part made instrument. Respondents were first asked to fill in a "robotfoto" for purpose of profiling their baseline characteristics and were…

  10. Choice in Schooling: A Case for Tuition Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, David W.

    The educational reform movement produced only incremental improvements in student achievement, prompting a need for greater focus on structural and cultural aspects of school organization. Parental choice is the necessary element for successful school reform in the future. The public educational system that has evolved in America is widely…

  11. "I Wanted to Go Here": Adolescents' Perspectives on School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Sandretto, Susan; Hopkins, Debbie; Wilson, Gordon; Moore, Antoni; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    New Zealand legislation removing school zones radically reshaped school choice, resulting in increased school stratification from parental choice frequently driven by social factors such as ethnic makeup of the school community. This article considers school choice through the eyes of 1,465 adolescents from 12 secondary schools in Dunedin (New…

  12. Economic, energy and greenhouse emissions impacts of some consumer choice, technology and government outlay options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Dey, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports

  13. Reactor choice - the merits of Sizewell follow-up and longer-term options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1994-01-01

    During 1994 Sizewell B will be completed, a contractor will be selected for the Lungmen Project in Taiwan and the Nuclear Review will hopefully clear the way for continuing PWR construction in the UK. Once the Government has sanctioned the next nuclear station, the choice of plant will fall to Nuclear Electric. Consideration of the available options demonstrates clearly that for the short and medium term only Sizewell C, a twin replica of Sizewell B, provides the low-risk option essential to attracting private finance. The UK has built up the design, manufacturing and construction capability necessary to build the Sizewell C design, both in the UK and overseas. However, there is only a limited window of opportunity to exploit these capabilities since they will decay unless sustained by continuing orders. (author)

  14. The influence of school choice policy on active school commuting: a case study of a middle-sized school district in Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Yizhao Yang; Steve Abbott; Marc Schlossberg

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy has implications for school travel as it allows students to attend schools farther from their residence than their neighborhood schools. This paper uses a case study from Oregon to investigate how school choice affects parents’ school travel decision making and the degree to which school choice affects children’s walking or biking to school. The research shows that school choice is associated with lengthened school travel distance and parents’ greater willingness to drive...

  15. The formation of science choices in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, Anna

    2005-04-01

    In this paper I examine the formation of post-16 choices over 3 years among higher achieving students with respect to enrolment in post-compulsory science courses. Transcripts from four interviews carried out over 3 years with 72 secondary school students were qualitatively analysed. Students were found to shape their choices for science in a variety of ways across time. The situation regarding science choices hinges on far more dynamic considerations than the stereotypical image of the potential advanced science student, committed to becoming a scientist from an early age. There is an interplay of self-perception with respect to science, occupational images of working scientists, relationship with significant adults and perceptions of school science The findings are informative for science educators and for career guidance professionals who may need to take into account the complexity of young people's choices.

  16. Antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Falbo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the parent decision-making model of Schneider, Teske, & Marschall (2000 was examined to determine if aspects of this model were useful in understanding the school choices made at the beginning of the school year and the parents' motivation to move to another school at the end. The results provide some support for the view that residential choice is related to enhanced achievement and satisfaction; while, within-district transfers were used more by better educated White parents who did not qualify as low income. Parents' motivation to move their children to another school was greater when they perceived the school as less receptive to their involvement and their children as less successful in school.

  17. School Quality, Exam Performance and Career Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; Rajah, N.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school quality on performance in national exams and the career decision at age 16. We use micro data for the UK, which provides a rich set of variables on parental background, previous achievements, and community variables. We find that,

  18. Stepping Up: How Are American Cities Delivering on the Promise of Public School Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine; Heyward, Georgia; Gross, Betheny

    2017-01-01

    In America today, families in almost every urban community have some kind of public school choice. This report focuses on "public school choice," under which families are able to choose from both an array of traditional public schools and public charter schools. Public school choice has grown rapidly in the past 20 years; new charter…

  19. Spiral of Decline or "Beacon of Hope": Stories of School Choice in a Dual Language School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Colomer, Soria E.

    2015-01-01

    Public schools in some areas of the U.S. are as segregated as they were prior to court-ordered busing, in part due to school choice policies that appear to exacerbate extant segregation. In particular, Latina/o students are increasingly isolated in schools characterized as being in cycles of decline. Our case study of one such school is based on a…

  20. High Pressure Reform: Examining Urban Schools' Response to Multiple School Choice Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Carkhum, Rian; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades, policymakers have sought to address the problem of school failure by exposing traditional public schools to competitive market forces. In this analysis, we examine how two traditional public schools in a "high pressure/high choice" urban school cluster in Texas responded to a number of overlapping choice…

  1. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  2. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  3. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  4. The Influence of School on the Choice of Language Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research seeks to examine the role that context or learning situation plays in strategy choice by comparing the strategy patterns of a private English medium secondary and a government secondary school in Botswana. More specifically, the main objectives of this study are to, firstly, investigate whether the 'type of ...

  5. Pupils in Upper Secondary School Sports: Choices Based on What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Magnus; Lund, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In the fields of both education and sport, the possession of capital and habitus influences an individual's lifestyles and choices, which in turn affects the social selection within these fields. In this article, we will study the Swedish system of school sports as an overlap between the fields of education and sport, and thus viewed as a double…

  6. Nutrition Knowledge and Food Choices of Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Jay; Jones, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of a 3-week school-based nutrition education program on nutrition knowledge and healthy food choices of fifth graders randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Found that the experimental group exhibited a significant increase in nutrition knowledge from pretest to posttest and significant change in compliance in…

  7. Does School Choice Increase the Rate of Youth Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Russell S.; King, Kerry A.

    2008-01-01

    Because entrepreneurial activity is a key source of economic growth, promoting youth entrepreneurship has become a priority for policymakers. School choice programs force administrators and teachers to be more entrepreneurial in their jobs by encouraging innovation and by creating competition and a more business-like environment in K-12 education.…

  8. Parental perceptions: a case study of school choice amidst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article stems from a case study of parental school choice which was nested within a longitudinal .... which solidly advocates maintenance if not also development of home languages in .... urban region in South Africa where the language of instruction has become English. ..... Am Main: Multilingualism Network. Heugh K ...

  9. Diversity and Choice in School Education: A Modified Libertarian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Argues from a modified libertarian position that diversity and choice in school education are desirable unless some convincing argument and evidence can be shown that the costs greatly outweigh the benefits and any costs incurred cannot be reduced or overcome by limited state intervention. (MJP)

  10. Effects of Post-School Options Instruction on Knowledge of Options and Ability to Orally Present Post-School Goals for High School Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effects of teaching presentation skills and post-school options to three high school students with developmental disabilities. While previous research has indicated students with learning disabilities can learn both academic and life skills within the same activity (Collins, Hager, & Galloway, 2011; Falkenstine, Collins,…

  11. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.

  13. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589

  14. "It's Our Best Choice Right Now": Exploring How Charter School Parents Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying premises of the charter school movement is that quality drives consumer choice. As educational consumers, parents are viewed as rational actors who, if given the choice, will select better performing school. In examining the choice processes of charter school parents, however, this study calls into question the extent to…

  15. Towards Sustainable Clothing Disposition: Exploring the Consumer Choice to Use Trash as a Disposal Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Norum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The textile and apparel supply chain plays an integral role in providing consumers with a continuous supply of apparel that must ultimately be discarded. Viewing the consumer as a player in the process between the supply chain and the post-consumer textile waste stream, this study was designed to explore the consumer apparel disposition process with an eye towards understanding how both supply chain members and post-consumer waste entities can interact with consumers to reduce the amount of apparel discarded in landfills. Hanson’s Consumer Product Disposition Process framework was used to help guide the research. Using a qualitative research approach, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-four female consumers in the United States to address three main research questions. The findings revealed several themes: use of both “compensatory” and “non-compensatory” choice heuristics in decision making; a “usable life” and the “personal nature” of garments as barriers to non-trash disposal options; and the need to “create awareness” and “provide assurance” to encourage alternative disposal modes. Implications for apparel producers and retailers, secondhand stores and textile recyclers are discussed.

  16. DETERMINANTS OF CHOICE OF CROP VARIETY AS CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION OPTION IN ARID REGIONS OF ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Zivanomoyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of climate change in developing countries remain poorly understood because few studies have successfully analyses the overall impact of climate on developing country economies. Agricultural growth is widely viewed as an effective and most important way to reduce poverty in developing countries which are hardly hit by the adverse effects of climate change (Datt and Ravallion, 1996. Despite this knowledge the main challenge is how to increase agricultural productivity to improve household welfare and increase food security in these changing and challenging climatic conditions. This study used the multinomial logit model to analyse the determinants of farmers' choice of crop variety in the face of climate change. The estimation of the multinomial logit was done by using the sorghum variety options as dependent variable and where farmers grow other crop different from sorghum as the reference state. Results show that the key determinants of choosing crop variety are; the price of existing crop variety, level of education of farmers, the size of the farms, government policies and incentives and credit availability.

  17. Affect of school related factors in the student's choices of the high school

    OpenAIRE

    Gönül Cengiz; Osman Titrek; Özcan Erkan Akgün

    2007-01-01

    It is studied that to determine the school related factors which affects the students’ choices of the high school, according to the type of the schools. This is a survey study. The participants are 523  9 th grade students in 21 secondary schools in Adapazarı. SPSS is used for analyzing data. Kay-Kare Test is used to determine the demografic differences due to the type of the school. To analyze the data for the school related factors, Kruskal Wallis is used. As a result, it is expr...

  18. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice criteria of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Vigar-Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with boarding schools throughout the country and beyond. Customers base their choices ofproducts and services on their perceptions of various offerings available, evaluated according to selection criteria they deem to be important. Marketing theory uses the term "positioning" to describe the process ofconstructing the place that a product occupies in the customer's mind relative to competing products. For schools in this sector to position themselves appropriately, they first need to determine the criteria parents use to evaluate one school against another. This study set out to determine these criteria. A sample of 169 parents and old boys, chosen using the database of a particular boys' boarding school in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, were sent questionnaires. Quantitative analysis was conducted to determine the most important criteria. The top two criteria were found to be a safe environment and competent staff.

  19. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  20. The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I chronicle the recent history of efforts to broaden school choice in the Commonwealth of Australia and the opposition to these efforts put forth by Australia's largest teacher union, the Australian Education Union (AEU). Evidence is presented on the positive effects that flow from the public funding of nongovernment schools and…

  1. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiological diagnosis in lung disease: factoring treatment options into the choice of diagnostic modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielpütz, Mark O; Heußel, Claus P; Herth, Felix J F; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-03-14

    Chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) each have characteristic advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered in clinical decision-making. This point is discussed in reference to the main types of lung disease that are encountered in practice. A selective literature search was performed in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Existing clinical guidelines on the main types of lung disease and studies concerning radiological diagnosis were also con - sidered in this review. There have been no more than a few large-scale, controlled comparative trials of different radiological techniques. Chest X-ray provides general orientation as an initial diagnostic study and is especially useful in the diagnosis of pneumonia, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multi-detector CT affords nearly isotropic spatial resolution at a radiation dose of only 0.2-5 mSv, much lower than before. Its main indications, according to current guidelines, are tumors, acute pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, advanced COPD, and pneumonia in a high-risk patient. MRI is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchial carcinoma. The positive predictive value (PPV) of a chest X-ray in outpatients with pneumonia is only 27% (gold standard, CT); in contrast, an initial, non-randomized trial of MRI in nosocomial pneumonia revealed a PPV of 95%. For the staging of mediastinal lymph nodes in bronchial carcinoma, MRI has a PPV of 88% and positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) has a PPV of 79%, while CT alone has a PPV of 41% (gold standard, histology). The choice of radiologicalal technique for the detection, staging, follow-up, and quantification of lung disease should be based on the individual clinical options, so that appropriate treatment can be provided without excessive use of diagnostic testing.

  3. How School Choice Programs Can Save Money. WebMemo #727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    Educational choice can improve educational achievement and states' bottom lines. Not only do choice programs help students from lower-income families attend schools that they otherwise might not be able to attend, but they can also save money in the process. A record number of state legislatures have considered school choice legislation this year,…

  4. Interest, Not Preference: Dewey and Reframing the Conceptual Vocabulary of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2016-01-01

    School choice positions parents as consumers who select schools that maximize their preferences. This account has been shaped by rational choice theory. In this essay, Terri Wilson contrasts a rational choice framework of "preferences" with John Dewey's understanding of "interest." To illustrate this contrast, she draws on an…

  5. Going Through Medical School and Considering the Choice of Family Medicine: Prescription or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauksch, Hans O.; And Others

    A study of the choice of specialty by medical students suggests that Family Medicine depends on students whose choice predates medical school; the number of those interested diminishes significantly over the four years. Interviews suggest several characteristics of the medical school that mitigate against the choice of family medicine and steer…

  6. Utility-free heuristic models of two-option choice can mimic predictions of utility-stage models under many conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Piantadosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economists often model choices as if decision-makers assign each option a scalar value variable, known as utility, and then select the option with the highest utility. It remains unclear whether as-if utility models describe real mental and neural steps in choice. Although choices alone cannot prove the existence of a utility stage in choice, utility transformations are often taken to provide the most parsimonious or psychologically plausible explanation for choice data. Here, we show that it is possible to mathematically transform a large set of common utility-stage two-option choice models (specifically ones in which dimensions are linearly separable into a psychologically plausible heuristic model (specifically, a dimensional prioritization heuristic that has no utility computation stage. We then show that under a range of plausible assumptions, both classes of model predict similar neural responses. These results highlight the difficulties in using neuroeconomic data to infer the existence of a value stage in choice.

  7. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  8. New Options, Old Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, John

    1996-01-01

    Will greater school choice result in more responsive, higher quality schools and happier parents? Or will proliferating options further sort students and families by race, social class, and special interest? Increasingly, education is viewed as a private good. If parents become autonomous, self-interested consumers, erosion of common purposes and…

  9. School Choice: Private School Choice Programs Are Growing and Can Complicate Providing Certain Federally Funded Services to Eligible Students. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-16-712

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Voucher and education savings account (ESA) programs fund students' private school education expenses, such as tuition. In school year 2014-15, 22 such school choice programs were operating nationwide, all but one of which was state funded. Under two federal grant programs, one for students with disabilities and one for students from disadvantaged…

  10. School Quality and Social Stratification: The Determinants and Consequences of Parental School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven M.

    Those who favor expansion of consumer choice in education claim that competition would force schools to improve. Critics claim that it would sort students by race and class. A competitive market will provide what consumers demand, yet neither side has empirical evidence on such consumer preferences to back up their claims. This paper offers such…

  11. Determinants of School Choice: Understanding How Parents Choose Elementary Schools in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Rational choice theory suggests that parents are utility maximizers who make decisions from clear value preferences, that they are able to demand effective action from local schools and teachers, and that they can be relied upon to pursue the best interests of their children. This paper presents a different perspective and argues that parents…

  12. Utility-free heuristic models of two-option choice can mimic predictions of utility-stage models under many conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Economists often model choices as if decision-makers assign each option a scalar value variable, known as utility, and then select the option with the highest utility. It remains unclear whether as-if utility models describe real mental and neural steps in choice. Although choices alone cannot prove the existence of a utility stage, utility transformations are often taken to provide the most parsimonious or psychologically plausible explanation for choice data. Here, we show that it is possible to mathematically transform a large set of common utility-stage two-option choice models (specifically ones in which dimensions are can be decomposed into additive functions) into a heuristic model (specifically, a dimensional prioritization heuristic) that has no utility computation stage. We then show that under a range of plausible assumptions, both classes of model predict similar neural responses. These results highlight the difficulties in using neuroeconomic data to infer the existence of a value stage in choice. PMID:25914613

  13. Motivations influencing the specialty choices of medical school graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zarghami M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing national concern about distortions in the size, specially composition, and availability of the physician workforce -especially after "cultural revolution n- has evoked challenges in Iran. Purpose: To determine various factors that influence medical graduates choices for residency program. Methods: All applicants for residency program in Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences and Health Services completed the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire, and rated each factor using 0 to 4 Likert-type scale. Factors' ratings were also compared across applicants of different residency program, and demographic variables. Results: The top two factors rated as having strong influences were ones related to interest in helping peop1e (rated 3.07, and intellectual content of the specially (rated 3. Malpractice insurance cost has the least influence (rated 0.98. Most of men preferred independence, whereas most of women preferred predictable working hours. Opportunity to make differences in people's l(fe influenced the specially choices of usual participants. whereas those who used war veterans quota paid more attention to independence and exercise of social responsibility. Patient contact factors were less important to graduates who chose diagnostic speciafties. Also, there was a significant association between the participants' age and four factors. Conclusion: These graduates based their specially preference heavily on the opportunity that the specially affords to help people, and intellectual content of the specially. Knowing the hierarchy of influences on graduates' motivations should help education strategists determine what experiences and perceptions must change if a different mix of specially decision is to result. Keywords: SPECIAL TY, MEDICAL SCHOOL, SARI, MAZANDARAN

  14. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  15. Middle School Administrators’ Beliefs and Choices about Using Corporal Punishment and Exclusionary Discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students’ punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators’ choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents,

  16. K-12 Schools: The Effect of Public School Choices on Marine Families’ Co-Location Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE K-12 SCHOOLS: THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC SCHOOL CHOICES ON MARINE FAMILIES’ CO...be educated ? One theory regarding decision-making in general is the rational choice theory . This approach to explaining the process of making...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. K-12 SCHOOLS

  17. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  18. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.

  19. SNA Releases Back to School Nutrition Trends Report: Results Show What Schools Are Doing to Increase Healthy Options for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about the School Nutrition Association's 2008 Back to School Nutrition Trends Report that was released on August 19. According to the report, the trend towards more healthful school meal choices continues this fall with district nutrition programs emphasizing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables while cutting back on trans fats,…

  20. Apples to Apples: Common School Performance Frameworks as a Tool for Choice and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsko, Sarah; Opalka, Alice; Sutter, Jessica; Weeldreyer, Laura; Stewart, David

    2016-01-01

    Many districts are expanding and diversifying the school options available to parents--a trend that shows no signs of reversing. While all public schools are required to test and publically report results, it remains nearly impossible for families and education and civic leaders to make school-to-school comparisons, especially across district-run…

  1. Can Public Transportation Improve Students' Access to Denver's Best Schools of Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bethany; Denice, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Transportation remains a vexing concern in cities that offer students school choice. Time and again, research has shown that families typically want high-performing schools or schools with unique academic programs. But those schools tend to be concentrated in a city's affluent neighborhoods, often long distances from low-income households and…

  2. Choice and Diversity of Schooling Provision: Does the Emperor Have Any Clothes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Politicians have been fascinated with choice and diversity in schooling provision for more than a decade now and this intense interest shows no sign of abating. In this article, the author suggests that the precise connection between choice and diversity in schooling provision is very little understood, and that the relationship between them…

  3. An Empirical Evaluation of the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; D'Andrea, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship program, one of the nation's largest school choice programs. It is the first ever completed empirical evaluation of a tax-credit scholarship program, a type of program that creates school choice through the tax code. Earlier reports, including a recent one on the Florida program, have not…

  4. School Choice and the Pressure To Perform: Deja Vu for Children with Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.; Welner, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the tension between the principles underlying the inclusion of students with disabilities and those underlying school choice, particularly market competition and parental autonomy. It examines findings from five states and a case study of a school-choice system that indicate the exclusion of students with disabilities.…

  5. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Missouri. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    As a large body of high-quality research has emerged in the past few years showing that school choice benefits the students who use it, much of the debate has shifted to the "public" or "social" effects of school choice. This study examines how school choice in Missouri would raise high school graduation rates, and measures the…

  6. To Show or Not to Show: The Effects of Item Stems and Answer Options on Performance on a Multiple-Choice Listening Comprehension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Kozo; Green, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether the choice between three multiple-choice listening comprehension test formats results in any difference in listening comprehension test performance. The three formats entail (a) allowing test takers to preview both the question stem and answer options prior to listening; (b) allowing test takers to…

  7. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The

  8. A Case Study of Technology Choices by High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens-Hartman, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine student technology choices when given the freedom to choose technology devices to complete a project-based learning activity in a content area of study. The study also analyzed factors affecting technology choice as well as how technology proficiency scores aligned to technology choices. Patterns and…

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of different waste management approaches of pupils in Romania. Examining school students' knowledge about waste management options and finding out the reasons that prevent them from participating in environmentally sound disposal options is essential for teachers and legislators. For this purpose, questionnaires were designed and distributed in two schools in Romania. The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in...

  10. Consumer choice among Mutual Healthcare Purchasers: a feasible option for China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2013-11-01

    In its 2009 blue print of healthcare reform, the Chinese government aimed to create a competitive health insurance market in order to increase efficiency in the health insurance sector. A major advantage of a competitive health insurance market is that insurers are stimulated to act as well-motivated prudent purchasers of healthcare on behalf of their enrolees, and that consumers can choose among these purchasers. To emphasize the insurers' role of purchasers of care we denote them, as well as other entities that can fulfil this role (e.g. fundholding community health centres), as 'Mutual Healthcare Purchasers' (MHPs). As feasible proposals for creating competition in China's health insurance sector have yet to be made, we suggest two potential approaches to create competition among MHPs: (1) separating finance and operation of social health insurance and allowing consumer choice among operators of social health insurance schemes; (2) allowing consumer choice among fund-holding community health centres. Although the benefits of competition are widely accepted in China, the problematic consequences of a free competitive health insurance market - especially in relation to affordability and accessibility - are generally neglected. To solve the problems of lack of affordability and inaccessibility that would occur in the case of unregulated competition among MHPs, at least the following regulations are proposed to the Chinese policy makers: a 'standard benefit package' for basic health insurance, a 'risk-equalization scheme', and 'open enrolment'. Potential obstacles for implementing a risk equalization scheme are examined based on theoretical arguments and international experiences. We conclude that allowing consumer choice among MHPs and implementing a risk equalization scheme in China is politically and technically complex. Therefore, the Chinese government should prepare carefully for a market-oriented reform in its healthcare sector and adopt a strategic approach

  11. Students? approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students? characteristics and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students? medical school choice and their relationship with students? characteristics and motivation during the students? medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and sta...

  12. Parental Choice of School, Class Strategies, and Educational Inequality: An Essay Review of "School Choice in China--A Different Tale?" (X. Wu, New York, NY: Routledge, 2014, 168 pp. ISBN 978-0-415-81769-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasingly global nature of marketized school choice policies, this makes it even more crucial to investigate how the multiple scales, forms, and emphases of school choice in different countries are influenced by particular political, economic, and cultural conditions. While much of the critical research on school choice policies has…

  13. Ketogenic Diet: An Early Option for Epilepsy Treatment, Instead of A Last Choice Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Shyong Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD was usually tried as a last resort in the treatment of intractable epilepsy after failure of many antiepileptics and even epilepsy surgery. Glucose transporter-1 deficiency and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency must be treated with KD as the first choice because of inborn errors of glucose metabolism. Infantile spasms, tuberous sclerosis complex, Rett syndrome, Doose syndrome, Dravet syndrome, etc., appear to respond to KD, and it has been suggested by the international consensus statement to use KD early. We believe that all patients with epilepsy, except those with contraindicated situations such as pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, porphyria, β-oxidation defects, primary carnitine deficiency, etc., may try KD before trying other regimens.

  14. The Geography of School Choice in a City with Growing Inequality: The Case of Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin

    2018-01-01

    This analysis aims to measure the impact of school choice policy on secondary school students' enrolment patterns within the social geography of Vancouver, an increasingly polarized global city. The rationale for the study is to examine the impact of "education market" reforms on the socio-economic composition of schools in a Canadian…

  15. The New Orleans OneApp: Centralized Enrollment Matches Students and Schools of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.; Valant, Jon; Gross, Betheny

    2015-01-01

    In most of the U.S., the process for assigning children to public schools is straightforward: take a student's home address, determine which school serves that address, and assign the student accordingly. However, states and cities are increasingly providing families with school choices. A key question facing policymakers is exactly how to place…

  16. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  17. Struggles for Educational Equity in Prince Edward County, VA: Resistance, Southern Manifesto Ideologies, and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillerson-Brown, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In light of contemporary school choice proposals and the 60th anniversary of the Southern Manifesto, the Prince Edward County, Virginia public schools crisis provides interesting historical discussion. Prince Edward County (PEC), a rural community in central Virginia, was one of five school districts represented in the 1954 "Brown v. Board of…

  18. School Choice, Gentrification, and the Variable Significance of Racial Stratification in Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Francis A., III; Swain, Walker A.

    2017-01-01

    Racial and socioeconomic stratification have long governed patterns of residential sorting in the American metropolis. However, recent expansions of school choice policies that allow parents to select schools outside their neighborhood raise questions as to whether this weakening of the neighborhood-school connection might influence the…

  19. Determinants of Tracking Intentions, and Actual Education Choices among Junior High School Students in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingquan; Loyalka, Prashant; Wei, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes rural middle school students' tracking intentions (academic high school, vocational high school, or going to work), actual education choices, and the factors affecting them, using a random sampled baseline survey and follow-up survey of 2,216 second-year students residing outside of county seats in forty-one impoverished…

  20. The Tax-Credit Scholarship Audit: Do Publicly Funded Private School Choice Programs Save Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    This report follows up on previous work that examined the fiscal effects of private school voucher programs. It estimates the total fiscal effects of tax-credit scholarship programs--another type of private school choice program--on state governments, state and local taxpayers, and school districts combined. Based on a range of assumptions, these…

  1. The Economics of School Choice. A National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxby, Caroline M., Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of a series of conferences held by the National Bureau of Economic Research on school finance, public economics, and school choice. After an introduction by Carolyn M. Hoxby, the papers are: (1) "Does Public School Competition Affect Teacher Quality?" (Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin); (2) "Can School…

  2. Effects of Choice Architecture and Chef-Enhanced Meals on the Selection and Consumption of Healthier School Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott A.; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    % CI, 1.46–2.50), and chef plus smart café schools (OR, 7.38, 95% CI, 5.26–10.35) compared with the control schools, and consumption also increased in the chef (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.09–0.22 cups/d) and chef plus smart café (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05–0.19 cups/d) schools; however, the smart café intervention alone had no effect on consumption. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Schools should consider both collaborating with chefs and using choice architecture to increase fruit and vegetable selection. Efforts to improve the taste of school foods through chef-enhanced meals should remain a priority because this was the only method that also increased consumption. This was observed only after students were repeatedly exposed to the new foods for 7 months. Therefore, schools should not abandon healthier options if they are initially met with resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02309840 PMID:25798990

  3. Choice, Stability and Excellence: Parent and Professional Choice in Buffalo's Magnet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    1986-01-01

    Reports on teacher, principal, parent, and student reactions to a desegregation plan implemented in Buffalo, New York, which permits teachers to choose the magnet schools in which they desire to teach and parents to select their children's schools. (GC)

  4. Do School Boards Still Have Options? The Erosion of Management Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Myron

    1997-01-01

    School boards are woefully unprepared to deal with "make or buy" issues, due to massive union efforts to eliminate or restrict board freedom to contract for services. Teachers neither understand nor support a market economy. School boards' contracting out ability will not be secure until favorable legislative options are considered and…

  5. White Flight from School Desegregation: Magnitude, Sources, and Policy Options. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Christine H.; Hawley, Willis D.

    Discussed in this report are the extent and causes of white flight from school desegregation and policy options for controlling it. After an introductory section, the report considers the extent of white flight from desegregating schools, taking into account the effects of suburbanization, interregional migration, and differentials in…

  6. Avoiding the "Inexorable Push toward Homogenization" in School Choice: Education Savings Accounts as Hedges against Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that rational choice dynamics will lead to diversity of school supply is at the heart of K-12 school choice arrangements. Yet as the field of school choice becomes more established, there will be the "inexorable push toward homogenization." If vouchers, tuition tax credit scholarships, and education savings accounts become…

  7. Boys' Boarding School Management: Understanding the Choice Criteria of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with boarding schools throughout the…

  8. Patient and Oncology Nurse Preferences for the Treatment Options in Advanced Melanoma: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Witt, Edward A; Ebbinghaus, Scot; DiBonaventura Beyer, Grace; Basurto, Enrique; Joseph, Richard W

    2017-10-25

    Understanding the perceptions of patients and oncology nurses about the relative importance of benefits and risks associated with newer treatments of advanced melanoma can help to inform clinical decision-making. The aims of this study were to quantify and compare the views of patients and oncology nurses regarding the importance of attributes of treatments of advanced melanoma. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in US-based oncology nurses and patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma. Patients and nurses were enlisted through online panels. In a series of scenarios, respondents had to choose between 2 hypothetical treatments, each with 7 attributes: mode of administration (MoA), dosing schedule (DS), median duration of therapy (DoT), objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs). Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models were used to estimate preference weights. A total of 200 patients with advanced melanoma and 150 oncology nurses participated. The relative importance estimates of attributes by patients and nurses, respectively, were as follows: OS, 33% and 28%; AEs, 29% and 26%; ORR, 25% and 27%; PFS, 12% and 15%; DS, 2% and 3%; DoT, 0% and 0%; and MoA, 0% and 0%. Both patients and oncology nurses valued OS, ORR, and AEs as the most important treatment attributes for advanced melanoma, followed by PFS, whereas DS, DoT, and MoA were given less value in their treatment decisions. Oncology nurses and patients have similar views on important treatment considerations for advanced melanoma, which can help build trust in shared decision-making.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  9. Citizens and/or Consumers: Mutations in the Construction of Concepts and Practices of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on school choice highlights the tendency among some White, middle-class parents to engage with discourses of community responsibility and ethnic diversity as part of their responsibility and duty as choosers and who therefore exercise choice in ways that undercut the individualistic and self-interested character framing…

  10. The Impact of Middle-School Students' Feedback Choices and Performance on Their Feedback Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Maria; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel examination of the impact of students' feedback choices and performance on their feedback memory. An empirical study was designed to collect the choices to seek critical feedback from a hundred and six Grade 8 middle-school students via Posterlet, a digital assessment game in which students design posters. Upon…

  11. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  12. School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of eleventh grade students in South Korea, we investigated how the residentially based school assignment policy called the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP) shaped the separation of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) students between schools. We found that there was a smaller between-school…

  13. Making Good Choices: Districts Take the Lead. Comprehensive School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…

  14. Influences on choice of surgery as a career: a study of consecutive cohorts in a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Dejano T

    2006-06-01

    To examine the differential impact of person-based and programme-related features on graduates' dichotomous choice between surgical or non-surgical field specialties for first-year residency. A 10-year cohort study was conducted, following 578 students (55.4% male) who graduated from a university medical school during 1994-2003. Data were collected as follows: at the beginning of medical studies, on career preference and learning frame; during medical studies, on academic achievement, cross-year peer tutoring and selective clinical traineeship, and at graduation, on the first-year residency selected. Contingency and logistic regression analyses were performed, with graduates grouped by the dichotomous choice of surgery or not. Overall, 23% of graduates selected a first-year residency in surgery. Seven time-steady features related to this choice: male sex, high self-confidence, option of surgery at admission, active learning style, preference for surgery after Year 1, peer tutoring on clinical surgery, and selective training in clinical surgery. Logistic regression analysis, including all features, predicted 87.1% of the graduates' choices. Male sex, updated preference, peer tutoring and selective training were the most significant predictors in the pathway to choice. The relative roles of person-based and programme-related factors in the choice process are discussed. The findings suggest that for most students the choice of surgery derives from a temporal summation of influences that encompass entry and post-entry factors blended in variable patterns. It is likely that sex-unbiased peer tutoring and selective training supported the students' search process for personal compatibility with specialty-related domains of content and process.

  15. Evaluation of Federated Searching Options for the School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    Three hosted federated search tools, Follett One Search, Gale PowerSearch Plus, and WebFeat Express, were configured and implemented in a school library. Databases from five vendors and the OPAC were systematically searched. Federated search results were compared with each other and to the results of the same searches in the database's native…

  16. Preventing School Employee Sexual Misconduct: An Outcome Survey Analysis of Making Right Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Glenn; Grant, Billie-Jo; Mueller, Jessica; Sonnich, Steve

    2018-05-30

    This treatment-only study examines the impact of Making Right Choices, an online course prevention program designed to promote the knowledge, awareness, and prevention of school employee sexual misconduct. The sample included 13,007 school employee participants who took the Making Right Choices course between May 6, 2011, and March 12, 2017, in California and New York. The 20-item measure, Preventing Misconduct Assessment, was administered to participants at the end of the online course; completion of the measure was voluntary. Descriptive statistics revealed that a large majority of participants reported increasing their knowledge and awareness of school employee sexual misconduct because of their participation in the Making Right Choices online course. This study yields important findings regarding the impact of a sexual misconduct prevention program and, specifically, the difference it may make for non-licensed school employees. These findings indicate that school employees are accepting of sexual misconduct training programs and rate them as having value.

  17. Strength Through Options: Providing Choices for Undergraduate Education in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, T.; Freeman, K. H.; Faculty, D.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate major enrollments in the Department of Geosciences at Penn State have held steady over the past 5 years despite generally declining national trends. We have successfully recruited and retained new students through intensive advising coupled with innovative curricular revision aimed to meet an array of students' educational and career goals. Our focus is on degree programs that reflect emerging interdisciplinary trends in both employment and student interest, and are designed to attract individuals from underrepresented groups. In addition to a traditional Geosciences BS program we offer a rigorous integrated Earth Sciences BS and a Geosciences BA tailored to students with interests in education and environmental law. The Earth Sciences BS incorporates course work from Geosciences, Geography and Meterology, and requires completion of an interdisciplinary minor (e.g., Climatology, Marine Sciences, Global Business Strategies). A new Geobiology BS program will attract majors with interests at the intersection of the earth and life sciences. The curriculum includes both paleontological and biogeochemical coursework, and is also tailored to accommodate pre-medicine students. We are working actively to recruit African-American students. A new minor in Science and Technology in Africa crosses disciplinary boundaries to educate students from the humanities as well as sciences. Longitudinal recruitment programs include summer research group experiences for high school students, summer research mentorships for college students, and dual undergraduate degree programs with HBCUs. Research is a fundamental component of every student's degree program. We require a capstone independent thesis as well as a field program for Geosciences and Geobiology BS students, and we encourage all students to pursue research as early as the freshman year. A new 5-year combined BS-MS program will enable outstanding students to carry their undergraduate research further before

  18. Enhancing School Wellness Environments to Make to Make the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, JA; Alie, K

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Health’s Division of Prevention & Health Promotion has partnered with Virginia Cooperative Extension’s Family Nutrition Program and Virginia Tech in order to enhance Extension’s efforts to promote and support student health in select K-12 schools by implementing a variety of evidence-based nutrition and physical activity platforms intended to enhance school wellness environments, policies, and practices. Additionally, the implementation of a consistent statewide hea...

  19. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  20. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New Zealand patients' understanding of brand substitution and opinions on copayment options for choice of medicine brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Charon; Ashton, Toni; Davis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to better understand the views and experiences of New Zealand patients on switching between brands of prescription medicines and on alternative funding options for the provision of medicines, including an increase in copayments. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was offered to selected patients through participating community pharmacies. Pharmacies were stratified according to level of deprivation of the community served before random selection and invitation for involvement in the study. Patient understanding of and rationale for brand substitution was assessed. Preference for different copayment options was elicited, together with demographic and other explanatory information. Results In all, 194 patient-completed questionnaires were returned. Some gaps in patient knowledge and understanding of brand changes were evident. Most respondents indicated a preference for the existing subsidy arrangements with little desire expressed for alternatives. Around half were willing to contribute towards paying for a choice of brand other than the subsidised brand; however, the maximum contribution nominated was disproportionately lower than real cost differences between originator brand and generics. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that although most patients have experienced brand changes without any problems occurring, a lack of knowledge about substitution does persist. There may be some additional gain in ensuring New Zealanders are aware of the full cost of their medicines at the point of dispensing to reinforce the benefits of the Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC) purchasing model. What is known about the topic? Generic reference pricing is used as a mechanism to make savings to pharmaceutical budgets; however, reticence to the use of generic medicines persists. What does this paper add? Most New Zealand patients experience brand changes without any problems occurring; however, a lack of

  2. Title I Middle School Administrators' Beliefs and Choices about Using Corporal Punishment and Exclusionary Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students' punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators' choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents, their job requirements, the expectations of students'…

  3. Adolescents' Views about a Proposed Rewards Intervention to Promote Healthy Food Choice in Secondary School Canteens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…

  4. High School Track Choice and Financial Constraints: Evidence from Urban Mexico. Policy Research Working Paper 7427

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro; Bobba, Matteo; Pariguana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Parents and students from different socioeconomic backgrounds value differently school characteristics, but the reasons behind this preference heterogeneity are not well understood. In the context of the centralized school assignment system in Mexico City, this study analyzes how a large household income shock affects choices over high school…

  5. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  6. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  7. The Inequalities in School Choice in Spain in Accordance to PISA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardibul, Josep-Oriol; Villarroya, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In Spain as in other European countries, policies on school choice have been implemented in tandem with the channelling of public resources into private education. Given the application of public money to private schooling, the primary objective of this paper is to analyse the extent to which Spanish families enjoy equality in their ability to…

  8. Can Interdistrict Choice Boost Student Achievement? The Case of Connecticut's Interdistrict Magnet School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert; Cobb, Casey D.; Bell, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    Connecticut's interdistrict magnet schools offer a model of choice-based desegregation that appears to satisfy current legal constraints. This study presents evidence that interdistrict magnet schools have provided students from Connecticut's central cities access to less racially and economically isolated educational environments and estimates…

  9. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  10. School Choice and Market Failure: How Politics Trumps Economics in Education and Elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteritti, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay traces the roots of the equity approach to school choice to the work of Coons & Sugarman, which began as an outgrowth of their involvement with the landmark California school finance case, "Serrano v. Priest" (1971). Comparing the equity approach to the market model espoused by Milton Friedman, the author argues that the former is…

  11. Trust and Parents' Involvement in Schools of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Michal; Katz, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers and policymakers have been focusing for the last three decades on increasing parental involvement in schools. Their work focused on the positive effects that parental involvement has on varied aspects of school quality and functioning. In this study we examined "trust," a known predictor of parental involvement in…

  12. School Choice: Neoliberal Education Policy and Imagined Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The launch in Australia of a government website that compares all schools on the basis of student performance in standardized tests illustrates the extent to which neoliberal policies have been entrenched. This paper examines the problematic nature of choosing schools within the powerful political context of neoliberalism. It illustrates how key…

  13. Children as Researchers in Primary Schools: Choice, Voice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, Sue

    2012-01-01

    "Children as Researchers in Primary Schools" is an innovative and unique resource for practitioners supporting children to become "real world" researchers in the primary classroom. It will supply you with the skills and ideas you need to implement a "children as researchers" framework in your school that can be adapted for different ages and…

  14. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  15. Complexity of Choice: Teachers' and Students' Experiences Implementing a Choice-Based Comprehensive School Health Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulz, Lauren; Gibbons, Sandra; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Wharf Higgins, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive School Health models offer a promising strategy to elicit changes in student health behaviours. To maximise the effect of such models, the active involvement of teachers and students in the change process is recommended. Objective: The goal of this project was to gain insight into the experiences and motivations of…

  16. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  17. Review of "School Choice by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs 1990-2006"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This review considers the recently released study by Susan Aud of the Milton & Rose D. Friedman Foundation, concerning the fiscal effects of school vouchers policies. Aud calculates the simple difference between, on the one hand, state and local government spending on students attending traditional public schools, and, on the other, the government…

  18. Breaking Down Blaine Amendments' Indefensible Barrier to Education Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.; Stepman, Jarrett

    2014-01-01

    Though school choice has proven to be popular, barriers remain in some states as a result of so-called Blaine Amendments and similar policies to prevent education funding from following students to religious schools as a part of school choice options. If left to stand, these ignoble 19th century amendments will remain major impediments to the…

  19. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W G; Hulsman, Robert L; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-12

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students' characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Students indicated 'city' (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and 'selection procedure' (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students' medical study. Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students' different approaches is important.

  20. Students’ approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students’ medical school choice and their relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation during the students’ medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students’ characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Results Students indicated ‘city’ (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and ‘selection procedure’ (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students’ medical study. Conclusions Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students’ different approaches is important. PMID:28624778

  1. THE GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF COMBINED OPTIONAL ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Zadorozhnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to demonstrate the implementation of general methodological principles of optional elementary school online foreign languages learning on an example of a virtual course for students of the second and third grades.Methods. The methods involve pedagogical modeling and projecting; the experience of foreign and Russian methodists, teachers and researchers is analysed, generalized and adjusted to the modern realias.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the requirements of the state educational standard and interest of pupils in computer games, the author’s technique of the combined facultative educational activities integrated to training in English at elementary school is developed. Online training in the form of games (additional to the major classroom activities gives a possibility of the choice of tasks interesting to children, studying the material at optimum comfortable and individual speed; it is possible to perform the tasks at home excluding the stressful situations that are specific to school examination, and allows pupils to master most effectively personal, metasubject and object competences. In general context of quality improvement of the general education, the modernization of educational process assumes not only justification of its new maintenance, but also restructuring of scientific and methodical support which has to meet essential needs of teachers and pupils, to facilitate access to necessary specific information. The lack of methodical base of creation of electronic distance resources for foreign-language education of younger school students has motivated the author to create own methodical concept of online training taking into account age of pupils. The complex of the general methodical principles is thoroughly considered; based on the general methodical principles, the proposed modular technique of the organization of an online class is created and implemented. Interactive blocks are

  2. Science choices and preferences of middle and secondary school students in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J. Hugh; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Allman, Verl

    This research sought to answer two questions: (1) What are Utah junior and senior high school students' preferences and choices regarding science subjects? (2) Could preferences and choices be related to the type of school, age or gender? Two thousand students from grades six through twelve participated in this study. Findings show that zoology and human anatomy and physiology were most preferred. Ecology was least prefered. Topics in the physical sciences were also low. There was a trend among girls to prefer natural sciences such as botany while boys tended to prefer the physical sciences. Generally, students' choices were limited to those subjects presently taught in the formal school curriculum. They appeared unaware of the many science related subjects outside the texts or the approved course of study.

  3. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  4. Pension Choices and the Savings Patterns of Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the savings behavior of public school teachers who are enrolled in a hybrid pension plan that includes a defined contribution (DC) component. Few states have incorporated DC features into teacher pension systems and little is known about how providing teachers with greater control over deferred compensation might affect their…

  5. Identifying Influencers in High School Student ICT Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Ron; Grant, Kenneth A.; Sawal, Lea

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of influencers in Canadian high school student decisions to pursue Information and Communications Technology (ICT) careers and education. With growing rates of retirements of ICT workers expected over the next 10-15 years, industry representatives are concerned that the shortfall in replacement workers will have a…

  6. Florida's Public Education Spending. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes and explains Florida's education finance system. It explains the sources of revenue and the expenditure of funds, reporting figures for each of the state's 67 districts. It also analyzes the trend in current expenditures --that is, the day-to-day operating costs of schools--to address the question of whether they have been…

  7. Empowering Parents' Choice of Schools: The Rhetoric and Reality of How Hong Kong Kindergarten Parents Choose Schools under the Voucher Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kit-Ho Chanel; Lam, Chi-Chung

    2011-01-01

    School choice gives parents greater power over their children's education. But ever since the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS) was introduced in Hong Kong in 2007, school choice has become a hotly debated topic. The scheme was introduced to empower kindergarten parents in choosing a school for their children by offering them direct fee…

  8. Examination about the effects of future career choice on time perspective in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Manabu

    2015-03-30

    This study investigated types of career choice in high school students and examined the effects of career paths on time perspective development. The participants were 4,756 third grade students from nine public high schools in Tokyo. The high school questionnaire survey was conducted throughout autumn of 2008, 2009, and 2010. One year later, 962 graduates participated in the follow-up questionnaire survey by post. Distinguishing gender difference among career paths was found. Girls tend to choose significantly shorter learning careers (p time perspective than other groups (p time perspective between "school to school transition" and "school to work transition". It is suggested that the "school to work transition" tends to be more critical for adolescents and has negative effects on time perspective. These results suggest that the goal content in careers may promote or inhibit the formation of time perspectives during the graduation transition.

  9. Special Ed. and Choice Ties Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Creating private school vouchers for special education students--programs that are largely unchallenged in court, unlike other publicly financed tuition vouchers--can be the perfect way to clear a path for other students to get school options, according to school choice proponents. At least seven states--Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Ohio,…

  10. A discrete choice experiment studying students' preferences for scholarships to private medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Rei; Kakihara, Hiroaki

    2016-02-09

    The shortage of physicians in rural areas and in some specialties is a societal problem in Japan. Expensive tuition in private medical schools limits access to them particularly for students from middle- and low-income families. One way to reduce this barrier and lessen maldistribution is to offer conditional scholarships to private medical schools. A discrete choice experiment is carried out on a total of 374 students considering application to medical schools. The willingness to receive a conditional scholarship program to private medical schools is analyzed. The probability of attending private medical schools significantly decreased because of high tuition, a postgraduate obligation to provide a service in specific specialty areas, and the length of time of this obligation. An obligation to provide a service in rural regions had no significant effect on this probability. To motivate non-applicants to private medical schools to enroll in such schools, a decrease in tuition to around 1.2 million yen (US$ 12,000) or less, which is twice that of public schools, was found to be necessary. Further, it was found that non-applicants to private medical schools choose to apply to such schools even with restrictions if they have tuition support at the public school level. Conditional scholarships for private medical schools may widen access to medical education and simultaneously provide incentives to work in insufficiently served areas.

  11. An Empirical Investigation on Chinese High School Students' Choice of Pursuing Undergraduate Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiankun

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has greatly promoted student mobility around the world. Being a developing economy, China witnessed significant growth of students studying internationally, especially with the number of students study at undergraduate programs. However, empirical research on high school students' choice and the decision-making process of pursuing…

  12. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W. G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in

  13. Where Do We Go from Here?: Post-High School Choices of American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a post-high school context choice schema that attempts to identify the factors that lead young U.S. males to enter the work force, the military, or college. Data are from the Youth in Transition Study, a longitudinal study beginning in 1966. Twenty-five potentially important predictors are identified. (SLD)

  14. Taking Stock of Private-School Choice: Scholars Review the Research on Statewide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Harris, Douglas N.; Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph; Austin, Megan

    2018-01-01

    In the past few years, four states have established programs that provide public financial support to students who choose to attend a private school. These programs--a tax-credit-funded scholarship initiative in Florida and voucher programs in Indiana, Louisiana, and Ohio--offer a glimpse of what expansive statewide choice might look like. What…

  15. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  16. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  17. Constructing a multiple choice test to measure elementary school teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of technology education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and validation of a multiple choice test to measure elementary school teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of technology education. Pedagogical Content Knowledge is generally accepted to be a crucial domain of teacher knowledge and is, therefore, an important

  18. Researching School Choice in Regional Australia: What Can This Tell Us about the Ethnographic Imaginary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolidis, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    This is an exploration of methodological debates related to ethnographic research. Reflection on conducting research on school choice in an Australian regional centre is the beginning point for a discussion of what Appadurai describes as a dialectical relationship between the neighbourhood and its capacity to exist and reshape itself in relation…

  19. Why Don't Housing Choice Voucher Recipients Live Near Better Schools? Insights from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Horn, Keren Mertens; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Housing choice vouchers provide low-income households with additional income to spend on rental housing in the private market. The assistance vouchers provide is substantial, offering the potential to dramatically expand the neighborhood--and associated public schools--that low-income households can reach. However, existing research on the program…

  20. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  1. School Choice Research in Five European Countries: The Circulation of Stephen Ball's Concepts and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Agnès; Kosunen, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the influence of Stephen Ball's work on research on markets and school choice in five European countries (Finland, France, Norway, Spain, and Sweden). The main focus is on the intellectual circulation of ideas, but the authors also take into account the relationship between ideas and social and political changes, as well as…

  2. Arizona Likely Voter Survey on Proposed Legislation to Enhance School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenski, Margaret C.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the results of a telephone survey of 602 likely Arizona voters on various measures to enhance school choice in Arizona. This research was conducted by Arizona Opinion of Tucson for The Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation of Indianapolis. All fieldwork was conducted on March 23-26, and 28-29, 2005 by DataCall Inc. of…

  3. Embracing Pedagogical Pluralism:An Educator's Case for (at Least Public School Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ferrero

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical and curricular beliefs and commitments are expressions of deeper philosophical and ideological worldviews that empirical research can sometimes modify but not ultimately eliminate. The pluralism these views produce is reasonable in that they all represent plausible interpretations of liberal-republican values and professional standards of practice; they should be granted some room to flourish under a system of carefully regulated autonomy and choice. Three objections to a conception of school choice grounded in a notion of reasonable pluralism among educational doctrines are addressed: 1 that it would undermine educators' efforts to secure status for themselves as professionals by admitting that “best practices” in education offer rough guidance at best; 2 that it would leave parents and students vulnerable to quackery; 3 that it abandons the common school tradition and its aspirations. I conclude with an examination of why the conceptual basis on which a society designs a system of choice makes a difference.

  4. Predictors of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics choice options: A meta-analytic path analysis of the social-cognitive choice model by gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Miller, Matthew J; Cusick, Megan E; Penn, Lee T; Truong, Nancy N

    2018-01-01

    We tested the interest and choice portion of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in the context of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Data from 143 studies (including 196 independent samples) conducted over a 30-year period (1983 through 2013) were subjected to meta-analytic path analyses. The interest/choice model was found to fit the data well over all samples as well as within samples composed primarily of women and men and racial/ethnic minority and majority persons. The model also accounted for large portions of the variance in interests and choice goals within each path analysis. Despite the general predictive utility of SCCT across gender and racial/ethnic groups, we did find that several parameter estimates differed by group. We present both the group similarities and differences and consider their implications for future research, intervention, and theory refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  6. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Texas. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…

  7. School Choice Considerations and the Role of Social Media as Perceived by Computing Students: Evidence from One University in Manila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansigan, Rolando R.; Moraga, Shirley D.; Batalla, Ma. Ymelda C.; Bringula, Rex P.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study utilized a validated questionnaire that gathered data from freshmen of two different school years. Demographic profile, marketers (i.e., source of information of students about the school), influencers (i.e., significant others that persuaded them to enroll in the school), level of school choice, and level of consideration…

  8. Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Sarah; Bielick, Stacey; Aud, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This report updates two previous reports: "Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 1999" (Bielick and Chapman 2003) and "Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2003" (Tice et al. 2006). Using data from the National Household Education Survey (NHES) of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  9. The Effect of Positive or Negative Frame on the Choices of Students in School Psychology and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagley, N. S.; Miller, Paul M.; Jones, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Doctoral students (N=109) in school psychology and educational administration responded to five decision problems whose outcomes were framed either positively as gains or negatively as losses. Frame and profession significantly affected the number of risky choices. Educational administration students made more risky choices than school psychology…

  10. Funding School Choice: A Road Map to Tax-Credit Scholarship Programs and Scholarship Granting Organizations. Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Many states are considering a form a school choice known as "tax-credit scholarships," which currently provide school choice to almost 60,000 students in Arizona, Florida and Pennsylvania, which and have just been enacted in Iowa. This guide shows how tax-credit scholarships work and introduces the scholarship granting organizations that…

  11. Risk attitudes, competition and career choices – The willingness to take risk and the choice of further education among Finnish upper secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Valve, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is risk attitudes and the choice of further education among Finnish secondary school students. Data comes from a survey compiled in 2011 for 18 secondary schools in Finland. The data has 3418 respondents in total, 1984 (approximately 58 percent) of whom are female. There are three main questions in this study. First, do gender, parental education and standard of living affect the secondary school student’s willingness to take risks? We measure the risk attitude...

  12. Can school choice improve more than just academic achievement? An analysis of post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul L; Ferrell, Natalie; Broussard, Marsha; Brown, Lisanne; Chrestman, Sarah K

    2014-04-01

    Recent evaluations of school choice school reforms have focused on improving academic achievement but have ignored associations with adolescent health and the risk of interpersonal violence. The innovative school choice model implemented in post-Katrina New Orleans provides a unique opportunity to examine these effects. Using a sample of approximately 1700 students from the 2009 School Health Connection Survey, the relationships between the type of school attended and depression, suicide planning, absences attributable to fears for personal safety, and threats of violence at school are examined. Multivariate regression analysis adjusting for self-selection into the type of school attended-a city-run high-performing school, a state-run failing school, or an independent charter school-estimates the effects of school type on student health. Relative to students at state-run schools, students who choose to attend city-run schools are less likely to plan for suicide or to miss school because they are afraid of becoming victims of violence. These beneficial effects tend to be larger for students traveling from higher violence neighborhoods. The effects for charter schools are similar but less robust. Local school jurisdictions that implement reforms allowing adolescents and their families greater freedom in school choice may also improve adolescent health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  13. Effect of response format on cognitive reflection: Validating a two- and four-option multiple choice question version of the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie

    2018-03-27

    The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis). We tested the two hypotheses experimentally by assessing the performance in tests with different response formats and by comparing their predictive and construct validity. In a between-subjects experiment (n = 452), participants answered stem-equivalent CRT items in an open-ended, a two-option, or a four-option response format and then completed tasks on belief bias, denominator neglect, and paranormal beliefs (benchmark indicators of predictive validity), as well as on actively open-minded thinking and numeracy (benchmark indicators of construct validity). We found no significant differences between the three response formats in the numbers of correct responses, the numbers of intuitive responses (with the exception of the two-option version, which had a higher number than the other tests), and the correlational patterns of the indicators of predictive and construct validity. All three test versions were similarly reliable, but the multiple-choice formats were completed more quickly. We speculate that the specific nature of the CRT items helps build construct equivalence among the different response formats. We recommend using the validated multiple-choice version of the CRT presented here, particularly the four-option CRT, for practical and methodological reasons. Supplementary materials and data are available at https://osf.io/mzhyc/ .

  14. Online Options for Math-Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Suki

    2012-01-01

    Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…

  15. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating schools,…

  16. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Alsharairi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children’s eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  17. Post-High School Choices: Understanding the Differences Between Military Service and Other Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Model to the development and assessment of advertising strategy . Journal of Advertising Research, 28(2), 43-54. Service Branding Models...Craddock, A. B. (1988). The application of the Meccas Model to the development and assessment of advertising strategy . Journal of Advertising Research

  18. [School choice and vocational guidance for schoolchildren with chronic diseases and other health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancić, Franciska; Majski-Cesarec, Slavenka; Musil, Vera

    2010-09-01

    By following a child's growth, development, and health, school medicine specialist can see opportunities for career choice. Special attention is needed for schoolchildren with chronic diseases and developmental difficulties, because of limited occupation choices. Studies report 10 % to 15 % prevalence of chronic diseases among schoolchildren. Parents and children should be informed about child's limitations before career choice. It would be helpful for the students to develop interests for occupations that are not contraindicated for their condition. Physical examination gives an insight into the psycho-physical abilities of an eighth-grade primary school student for further education. During examination, counselling and vocational guidance is provided for all students with chronic diseases and other health problems. All procedures are oriented to personal abilities and preferences. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons for vocational guidance in the Varazdin County of Croatia. It included eighth-grade students from ten primary schools from 1998/99 to 2007/08. Of 4939 students, 458 (9.3 %) with chronic diseases and health difficulties were referred to vocational guidance. Of these, 41.3 % were referred due to mental and behavioural disorders. These students were assessed and received a recommendation for at least two occupations. Forty-eight students (10.5 %) did not follow the recommendation.In a coordinated effort, school physicians, vocational guidance experts, and school and local authorities should secure enrollment of students with chronic diseases and health difficulties in secondary schools and follow their development and education to provide them the best available career opportunities.

  19. Understanding school travel : how residential location choice and the built environment affect trips to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This project investigates issues related to parents decisions about childrens school transportation. This has become an important area : of research due to the growing concerns that increased reliance on private automobile in school travel has ...

  20. Career choices for radiology: national surveys of graduates of 1974-2002 from UK medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.; Lambert, T.W.; Goldacre, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report on trends in career choices for radiology among UK medical graduates. Materials and methods: One and 3 years after graduation, and at longer time intervals thereafter, postal questionnaire surveys were sent to all doctors who graduated from UK medical schools in 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002. Doctors were asked to specify their choice of long-term career and to identify factors influencing their choice. Employment details were also collected. Results were analysed using χ 2 statistics and binary logistic regression. Results: Seventy-four percent (24,621/33,412) and 73% (20,720/28,459) of doctors responded 1 and 3 years after graduation. Choices for radiology in year 1 increased significantly over time (1.7% of 1974 graduates to 3.2% of 2002 graduates; χ 2 test for trend = 15.3, p < 0.001). In particular, there has been a steady increase from the cohorts of 1993 onwards. Thirty-eight percent of those who chose radiology in year 1, and 80% who chose radiology in year 3, were still working in radiology 10 years after graduation. Hours and working conditions influenced long-term career choices more for radiology than for other careers. Conclusions: The proportion of UK trained junior doctors who want to become radiologists has increased in recent years. However, although medical school intake and the numbers making an early choice for radiology have risen, it is unclear whether sufficient UK graduates will be attracted to radiology to fulfil future service requirements from UK trained graduates alone

  1. Primary schools, markets and choice: studying polarization and the core catchment areas of schools

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R J; Johnston, RJ

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish polarization from other conceptions of segregation by conceiving the former as a local phenomenon. To this end we argue that evidence for any school-level separation of ethnic groups must be sought and contextualised within the local markets within which schools operate. By determining the ‘core catchment’ areas of primary schools from geographical micro-data reporting where pupils reside and which school they attend within the study region of Birmingham, England,...

  2. Teachers’ Working Conditions Amid Swedish School Choice Reform: Avenues for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Åsa Parding

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, governance changes, including customer choice agendas, have permeated the public sector and, consequently, welfare sector professionals’ work. One example is the education sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss avenues for further research when it comes to teachers’ working conditions in the light of current choice agendas. This is accomplished by presenting an overview of previous studies on implications of the reforms for teachers’ working conditions. How are these conditions described in relation to the current school choice agenda in Sweden? What directions should be applied to increase knowledge of these conditions? We conclude by identifying some avenues for further research: the issues of organization of work, temporal and spatial dimensions of working conditions, and finally comparative studies of various forms, are suggested as warranting further investigation to highlight the diversified labor market in which teachers find themselves today.Keywords: Competition, governance change, privatization, professional work, school choice, Sweden, teaching profession, working conditions

  3. Career choice motivation and value priorities of future nursery and elementary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić-Jablanović Milica V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study that aimed to establish the nature of the link between the value orientation of future nursery and elementary school teachers and the motivation for their career choice. Two instruments were used - the Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21 and the Career Choice Scale. The findings suggest that the motivation for the respondents' career choice and their value orientation are relatively homogeneous, but also that two groups of students can be distinguished according to dominant motivating factors, and that these two groups also differ in their value priorities. Non-parametric correlation showed that each type of motivation reflected different values - in individuals whose dominant motivation was intrinsic, the values of benevolence, self-direction and achievement were more pronounced, while stronger altruistic motivation correlated with more pronounced values of benevolence and universalism. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation correlated with the values of hedonism and power, which the initial theoretical model locates at the opposite end to the values corresponding to altruistic motivation. The research findings are important for understanding the reasons behind nursery and elementary school teachers' career choice and the goals they are guided by in their life and work, and are also important for the career guidance process.

  4. Agent-Based Simulation of School Choice in Bandung, Indonesia: The Emergence of Enrolment Pattern Trough Individual Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanan Sarwo Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is motivated by the reality that school choice programs that is currently implemented in Bandung that, always resulting student deficit (lack of student in some schools. In this study, a mechanism that can describe how the enrollment pattern in a school choice program emerge as a result of individual preferences of the prospective students, is constructed. Using computer simulation, virtual experiments are conducted. In these experiments, the enrollment patterns and the number of student deficit that were resulted by various school choice program configurations are analyzed. Based on the experiment results, modification of the current program that can minimize the number of student deficit can be purposed.Keywords: agent-based simulation, school choice, computer simulation

  5. Urban School Choice and Integration: The Effect of Charter Schools in Little Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Gary W.; Jensen, Nathan C.; Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of charter schools on school integration in the Little Rock, Arkansas metropolitan area. We find that charters are less likely to be hyper-segregated than traditional public schools (TPS), but TPS have compositions more closely reflecting the region. However, differences in each case are slight. Using student-level data to…

  6. Religion and Primary School Choice in Ireland: School Institutional Identities and Student Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2018-01-01

    Ireland's demographic profile has changed significantly in the past 20 years, being now characterised by increasing cultural, ethnic and religious diversity. However, primary schooling in Ireland has remained highly denominational, mostly Roman Catholic, in nature, with a small number of minority faith schools and multi-denominational schools.…

  7. Creating School Change: Discovering a Choice of Lenses for the School Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatea, Ellen S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a variety of epistemological lenses for viewing the school change process for school administrators' use. Applies these lenses in an actual case study depicting school change, illustrating how administrators can shift focus, position, and mode of inquiry from their usual rational viewpoint. Analyzes implications of using such lenses for…

  8. Beyond Choice to New Public Schools: Withdrawing the Exclusive Franchise in Public Education. Policy Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolderie, Ted

    A strategy for revitalizing public education by stimulating the creation of new public schools is proposed in this report. The proposed system goes beyond school choice and is based on the withdrawal of local districts' exclusive franchise to own and operate public schools. The proposal is based on the premise that the state must provide both…

  9. Trends in the Use of School Choice, 1993 to 2003. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-045

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Peter; Chapman, Christopher; Princiotta, Daniel; Bielick, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Opportunities for school choice in the United States have expanded since the 1990s. This report uses data from the National Household Surveys Program (NHES) to present trends that focus on the use of and users of public schools (assigned and chosen), private schools (church-and nonchurch-related), and homeschoolers between 1993 and 2003. The…

  10. From Here to There and Back Again: The Story of a Mother, Her Son, Disability, and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Glenys

    2016-01-01

    Nelly and her children live in Queensland, Australia. When it came time for her second youngest son to start school, Nelly was not prepared for the difficulty that she had enrolling him at the school of her choice. In spite of her son's disability, Nelly thought that it was natural that he would go to his local school with his sister. It is not…

  11. Accountability Synopticism: How a Think Tank and the Media Developed a Quasimarket for School Choice in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a locally developed school ranking system affected student enrolment patterns in British Columbia over time. In developing an annual school "report card" that was published in newspapers and online, the Vancouver-based Fraser Institute created a marketplace for school choice by devising an accountability scheme…

  12. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  13. Effects of choice architecture and chef-enhanced meals on the selection and consumption of healthier school foods: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Richardson, Scott A; Cluggish, Sarah A; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-05-01

    , and consumption also increased in the chef (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.09-0.22 cups/d) and chef plus smart café (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.19 cups/d) schools; however, the smart café intervention alone had no effect on consumption. Schools should consider both collaborating with chefs and using choice architecture to increase fruit and vegetable selection. Efforts to improve the taste of school foods through chef-enhanced meals should remain a priority because this was the only method that also increased consumption. This was observed only after students were repeatedly exposed to the new foods for 7 months. Therefore, schools should not abandon healthier options if they are initially met with resistance. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02309840.

  14. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE CHOICE OF THE NEW GENERATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TRANSMISSION LINE 220 kV OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTOLATI V.M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission Power Lines of new generation are described in the article (single- compact, double-circuit compact, double-circuit Controlled Self-compensating High Voltage Transmission Power Lines (CSHVL. Basic principles of creation, design elements and comparative characteristics of the transmission lines of the new generation are described, the advantages of its are showed. Methodical approaches to the choosing of a new generation of transmission lines and facilities management FACTS are formulated. Methodical approaches to the choice of options for transmission lines 220 kV and facilities management are shown.

  15. Maximizing Gender Equality by Minimizing Course Choice Options? Effects of Obligatory Coursework in Math on Gender Differences in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Nicolas; Wille, Eike; Cambria, Jenna; Oschatz, Kerstin; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Math achievement, math self-concept, and vocational interests are critical predictors of STEM careers and are closely linked to high school coursework. Young women are less likely to choose advanced math courses in high school, and encouraging young women to enroll in advanced math courses may therefore bring more women into STEM careers. We…

  16. Changing Climate, Challenging Choices: Identifying and Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation Options for Protected Areas Management in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.

  17. A Cross-National Analysis of the Relations of School Choice and Effectiveness Differences between Private-Dependent and Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Avram, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    We apply propensity score matching to the estimation of differential school effectiveness between the publicly funded private sector and the public sector in a sample of 26 countries. This technique allows us to distinguish between school choice and school effectiveness processes and thus to account for selectivity issues involved in the…

  18. Choices and Changes: Eccles’ Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students’ Longitudinal Reflections about their Choice of a STEM Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles’ comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students...... in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model......, and that significant changes in the students’ reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EVMBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students’ dynamical educational choice processes where students...

  19. What Can International Comparisons Teach Us about School Choice and Non-Governmental Schools in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Avram, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    All European states have a primary obligation to establish and maintain governmental schools everywhere, but as the result of political struggle and constitutional guarantees, they have also allowed and often financed non-state schools based on special pedagogical, religious or philosophical ideas. Depending on the level of state grants for…

  20. School Choice in Rural Nigeria? The Limits of Low-Fee Private Schooling in Kwara State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The rise in low-fee private (LFP) primary schooling serving relatively poor clients is becoming well-documented. However much of this literature focuses on urban areas whose dense populations are favourable to market growth and competition. This paper goes some way to filling a gap in the literature on whether LFP schools are serving the needs of…

  1. School children's own views, roles and contribution to choices regarding diet and activity in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dicastillo, O; Grande, G; Callery, P

    2013-01-01

      Behaviours regarding food and activity are learned during childhood and continue throughout life. Children can be very important agents in making decisions concerning their own well-being and care and their perspective is essential to understanding how they and/or others make choices for them to achieve a healthy lifestyle. However, their perspectives remain under-researched. This study provides an insight into school children's own perspectives, behaviours and contribution to food and activity choices.   The paper reports on the findings from an ethnographic study with 38 Spanish children aged 5-7 years. Information was obtained through participant observations, diaries kept by children and group interviews. Data were analysed using techniques of analytical induction and constant comparison.   The children who took part in this study described choices about activities with enthusiasm. Children saw activity as a way of learning new things, mastering skills and socializing. They were willing to try and experience new activities and games. However, the activities performed depended on parents' agendas and security issues. In contrast, children reported less interest in and active involvement in food choices. They contributed to family food choices indirectly through the expression of their preferences, not wanting to eat what they disliked or tasting new foods.   Children had strong preferences and motivations, particularly about activities which could be harnessed in interventions to prevent obesity and promote healthy diet and activity. Parental involvement and commitment is also important both to encourage exercise according to children's interests and active informed food choices, including introduction to unfamiliar foods. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Choices and changes: Eccles' Expectancy-Value model and upper-secondary school students' longitudinal reflections about their choice of a STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-03-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles' comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model could be used to detect significant changes in the students' educational choice processes. An important finding was that the quantitative EV-MBC surveys and the qualitative interviews gave quite different results concerning the students' considerations about the choice of tertiary education, and that significant changes in the students' reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EV-MBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students' dynamical educational choice processes where students in parallel considered several different potential educational trajectories. We therefore call for further studies of the EV-MBC model's use in describing longitudinal choice processes and especially in investigating significant changes.

  3. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  4. Thyroid Cancer Treatment Choice: A pilot study of a tool to facilitate conversations with patients with papillary microcarcinomas considering treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Juan P; Moon, Jae Hoon; Zeuren, Rebecca; Kong, Sung Hye; Kim, Yeo Koon; Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Choi, June Young; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hargraves, Ian; Bernet, Victor; Montori, Victor; Park, Young Joo; Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-06-15

    The 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines recognize active surveillance as an alternative to immediate surgery in patients with papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs). As a way to incorporate active surveillance as one of the management options for patients with PMCs, we describe the development and initial testing of a tool to support conversations between clinicians and patients with PMCs considering treatment options. Thyroid Cancer Treatment Choice was developed using an iterative process based on the principles of interaction, design and participatory action research. To evaluate the impact of the tool on treatment choice, a prospective study was conducted in two thyroid cancer clinics in Seongnam-si and Seoul, South Korea: both clinics had the expertise to offer active surveillance as well as immediate surgery. One clinic was trained in the use of the conversation aid, while the other clinic continued to care for patients without access to the conversation aid. Between May 2016 and April 2017, 278 patients mostly women (n=220, 79%) were included in the study; 152 (53%) received care at the clinic using the conversation aid. Age, gender, and mean tumor size [6.6 mm (SD 1.6) and 6.5 mm (SD 1.9)] distributions were similar across clinics. Overall, 233 (84%) patients opted for active surveillance and 53 (16%) for thyroid surgery. Patients in the conversation aid group were more likely to choose active surveillance than the patients seen in the usual care clinic [relative risk (RR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 - 1.29]. Of all patients opting for active surveillance, more patients in the conversation aid group had thyroid cancer nodules > 5 mm than in the usual care group (81% vs. 67% P = 0.013). Thyroid Cancer Treatment Choice is an evidence-based tool that supports the presentation of treatment options for PMCs. Pilot testing suggests that this conversation tool increases acceptance of active surveillance, suggesting that this option is an

  5. Career choices for public health: cohort studies of graduates from UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Michael J; Laxton, Louise; Lambert, Trevor W; Webster, Premila

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe UK-trained doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in public health and their eventual speciality destinations. Analysis of longitudinal studies of medical graduates from all UK medical schools in selected year-of-qualification cohorts from 1974 to 2008; data collected by postal questionnaires at various times after qualifying; and selection, for this paper, of doctors who expressed an early preference for a career in public health and/or who eventually practised in it. Of all doctors eventually practising in public health, for whom we had early choices, public health had been the unreserved first choice of 8% (10/125) in their first post-qualification year, 27% (33/122) in their third year and 59% (51/86) in their fifth year. Including first choices for public health 'tied' with an equal preference for a different speciality, and doctors' second and third choices for public health, 19% (24/125) of practising public health doctors had considered public health as a possible career in their first post-graduation year, 41% (50/122) in the third and 83% (71/86) in the fifth year. Comparisons with other specialities show that doctors in public health chose their speciality relatively late after qualification.

  6. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  8. Socio- Demographic Characteristics and Career Choice of Private Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramona S. Braza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the career choice of the high school students of the different private institutions in San Jose, Batangas as a basis for developing a career program guide to help the students in choosing their career.The descriptive method was used the study with the questionnaire and standardized test as the main data gathering instruments. Parents, students and teachers served as respondents of the study. The study revealed that most preferred career of the respondents is the academic track particularly the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM strand. The proposed program guide formulated focused on how to help the students decide on their future career. When properly given, it will benefit the students. The researchers recommended that the proposed career program guide that has been formulated may be shown to school heads for their suggestions; the students should be provided with effective orientation on what career is really all about. This could be done by the school guidance counselor or by the teachers and parents as well and there must be a close–up tie among the guidance personnel, teachers, students, and parents to promote a better understanding of the factors which influence the career choice of the students.

  9. Schooling girls in a rural community: An examination of female science identity and science career choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who

  10. Anatomy of British Business School Brands: Attributes Affecting Choice Among Pakistani Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research studies that investigate business school brands from an Asian consumer perspective are scarce. Current study aims at discovering the branding attributes of UK Business Schools that influence Pakistani business students to apply for admission in higher degrees. Following a naturalistic tradition, data has been collected through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 25 students who were planning to study in United Kingdom. The respondents were identified through personal sources and were later selected using the purposive sampling technique. Thematic analysis was performed to generate themes from the collected data. The data analysis generated four dominant themes that influence the choice of a business school in United Kingdom. These are “financial assistance”, “employability”, “brand reputation” and “rankings”. The study is a pioneer work in the field of university branding from a developing country perspective of Pakistan. The research will be useful to British higher education marketers in devising student-centered branding initiatives. It will also benefit the Pakistani academia, as the country can develop business school brands as well by imparting these attributes to better compete with business schools in UK.

  11. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind school; South Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadamiro, Christianah Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    The causes of Blindness vary from place to place with about 80% of it been avoidable. Furthermore Blind people face a lot of challenges in career choice thus limiting their economic potential and full integration into the society. This study aims at identifying the causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a school for the blind in South -Western Nigeria. This is a descriptive study of causes of blindness and career choice among 38 pupils residing in a school for the blind at Ikere -Ekiti, South Western Nigeria. Thirty eight pupils comprising of 25 males (65.8%) and 13 females (34.2%) with age range from 6-39 years were seen for the study, The commonest cause of blindness was cataract with 14 cases (36.84%) while congenital glaucoma and infection had an equal proportion of 5 cases each (13.16%). Avoidable causes constituted the greatest proportion of the causes 27 (71.05%) while unavoidable causes accounted for 11 (28.9%). The law career was the most desired profession by the pupils 11 (33.3%) followed by Teaching 9 (27.3%), other desired profession includes engineering, journalism and farming. The greatest proportion of causes of blindness identified in this study is avoidable. There is the need to create public awareness on some of the notable causes particularly cataract and motivate the community to utilize available eye care services Furthermore there is need for career talk in schools for the blind to enable them choose career where their potential can be fully maximized.

  12. Stakeholder Perceptions of Barriers and Solutions to Significant Expansion of Postsecondary Enrollment Options for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Wozniak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-secondary experiences for students still in high school have been promoted as a means to increase academic rigor and create a better-trained workforce. Yet little is known regarding supports needed to significantly increase such options. This study obtained input from 411 stakeholders in one Midwestern state, including 201 district superintendents, 181 high school principals, and 23 college dual enrollment officers regarding their use of these options, their perceptions of barriers to program expansion, and their ranking of possible solutions to overcome the barriers. Findings demonstrate that all parties find postsecondary options of value, with traditional dual enrollment the most used option. Although all groups identified funding as a primary barrier, other systemic barriers were of great concern. Participants suggest that expansion of Advanced Placement and early and middle college programs, financial assistance for dually enrolled students, and increased program availability for career and technical options would be beneficial.Wozniak, Carl, (2012. Stakeholder Perceptions of Barriers and Solutions to Significant Expansion of Postsecondary Enrollment Options for High School Students. 8(2. Retrieved from www.ijepl.org .

  13. The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments. PEPG 05-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    Stigma and school voucher threats under a revised 2002 Florida accountability law have positive impacts on student performance. Stigma and public school choice threats under the U.S. federal accountability law, No Child Left Behind, do not have similar effects in Florida. Significant impacts of stigma, when combined with the voucher threat, are…

  14. Teaching Healthful Food Choices to Elementary School Students and Their Parents: The Nutrition Detectives[TM] Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L.; Katz, Catherine S.; Treu, Judith A.; Reynolds, Jesse; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Michael, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program designed to teach elementary school students and their parents, and to distinguish between more healthful and less healthful choices in diverse food categories. Methods: Three schools were assigned to receive the Nutrition Detectives[TM] program and…

  15. Inequality in the Transition from Primary to Secondary School: School Choices and Educational Disparities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Marcus; Stubbe, Tobias C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of educational pathway decision making at the transition from primary to secondary school in the German education system by analysing data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). The highly reliable data of the German sample of the 2001 PIRLS make it possible to take into…

  16. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  17. Professional choice self-efficacy: predicting traits and personality profiles in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Augusto Matteo Ambiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to verify the predictive capacity of the Big Five personality factors related to professional choice self-efficacy, as well as to draw a personality profile of people with diverse self-efficacy levels. There were 308 high school students participating, from three different grades (57.5 % women, from public and private schools, average 26.64 years of age. Students completed two instruments, Escala de Autoeficácia para Escolha Profissional (Professional Choice Self-efficacy Scale and Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (Factorial Personality Battery. Results were obtained using multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance with repeated measures profile and Cohen’s d to estimate the effect size of differences. Results showed that Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were the main predictors of self-efficacy. Differences from medium to large were observed between extreme groups, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were the personality factors that better distinguish people with low and high levels of self-efficacy. Theses results partially corroborate with the hypothesis. Results were discussed based on literature and on the practical implications of the results. New studies are proposed.

  18. Burnout in Prospective Elementary School Teachers: Is It Related to Reasons for Choosing the Elementary School Teaching Major, Beliefs about the Teaching Career and Satisfaction with the Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the relationships between elementary school teacher candidates' motivations for choosing the teaching profession, beliefs about the teaching profession, satisfaction with the choice, and burnout. The study was carried out with 171 senior elementary school teacher candidates at one public university in…

  19. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  20. The Australian Education Union's Response to Kevin Donnelly's "The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopgood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to Kevin Donnelly's article, "The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under," and aims to correct specific errors and misrepresentations as found by Susan Hopgood, Federal Secretary of the Australian Education Union. She argues that the article is misleading…

  1. What's in Your Portfolio? How Parents Rank Traditional Public, Private, and Charter Schools in Post-Katrina New Orleans' Citywide System of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane A.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Imbrogno, Jason P.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of schools preferred by parents in New Orleans, Louisiana, where a "portfolio" of school choices is available. This tests the conditions under which school choice induces healthy competition between public and private schools through the threat of student exit. Using unique data from parent applications to…

  2. School and family effects on the ontogeny of children's interests, self-perceptions, and activity choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J S

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we have presented two perspectives on the link between social context and the following motivational constructs: self-concept of ability and sense of personal efficacy in specific activity domains; perceptions of the value of skills in various domains; interest in various activities; activity choice; persistence; performance; and general self-esteem. In the first section, we discussed how social-contextual variables in both the family and the home could produce individual differences in the motivational constructs of interest. We presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our recent empirical work. In the second section, we discussed how systematic changes in the social environments that confront children as they develop could explain age-related changes in the motivational constructs of interest. Again we presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our empirical work testing the hypotheses generated from this framework. Throughout this section we have argued that optimal development takes place when there is good stage-environment fit between the needs of developing individuals and the opportunities afforded in their social environments. Furthermore, we suggested that the negative changes in motivational variables often associated with early adolescent development result from regressive changes in school and home environments. For example, the transition to junior high school, in particular, often confronts early adolescents with regressive environmental changes such as a decrease in the opportunity to participate in classroom decision making, a decrease in teacher support and teacher efficacy, and an increase in teaching styles and reporting practices likely to induce a focus on relative ability and comparative performance as well as excessive social comparison. Not surprisingly, there is also a decrease in intrinsic motivation and an increase in school misbehavior associated with this

  3. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  4. PECULIARITIES OF MOTIVATION AND SELF-ATTITUDE DURING THE CHOICE OF SPECIALIZATION IN A MEDICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Malyutina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Personal backgrounds of the choice of specialization by graduates of a medical high school are studied in this article. The hypothesis is checked that the strategies of testees in the situation of the choice of specialization are determined by the peculiarities of self-attitude and motivation. Depending on the specifity of perception of the situation of specialization 4 groups of testees are distinguished and described. They have different types of an individual strategy: functionally efficient, optimal, investigative and troublous.

  5. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  6. Medical students' choice of specialty and factors determining their choice: a cross-sectional survey at the Addis Ababa University, School oF Medicine, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Nebyou; Biluts, Hagos; Bekele, Abebe; Seme, Assefa

    2014-07-01

    A consideration of the future specialization interests of undergraduate medical students might help in understanding the needs of higher medical education and future manpower availability for healthcare in a country. This study assessed the career of choice made by medical students of the Addis Ababa University in the year 2012. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 161 medical students of the Addis Ababa University, School of Medicine, Ethiopia in April 2012 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using computer based statistical software IBM SPSS data editor version 20.0. In addition to descriptive statistics difference in proportions was compared using Chi-square test Of the 161 students, 101 (62.7%) were male. The mean age of respondents was 24.1 years (SD 2.02, ranging from 21 to 35). Majority, 138 (85.7) wanted to pursue their specialty training in the near future, their first career of choice being surgery for, 50 (31.1%), followed by internal medicine for, 44 (27.3%) and Obstetrics and Gynaecology for, 29 (18.0%]), However 18 (11.2%) did not specify their career of choice. The basic science fields such as anesthesiology, and oncology were the least favored choices by the students. The main reasons that influenced the students' decisions to opt for a particular specialty were inspiration during their clinical practicein 67 (41.6%). Financial reward (24.2%), dedication to the field (19.2%) possession of competency needed for the speciality (18.6%) and Influence of teacher (16.1%) were also factors that influenced future choice of speciality of the students. The majority of medical students preferred to pursue their specialty training. As the number and interest in certain specialties is huge, training centers must be ready to cater for the interests shown by the students. The lack of interest towards certain specialists such as basic sciences, anesthesiology, and oncology requires a special attention by policy makers.

  7. Differences in body dissatisfaction, weight-management practices and food choices of high-school students in the Bangkok metropolitan region by gender and school type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongwatpol, Pitipa; Gates, Gail E

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare body dissatisfaction, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices by gender and school type. A questionnaire was used to obtain height, weight, body image perception using Stunkard's figure rating scale, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices. Nine single- and mixed-gender schools located in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Students in 10th-12th grade, aged 15-18 years (n 2082). Only 18% of females and 21% of males did not indicate body dissatisfaction. About 66% of females selected a thinner ideal figure than their current figure. Among males, 44% wanted a thinner figure, but 35% wanted a bigger figure. However, univariate analysis found differences by school type but not gender in the degree of body dissatisfaction; students in single-gender schools had more body dissatisfaction. Females reported using more weight-management practices but less physical activity, while males reported healthier food choices. Participants in single-gender schools had healthier food choices compared with those in mixed-gender schools. Adolescents who were at increased risk of a greater degree of body dissatisfaction were females, attended single-gender schools, had lower household income, higher BMI and less physical activity. Most participants reported being dissatisfied with their current body shape, but the type and level of dissatisfaction and use of weight-management practices differed by gender and type of school. These findings suggest that programmes to combat body dissatisfaction should address different risk factors in males and females attending single- and mixed-gender schools.

  8. Families, School Choice, and Democratic Iterations on the Right to Education and Freedom of Education in Finnish Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira; Silvennoinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the ways in which the right to education and freedom of education are expressed in local school choice policies in Finland. We aim to discover the elements that form democratic iterations on the right to education and freedom of education by contrasting their manifestations in three local institutional spaces for parental…

  9. The Role of Personality in Relation to Gender Differences in School Subject Choices in Pre-University Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, H.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Boys and girls to some extent differ in personality characteristics while they also prefer different school subjects in secondary education. This study has attempted to unravel the relations among gender, personality, and students' subject choices. The study was based on a sample of 1,740 9th grade

  10. An Australian Study Comparing the Use of Multiple-Choice Questionnaires with Assignments as Interim, Summative Law School Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    To the author's knowledge, this is the first Australian study to empirically compare the use of a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) with the use of a written assignment for interim, summative law school assessment. This study also surveyed the same student sample as to what types of assessments are preferred and why. In total, 182 undergraduate…

  11. Cultural Capital and Gender Differences in Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling and Higher Education Choice in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    This article employs the concept of cultural capital to examine the ways in which social difference in terms of gender are played out in parental involvement in children's schooling and higher education choice. The intention has been to provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which Chinese mothers and fathers are involved in the process.…

  12. What Happens When Schools Become Magnet Schools? A Longitudinal Study of Diversity and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmitto, Sami; Levin, Jesse; Betts, Julian; Bos, Johannes; Eaton, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, magnet schools have become a way for districts to provide school choice. Magnet schools are one of the many options provided to parents so that they can select a school to meet their children's educational needs and interests. After a short gap in federal grants for magnet school implementation, Congress established the current…

  13. Middle School Cafeteria Food Choice and Waste Prior to Implementation of Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Changes in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla; Bednar, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The study objective was to document choices of entrées, vegetables, fruits, grains/breads, and beverages on lunch trays and to determine the amount of each that was discarded after mealtime. Methods: A convenience sample of two urban middle school cafeterias in Texas participated in the study which took place in the 2010-2011…

  14. School Choice or the Politics of Desperation? Black and Latinx Parents of Students with Dis/Abilities Selecting Charter Schools in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Super, Gia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the city of Chicago to examine how Black and Latinx parents of students with dis/abilities1 engage with school choice. Using analytical tools from grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and a theoretical lens informed by critical notions of space, race and dis/ability, we analyze interviews with parents of students…

  15. Specialty Choice Among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Medicine: The Role of Specialty Prestige, Perceived Inclusion, and Medical School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkin, Nicole A; Pachankis, John E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) in medicine experience unique stressors in training. However, little is known about SGM specialty choice. This study examined predictors of SGM specialty choice, associations between specialty prestige and perceived SGM inclusion, and self-reported influences on specialty choice. Medical trainees and practitioners (358 SGM, 1528 non-SGM) were surveyed online. We operationalized specialty choice at the individual level as respondents' specialty of practice; at the specialty level, as a percentage of SGM respondents in each specialty. We examined specialty prestige, perceived SGM inclusivity, and medical school climate as predictors of SGM specialty choice, and we compared additional influences on specialty choice between SGM and non-SGM. The percentage of SGM in each specialty was inversely related to specialty prestige (P = 0.001) and positively related to perceived SGM inclusivity (P = 0.01). Prestigious specialties were perceived as less SGM inclusive (P gender identity strongly influenced specialty choice (P role models, and work-life balance as strong influences on specialty choice. Exposure as a medical student to SGM faculty did not predict specialty prestige among SGM. Specialty prestige and perceived inclusivity predict SGM specialty choice. SGM diversity initiatives in prestigious specialties may be particularly effective by addressing SGM inclusion directly. Further research is needed to inform effective mentorship for SGM medical students. Exposure to SGM in medical training reduces anti-SGM bias among medical professionals, and SGM in medicine often assume leadership roles in clinical care, education, and research regarding SGM health. Supporting and promoting SGM diversity across the spectrum of medical specialties, therefore, represents a critical avenue to improve the care delivered to SGM populations and addresses the role of providers in the health disparities experienced by SGM.

  16. Specialty Choice Among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Medicine: The Role of Specialty Prestige, Perceived Inclusion, and Medical School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) in medicine experience unique stressors in training. However, little is known about SGM specialty choice. This study examined predictors of SGM specialty choice, associations between specialty prestige and perceived SGM inclusion, and self-reported influences on specialty choice. Methods: Medical trainees and practitioners (358 SGM, 1528 non-SGM) were surveyed online. We operationalized specialty choice at the individual level as respondents' specialty of practice; at the specialty level, as a percentage of SGM respondents in each specialty. We examined specialty prestige, perceived SGM inclusivity, and medical school climate as predictors of SGM specialty choice, and we compared additional influences on specialty choice between SGM and non-SGM. Results: The percentage of SGM in each specialty was inversely related to specialty prestige (P = 0.001) and positively related to perceived SGM inclusivity (P = 0.01). Prestigious specialties were perceived as less SGM inclusive (P gender identity strongly influenced specialty choice (P work–life balance as strong influences on specialty choice. Exposure as a medical student to SGM faculty did not predict specialty prestige among SGM. Conclusion: Specialty prestige and perceived inclusivity predict SGM specialty choice. SGM diversity initiatives in prestigious specialties may be particularly effective by addressing SGM inclusion directly. Further research is needed to inform effective mentorship for SGM medical students. Exposure to SGM in medical training reduces anti-SGM bias among medical professionals, and SGM in medicine often assume leadership roles in clinical care, education, and research regarding SGM health. Supporting and promoting SGM diversity across the spectrum of medical specialties, therefore, represents a critical avenue to improve the care delivered to SGM populations and addresses the role of providers in the health disparities

  17. Effect of Motives for Food Choice on Oral Health among Primary School Children in Mangalore: An Analytical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Viral Vijay; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun; Nayak, Vijayendranath

    2017-05-01

    Parents influence children's eating behaviours by making some foods available than others and by acting as models of eating behaviour. Food selected by parents influence general and oral health of their children. Aim of this study was to assess oral health parameters among primary school children and motives for food choice among their parents in Mangalore. A total of 759 primary school children aged 5-10 years, and their parents participated in this study. Motives for food choice among parents of children were evaluated by using Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Oral health status of students was assessed by using World Health Organisation (WHO) Basic Oral Health Assessment Form. Data pertaining to dietary habits and demographics was also collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics along with Pearson's correlation and Binary logistic regression were executed for the present study and level of significance was fixed at pfood choice motives positively influenced dietary patterns and caries experience of their children. Caries experience was less in children whose parents reported higher scores on FCQ. Understanding the barriers, identification of risk factors for poor food choices and targeting interventions might formulate ways by which the desired behaviour can be achieved.

  18. The Indiana Choice Scholarship Program: Legal Challenges, Program Expansion, and Participation. Informing Policy and Improving Practice. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Katherine; Billick, Rebecca; Ruddy, Anne-Maree

    2015-01-01

    School choice programs can take a variety of forms, from the provision of various public school options, such as charter schools, to programs which provide funds to offset the cost of students' attendance at a private school. The provision of funds is most often accomplished in two ways: through the provision of state educational funds to be used…

  19. NACSA Charter School Replication Guide: The Spectrum of Replication Options. Authorizing Matters. Replication Brief 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and high-profile issues in public education reform today is the replication of successful public charter school programs. With more than 5,000 failing public schools in the United States, there is a tremendous need for strong alternatives for parents and students. Replicating successful charter school models is an…

  20. Foods in schools: Children with diabetes can make wise meal choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students, parents, and school staff often believe there are no healthful foods available in schools for children with diabetes. This paper explains modern school food environments and how children with diabetes can eat school foods. National School Lunch Program meals usually consist of an entree, t...

  1. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-01-01

    Background McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. Methods During the 6?month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n?=?80); a student online PA interest survey (n?=?465); a PA and nutr...

  2. Between 'Enrichment' and 'Endangerment': 'Cultural Diversity' and the Politics of Belonging in the Berlin School Choice Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Anna; Dean, Isabel; Breidenstein, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Even though choice is not officially a feature in the German primary school system, some parents intervene in determining which school their child attends. Especially in urban contexts, the informal school market is growing. This demand is based on promises with respect to a certain quality of education as well as on issues that prevail in certain…

  3. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  4. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, Trine Riebeling; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Peréz-Cueto, Federico Jose Armando

    2016-05-01

    The primary objective of this review is to assess the prevalence and quality of published studies on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions promoting vegetable consumption among adolescents. Additionally, this review aims to identify studies estimating adolescents' attitude towards choice architectural nudge interventions. Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searched systematically for experimental studies with a predefined search strategy in the period November-December 2013. Publications were included following predetermined inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated as of high, moderate or weak quality. Finally, studies were grouped by the type of intervention and underwent a narrative synthesis. The search showed that only very few studies investigated the effects of choice architectural nudging interventions on vegetable consumption, and none of them had attitude towards behavioural interventions as an outcome measure. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. The results of the 12 studies were inconclusive, and the majority of studies were of weak or moderate quality. This review uncovers a gap in knowledge on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions aiming to promote the intake of vegetables among adolescents in a school context. It also highlights that no previous studies have considered the attitudes towards choice architectural nudge interventions as a potential factor for their success - or lack thereof - in achieving the desired goal of increased vegetable consumption. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  5. Experiments to Generate New Data about School Choice: Commentary on "Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments" and Merrifield's Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Nathan; Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Benefiting from new data provided by experimental economists, behavioral economics is now moving beyond empirical tests of standard behavioral assumptions to the problem of designing improved institutions that are tuned to fit real-world behavior. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the potential for new experiments to advance school choice…

  6. Making Good Choices: A Guide for Schools and Districts. Revised Edition. [with CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Maria

    This guide was designed to help schools develop effective programs in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It emphasizes that a school's CSR approach should be based on its needs, keeping in mind that one model may not provide every aspect of a school's comprehensive reform effort. Even so, a CSR model that meets the U.S. Department of Education's…

  7. High School Diploma Options That Meet Federal Graduation Rate Calculation Requirements. Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Federal requirements stipulate that states and local education agencies annually calculate and report an Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate, disaggregated by student group. The ACGR includes all students who graduate from high school in four years with a regular high school diploma, plus all students with the most significant cognitive disabilities…

  8. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  9. Exploring options for integrated nutrient management in semi-arid tropics using farmer field schools: a case study in Mbeere District, eastern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.D.; Preez, Du C.C.; Muchena, F.N.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Jager, de A.

    2008-01-01

    The farmer field school (FFS) approach was used in semi-arid eastern Kenya in the period 2002–2003 to explore technology options for addressing declining soil fertility and to institute learning processes on integrated nutrient management (INM).
    The farmer field school (FFS) approach was used in

  10. Does students' exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical school affect specialty choice and residency program selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Terry D; McLaughlin, Margaret A; Witte, Florence M; Fosson, Sue E; Nora, Lois Margaret

    2005-04-01

    To examine the role of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical students' choice of specialty and residency program. Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were distributed in 1997 to fourth-year students enrolled in 14 public and private U.S. medical schools. In addition to reporting the frequency of gender discrimination and sexual harassment encountered during preclinical coursework, core clerkships, elective clerkships, and residency selection, students assessed the impact of these exposures (none, a little, some, quite a bit, the deciding factor) on their specialty choices and rankings of residency programs. A total of 1,314 (69%) useable questionnaires were returned. Large percentages of men (83.2%) and women (92.8%) experienced, observed, or heard about at least one incident of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical school, although more women reported such behavior across all training contexts. Compared with men, significantly (p harassment influenced their specialty choices (45.3% versus 16.4%) and residency rankings (25.3% versus 10.9%). Across all specialties, more women than men experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection, with one exception: a larger percentage of men choosing obstetrics and gynecology experienced such behavior. Among women, those choosing general surgery were most likely to experience gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection. Interestingly, correlations between exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment and self-assessed impact on career decisions tended to be larger for men, suggesting that although fewer men are generally affected, they may weigh such experiences more heavily in their choice of specialty and residency program. This study suggests that exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate education may influence some medical students' choice of specialty and, to a lesser

  11. Everyday and medical life choices: decision-making among 8- to 15-year-old school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, P

    1992-01-01

    How much do young patients expect to be involved in medical decisions affecting them? We are investigating this question during interviews with 8- to 15-year-olds having orthopaedic surgery. Many youngsters taking part in our research project on consent to surgery are more than usually dependent on their parents. We wondered how their views would compare with those of their peers at school. This paper reports a schools survey carried out as a background to the research with young people in hospital. Students in seven schools answered questionnaires on choices about late-night television viewing, new friends, timing homework, seeing their family doctor and consenting to surgery. They were asked about agreement with their parents, how they negotiate disagreement, and when they think they were/will be old enough to make everyday and medical decisions without their parents' help.

  12. Expanding the Education Universe: A Fifty-State Strategy for Course Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    After twenty years of expanding school-choice options, state leaders, educators, and families have a new tool: course choice, a strategy for students to learn from unconventional providers that might range from top-tier universities or innovative community colleges to local employers, labs, or hospitals. In "Expanding the Education Universe:…

  13. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  14. Evaluation and suggestions for optional electrical engineering classes curriculum changes in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Štulac, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to make a survey about teaching of elective subject in the 8th or 9th grade named electrical engineering. The findings could be helpful to teachers of electrical engineering, engineering and technology, physics, as well as for amateur electrical engineering enthusiasts. It is also aimed at those who seek to make changes in the optional electrical engineering course curriculum which represents a plan of work for teachers of this course. It is therefore an important fac...

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-12-01

    The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in Romania regarding the potential of recycling, while the concepts of waste management technologies are far less known about and understood. Landfill is seen as a problem for human health and the environment. However, recycling behaviour is low - partly as a result of limited possibilities. In general, the treatment hierarchy that is recommended in the "European waste hierarchy" is only partly reflected in students’ attitudes towards waste management options.

  16. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  17. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  18. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Nutritional Intervention on Food Choices of French Students in Middle School Cafeterias, Using an Interactive Educational Software Program (Nutri-Advice)

    OpenAIRE

    Turnin , Marie-Christine; Buisson , Jean-Christophe; Ahluwalia , Namanjeet; Cazals , Laurent; Bolzonella-Pene , Caroline; Fouquet-Martineau , Caroline; Martini , Pascale; Tauber , Maïté; Hanaire , Hélène

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Objective : To evaluate the impact of interactive Nutri-Advice kiosks on children's nutritional skills and their ability to apply it to food choices in a middle school cafeteria menu (food choice competencies). Design : Quasi-experimental design; pre/post-test. Setting : Freestanding interactive computer terminals (kiosks) were installed in three middle schools in Toulouse, France. Participants : A total of 580 children were enrolled into the study (mean age, 13 ± 1 ye...

  20. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  1. A Symbiosis of Sorts: School Violence and the Media. Choices Briefs, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeroff, Gene I.

    This brief examines the effects of media coverage of school violence on school violence. The news media take notice precisely because shootings in a school are unusual. The media did not take much notice of shootings in the 1980s and 1990s in inner city communities because these infractions were not judged to be anomalies; they did not measure up…

  2. Languages, Cultural Capital and School Choice: Distinction and Second-Language Immersion Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone; Paz, Jesus Bergas; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that languages, increasingly marginalised in schools in English-speaking countries, are gaining "elitist" ground as part of the "value-added" marketisation of schools and parents' desire for their children to gain "positional goods" through schooling. In arguing our case, the paper draws on survey…

  3. Developing an Indicator System for Schools of Choice: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard S.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Liu, Sunny

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an indicator system that goes beyond a single indicator of school progress or performance. The system relies on a set of school indicators that uses data that public schools routinely report to state agencies for compliance purposes. The framework for the indicator system is based on the idea of…

  4. Public and Private Schooling in France: An Investigation into Family Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouet, Gabriel; Leger, Alain

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980s, 35 percent of French pupils attended private schools at some point. The private sector (largely state-supported Catholic schools) offered a second chance that was not seized equally. Research shows public-sector recruitment was more democratic; private schools equalized results more successfully. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  5. Gender Tracking and Student Choice: Case Study of a Girls' Vocational High School, 1911-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nancy

    The Lucy Flower Technical High School was the only Chicago public high school exclusively for girls. Its founders' goal was to train young women both for sex-segregated employment and for their "primary function" as housewives. The form this aim took in practice and the response to the school over time by Chicago's young women offer…

  6. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Oklahoma. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This analysis examines the demographics of the special needs population in public and private schools in Oklahoma and estimates the impact on school enrollments providing tax credit funded scholarship grants for special needs students. The author and his colleagues develop a model that shows how the expenditures of Oklahoma's school districts vary…

  7. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  8. School Choice in Sweden: An Interview with Thomas Idergard of Timbro. WebMemo. No. 2828

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Across the United States, policymakers are increasingly adopting education policies that give families the power to choose their children's schools. Nonetheless, the idea of providing school vouchers to allow children to attend private schools remains controversial. For instance, congressional leaders and the Obama Administration have tried to end…

  9. Planning for Parent Choice: A Guide to Parent Surveys and Parent Involvement in Planning for Parent and Professional Choice in the Public Schools. [Parent Choice and the Public Schools: Volume 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    This guide, second in a series of four volumes, offers a method of surveying parents' attitudes about choosing schools for their children and provides a survey instrument used over a period of 5 years in four Massachusetts urban school districts. Section 1 introduces the basic research questions pursued in the survey. Section 2, "The Parent…

  10. Linking implementation process to intervention outcomes in a middle school obesity prevention curriculum, ‘Choice, Control and Change’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the link between process evaluation components and the outcomes of a school-based nutrition curriculum intervention, ‘Choice, Control and Change’. Ten New York City public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned into intervention or control condition. The curriculum was to improve sixth to seventh grade students’ energy balance related behaviors, based on social cognitive and self-determination theories, and implemented during the 2006–2007 school year (n = 1136). Behaviors and psychosocial variables were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Process components were evaluated with classroom observations, teacher interviews, and a student questionnaire. Using ‘Teacher Implementation’ (dose delivered) and ‘Student Reception’ (dose received) process data; intervention group was further categorized into medium- and high-implementation groups. Analysis of covariance revealed that, compared with control group, only high-implementation group showed significant improvement in students’ behavior and psychosocial outcomes. Hierarchical linear models showed that ‘Teacher Implementation’ and ‘Student Reception’ significantly predicted students’ sweetened beverage outcomes (P < 0.05). ‘Student Satisfaction’ was also greater when these implementation components were higher, and significantly associated with behavior and psychosocial outcomes (P < 0.05). Implementation process influenced the effectiveness of the ‘Choice, Control and Change’ intervention study. It is important to take into account the process components when interpreting the results of such research. PMID:25700557

  11. Food in the Schools, Part I. Options in Education, Program #75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    This document presents the program transcripts of a weekly series broadcast by member stations of National Public Radio. The program focuses on food in the schools. It addresses the following issues: plate waste in Chicago and Dallas; banning junk food and vending machines; the results of a vending machine junk food ban in West Virginia;…

  12. Early and School-Age Care in Santa Monica: Current System, Policy Options, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Ashley; Karoly, Lynn A.; Zellman, Gail L.; Beckett, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of early learning and out-of-school-time programs in the City of Santa Monica is complex, with numerous providers and funding streams. This complexity reflects its evolution in response to changes in federal, state, and local priorities and initiatives. Future shifts in funding levels, program auspices, and other features are likely.…

  13. Options for Educating Students Attending Department of Defense Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    student engagement , which has a detrimental effect on student achievement. School Inputs Teacher quality is an important determinant of student learning...Poor attendance can also indicate low student engagement , which has a detrimental effect on student achievement. Students who are chronically

  14. Seeking Justice for Sexual Harassment in Schools: Is Title IX the Only Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In its current term, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear arguments in "Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee" (2007), a case involving alleged student-to-student sexual harassment between a kindergartner and a third grader. At first blush, the case is about unfortunate, alleged incidents of harassment of a young student while on the…

  15. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-04-03

    McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. During the 6 month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n = 80); a student online PA interest survey (n = 465); a PA and nutrition survey among 5(th) (10-11 years) and 8(th) graders (13-14 years) with questions adapted from the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (n = 442, response rate = 82.2%); six semi-structured school and community focus groups (n = 44); school site visits (n = 11); and BMI screening (n = 550, response rate = 69.7%). One third of children in McDowell County meet the national PA minimum of 60 minutes daily. At least 40% of 5(th) and 8(th) graders engage in electronic screen activity for 3 hours or more every day. The prevalence of obesity in 5(th) graders is higher in McDowell County than the rest of WV (~55% vs. 47% respectively). SWOT analyses of focus group data suggest an overall interest in PA but also highlight a need for increase in structured PA opportunities. Focus group data also suggested that a central communication (e.g. internet-based) platform would be beneficial to advertise and boost participation both in current and future programs. Schools were commonly mentioned as potential facilities for public PA participation throughout the county, both with regards to access and convenience. School site visits suggest that schools need more equipment and resources for before, during, and after school programs. An overwhelming majority of participants in the McDowell CHOICES needs assessment were interested to participate in more PA programs throughout the county as well as to improve opportunities for the provision of such programs. Public schools were widely recognized as the hub

  16. Food choice, plate waste and nutrient intake of elementary- and middle-school students participating in the US National School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.

  17. Pathways through Secondary School in a Comprehensive System: Does Parental Education and School Attended Affect Students' Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    As the Australian labour market restructured during the 1980s and 1990s, Year 12 retention rates more than doubled between 1983 and 1993 secondary schools diversified to include vocational education and training programs as alternative pathways through school. From a human capital perspective, the completion of vocational qualifications in school…

  18. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  19. Alternative-Specific and Case-Specific Factors Involved in the Decisions of Islamic School Teachers Affecting Teacher Retention: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Hafez, Alaa Karem

    2015-01-01

    Teacher retention is a concern in all educational sectors in America. It is of special importance to Islamic schools, which tend to lack the resources necessary in recruiting and training new teachers. This dissertation addressed this problem in full-time Islamic schools in New York State by conducting a discrete choice experiment, which reflects…

  20. The Conceivable Benefits of Being Comprehensive--Finnish Local Education Authorities on Recognising and Controlling the Social Costs of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, numerous education reforms have sought to dismantle centralised bureaucracies and replace them with devolved systems of schooling that emphasise parental choice and competition between increasingly diversified types of schools. Nevertheless, the "Finnish variety of "post-comprehensivism" continues to emphasise…

  1. Girls, Boys and Subject Choice: A Report on Sex Differences in Participation Rates in Subjects in Western Australian Government Secondary Schools. Discussion Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Jim

    Many of the issues confronting schools and society relate to the changing roles of males and females. Concern has also been expressed over the preparedness of graduates to face an uncertain job market and rapid technological change. To study the relationship between school subject choice and career opportunities for Australian youth, school…

  2. "Nowhere That Fits": The Dilemmas of School Choice for Parents of Children with Statements of Special Educational Needs (SEN) in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa-Patel, Meanu; Devecchi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Giving parents a choice with regard to their children's education has been central to the political discourse of school reform at least since the 1988 Education Reform Act (ERA). With regard to children with a Statement of special educational needs (SSEN), a plethora of policies and laws have given parents the right not only to choose a school,…

  3. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  4. Imagination in School Children's Choice of Their Learning Environment: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Derek; Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe

    2012-01-01

    A visual research project addressed school children's concepts of ideal learning environments. Drawings and accompanying narratives were collected from Year 5 and Year 6 children in nine Queensland primary schools. The 133 submissions were analysed and coded to develop themes, identify key features and consider the uses of imagination. The…

  5. Homework Policy and Student Choice: Findings from a Montessori Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine M.; Glaze, Nelda

    2017-01-01

    The use of homework has been a controversial topic in education for many years: what types of homework to give, how much, and how often. In previous years, Ocean Montessori School (a pseudonym), the site of this study, offered homework like that of traditional public schools, such as worksheets and rote skill practice. Feeling conflicted about the…

  6. School or Madrassa? Parents' Choice and the Failure of State-Run Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jehanzaib

    2012-01-01

    Two major assumptions have dominated much of the discourse on Islamic schools in Pakistan since the rise of the Taliban in the 1990s and following the US attack on Afghanistan in October 2001. First, the Pakistani state-run education system is failing. Because of the poor quality of education at public schools, parents choose to send their…

  7. Contemporary Bilingual Life at a Canadian High School: Choices, Risks, Tensions, and Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a ethnographic study that investigated how immigrant high school students used Cantonese and English to achieve academic and social success in a Canadian high school where English was the language of instruction. Argues that immigrant students found meaningful ways to acquire the cultural capital of the dominant society. (CAJ)

  8. Girls' career choices as a product of a gendered school curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prising 20 sixth form school girls and 20 teachers was used. These were ... led on the English system (see also Wolpe, 2006), with Zimbabwean girls being educated for ... fore, in spite of the Zimbabwean education system's claim to be liberative, it has remained ... a disadvantage as regards school and career aspirations.

  9. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine Riebeling; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden

    2016-01-01

    towards choice architectural nudge interventions. Methods: Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searched systematically for experimental studies with a predefined search strategy in the period November – December 2013. Publications were included following pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were...

  10. College-Level Choice of Latino High School Students: A Social-Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…

  11. A discrete-choice model with social interactions : With an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.; Kooreman, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete-choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties-in particular the correspondence between interaction strength, number of agents, and the set of equilibria-and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation

  12. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.; Kooreman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between the interaction strength, the number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of

  13. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Kooreman, P.

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete-choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between interaction strength, number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation

  14. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessems Kathelijne MHH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests. Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses. Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies.

  15. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education: The impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students' choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  16. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education : the impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students’ choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  17. Assessing Vocational Development in Prospective School Librarians. A Review of: Jones, S. (2010. The occupational choice of school librarians. Library Trends, 59(1-2, 166-187.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore the motivations for choosing school librarianship as a career.Design – Narrative research, qualitative interviews.Setting – The School Media program specialization in a Master of Library Science program at a large research university.Subjects – Five graduate school students seeking initial certification as school library media specialists.Methods – The researcher employed narrative research, based on career construction theory and the Life Story Interview, (McAdams, 1995. This methodology is a set of loosely-structured, open-ended questions designed to encourage detailed, in-depth responses from the participant teller, combined with a more structured Career Style Interview (Savickas, 2005 designed to elicit self-defining stories.Data was collected through qualitative interviews, using personal narrative interviews that focused on the entire life of each person from birth to present (Life Story Interviews and additional questions in an interview format (Career Style Interview.Data was collected and analyzed in two stages. The analysis first examined participants as individuals then tried to identify commonalities among the stories. Each life story was examined to determine a career style on the basis of vocational personality, career adaptability and life theme. The interview data was then analyzed for thematic connections and occupational choice. Main Results – The final analysis identified the following themes as relevant to the study, and to the career choices of graduate students planning to be school librarians: parental expectations; career changers; librarian mentors; prior library work experiences; reading; library experiences; altruism-service; desire to work with children; financial stability and security; flexibility of work schedule; emotional distance; and vocational personality.In general, the participants appear to value safe, traditional career choices that allow them to put family first and

  18. Choices and Changes: Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students' Longitudinal Reflections about Their Choice of a STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles' comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students in their last year in upper-secondary school…

  19. Motivations and attitudes affecting high school students' choice of foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Strobelt, Jody; Chen, Huabin

    2003-01-01

    There are some foreign languages that enjoy great status in the United States, while other foreign languages are rarely represented at the high school level. The present study explored the following questions: Why do students choose to take a particular foreign language? Do students gravitate toward it because it is widely thought to be the easiest language to learn or because they perceive greater career opportunities with proficiency in this particular language, or is it simply because there are more classes offered? As long as foreign language study is elective in high schools and as long as a variety of languages are offered, the answers to these questions will remain important for foreign language educators, especially in schools where the various language programs compete with one another for student enrollments and the programs' ultimate survival.

  20. Energy: options for the future. Curriculum development project for high school teachers. Final report. [Packet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.

    1978-04-01

    Recent state and regional energy crises demonstrate the delicate balance between energy systems, the environment, and the economy. Indeed, the interaction between these three elements of society is very complex. This project develops curriculum materials that would better provide students with an understanding and awareness of fundamental principles of energy supply, conversion processes, and utilization now and in the future. The project had two specific objectives: to transfer knowledge of energy systems, analysis techniques, and advanced technologies from the energy analyst community to the teacher participants; and to involve teachers in the preparation of modular case studies on energy issues for use within the classroom. These curriculum modules are intended to enhance the teacher's ability to provide energy-related education to students within his or her own academic setting. The project is organized as a three-week summer program, as noted in the flyer (Appendix A). Mornings are spent in seminars with energy and environmental specialists (their handout lecture notes are included as Appendix B); afternoons are devoted to high school curriculum development based on the seminar discussions. The curriculum development is limited to five areas: conservation, electricity demand scheduling, energy in the food system, new technologies (solar, wind, biomass), and environment. Appendix C consists of one-day lession plans in these areas.

  1. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  2. Influencing College and Higher Education Choices in Disadvantaged Hispanic High School Students Through a School-Based Health Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harsimran; Matza, Maria; Latham, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Statistics representing professional health care providers do not adequately reflect the shift in the nation's diverse population. Latinos are significantly underrepresented at all levels of appropriate academic programs critical for entry to health profession careers. This project describes the implementation of a student-run, faculty-facilitated Future Nurse and Health Club at a school (with majority Latino students) to emphasize the importance of higher education in health care. Demographic and psychosocial profiles of club members were also developed to understand community needs. The Future Nurse and Health Club was established in partnership with faculty and researchers representing a university-based nursing program, school officials, and community leaders. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from club members and their parents using a variety of techniques including questionnaires and focus groups. The findings of the study highlighted a variety of student- and parent-related factors including poor lifestyle habits and perceptions of support that could potentially influence Latino high school students' interest and progress in health care-related higher education. A school-based health career club involving active participation of parents and students with support from health care professionals such as academic nursing faculty has the potential to simultaneously raise student interest in health-related careers and health needs of their community.

  3. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  5. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  6. Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Mircea I; Kellermann, Arthur L; Hunter, Christine; Curtis, Jerri; Rice, Charles; Wilensky, Gail R

    2017-07-01

    To understand the long-term economic implications of key pathways for financing a medical school education. The authors calculated the net present value (NPV) of cash flow over a 30-year career for a 2013 matriculant associated with (1) self-financing, (2) federally guaranteed loans, (3) the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program, (4) the National Health Service Corps, (5) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, and (6) matriculation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. They calculated the NPV for students pursuing one of four specialties in two cities with divergent tax policies. Borrowers were assumed to have a median level of debt ($180,000), and conservative projections of inflation, discount rates, and income growth were employed. Sensitivity analyses examined different discount and income growth rates, alternative repayment strategies, and various lengths of public-sector service by scholarship recipients. For those wealthy enough to pay cash or fortunate enough to secure a no-strings scholarship, self-financing produced the highest NPV in almost every scenario. Borrowers start practice $300,000 to $400,000 behind their peers who secure a national service scholarship, but those who enter a highly paid specialty, such as orthopedic surgery, overtake their national service counterparts 4 to 11 years after residency. Those in lower-paid specialties take much longer. Borrowers who enter primary care never close the gap. Over time, the value of a medical degree offsets the high up-front cost. Debt avoidance confers substantial economic benefits, particularly for students interested in primary care.

  7. Measuring primary school teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in technology education with a multiple choice test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Fatih Tasar, M.; Cakankci, G.; Akgul, E.

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a crucial part of a teacher’s knowledge base for teaching. Studies in the field of technology education for primary schools showed that this domain of teacher knowledge is related to pupils’ increased learning, motivation, and interest. The common methods to

  8. Wise Choices? The Economics Discourse of a High School Economics and Personal Finance Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Tamara Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Today's high school students will face a host of economic problems such as the demise of the social safety net, mounting college student debt, and costly health care plans, as stated in the rationale for financial literacy provided by the Council for Economic Education's National Standards for Financial Literacy. These problems are compounded by…

  9. Beginning Secondary Teachers in PNG: Family Background, Choice of Subject and the Curriculum Needs of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. P.

    1985-01-01

    Some results from the 1982 New Teachers survey will be related to the teacher training programme at Goroka Teachers college. These will be put in the context of the subject courses run at G.T.C. and the subjects taught in secondary schools. Indications of who chooses to teach and why will be found by examining the sociological background of the…

  10. School Choice in a Stratified Geography: Class, Geography, Otherness, and Moral Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay-Egozi, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Using open-ended, semi-structured interviews, this study pulls together insights on social class and geography to explore how parents choose schools differently for their children in a unique Israeli setting. Querying parents' feelings and perceptions about themselves and others in their immediate and distant locality offers an opportunity to…

  11. Personality Traits' Effects on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for High School Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selection of a high school major among 368 Israeli adolescents (Mage = 16.07, SD = 0.41). Structural equation analyses showed that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower…

  12. Diabetes Cooking Schools Improve Knowledge and Skills in Making Healthful Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Wells, Linda; Bock, Margaret Ann

    2012-01-01

    Rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing nationally and in New Mexico, particularly in ethnic minorities. A key self-care area with challenging barriers is healthy eating. The New Mexico Cooperative Extension Service conducts diabetes cooking schools statewide together with community health providers. The study reported here determined if this…

  13. Tensions in Creating Possibilities for Youth Voice in School Choice: An Ethnographer's Reflexive Story of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnam-Kappel, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The following article relates a reflexive ethnographic research project that focuses on youth voice in relation to the process of choosing a high school and a language of instruction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this methodological article is to relate a story of research and explore the tensions between theory and practice experienced by a…

  14. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  15. Test Performance and Social Comparison Choices of High School Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Gail Anna; Cherry, Frances

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that high school girls would perform better if they anticipated test results to be private, and that boys would perform better under conditions of anticipated public feedback. Found the hypothesis to be supported for girls in average ability classes; girls in advanced ability classes performed better with public feedback. (Author/GC)

  16. Converging on Choice: The Interstate Flow of Foundation Dollars to Charter School Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Setari, R. Renee

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research has been documenting the pivotal role that philanthropic funding plays in advancing state and local charter school reform. However, there is little understanding of the geographic flow of these funding patterns and the market, policy, and organizational conditions that have concentrated funding in some clusters of states…

  17. Energy-Smart Choices for Schools. An HVAC Comparison Tool. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A CD ROM program provides comparison construction cost capabilities for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in educational facilities. The program combines multiple types of systems with square footage data on low and high construction cost and school size to automatically calculate HVAC comparative construction costs. (GR)

  18. Factors Affecting Student Career Choice in Science: An Australian Study of Rural and Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study done at Oxford University on why young people chose to pursue a career in the physical sciences and engineering. Characteristics of schools that appeared to influence students to pursue a study of science were also investigated. Currently, England, Australia, Canada, China, Japan, and Portugal have contributed information to…

  19. A Fiscal Analysis of Proposed Education Access Grants in Minneapolis. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Ericca

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of model legislation that would create Education Access Grants in Minnesota. The legislation would provide grants for low-income students to attend private schools. Specifically, this study examines the effect of implementing Education Access Grants in Minneapolis, the state's largest metropolitan area. It…

  20. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  1. The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates in North Carolina. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    North Carolina has a dropout crisis--only two thirds of North Carolina high school students graduate. One reason this crisis has not received the attention it deserves is because the state was reporting badly inflated graduation rates (supposedly as high as 97 percent) until it finally adopted a more realistic reporting method earlier this year.…

  2. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  3. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 3. The nutritional significance of beverage and dessert choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The consumption patterns of beverages and desserts features highly in the current debate surrounding children's nutrition. The aim of this study was to continuously monitor the choice of beverages and desserts made by nearly 1000 children in a school cafeteria. A newly developed smart card system was used to monitor the food choices of diners (7-16-year-old boys) in a school cafeteria over 89 days. A wide variety of beverages and desserts were on offer daily. Despite coming from an affluent, well-educated demographic group, the boys' choices of beverages and desserts mirrored those of children in general. Buns and cookies were over 10 times more popular than fresh fruits and yogurts. Sugary soft-drinks were over 20 times more popular than fresh fruit drinks and milk combined. Appropriate choices could, over a month, reduce intake of added sugar by over 800 g and fat by over 200 g. The smart card system was very effective at monitoring total product choices for nearly 1000 diners. In agreement with a recent national school meal survey, where choice is extensive, children show a preference for products high in fat and/or sugar. The consequences of these preferences are discussed.

  4. Cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior for predicting healthy food choice in secondary school students of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Taking the sweetness out of the 'Share a Coke' marketing campaign: the influence of personalized labelling on elementary school children's bottled drink choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDarby, F; O'Hora, D; O'Shea, D; Byrne, M

    2018-01-01

    Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors. Children aged 8-13 years (N = 404) were randomly assigned to one of three drink labeling conditions: Prime Healthy, Prime Unhealthy and Control. All participants selected one beverage from 12 options, comprising six healthy and unhealthy drinks. Personalizing healthy drinks increased choice of healthy drinks (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.24-4.00), and personalizing unhealthy drinks reduced choice of healthy drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-.0.75). Higher self-esteem predicted choosing own-named drinks (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.00-1.18; p = .049). Children's drink choices are influenced by personalizing drink bottles. Tighter regulation of this marketing strategy for soft drinks may reduce children choice of these drinks. Personalization may also be used to encourage children to choose healthy drinks. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Will a Short Training Session Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality by Dental School Faculty? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A

    2017-08-01

    Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.

  7. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.

  8. Chemistry: content, context and choices : towards students' higher order problem solving in upper secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is often claimed to be difficult, irrelevant, and uninteresting to school students. Even students who enjoy doing science often have problems seeing themselves as being scientists. This thesis explores and challenges the negative perception of chemistry by investigating upper secondary students’ views on the subject. Based on students’ ideas for improving chemistry education to make the subject more interesting and meaningful, new learning approaches rooted in context-based learning...

  9. Ability, Schooling Choices and Gender Labor Market Discrimination: Evidence for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the gender differences in the Chilean labor market. We formally deal with the selection of the individuals into schooling levels and its consequences on the gender gaps. Our approach allows for the presence of not only heterogeneity in observable variables but also unobserved heterogeneity. We link this unobserved heterogeneity to unobserved scholastic ability. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set for Chile. This data set contains...

  10. Why and How Do Parents Decide to Send Their Children to the Interdistrict School Choice Program at the Magnet Program for Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin S.

    The New Jersey Interdistrict School Choice Program allows parents to send their students to schools outside of their local school district. Determining why parents send their students to choice schools is important to school leaders who are trying to attract new students, as well as those who are trying to retain their current students. This study examined the reasons why parents decided to send their students to the Magnet Program for Math and Science (MP4M&S), a school choice program in a suburban school district in northwest New Jersey, during the 2015- 2016 school year. A large volume of research has focused on school choice programs in urban and poor communities. This study addressed the gap in the research by focusing on an affluent suburban school district. This mixed methods study focused on three areas, why parents choose to send their students to the MP4M&S, what criteria they used to make their decision, and where they got their information. Research shows that these three areas of focus can be influenced by parental level of education, socioeconomic status, geographic location, academic rigor, school quality, and school environment. Parents from different groups, based upon their out-of-district status, were interviewed. The information from the interviews was used to focus a survey that was given to the families of all 137 students in the MP4M&S during the 2015-2016 school year. The results of this study show that parents found the academic focus, academic rigor, the school environment, the original research project, the activity offerings, and the economics involved in attending the program to be important attractors. The study also found that the Information Nights, the school website, and interactions with members of the MP4M&S community to be important sources of information. Finally, the study found that there were few differences between in and out-of-district parents when assigning importance to both the attractors and the sources in the study

  11. Children's agenda-based regulation: The effects of prior performance and reward on elementary school children's study choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Stacy; Ariel, Robert; Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John

    2017-12-01

    The main goal of the current experiments was to examine the influence of monitoring and reward on elementary school children's study decisions. First and third graders studied names for 10 animals (e.g., "The elephant's name is Suzy") and then were given a cued recall test on which they were shown the animal and needed to recall the name. Next, they were given an opportunity to restudy the animal-name pairs, and some of these pairs were slated to earn a reward (a sticker) if correctly recalled. In Experiment 1, both groups of children were (a) more likely to restudy previously unrecalled pairs than previously recalled pairs and (b) more likely to restudy pairs that were slated to receive a reward. In Experiment 2, we further explored children's use of reward using a forced-choice selection task. Namely, during selection, pairs were presented in dyads where one pair was slated for a reward and the other pair was not, and the children could choose only one pair from each dyad for restudy. Both first and third graders chose to restudy pairs slated for a reward. Thus, even young elementary school children consider both rewards and performance monitoring when regulating their learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative analysis of multiple-choice and student performance-task assessment in the high school biology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Patrick Ryan

    This study compared the performance of high school students on laboratory assessments. Thirty-four high school students who were enrolled in the second semester of a regular biology class or had completed the biology course the previous semester participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to examinations of two formats, performance-task and traditional multiple-choice, from two content areas, using a compound light microscope and diffusion. Students were directed to think-aloud as they performed the assessments. Additional verbal data were obtained during interviews following the assessment. The tape-recorded narrative data were analyzed for type and diversity of knowledge and skill categories, and percentage of in-depth processing demonstrated. While overall mean scores on the assessments were low, elicited statements provided additional insight into student cognition. Results indicated that a greater diversity of knowledge and skill categories was elicited by the two microscope assessments and by the two performance-task assessments. In addition, statements demonstrating in-depth processing were coded most frequently in narratives elicited during clinical interviews following the diffusion performance-task assessment. This study calls for individual teachers to design authentic assessment practices and apply them to daily classroom routines. Authentic assessment should be an integral part of the learning process and not merely an end result. In addition, teachers are encouraged to explicitly identify and model, through think-aloud methods, desired cognitive behaviors in the classroom.

  13. Study on a model of street vended food choices by Korean high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kiwoong; Park, Sanghyun; Joo, Nami

    2011-10-01

    Street vended food (SVF) includes food and beverages prepared and sold outdoors or in public areas by street merchants for consumption on the scene or later without further preparation. Due to its low price and convenience, SVF has been popular in Korea for a long time, particularly with high school students. Beyond Korea, SVF is also popular in southeast Asia and southern Africa in the form of ready-to-eat food. This study on high school students, who are main consumers of SVF in Korea, focused on the factors that affect consumer loyalty. The study was performed by questionnaire and used AMOS software to develop a structural equation model. The results of verifying the model's fidelity were χ(2) = 685.989, df = 261, GFI = 0.851, AGFI = 0.814, NFI = 0.901, CFI = 0.907, RMR = 0.048, indicating a satisfying structural model. SVF quality and service, emotional response, and the physical environment had a statistically significant effect on consumer loyalty. In contrast, SVF sanitation had no statistically significant effect on consumer loyalty. Based on these results, the sanitary management of SVF needs to be addressed immediately combined with education for SVF providers to maintain a clean environment.

  14. Effect of Nutritional Intervention on Food Choices of French Students in Middle School Cafeterias, Using an Interactive Educational Software Program (Nutri-Advice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnin, Marie-Christine; Buisson, Jean-Christophe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Cazals, Laurent; Bolzonella-Pene, Caroline; Fouquet-Martineau, Caroline; Martini, Pascale; Tauber, Maïthé; Hanaire, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of interactive Nutri-Advice kiosks on children's nutritional skills and their ability to apply it to food choices in a middle school cafeteria menu (food choice competencies). Quasi-experimental design; pre/post-test. Freestanding interactive computer terminals (kiosks) were installed in three middle schools in Toulouse, France. A total of 580 children were enrolled into the study (mean age, 13 ± 1 years). Each child's physiological profile was stored in a personal barcode card. During 1 school year, once a day, each child could access the kiosk with this card, trying to find the most balanced meal according to his or her profile and the food available on the cafeteria menu. Children's food choice competency changes and body mass index z-score were evaluated. Significance of change in food choice competencies (postintervention vs baseline) was examined using paired t test. Across the study, children chose significantly less cheese and pastry or desserts, and significantly more starchy food and dairy, and tended to choose fruits and vegetables more often. Body mass index z-score decreased significantly during the period. Personalized nutrition counseling through an interactive device has the potential to improve the food choice competencies of children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  16. Marketing, Information, and Parental Choice: A Comparative Case Study of Third-Party, Federally Funded Out-of-School-Time Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Molly S.; Good, Annalee G.

    2016-01-01

    Information and promotional marketing play central but complex roles in market-based educational programs. This in-depth qualitative study examines these complexities using the case of Supplemental Educational Services, a parental choice program providing federally funded tutoring to low-income students in K-12 public schools. Examining the…

  17. Choice of Scottish Gaelic-Medium and Welsh-Medium Education at the Primary and Secondary School Stages: Parent and Pupil Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the reasons for parental choice of Scottish Gaelic-medium and Welsh-medium primary education in the year 2000 and of the reasons for pupils' decisions to continue with Gaelic or Welsh-medium education at secondary school in 2007. Parents in both contexts cited the quality of Celtic-medium education…

  18. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  19. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  20. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  1. Graduate School and You: A Guide for Prospective Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue; LaPidus, Jules B.

    This pamphlet guides the college graduate in determining whether graduate school is an appropriate choice in career planning. Chapter titles include: "Why Graduate School?,""What is Graduate Education?,""Preparation for Graduate School,""Career Options with a Graduate Degree,""Making the Decision,""Financing a Graduate Education,""Choosing a…

  2. The origins of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one's current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

  3. CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Gehrman, Philip; Barg, Frances K; Xie, Sharon X; Mao, Jun J

    2016-03-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. Here we describe the design of a clinical trial that begins to determine how best to personalize the treatment of insomnia for cancer survivors. This project is a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial with a nested qualitative study comparing acupuncture and CBT for insomnia and co-morbid symptoms in a heterogeneous sample of 160 cancer survivors. The primary aim is to determine which treatment is associated with the largest reduction in insomnia severity. The secondary aim is to examine the demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics that predict and/or moderate treatment effect. Patients will receive ten treatments of acupuncture or 7 sessions of CBT over eight weeks and complete validated patient-reported outcome measures of sleep and co-morbid symptoms at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at three-months to assess durability of effect. The results of the proposed study have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes by helping cancer survivors and their caregivers make informed and evidence-based decisions, leading to patient-centered and personalized care for cancer survivors with insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Factors That Influence Contraceptive Choice among Adolescent School-Based Health Center Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Gilmore, Kelly; Cady, Janet; Akers, Aletha Y; Ahrens, Kym R

    2016-06-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods can prevent teen pregnancy yet remain underutilized by adolescents in the United States. Pediatric providers are well positioned to discuss LARCs with adolescents, but little is known about how counseling should occur in pediatric primary care settings. We explored adolescent womens' attitudes and experiences with LARCs to inform the development of adolescent-centered LARC counseling strategies. Qualitative analysis of one-on-one interviews. Participants were recruited from 2 urban school-based, primary care centers. Thirty adolescent women aged 14-18 years, diverse in race/ethnicity, and sexual experience. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive and deductive coding. Major themes were identified to integrate LARC-specific adolescent preferences into existing counseling approaches. Participants (mean age, 16.2 years; range, 14-18 years) represented a diverse range of racial and/or ethnic identities. Half (15/30) were sexually active and 17% (5/30) reported current or past LARC use. Five themes emerged regarding key factors that influence LARC choice, including: (1) strong preferences about device-specific characteristics; (2) previous exposure to information about LARCs from peers, family members, or health counseling sessions; (3) knowledge gaps about LARC methods that affect informed decision-making; (4) personal circumstances or experiences that motivate a desire for effective and/or long-acting contraception; and (5) environmental constraints and supports that might influence adolescent access to LARCs. We identified 5 factors that influence LARC choice among adolescent women and propose a framework for incorporating these factors into contraceptive counseling services in pediatric primary care settings. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Daniel; Nsangi, Allen; Oxman, Andrew D; Oxman, Matt; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Morelli, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-07-22

    As part of the Informed Health Choices project, we developed a podcast called The Health Choices Programme to help improve the ability of people to assess claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about the effects of treatments. We did this randomised controlled trial in central Uganda. We recruited parents of children aged 10-12 years who were in their fifth year of school at 35 schools that were participating in a linked trial of the Informed Health Choices primary school resources. The parents were randomly allocated (1:1), via a web-based random number generator with block sizes of four and six, to listen to either the Informed Health Choices podcast (intervention group) or typical public service announcements about health issues (control group). Randomisation was stratified by parents' highest level of formal education attained (primary school, secondary school, or tertiary education) and the allocation of their children's school in the trial of the primary school resources (intervention vs control). The primary outcome, measured after listening to the entire podcast, was the mean score and the proportion of parents with passing scores on a test with two multiple choice questions for each of nine key concepts essential to assessing claims about treatments (18 questions in total). We did intention-to-treat analyses. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001676150. We recruited parents between July 21, 2016, and Oct 7, 2016. We randomly assigned 675 parents to the podcast group (n=334) or the public service announcement group (n=341); 561 (83%) participants completed follow-up. The mean score for parents in the podcast group was 67·8% (SD 19·6) compared with 52·4% (17·6) in the control group (adjusted mean difference 15·5%, 95% CI 12·5-18·6; pparents had a predetermined

  6. Parents, Quality, and School Choice: Why Parents in Nairobi Choose Low-Cost Private Schools over Public Schools in Kenya's Free Primary Education Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Piper, Benjamin; Ong'ele, Salome; Kiminza, Onesmus

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost private schools (LCPS) are widespread in Kenya, particularly in urban areas. This study examines the reasons that parents send children to fee-charging schools in a context of free public primary education. Drawing on parent survey and interview data, as well as interviews with national policy makers, we found that parents who chose LCPS…

  7. Professional choice early education teachers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ive Carina Rodrigues Lima Brasil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative and exploratory research aimed at investigating the underlying reasons for the professional choice of teachers who work with early education. 17 teachers (7 from public schools and 10 from private schools were interviewed in depth in a semi-structured manner. Questions concerned the reasons that guided participants’ professional choice. According to the results, the main reasons for choosing to work with children were associated with love for children, family influence, opportunity, idealism, enchantment and special talent to work with children. Some of the interviewees’ had working with children as a professional option consciously made, whether others were merely taken by the circumstances. Stereotyped views of the profession (feminine profession are also addressed.

  8. Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? Intertemporal choice, attachment and theory of mind in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Antonella; Castelli, Ilaria; Sanvito, Laura; Massaro, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Intertemporal choice is a decision-making dilemma related to outcomes of different entity located at different time points. Economic and psychological literature on this topic showed the phenomen of temporal discounting, i.e., the proclivity to devalue the outcome distant in time on the basis of the time delay necessary to obtain it. The goals of this research are to investigate two different components of intertemporal choice separately, namely time and outcome, in school-age children, and the possible link among such components and the security of attachment style and theory of mind. Ninety one children aged between 6 and 10 years performed two intertemporal choice tasks, first and second order false belief tasks and the Separation Anxiety Task in the Family and School versions. Results showed that the two components of intertemporal choice (waiting tolerance and sensitivity to delayed outcome) are stately interrelated; the quality of the attachment to the family caregiver affects the tolerance to waiting time and first order false belief understanding affects both the components of intertemporal choice. PMID:24904496

  9. Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? Intertemporal choice, attachment and theory of mind in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Antonella; Castelli, Ilaria; Sanvito, Laura; Massaro, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Intertemporal choice is a decision-making dilemma related to outcomes of different entity located at different time points. Economic and psychological literature on this topic showed the phenomen of temporal discounting, i.e., the proclivity to devalue the outcome distant in time on the basis of the time delay necessary to obtain it. The goals of this research are to investigate two different components of intertemporal choice separately, namely time and outcome, in school-age children, and the possible link among such components and the security of attachment style and theory of mind. Ninety one children aged between 6 and 10 years performed two intertemporal choice tasks, first and second order false belief tasks and the Separation Anxiety Task in the Family and School versions. Results showed that the two components of intertemporal choice (waiting tolerance and sensitivity to delayed outcome) are stately interrelated; the quality of the attachment to the family caregiver affects the tolerance to waiting time and first order false belief understanding affects both the components of intertemporal choice.

  10. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  12. Escolha, estratégia e competição por escolas públicas Choice, strategy and competition for public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, políticas que buscam estimular a liberdade de escolha de escolas por parte dos pais visam declaradamente promover melhoria educacional por meio de mecanismos competitivos e/ou de accountability. Há discussão acumulada na sociologia sobre os quase-mercados formados em políticas de escolha escolar. O artigo investiga os processos de escolha e de acesso escolar em um contexto que denominamos "quase-mercado oculto". No caso brasileiro, a ausência de regulação permite que severos mecanismos de segmentação se manifestem em meio à complexa hierarquia escolar existente nas redes compostas por escolas públicas "comuns". O artigo apresenta a elaboração conceitual presente na literatura internacional e nossas reflexões para o caso brasileiro, além de resultados de uma pesquisa, especialmente de sua fase qualitativa, referente às entrevistas realizadas com professores(as, diretores(as e com pais de alunos do Ensino Fundamental da rede municipal na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.Frequently, policies that seek to encourage parents´ school choice aim to promote educational improvement by means of competitive and/or accountability mechanisms. There is a growing discussion within sociology around the quasi-markets formed with school choice policies. The paper investigates the processes of school choice and access in a context called "hidden quasi-market". In the Brazilian context, the absence of regulation allows the emergence of severe mechanisms of segmentation that take place within a complex school hierarchy existing among "ordinary" school systems. The article presents a conceptual elaboration present in the international literature and our considerations regarding the Brazilian context. It also brings some results, especially those concerning the qualitative phase of the research, including interviews with teachers, principals and students’ parents from municipal elementary schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: findings from the Healthy Choices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn; Greaney, Mary L; Wang, Monica L; Mezegebu, Solomon; Peterson, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school students in 47 Massachusetts schools participating in Healthy Choices, an obesity prevention program. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association of individual race/ethnicity and daily SSB consumption and the potential mediating effect of the density of food outlets (the number of fast food outlets and convenience stores in a 1500 m buffer area surrounding the school) on this association adjusting for individual and school demographics. More SSB consumption was reported by students of all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to their White peers except Asians. The density of fast food restaurants and convenience stores was not associated with individual SSB consumption (β=0.001, p=0.875) nor did it mediate the association of race/ethnicity and SSB consumption. Racial and ethnic differences in SSB consumption among MA middle school students cannot be fully explained by the location of fast food restaurants and convenience stores. © 2013.

  14. Mother’s freedom of choice and the rights of an unborn child: a comparison between the views of freshmen and senior medical school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Marcelo Shigueo Yosikawa; Cabar, Fabio Roberto; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of freshman students with senior students of the Faculty of Medicine- University of São Paulo concerning the respect for the mother’s freedom of choice, the need to protect the unborn child, the proportionality between the mother’s freedom of choice and the protection of the unborn child, and issues related to legal abortion. To determine whether the medical knowledge acquired throughout the academic years can influence the views of medical students on these issues. METHODS: First- and sixth-year students of the Faculty of Medicine – University of São Paulo answered a questionnaire; the inclusion criteria were as follows: a first- or sixth-year student of the medical school and a signature on the free informed consent form. To compare the proportions, a chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used. The significance level was set to 5%. RESULTS: Regarding the mother’s freedom of choice, in the case when a pregnant woman undergoes a cesarean section by means of a court order despite her intention to not have a cesarean, 55.7% of the first-year students have answered that the mother’s choice should be respected. Among the sixth-year students, only 28.9% believe that the mother’s intention should be considered (p<0.0001). With reference to the mother’s choice in connection with antiretroviral medication, 38.1% of the first-year students agreed that the mother’s intention should be respected, whereas 33% of sixth-year students believed that the mother’s intention should be respected (p=0.453). CONCLUSION: There was a tendency to consider the unborn child’s rights over the mother’s choice as students spent more time in medical school. PMID:27759844

  15. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  16. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  17. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  18. Behavioral and EEG reactions in primary school-aged children to emotionally colored verbal stimuli with the condition of their own or forced choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiusheeva T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare behavioral and EEG reactions of primary school-aged children during the recognition of syntactic errors in emotionally (positively or negatively colored sentences that appeal to the choice of the child differently. 20 children (mean age 9,0±0,3 years, 12 boys, 8 girls were examined. We found out that the children with a high quality of solving a linguistic task concentrate all their attention on finding an error in the sentences, and children with a low quality of solving a task demonstrate increased emotionality, possibly connected with their unsuccessfulness. The strongest EEG reactions in the ranges of alpha- and theta- rhythms were recorded in children with slow speed and bad quality of the solution of the task. The recognition of sentences with negative emotions took longer than sentences with positive emotions. The increase of emotions (synchronization in theta range during the recognition of negative sentences was provoked by the expectation of failure and “identification” with it. The children found the mistake better in the sentences with their own choice than in the sentences that describes the forced-choice situation. Desynchronization (i.e. decrease in the spectral power and synchronization (i.e. increase in spectral power was detected on the EEG in the alpha-rhythm range. Desynchronization was associated with the recognition of sentences describing the children’s own choice; synchronization was recorded when recognizing sentences describing the forced-choice situation.

  19. A focus on educational choice has social justice consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    2016-01-01

    This presentation demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen?s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  20. A focus on educational choice has social justice consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention to the p......This article demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  1. Memory Attributions for Choices: How Beliefs Shape Our Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A.; Mather, Mara

    2007-01-01

    When remembering past choices, people tend to attribute positive features to chosen options and negative features to rejected options. The present experiments reveal the important role beliefs play in memory reconstruction of choices. In Experiment 1, participants who misremembered which option they chose favored their believed choice in their…

  2. The problems during choice of profession and comparison of these problems with anxiety and depression in final year of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between prevalence of anxiety, depressive disorder symptoms and some sociodemographic variables in the final year of high-school students, secondly to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors which affect choosing professions among the high school senior students in the province of Van. Methods: In this context, the study was performed in the provincial center of Van in the second semester of 2011. Unpaired t test and one way Anova test were used for statistical analysis. Socio-demographic Information Form, Awareness of Career Choice Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were applied to a total of 412 students. Results: In this study BAI and BDI scores were 15.4±13.3 and 15.3±12.8 respectively. BAI scores of the students in Anatolian high school were found higher than the normal high school. Both the anxiety and depressive levels of female students were higher than the males. The mean age was 16,8 years, 73.8% of whom were male. In 58% of the students’ BAI point, in 66% BDI point were higher than 41; and in 37% BDI point were higher than 17. Female students had higher BAI points. There was a positive correlation between BAI and BDI points. Conclusion: It was noticed in our study that the great amount of anxiety discovered in last grade high school students affect. The student’s job choice negatively. We think that providing last grade high school students with guidance service about job selection will be useful.

  3. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-01-01

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is$6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient

  4. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Nørnberg, Trine R; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The primary objective of this review is to assess the prevalence and quality of published studies on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions promoting vegetable consumption among adolescents. Additionally, this review aims to identify studies estimating adolescents’ attitude towards choice architectural nudge interventions.Methods: Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searched systematically for experimental studies with a predefined search strategy in the period Novemb...

  5. Choice of Professional and Educational Route in High School Students with Disabilities: University Education in the Context of Motivation and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantor V.Z.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a questionnaire survey in the context of the idea of continuity of school and university education of persons with disabilities. 90 senior students with visual, hearing and motor impairments were the respondents of the survey. The purpose of the survey was to study the motives, preferences and needs of school graduates among disabled people, which determine the choice of their vocational and educational route. The survey reveals features of motivation for professional choice of various categories of enrollees with disabilities and its informational support; assesses the level of these enrollees needs in helping by career counselors; identifies the preferred forms of higher education by persons with disabilities; characterizes the needs of people with disabilities in special equipment and services in obtaining higher education, as well as in adaptation of educational programs in the university. The resulting practical-oriented conclusions concern both purpose and content of the work with disabled enrollees from among school graduates as well as approaches to the organization of higher education for persons with disabilities.

  6. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  7. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  8. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  9. Choice of speciality amongst first-year medical students in the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Edwin; Naidu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Trends in career choice amongst medical graduates have considerable implications for the percentage of the workforce available for training. Objective To investigate and review factors affecting career choice by undergraduate first-year medical students. Method This was a cross-sectional study using a closed-ended, semi-structured survey instrument. Two hundred and four questionnaires were administered to all first-year medical students at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine in the first term of the 2012 academic session. Results The questionnaire was completed by 167 out of 204 students (81.8% response rate). Most of the respondents were South Africans (91%) and blacks (72%), with a higher proportion of women to men (2:1). The majority (86%) intended to undertake their postgraduate training in surgical specialties (53%), general surgery (50%) and cardiology (46%). Few were interested in an academic career in basic sciences (27.6%), either because they were not interested in research and/or teaching (48%), not clinically-orientated (20%), or found it to be an unattractive choice (12.3%). The top perceived career-related factors favouring choice of speciality were personal interest and benefits to patients as many (83%) respondents still viewed the medical profession as having a bright future in South Africa. Conclusions Our study highlighted the fact that self and patient interests were strong determinants of speciality choices by the students and the role of parents and practice in rural areas were considered least as potential influencing factors. This would appear to be a good indicator that the healthcare sector may be boosted in the future by doctors who are wholeheartedly committed to the service of the communities with the greatest disease burden.

  10. Talk Is Cheap: Skype Can Make VoIP a Very Real Communication Option for Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There have been many tools that people can use to get connected with each other worldwide. Cell phones, blogs, wikis, podcasts, e-mail--the world hinges upon people's ability to connect, share, collaborate, and communicate. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is another tool schools can use to help their students get connected with the world. One…

  11. Effects of ICT Integration in Management of Private Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya: Policy Options and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyier, Charles Richard; Odundo, Paul Amollo; Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Wangui, Kahiga Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The convergence between telecommunication, broadcasting multimedia and related technologies commonly known as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), promises a fundamental change in educational management. ICT could be the missing tool in improving efficiency of private secondary schools to cope with rapidly changing world to…

  12. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  13. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  14. Governing Food Choices: A Critical Analysis of School Food Pedagogies and Young People's Responses in Contemporary Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Deana; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Recently a proliferation and intensification of school programmes that are directed towards teaching children and young people about food has been witnessed. Whilst there is much to learn about food, anxieties concerning the obesity epidemic have dramatically shaped how schools address the topic. This article draws on governmentality to consider…

  15. How Students' Perceptions of the School Climate Influence Their Choice to Upstand, Bystand, or Join Perpetrators of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…

  16. The Social Comparison Choices of Elementary and Secondary School Students: The Influence of Gender, Race, and Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, C. Julius; Blumberg, Carol Joyce

    1990-01-01

    Two studies involving 63 second through fourth graders and 43 ninth graders investigated the influence of gender, race, and friendship on social comparison choices. Implications of the results for social comparison theory and social policy and education practice are discussed. (TJH)

  17. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  18. A Question of Agency: Applying Sen's Theory of Human Capability to the Concept of Secondary School Student Career "Choice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to operationalize Amartya Sen's concept of human capability to guide a scholarly investigation of student career choice capability. We begin by outlining factors affecting youth labour markets in Australia; a prosperous country that is affected by a "two-speed" national economy. We then examine recent government…

  19. Understanding the Interconnectedness between Language Choices, Cultural Identity Construction and School Practices in the Life of a Latina Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Sandra Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research looks at the effects that language choices and cultural practices have on identity development in the education of minority students in the United States. It examines the educational journey of Irma, a Latina educator. Through the analysis of interviews with the participant, this paper intends to show the effects of…

  20. Parity, Incomparability and Rationally Justified Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of a rationally justified choice between two options neither of which is better than the other while they are not equally good either (‘3NT’). Joseph Raz regards such options as incomparable and argues that reason cannot guide the choice between them. Ruth

  1. Valuation of risky and uncertain choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobler, P.N.; Weber, E.U.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe how risk and ambiguity impact the value of choice options, how this impact can be modelled formally and how it is implemented in the brain. In particular, we give an overview of two distinct ways of how risky choice options can be decomposed – either into outcomes and

  2. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Chin; Lin, Ching-Yi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-11-01

    The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1(st)- and 7(th)-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items), gender awareness (13 items), and career inclination (9 items) was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280). With regard to gender, the 1(st)-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p gender was more prominent in the 7(th)-year than in the 1(st)-year students (p gender and "female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians". Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including "personal interests/talents" and "academic achievement of the specialty," were not significantly different by gender. Factors included "training and learning environments of the specialty", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" were more appreciated by the senior than the junior students (p gender or seniority. The 7(th)-year students had experiences in clinical medicine and had different considerations in career choice in comparison to the 1(st)-year students, and gender played a role in senior students. In addition, the senior rather than the junior students regarded "training and learning environments", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" as more important factors affecting the career choices, and male students paid more attention to these

  3. Occupational choice and values.

    OpenAIRE

    Kantas, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that psychological and sociological approaches to occupational choice can be linked together by employment of three concepts: work salience, values and motivation. Employing Vroom's (1964) cognitive model of motivation occupational choice was examined as a value attainment process. The subjects were 225 male pupils of two different school complexes in Athens, Greece. They were asked to respond to a work salience questionnaire and to rank order a set of ...

  4. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  5. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  6. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Homeownership Option § 982.632 Homeownership option... payment mortgages, establishment of a minimum homeowner equity requirement from personal resources, or...

  7. Paradoxical choice in rats: Subjective valuation and mechanism of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Andrés; Murphy, Robin A; Kacelnik, Alex

    2018-07-01

    Decision-makers benefit from information only when they can use it to guide behavior. However, recent experiments found that pigeons and starlings value information that they cannot use. Here we show that this paradox is also present in rats, and explore the underlying decision process. Subjects chose between two options that delivered food probabilistically after a fixed delay. In one option ("info"), outcomes (food/no-food) were signaled immediately after choice, whereas in the alternative ("non-info") the outcome was uncertain until the delay lapsed. Rats sacrificed up to 20% potential rewards by preferring the info option, but reversed preference when the cost was 60%. This reversal contrasts with the results found with pigeons and starlings and may reflect species' differences worth of further investigation. Results are consistent with predictions of the Sequential Choice Model (SCM), that proposes that choices are driven by the mechanisms that control action in sequential encounters. As expected from the SCM, latencies to respond in single-option trials predicted preferences in choice trials, and latencies in choice trials were the same or shorter than in single-option trials. We argue that the congruence of results in distant vertebrates probably reflects evolved adaptations to shared fundamental challenges in nature, and that the apparently paradoxical overvaluing of information is not sub-optimal as has been claimed, even though its functional significance is not yet understood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk.

  9. Mediating Mechanisms of Theory-Based Psychosocial Determinants on Behavioral Changes in a Middle School Obesity Risk Reduction Curriculum Intervention, Choice, Control, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A; Noia, Jennifer Di

    2016-10-01

    A limited number of school-based intervention studies have explored mediating mechanisms of theory-based psychosocial variables on obesity risk behavior changes. The current study investigated how theory-based psychosocial determinants mediated changes in energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) among urban youth. A secondary analysis study was conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. Data from students at 10 middle schools in New York City (n = 1136) were used. The intervention, Choice, Control, and Change curriculum, was based on social cognitive and self-determination theories. Theory-based psychosocial determinants (goal intention, cognitive outcome expectations, affective outcome expectations, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and autonomous motivation) and EBRBs were measured with self-report questionnaires. Mediation mechanisms were examined using structural equation modeling, Results: Mediating mechanisms for daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and purposeful stair climbing were identified. Models with best fit indices (root mean square error of approximation = 0.039/0.045, normed fit index = 0.916/0.882; comparative fit index = 0.945/0.932; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.896/0.882, respectively) suggested that goal intention and reduced perceived barriers were significant proximal mediators for reducing SSB consumption among both boys and girls or increasing physical activity by stair climbing among boys. Cognitive outcome expectations, affective outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation indirectly mediated behavioral changes through goal intention or perceived barriers (p behavioral outcome variances. Theory-based psychosocial determinants targeted in Choice, Control, and Change in fact mediated behavior changes in middle school students. Strategies targeting these mediators might benefit future success of behavioral interventions. Further studies are needed to determine other

  10. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chin Chung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1st- and 7th-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items, gender awareness (13 items, and career inclination (9 items was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280. With regard to gender, the 1st-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p < 0.05, and female students subjectively suggested an advantage to communicate with patients or colleagues (p < 0.05. Faculty attitude in treating students differently by gender was more prominent in the 7th-year than in the 1st-year students (p < 0.001, and they felt male preceptors typically were more enthusiastic to teach and to rank higher grades to female than to male students; however, this was not observed among female preceptors. Both male and female students showed a low level of agreement that clinical skills and performance of a physician were significantly different by gender and “female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians”. Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including “personal interests/talents” and “academic achievement of the specialty,” were not significantly different by gender. Factors included “training and learning environments of the specialty”, “risk of lawsuit”, and

  11. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Malatesta, Theresa M.; Den, Robert B.; Wuthrick, Evan; Ahn, Peter H.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shi, Wenyin; Dicker, Adam P.; Anne, P. Rani; Bar-Ad, Voichita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: timothy.showalter@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students' knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students' prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61-66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80-83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1-9; 95% CI, 7.3-9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5-9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6-9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  12. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Malatesta, Theresa M.; Den, Robert B.; Wuthrick, Evan; Ahn, Peter H.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shi, Wenyin; Dicker, Adam P.; Anne, P. Rani; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students’ knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students’ prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61–66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80–83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1–9; 95% CI, 7.3–9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5–9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6–9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  13. A Study of Directive Speech Acts Used by Iranian Nursery School Children: The Impact of Context on Children’s Linguistic Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at finding out the forms and functions of directive speech acts uttered by Persian-speaking children. The writer’s goal is to discover the distinct strategies applied by speakers of nursery school age children regarding three parameters: the choice of form, the negotiation of communicative goals within conversation, and the protection of face. The data collected for this purpose are based on actual school conversational situations that were audio recorded in four nursery schools during classroom work and playtime activities. Children, who are the subjects of this study, are of both sexes and various social backgrounds. The results revealed that (1 the investigation of children’s directive speech acts confirm the fact that they are aware of social parameters of talk (Andersen- Slosberg,1990; Ervin, Tripp et al., 1990; (2 they use linguistic forms that are different from what is used by adults as politeness marker, such as, polite 2nd plural subject-agreement on the verb, “please” and “thank you” words; (3 They use declaratives with illocutionary force in order to mark distance (Georgalidou, 2001. Keywords: Iranian children’s speech; Directive speech act; Politeness, Conversational analysis; Persian

  14. A Portrait of School District Crisis Management: Leadership Choices in Montgomery County during the Sniper Shootings of October 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The actions of two assailants who shot and killed 10 people and wounded three others, including a student, in the region around Washington, D.C., in October 2002, provides the backdrop for a qualitative study of the emergency response by school district leaders in Montgomery County, Maryland. The study explores and describes the experiences of the…

  15. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  16. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, K.M.H.H.; Assema, P. van; Martens, M.K.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Raaijmakers, L.G.M.; Rooij, M. de; Vries, N.K. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup

  17. How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide addresses contributions that school facility administrators and business officials can make in an effort to reduce operating costs and free up money for capital improvements. The guide explores opportunities available to utilize energy-saving strategies at any stage in a building's life, from its initial design phase through renovation.…

  18. "He Was a Bit of a Delicate Thing": White Middle-Class Boys, Gender, School Choice and Parental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katya; Jamieson, Fiona; Hollingworth, Sumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of gender on white middle-class parents' anxiety about choosing inner-city comprehensives and their children's subsequent experiences within school, particularly in relation to social mixing. Drawing on interview data from an ESRC funded study of white middle-class parents whose children attend inner-city…

  19. Exploring Language Choice and Identity Construction in "In-Between" Sites: Ethnic Media and Community Languages Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Antonia; Cruickshank, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Australian research on immigrant languages has paid little attention to interactional approaches to language alternation as identity construction, and sites other than the family and the mainstream school. We argue for the need of studies that take into account a wider range of sites, in particular "community" sites, and adopt…

  20. As Food Prices Rise, Setting Menus Is Cause of Heartburn for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    With food and fuel prices increasing sharply, food and nutrition directors in school districts around the country are finding themselves facing some uncomfortable choices. In some districts, school lunch menus are being pared down to fewer selections, instead of the array of healthy options districts would like to offer. In other areas, canned and…

  1. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  2. Project Choice: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    Project Choice began with a simple goal: to increase the number of inner-city students who graduate from high school on time and become productive members of society. To that end, Ewing M. Kauffman, his Foundation, and associates designed and implemented a program that promised postsecondary education or training to some students in the Kansas…

  3. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  4. The "Tyranny of Choice": Choice Overload as a Possible Instance of Effort Discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.; Reed, Florence D. DiGennaro; Chok, James; Brozyna, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    When making a choice, people like to have options, but an emerging literature on "choice overload" suggests that the provision of too many options results in adverse experiences, including a depletion of cognitive resources and postdecision feelings of regret. A strong implication is that individuals should shy away from situations…

  5. Effects of the Informed Health Choices primary school intervention on the ability of children in Uganda to assess the reliability of claims about treatment effects: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Oxman, Matt; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Morelli, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Ding, Yunpeng; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-07-22

    Claims about what improves or harms our health are ubiquitous. People need to be able to assess the reliability of these claims. We aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to teach primary school children to assess claims about the effects of treatments (ie, any action intended to maintain or improve health). In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we included primary schools in the central region of Uganda that taught year-5 children (aged 10-12 years). We excluded international schools, special needs schools for children with auditory and visual impairments, schools that had participated in user-testing and piloting of the resources, infant and nursery schools, adult education schools, and schools that were difficult for us to access in terms of travel time. We randomly allocated a representative sample of eligible schools to either an intervention or control group. Intervention schools received the Informed Health Choices primary school resources (textbooks, exercise books, and a teachers' guide). Teachers attended a 2 day introductory workshop and gave nine 80 min lessons during one school term. The lessons addressed 12 concepts essential to assessing claims about treatment effects and making informed health choices. We did not intervene in the control schools. The primary outcome, measured at the end of the school term, was the mean score on a test with two multiple-choice questions for each of the 12 concepts and the proportion of children with passing scores on the same test. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001679337. Between April 11, 2016, and June 8, 2016, 2960 schools were assessed for eligibility; 2029 were eligible, and a random sample of 170 were invited to recruitment meetings. After recruitment meetings, 120 eligible schools consented and were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n=60, 76 teachers and 6383 children) or control group (n=60, 67 teachers and 4430 children

  6. Children select unhealthy choices when given a choice among snack offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Kyryliuk, Rebecca; Weaver, Robert G; Moore, Justin B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2014-09-01

    Out-of-school-time programs serve snacks to millions of children annually. State and national snack policies endorse serving more-healthful options, such as fruits, yet often allow less-healthful options, such as cookies and chips, to be served simultaneously. To date, no studies have examined the choices children make when provided with disparate snack options in out-of-school-time programs. An experimental study with randomized exposures was conducted that exposed children (5 to 10 years old) to the following conditions: whole or sliced fruit; whole/sliced fruit, sugar-sweetened snacks (eg, cookies) and flavored salty (eg, nacho cheese-flavored tortilla chips) snacks; and whole/sliced fruit and less-processed/unflavored grain snacks (eg, pretzels), during a 2-week period representing 18 snack occasions (morning and afternoon) during summer 2013. The percentage of children who selected snacks, snack consumption, and percent of serving wasted were calculated and analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni adjustments. A total of 1,053 observations were made. Sliced fruit was selected more than whole fruit across all conditions. Fruit (sliced or whole) was seldom selected when served simultaneously with sugar-sweetened (6% vs 58%) and flavored salty (6% vs 38%) snacks or unflavored grain snacks (23% vs 64%). More children consumed 100% of the sugar-sweetened (89%) and flavored salty (82%) snacks compared with fruit (71%); 100% consumption was comparable between fruit (59%) and unflavored grain snacks (49%). Approximately 15% to 47% of fruit was wasted, compared with 8% to 38% of sugar-sweetened, flavored salty, and unflavored grain snacks. Snack policies that encourage out-of-school-time programs to serve fruit require clear language that limits offering less-healthful snack options simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  8. A Study of the Importance of Education and Cost Incentives on Individual Food Choices at the Harvard School of Public Health Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B.; Bloom, Barry R.; Riccardi, Paul; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the importance of cost and awareness of health- or disease-promoting properties of foods and meals for choices by customers of a cafeteria. Design A non-randomized intervention study. Setting A medium size cafeteria in the Harvard School of Public Health. Participants Customers of the cafeteria mainly consisting of public health students, faculty, and school staff and workers from the medical campus. Intervention The purchase of healthy foods and dishes was subsidized and their prices reduced by 20%. This promotion was accompanied by the distribution of educational material. Main Outcome Measures Change in consumption of healthy and less healthy foods. Analysis The geometric mean was used to calculate the change in consumption. Results During the intervention, we observed a 6% increase in the consumption of healthy foods (95% confidence interval [CI]; 5% to 8%), and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; −1% to −4%). After the prices returned to their original levels, the consumption of healthy foods increased further to 17% (95% CI; 13% to 20%) and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; % 1 to −5%) persisted. Conclusions Subsidizing healthful meals and educating consumers about the importance of a healthy diet can result in a modest increase in the selection of healthy foods and meals that can be maintained beyond the periods of subsidy and promotion. PMID:18460476

  9. A study of the importance of education and cost incentives on individual food choices at the Harvard School of Public Health cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B; Bloom, Barry R; Riccardi, Paul; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the importance of cost and awareness of health- or disease-promoting properties of foods and meals for choices by customers of a cafeteria. A non-randomized intervention study. A medium size cafeteria in the Harvard School of Public Health. Customers of the cafeteria mainly consisting of public health students, faculty, and school staff and workers from the medical campus. The purchase of healthy foods and dishes was subsidized and their prices reduced by 20%. This promotion was accompanied by the distribution of educational material. Change in consumption of healthy and less healthy foods. The geometric mean was used to calculate the change in consumption. During the intervention, we observed a 6% increase in the consumption of healthy foods (95% confidence interval [CI]; 5% to 8%), and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; -1% to -4%). After the prices returned to their original levels, the consumption of healthy foods increased further to 17% (95% CI; 13% to 20%) and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; % 1 to -5%) persisted. Subsidizing healthful meals and educating consumers about the importance of a healthy diet can result in a modest increase in the selection of healthy foods and meals that can be maintained beyond the periods of subsidy and promotion.

  10. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  11. Energy exotic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, V.; Gibner, S.; Pinnamaneni, K.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 88 references focuses on the use of exotic options to control exposure to energy prices. Exotic options are defined, and the conversion of a standard option into an exotic option and pricing models are examined. Pricing and hedging exotic options, path-dependent options, multi-commodity options, options on the minimum-or-maximum of two commodities, compound options, digital options, hybrid and complex structures, and natural gas daily options are described. Formulas for option pricing for vanilla, barrier, compound, options on minimum or maximum of two assets, and look back options are given in an appendix

  12. Nursing as a career choice: perceptions of school students speaking Arabic, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish or Vietnamese at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K C; Duffield, C; Chen, X C; Choucair, S; Creegan, R; Mak, C; Lesley, G

    1999-01-01

    Australia is a multicultural society and nowhere is this more evident than in Sydney where 25% of the population speaks a language other than English. In one of the largest area health services in New South Wales, the five most frequently spoken languages at home are Arabic, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish or Vietnamese, with these language groups comprising 12% of Sydney's population. Yet nurses speaking one of these five languages comprise less than 1% of the nursing workforce. A cost-effective method of addressing the shortage of nurses speaking languages other than English is to recruit students who already speak another language into the profession. This study examined high school students' perceptions of nursing in order to determine appropriate methods of recruiting students speaking one of these languages. Implications for the design of recruitment campaigns are also discussed.

  13. A focus on educational choice in the light of Sen's capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    This presentation demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen?s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  14. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  15. Mature-age entrants to medical school: a controlled study of sociodemographic characteristics, career choice and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, S C; Biggs, J S; Thong, Y H

    1990-11-01

    A comparison of 121 mature-age and 270 normal-age entrants who graduated from the University of Queensland Medical School between 1972 and 1987 shows that mature-age entrants are some 7 years older, are more likely to come from public (state) schools and less likely to have parents in professional/technical occupations. Otherwise, the two groups were similar in terms of gender, marital status, number of children, ethnic background and current practice location. The educational background of mature-age entrants prior to admission includes 44.6% with degrees in health-science areas and 31.4% with degrees in non-health areas. Reasons for delayed entry of mature-age entrants include late consideration of medicine as a career (34.7%), financial problems (31.4%), dissatisfaction with previous career (30.6%), poor academic results (19.8%), or a combination of the above factors. Motivations to study medicine include family influences (more so in normal-age entrants), altruistic reasons (more so in mature-age entrants) and a variety of personal/social factors such as intellectual satisfaction, prestige and financial security (similar for both groups) and parental expectations (more so in normal-age entrants). Mature-age entrants experienced greater stress throughout the medical course, especially with regard to financial difficulties, loneliness/isolation from the students and family problems (a greater proportion were married with children). While whole-course grades were similar in both groups, normal-age entrants tended to win more undergraduate honours/prizes and postgraduate diplomas/degrees, including specialist qualifications. Practice settings were similar in terms of group private practice, hospital/clinic practice or medical administration, but there was a greater proportion of mature-age entrants in solo private practice, and a smaller proportion in teaching/research. If given the time over, some two-thirds of both groups would choose medicine as a career

  16. The School Maintenance Rental Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    It will probably be years before all the social and structural ramifications of the economic downturn are fully realized. However, one interesting consequence already is materializing. According to Amy Hoak, a reporter for "MarketWatch", a "Wall Street Journal" publication, for the first time in decades, more people say they would rather rent a…

  17. Watchful waiting or induction of labour--a matter of informed choice: identification, analysis and critical appraisal of decision aids and patient information regarding care options for women with uncomplicated singleton late and post term pregnancies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bettina; Schwarz, Christiane; Heusser, Peter

    2015-05-07

    Decision-making during pregnancy regarding different options of care can be difficult, particularly when risks of intervention versus no intervention for mother and baby are unclear. Unbiased information and support for decision making may be beneficial in these situations. The management of normal pregnancies at and beyond term is an example of such a situation. In order to determine the need to develop an evidence-based decision aid this paper searches, analyses and appraises patient decision aids and patient information leaflets regarding care options in cases of late term and post-term pregnancies, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). A literature search was carried out in a variety of lay and medical databases. written information related to uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and targeted at lay people. Analysis and appraisal of included material by means of quality criteria was set up based on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards accounting for evidence-basing of CAM options. Inclusion of two decision aids and eleven leaflets from four decision aids and sixteen leaflets. One decision aid met the quality criteria almost completely, the other one only insufficiently despite providing some helpful information. Only one leaflet is of good quality, but cannot substitute a decision aid. There is an urgent need for the design of an evidence-based decision aid of good quality for late-term or post-term pregnancy, particularly in German language.

  18. A Choice for the Chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for opposition to school-choice programs by the American Jewish Congress and the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith. There is skepticism that more Jewish families would send their children to separate schools, and there is concern that government aid would foster a more religious tone in the country. Suggests that these…

  19. Expanding Choice: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Ross, John K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the oldest and more popular forms of school choice in the United States is educational tax credits. Like many other types of school choice, educational tax credits enable parents to send their children to the K-12 school of their choice, public or private, religious or non-religious. One type of educational tax credits, tax-credit…

  20. Expanding Choice: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II

    2011-01-01

    The past 30 years have seen a steady expansion in the educational choices available to parents as school choice programs have spread around the country. Enabling parents to choose schools that fit their children's unique needs is a win-win-win: Research shows that such school choice policies benefit the children who participate, give traditional…

  1. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  2. Using a systematic conceptual model for a process evaluation of a middle school obesity risk-reduction nutrition curriculum intervention: choice, control & change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela

    2013-03-01

    To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, Choice, Control & Change, designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Five middle schools in New York City. Five hundred sixty-two students in 20 classes and their science teachers (n = 8). Based on the model, teacher professional development, teacher implementation, and student reception were evaluated. Also measured were teacher characteristics, teachers' curriculum evaluation, and satisfaction with teaching the curriculum. Descriptive statistics and Spearman ρ correlation for quantitative analysis and content analysis for qualitative data were used. Mean score of the teacher professional development evaluation was 4.75 on a 5-point scale. Average teacher implementation rate was 73%, and the student reception rate was 69%. Ongoing teacher support was highly valued by teachers. Teacher satisfaction with teaching the curriculum was highly correlated with student satisfaction (P Teacher perception of amount of student work was negatively correlated with implementation and with student satisfaction (P < .05). Use of a systematic conceptual model and comprehensive process measures improves understanding of the implementation process and helps educators to better implement interventions as designed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    evaluate and choose between several options tend to lead to pseudo-opinions, incorrect assumptions and isolated responses. In order to address these methodological issues, researchers in the Netherlands created an Information Choice Questionnaire (ICQ). The ICQ provides the respondent with: (1) the entire (complex) policy problem, (2) expert information that is independent and balanced, (3) in a way that is understandable for the general public, (4) is a comparative process, and (5) asks for an evaluation. The aim of this research was to develop an online decision guide to aid public awareness, knowledge, deliberation and choice around carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) compared with other greenhouse gas mitigation options. More specifically, the objectives were to: (a) compare the Australian survey results to Dutch respondents; and (b) examine the most effective way to make online information and opinion formation more interactive and engaging. The following research questions are addressed: (1) How do Australian opinions on energy options differ from the Dutch when measured using the ICQ? ; (2) Is it possible to enhance the quality of the original ICQ by making the questionnaire an interactive application?.

  4. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    participants to evaluate and choose between several options tend to lead to pseudo-opinions, incorrect assumptions and isolated responses. In order to address these methodological issues, researchers in the Netherlands created an Information Choice Questionnaire (ICQ). The ICQ provides the respondent with: (1) the entire (complex) policy problem, (2) expert information that is independent and balanced, (3) in a way that is understandable for the general public, (4) is a comparative process, and (5) asks for an evaluation. The aim of this research was to develop an online decision guide to aid public awareness, knowledge, deliberation and choice around carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) compared with other greenhouse gas mitigation options. More specifically, the objectives were to: (a) compare the Australian survey results to Dutch respondents; and (b) examine the most effective way to make online information and opinion formation more interactive and engaging. The following research questions are addressed: (1) How do Australian opinions on energy options differ from the Dutch when measured using the ICQ? ; (2) Is it possible to enhance the quality of the original ICQ by making the questionnaire an interactive application?.

  5. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    This paper charts the general implications of the choice of texts for literature teaching in the Danish school system, especially in Grades 8 and 9. It will analyze and discuss the premises of the choice of texts, and the possibilities of a certain choice of text in a concrete classroom situation...

  6. Does the use of the Informed Healthcare Choices (IHC) primary school resources improve the ability of grade-5 children in Uganda to assess the trustworthiness of claims about the effects of treatments: protocol for a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D; Oxman, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-05-18

    The ability to appraise claims about the benefits and harms of treatments is crucial for informed health care decision-making. This research aims to enable children in East African primary schools (the clusters) to acquire and retain skills that can help them make informed health care choices by improving their ability to obtain, process and understand health information. The trial will evaluate (at the individual participant level) whether specially designed learning resources can teach children some of the key concepts relevant to appraising claims about the benefits and harms of health care interventions (treatments). This is a two-arm, cluster-randomised trial with stratified random allocation. We will recruit 120 primary schools (the clusters) between April and May 2016 in the central region of Uganda. We will stratify participating schools by geographical setting (rural, semi-urban, or urban) and ownership (public or private). The Informed Healthcare Choices (IHC) primary school resources consist of a textbook and a teachers' guide. Each of the students in the intervention arm will receive a textbook and attend nine lessons delivered by their teachers during a school term, with each lesson lasting 80 min. The lessons cover 12 key concepts that are relevant to assessing claims about treatments and making informed health care choices. The second arm will carry on with the current primary school curriculum. We have designed the Claim Evaluation Tools to measure people's ability to apply key concepts related to assessing claims about the effects of treatments and making informed health care choices. The Claim Evaluation Tools use multiple choice questions addressing each of the 12 concepts covered by the IHC school resources. Using the Claim Evaluation Tools we will measure two primary outcomes: (1) the proportion of children who 'pass', based on an absolute standard and (2) their average scores. As far as we are aware this is the first randomised trial to

  7. Cultures of choice: towards a sociology of choice as a cultural phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ori

    2017-09-07

    The article explores different ways to conceptualize the relationship between choice and culture. These two notions are often constructed as opposites: while sociologies of modernization (such as Giddens') portray a shift from cultural traditions to culturally disembedded choice, dispositional sociologies (such as Bourdieu's) uncover cultural determination as the hidden truth behind apparent choice. However, choice may be real and cultural simultaneously. Culture moulds choice not only by inculcating dispositions or shaping repertoires of alternatives, but also by offering culturally specific choice practices, ways of choosing embedded in meaning, normativity, and materiality; and by shaping attributions of choice in everyday life. By bringing together insights from rival schools, I portray an outline for a comparative cultural sociology of choice, and demonstrate its purchase while discussing the digitalization of choice; and cultural logics that shape choice attribution in ways opposing neoliberal trends. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. Choice & Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Pearl Rock

    2003-01-01

    Interview with Milton Friedman, Nobel Laureate economist, who discusses his ideas on school vouchers, recalling his famous 1955 essay in which he argued that there is no need for government to run schools. Also discusses the power of teacher unions and offers advice to preservice teachers. (WFA)

  9. Exotic Options: a Chooser Option and its Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial instruments traded in the markets and investors’ situation in such markets are getting more and more complex. This leads to more complex derivative structures used for hedging that are harder to analyze and which risk is harder managed. Because of the complexity of these instruments, the basic characteristics of many exotic options may sometimes be not clearly understood. Most scientific studies have been focused on developing models for pricing various types of exotic options, but it is important to study their unique characteristics and to understand them correctly in order to use them in proper market situations. The paper examines main aspects of options, emphasizing the variety of exotic options and their place in financial markets and risk management process. As the exact valuation of exotic options is quite difficult, the article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of pricing of chooser options that suggest a broad range of usage and application in different market conditions. The calculations made in the article showed that the price of the chooser is closely correlated with the choice time and low correlated with its strike price. So the first mentioned factor should be taken into consideration when making appropriate hedging and investing decisions.

  10. Vincent's Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Official publication to accompany the important exhibition Vincent's Choice, Van Gogh's 'musee imaginaire' at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam marking the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition runs from 14th February to 15th June 2003.Thanks to van Gogh's correspondence, it has been

  11. Neural Correlates of Affective Influence on Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piech, Richard M.; Lewis, Jade; Parkinson, Caroline H.; Owen, Adrian M.; Roberts, Angela C.; Downing, Paul E.; Parkinson, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the right choice depends crucially on the accurate valuation of the available options in the light of current needs and goals of an individual. Thus, the valuation of identical options can vary considerably with motivational context. The present study investigated the neural structures underlying context dependent evaluation. We instructed…

  12. Do Choice Experiments Generate Reliable Willingness to Pay Estimates Theory and Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the sample if they regard the price vector as high relative to the utility of non-status quo choices. Thus, the mathematics of combinatorial choice...option with the same attributes appearing in a choice set at a higher price , or an option with the same price but worse attributes appearing in the...25 of subjects making binary choices between alternative snack foods is consistent with an optimizing model of choice with error. Such choice errors

  13. Choice Complexity, Benchmarks and Costly Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Job; Rosenkranz, S.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.

    In this study we investigate how two types of information interventions, providing a benchmark and providing costly information on option ranking, can improve decision-making in complex choices. In our experiment subjects made a series of incentivized choices between four hypothetical financial

  14. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  15. The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options and Cryptocurrencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Chun Herbert Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a strategy to make the lookback option cheaper and more practical, and suggests the use of its properties to reduce risk exposure in cryptocurrency markets through blockchain enforced smart contracts and correct for informational inefficiencies surrounding prices and volatility. This paper generalizes partial, discretely-monitored lookback options that dilute premiums by selecting a subset of specified periods to determine payoff, which we call amnesiac lookback options. Prior literature on discretely-monitored lookback options considers the number of periods and assumes equidistant lookback periods in pricing partial lookback options. This study by contrast considers random sampling of lookback periods and compares resulting payoff of the call, put and spread options under floating and fixed strikes. Amnesiac lookbacks are priced with Monte Carlo simulations of Gaussian random walks under equidistant and random periods. Results are compared to analytic and binomial pricing models for the same derivatives. Simulations show diminishing marginal increases to the fair price as the number of selected periods is increased. The returns correspond to a Hill curve whose parameters are set by interest rate and volatility. We demonstrate over-pricing under equidistant monitoring assumptions with error increasing as the lookback periods decrease. An example of a direct implication for event trading is when shock is forecasted but its timing uncertain, equidistant sampling produces a lower error on the true maximum than random choice. We conclude that the instrument provides an ideal space for investors to balance their risk, and as a prime candidate to hedge extreme volatility. We discuss the application of the amnesiac lookback option and path-dependent options to cryptocurrencies and blockchain commodities in the context of smart contracts.

  16. Option valuation for energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, K.; Llerena, P.; Richard, A.

    2004-01-01

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  17. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  18. Trigger Foods: The Influence of “Irrelevant†Alternatives in School Lunchrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Rational choice theory commonly assumes that the presence of unselected choices cannot impact which among the remaining choices is selected–-often referred to as “independence of irrelevant alternatives.†We show that such seemingly irrelevant alternatives influence choice in a school lunch setting. In these lunchrooms, we provide evidence that the presence of specific side dishes-–trigger foods-–can strongly increase the sales of unhealthy à la carte options, even when the trigger foods a...

  19. The Role of School in Educational Decisions during the Transition to High School Public Institutions in Mexico City context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Rocha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of schools in educational choices in the transition to public high schools in Mexico City. Secondary schools have the potential to influence educational choices, through the development of certain educational functions. This influence comes in different ways, and is relatively independent of adscriptive characteristics and previous academic performance of students.  Schools serve i as agents contributing to decision making, facilitating continuity on educational trajectories ii or as instances that do not develop explicit actions aimed to link their students to any of the options offered in the post-secondary educational system. While some schools teaching resources are destined to accompany their students during their decision process, others lack of them, abandoning them in this crucial educational event. The article is based on data provided by an ethnographic study conducted in seven high schools in southern Mexico City between January and July 2012

  20. Faith, Education, and Choice: A Study of the Educational Choices of Catholic Parents in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany, N.Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Christopher Bruce

    2017-01-01

    School choice is a research topic that is often associated with public funds supporting educational alternatives. While much of the school choice research literature focuses on this category, additional types of school choice merit examination. This study examines how Catholic parents chose high schools for their children within the geographic…