WorldWideScience

Sample records for school choice issues

  1. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  2. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  3. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  4. Using School Choice: Analyzing How Parents Access Educational Freedom. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the process parents must go through to participate in each of the nation's school choice programs, identifying problem areas in some programs. For the first time in one place, this report collects data on participation in each of the programs in current and previous years. Data are given for the number of students…

  5. Monopoly vs. Markets: The Empirical Evidence on Private Schools & School Choice. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This study presents new findings comparing public and private high schools using top-quality data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS), a long-term research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. The ELS project tracks individual data on thousands of students, allowing researchers to conduct much better analyses than are…

  6. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  7. Florida's Public Education Spending. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes and explains Florida's education finance system. It explains the sources of revenue and the expenditure of funds, reporting figures for each of the state's 67 districts. It also analyzes the trend in current expenditures --that is, the day-to-day operating costs of schools--to address the question of whether they have been…

  8. An Empirical Evaluation of the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; D'Andrea, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship program, one of the nation's largest school choice programs. It is the first ever completed empirical evaluation of a tax-credit scholarship program, a type of program that creates school choice through the tax code. Earlier reports, including a recent one on the Florida program, have not…

  9. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  10. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  11. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Missouri. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    As a large body of high-quality research has emerged in the past few years showing that school choice benefits the students who use it, much of the debate has shifted to the "public" or "social" effects of school choice. This study examines how school choice in Missouri would raise high school graduation rates, and measures the…

  12. School Choice Marches forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted…

  13. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  14. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Texas. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…

  15. Funding School Choice: A Road Map to Tax-Credit Scholarship Programs and Scholarship Granting Organizations. Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Many states are considering a form a school choice known as "tax-credit scholarships," which currently provide school choice to almost 60,000 students in Arizona, Florida and Pennsylvania, which and have just been enacted in Iowa. This guide shows how tax-credit scholarships work and introduces the scholarship granting organizations that…

  16. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Oklahoma. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This analysis examines the demographics of the special needs population in public and private schools in Oklahoma and estimates the impact on school enrollments providing tax credit funded scholarship grants for special needs students. The author and his colleagues develop a model that shows how the expenditures of Oklahoma's school districts vary…

  17. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  18. A Fiscal Analysis of Proposed Education Access Grants in Minneapolis. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Ericca

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of model legislation that would create Education Access Grants in Minnesota. The legislation would provide grants for low-income students to attend private schools. Specifically, this study examines the effect of implementing Education Access Grants in Minneapolis, the state's largest metropolitan area. It…

  19. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  20. The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates in North Carolina. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    North Carolina has a dropout crisis--only two thirds of North Carolina high school students graduate. One reason this crisis has not received the attention it deserves is because the state was reporting badly inflated graduation rates (supposedly as high as 97 percent) until it finally adopted a more realistic reporting method earlier this year.…

  1. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  2. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  3. Two Philosophical Errors Concerning School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Argues, in contrast to David Hargreaves, that libertarianism implies a mild presumption against school choice, and that notions of common good are significant to educational decision making only when deciding between sets of institutions that perform equally well at delivering their obligations. Links these issues to questions about school choice.…

  4. School Choice: The Personal and the Political

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuls, James V.

    2018-01-01

    Enrollment in school choice programs is growing, so is overall support for school choice. Many have analyzed what demographic characteristics impact attitudes towards school choice. This article adds to the literature by exploring the interaction between personal decisions regarding school choice and broader support for school choice programs.…

  5. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  6. Measurements in Accounting: Issues and Choices Determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the common measurements in accounting, addressing the issues in general terms, including the circumstances and situations that determine each accounting measurement choice .To drive these issues, references were made to extant literature on common measurement bases and while each ...

  7. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  8. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  9. Lesher Middle School: Commitment by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Lesher Middle School, a school of choice, as are all of the schools in the Poudre School District in Ft. Collins, Colorado. In 2004, it was a traditional junior high school with a declining enrollment that housed an application-based International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IB MYP) that resulted in tracking…

  10. Choice, Charters, and Public School Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, public schools changed in ways that dramatically reduced the control that parents have over their local schools. Regaining that control is one key to improving the quality of our schools, and giving students a choice of schools is one way of increasing the influence that parents have over the way schools are run. Several…

  11. School Choice and Inequality in Educational Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Farias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available School choice has been growing all over the world. However, despite the strong implications school choice could have on future opportunities, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the school decisions are still not clear. Based on elements from different theories, this paper study factors related with a school- track choice. The study takes advantage of extensive administrative records, national tests, and an ad-hoc survey from Chile, a country with more than 30 years with an educational system based on choice. Results suggest that socioeconomic status, cultural values, the pressure of the environment, parents’ expectations, and self-perception are correlated with the school-track choice. Results suggest that the concept of equality of opportunities in an educational system based on choice should also consider equality in the capacity for taking these decisions

  12. School choice : challenge to Sharpeville public primary school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. This qualitative phenomenological study focuses on school choice as challenge to principals of Sharpeville public primary schools. Different aspects of these choices are explored. School choice is an important component of parental involvement in the education of their children. Parents and learners tend to be open about their right through the support of the Schools Act 84 of 1996. You may not discriminate on the basis of race trough the language policy at your school. This means th...

  13. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  14. Responsibility and School Choice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following argument for school choice, based on an appeal to the virtues of the market: allowing parents some measure of choice over their particular children's education ultimately serves the interests of all children, because creating a market mechanism in state education will produce improvements through the same pressures that lead…

  15. Who is Afraid of School Choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Diem; Stefan C. Wolter

    2011-01-01

    This study uses survey data to investigate attitudes among Swiss voters to different models offering more freedom of choice in the educational system. The findings indicate clear opposition to the use of taxpayer money to fund private schools, while free choice between public schools seems to appeal to a majority. The analyses show that the approval-opposition heterogeneity is mainly based on an explicable, rational calculation of personal utility. Approval rates are much higher among groups ...

  16. Charter Schools: A Viable Public School Choice Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Overviews the charter-school phenomenon and these schools' basic design. Discusses the government's role in education and identifies various school-choice options. Explores overall autonomy via legislative provisions and examines empirical evidence on charter schools' innovative features, teacher and student characteristics, and parental contracts…

  17. The Role of Nostalgia in School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Examines factors influencing choice of a new school, using data from a large-scale study in Wales. The "domino effect" sometimes covers three generations; decisions made today reflect, but are not identical to, past decisions. Simple reproduction cannot explain this diversity. Consumer nostalgia may lead schools to conservatism and…

  18. School Health: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Constance M.

    1994-01-01

    Despite data suggesting a relationship between investment in children's health and improved academic performance, school health financing is inadequate, inequitable, and fragmented. Strategies for improving school health programs include leadership from the nursing profession; collaboration among health professionals; consolidation of funding…

  19. Latino Parents' Choice of Magnet School: How School Choice Differs across Racial and Ethnic Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Phillips, Kristie J. R.; Goldring, Ellen B.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, magnet schools have served predominantly Black and Anglo populations. Consequently, little research exists on Latino parent's engagement in school choice and their patterns of participation. Magnet schools are increasingly part of the landscape for improving school achievement for all students. Yet Latino enrollment rates in magnet…

  20. From School Choice to Student Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Paul E.; Montera, Viki L.

    2001-01-01

    Educational mass marketing approaches are like fast-food franchises; they offer homogeneous, standardized products that cannot satisfy every consumer's needs. A niche market looks inside the masses to address more individual, specialized choices missing from the menu. Variability, not uniformity, should guide development of public schooling. (MLH)

  1. Presidential Debate Watching, Issue Knowledge, Character Evaluation, and Vote Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2004-01-01

    This study employs NES (National Election Survey) data from several presidential elections to investigate the effects of presidential debate watching on voters' issue knowledge, character evaluation, and vote choice. Debates can instill issue knowledge; however, voters are less likely to learn about incumbent presidents seeking re-election after a…

  2. Woman, M.D.: issues, perceptions and choices.

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    I would end with some summarizing points and questions. 1. A majority of women identify gender-related issues influencing their career choices and pathways. 2. Women are diverse in their choices and priorities, with varying balances of personal and professional life. 3. Eighty-three percent of the women responding to the survey have married, and 82% of those married have children. They thus are likely to have two sets of seriously competing responsibilities. 4. It is possible to identify espe...

  3. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  4. Making Choices about Hydrogen : Transport Issues for Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 sept. 2008 ... Couverture du livre Making Choices about Hydrogen : Transport Issues for Developing Countries ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  5. On school choice and test-based accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W. Betebenner

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the two most prominent school reform measures currently being implemented in The United States are school choice and test-based accountability. Until recently, the two policy initiatives remained relatively distinct from one another. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, a mutualism between choice and accountability emerged whereby school choice complements test-based accountability. In the first portion of this study we present a conceptual overview of school choice and test-based accountability and explicate connections between the two that are explicit in reform implementations like NCLB or implicit within the market-based reform literature in which school choice and test-based accountability reside. In the second portion we scrutinize the connections, in particular, between school choice and test-based accountability using a large western school district with a popular choice system in place. Data from three sources are combined to explore the ways in which school choice and test-based accountability draw on each other: state assessment data of children in the district, school choice data for every participating student in the district choice program, and a parental survey of both participants and non-participants of choice asking their attitudes concerning the use of school report cards in the district. Results suggest that choice is of benefit academically to only the lowest achieving students, choice participation is not uniform across different ethnic groups in the district, and parents' primary motivations as reported on a survey for participation in choice are not due to test scores, though this is not consistent with choice preferences among parents in the district. As such, our results generally confirm the hypotheses of choice critics more so than advocates. Keywords: school choice; accountability; student testing.

  6. School Choice and the Branding of Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivitt, Julie R.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    How useful are "corporate brands" in markets? In theory, brands convey reliable information, providing consumers with shortcuts to time-consuming provider searches. We examine the usefulness of a corporate brand when parental school choice is expanded through K-12 tuition scholarships. Specifically, we evaluate whether Catholic schools…

  7. School choice: challenge to Sharpeville public school principals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Every group had its own educational system, adminis- tration and ... School choice enables children from poor families and different race groups to .... ings of the research as authentic experiences, as lived and perceived by informants. ..... another. (One sees beautiful smiles on faces of learners as they speak). We do not ...

  8. Indigenous Parents Navigating School Choice in Constrained Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony-Stevens, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Educational reform policies in the United States promote school choice as a central tool to empower low-income and minoritized families in order to close the achievement gap. However, research on school choice rarely reflects the voice of minoritized families and offers little evidence that choice significantly addresses inequities in educational…

  9. Issues or Identity? Cognitive Foundations of Voter Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Libby; Huettel, Scott A

    2016-11-01

    Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such models explain macroscopic features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that policy positions and social identities do not combine in merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter preferences. This model not only explains several key anomalies in voter choice, but also suggests new directions for research in both political science and cognitive science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Issues or Identity? Cognitive Foundations of Voter Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Libby; Huettel, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and non-policy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such models explain macroscopic features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that policy positions and social identities do not combine in merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter preferences. This model not only explains several key anomalies in voter choice, but also suggests new directions for research in both political science and cognitive science. PMID:27769726

  11. On the choice of schools located outside the walkable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we consider a school choice problem and formulate it into a mathematical model, allowing it to be simplified and solved. The results obtained are useful for the household in making an objective choice of school for the child to be enrolled among several secondary schools located outside his walkable ...

  12. Does the amount of school choice matter for student engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    School choice may increase student engagement by enabling students to attend schools that more closely match their needs and preferences. But this effect on engagement may depend on the characteristics of the choices available. Therefore, we consider how the amount of educational choice of different types in a local educational marketplace affects student engagement using a large, national population of 8th grade students. We find that more choice of regular public schools in the elementary and middle school years is associated with a lower likelihood that students will be severely disengaged in eighth grade, and more choices of public schools of choice has a similar effect but only in urban areas. In contrast, more private sector choice does not have such a general beneficial effect. PMID:23682202

  13. The Social Geography of Choice: Neighborhoods' Role in Students' Navigation of School Choice Policy in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippo, Kate L.; Griffin, Briellen

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on school choice policy, and on the geography of educational opportunity, by exploring how students understand their school choices and select from them within social-geographical space. Using a conceptual framework that draws from situated social cognition and recent research on neighborhood effects, this study…

  14. Ranking the schools: How school-quality information affects school choice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.W.C.; van der Wiel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether information about the quality of high schools published in a national newspaper affects school choice in the Netherlands. We find that negative (positive) school-quality scores decrease (increase) the number of first-year students who choose a school after the year of

  15. A Review of the Empirical Research on Private School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalite, Anna J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Parents in the United States have had the legal right to choose the school their child attends for a long time. Traditionally, parental school choice took the form of families moving to a neighborhood with good public schools or self-financing private schooling. Contemporary education policies allow parents in many areas to choose from among…

  16. School Choice Outcomes in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jill M.; Vaughan, Debra Y.

    2013-01-01

    Today, over 80% of public school students in New Orleans attend charter schools, and just 37% of students attend school in their neighborhood (Louisiana Department of Education, 2011; Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives, 2011). This study examines school choice participation and outcomes in New Orleans by analyzing the extent…

  17. The Fiscal Impacts of School Choice in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the fiscal impacts of school choice in New Hampshire. The author uses one example from the 2003 New Hampshire legislative session to illustrate the fiscal impacts of school choice on New Hampshire and its communities. He develops a unique database of individual and household level responses from the 2000 Census of New…

  18. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A…

  19. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay

    1997-01-01

    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  20. School Choice: Education's Trickle Down Theory for Urban Students Attending Private Schools? Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel, David E.; And Others

    This study investigated possible effects of school choice programs by surveying 200 private schools in large urban areas. The survey instrument requested information on school demography, possible effects of participation in a Choice program, costs, selection of students participating in Choice, and climate and parental involvement. Analysis of…

  1. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.

    2016-01-01

    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  2. Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

  3. School Choice May Not Be a Shangri-La

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2017-01-01

    For the past half century, the American public school system has been on the receiving end of a considerable amount of criticism. People of faith have often been at the forefront of expressing that criticism. Attached to their criticism religious people have often called for school choice programs that include faith-based schools as the…

  4. Determinants of Parental Choice in Schooling: The Coquitlam Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Susana

    Parents living in the Coquitlam School District in British Columbia can choose between public and private schools and between English language and French immersion programs in the public schools. This study investigates the choice-making behavior of parents enrolling their children in kindergarten in fall 1977 in terms of socioeconomic factors,…

  5. Issues with choice architecture, environmental ethics, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankowski, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action. (3) This book focuses more on certain developed liberal democracies than on the more comprehensive global situation. Sunstein is especially interested in environmental issues, particularly energy policy, global warming, and climate change. This essay argues that Sunstein's conceptual scheme can be fruitfully expanded to progress toward a normative environmental ethics that can be integrated with the insights of global political economy.

  6. School Choice in Indianapolis: Effects of Charter, Magnet, Private, and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph

    2018-01-01

    School choice researchers are often limited to comparing one type of choice with another (e.g., charter schools vs. traditional public schools). One area researchers have not examined is the effects of different school types within the same urban region. We fill this gap by analyzing longitudinal data for students (grades 3-8) in Indianapolis,…

  7. School Counselors: A Review of Contemporary Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to review the topic of school counselors and the contemporary issues surrounding this profession. An introduction to the profession and overview of its history provides a comprehensive basis on which to understand today's school counseling profession. An examination of contemporary themes of school counseling will include job…

  8. Issues of Cultural Diversity in School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Explores cultural diversity in school mathematics and the issues raised for mathematics education. Examines the curricular roots of school mathematics in relation to scholarly mathematics, and the mathematics of past generations and different social groups. Notes some of the complexities in seeking to 'culturalize' school mathematics by bringing…

  9. Woman, M.D.: issues, perceptions and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, C J

    1996-01-01

    I would end with some summarizing points and questions. 1. A majority of women identify gender-related issues influencing their career choices and pathways. 2. Women are diverse in their choices and priorities, with varying balances of personal and professional life. 3. Eighty-three percent of the women responding to the survey have married, and 82% of those married have children. They thus are likely to have two sets of seriously competing responsibilities. 4. It is possible to identify especially promising women during residency or fellowship. Exploring their priorities and values with good mentors will be important to avoid short-changing academic medicine of competent women. 5. Men and women need to be SUPERCHOOSERS in making the choices right for that individual, rather than superwomen or supermen. 6. We can question whether the development and potential of women (and some men) in academic medicine could be enhanced by: a. Consideration of guidance or support for child care resources? b. Flexibility in the system (tenure clock, etc.)? c. Identification of limited full-time clinical or research opportunities for faculty with young children or unusual family demands? d. Facilitation of bridging after a period of part-time activity or re-entry after limited participation? e. Consideration of part-time work at home and flexible on-site work hours for periods of special family demands? Finally, a supportive work environment is important for both men and women in medicine and is an essential priority in academic medicine. Medicine is a wonderful field. Academic medicine on my terms, to include family, has been very rewarding. Sometimes there also have been disappointments, in that I have fallen short of some of my aspirations. However, I must accept the responsibility for my choices. I owe a great debt to many of the men and women of the American Clinical and Climatological Association and of Johns Hopkins who are both friends and colleagues and especially to my

  10. Methodological choice and the study of sensitive issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been relatively little concern with methodological issues within the study of religion. In this article the author considers the need for a continuing clarification of how diverse methodological approaches relate to the study of religion in general, and what is more, of certain aspects of the role of the researcher in particular. A main difference between the methodological approaches as referred to in this article — and illustrated by reference to minority studies -is in the closeness of the researcher to his field. One could perhaps state that while the researcher draws nearer to his field in soft approaches the theories remain further away from the empirical data (i.e. in that one creates greater vistas while the opposite is true for those that work with hard data designs, that meta-theories are almost excluded (as pure speculation due to the strict demands for operationalization, as the (effect of the researcher is to a greater extend likewise excluded from the picture. Though in both cases the choices made must naturally be made explicit as must the researcher relate to a qualified discussion between experts who have some kind of relationship to the kind of empirical material or theoretical thinking that is at issue in the particular project.

  11. School Finance Reform. At Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Californians are very concerned about funding for their K-12 public schools. They consistently say that K-12 education should be protected from spending cuts over and above any other area of the state budget. California's system of school finance is in trouble. Many studies have found it to be inequitable, with wide variation in per-pupil funding.…

  12. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maggard,. 1976). Kotler ... positioning strategy for a secondary boys' boarding school should seek to match its .... (in this case, the attributes parents consider important in boarding school selection), ..... Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (3rd ed).

  13. School Choice in an English Village: Living, Loyalty and Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In late modernity, the marketisation of public services has become a global policy phenomenon. In the case of schooling, this has resulted in parents discursively positioned as consumers of education making a choice between providers of education. To date the majority of research on parental choice has focused on the urban; this paper is concerned…

  14. Immigrant Charter Schools: A Better Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Third-grader Jaime of Denver, Colorado, was having a hard time concentrating in school. The son of Mexican immigrants, he had learned to speak English perfectly in his dual-language public school, but reading and writing was another story. When her mother knew about Cesar Chavez Academy, a new tuition-free charter school where the majority of…

  15. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with ...

  16. Balancing the Equation. Supply and Demand in Tomorrow's School Choice Marketplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    School choice is an education reform premised on a simple proposition: give families more choices, and they will find schools that best fit their children's needs. In short, school choice aims to create a marketplace of schooling options. School choice programs will succeed or fail based on how well they are able to create this marketplace and how…

  17. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  18. School Discipline: Special Issues. School Management Handbook Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Elementary School Principals, Arlington, VA.

    This part of the School Management Handbook provides the elementary school administrator with an overview of civil rights issues affecting school discipline policy. The first section treats the requirements for providing due process and avoiding discrimination against minority groups when following disciplinary procedures. Section 2 covers…

  19. Recruiting "Talent": School Choice and Teacher Hiring in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine school leaders' preferences and practices in an environment of widespread decentralization, privatization, and school choice. In New Orleans, such reforms have been enacted citywide since Hurricane Katrina, making it an ideal site to examine what happens when policy makers lift restrictions for…

  20. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  1. Filipino Parents' School Choice and Loyalty: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; de Castro, Belinda V.; Aquino, Kieshia Albert B.; Buenaventura, Melinda Anne R.; Duque, Anna Celina C.; Enriquez, Mark Lawrence D. R.

    2008-01-01

    This quantitative study aims to ascertain the significant relationship existing between parents' profile, and their school choice and school loyalty. Data were gathered using the researcher's two-part made instrument. Respondents were first asked to fill in a "robotfoto" for purpose of profiling their baseline characteristics and were…

  2. Choice in Schooling: A Case for Tuition Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, David W.

    The educational reform movement produced only incremental improvements in student achievement, prompting a need for greater focus on structural and cultural aspects of school organization. Parental choice is the necessary element for successful school reform in the future. The public educational system that has evolved in America is widely…

  3. "I Wanted to Go Here": Adolescents' Perspectives on School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Sandretto, Susan; Hopkins, Debbie; Wilson, Gordon; Moore, Antoni; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    New Zealand legislation removing school zones radically reshaped school choice, resulting in increased school stratification from parental choice frequently driven by social factors such as ethnic makeup of the school community. This article considers school choice through the eyes of 1,465 adolescents from 12 secondary schools in Dunedin (New…

  4. Concussion Management in Schools: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Angela I.; Pierson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The school psychology literature base is lacking in information and resources for working with students with traumatic brain injuries, and concussions specifically. This special issue includes five articles from school psychology based researchers committed to increasing the awareness of the identification, assessment, and intervention for…

  5. A Cross-National Analysis of the Relations of School Choice and Effectiveness Differences between Private-Dependent and Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Avram, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    We apply propensity score matching to the estimation of differential school effectiveness between the publicly funded private sector and the public sector in a sample of 26 countries. This technique allows us to distinguish between school choice and school effectiveness processes and thus to account for selectivity issues involved in the…

  6. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  7. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  8. The influence of school choice policy on active school commuting: a case study of a middle-sized school district in Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Yizhao Yang; Steve Abbott; Marc Schlossberg

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy has implications for school travel as it allows students to attend schools farther from their residence than their neighborhood schools. This paper uses a case study from Oregon to investigate how school choice affects parents’ school travel decision making and the degree to which school choice affects children’s walking or biking to school. The research shows that school choice is associated with lengthened school travel distance and parents’ greater willingness to drive...

  9. The formation of science choices in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, Anna

    2005-04-01

    In this paper I examine the formation of post-16 choices over 3 years among higher achieving students with respect to enrolment in post-compulsory science courses. Transcripts from four interviews carried out over 3 years with 72 secondary school students were qualitatively analysed. Students were found to shape their choices for science in a variety of ways across time. The situation regarding science choices hinges on far more dynamic considerations than the stereotypical image of the potential advanced science student, committed to becoming a scientist from an early age. There is an interplay of self-perception with respect to science, occupational images of working scientists, relationship with significant adults and perceptions of school science The findings are informative for science educators and for career guidance professionals who may need to take into account the complexity of young people's choices.

  10. Antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Falbo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the parent decision-making model of Schneider, Teske, & Marschall (2000 was examined to determine if aspects of this model were useful in understanding the school choices made at the beginning of the school year and the parents' motivation to move to another school at the end. The results provide some support for the view that residential choice is related to enhanced achievement and satisfaction; while, within-district transfers were used more by better educated White parents who did not qualify as low income. Parents' motivation to move their children to another school was greater when they perceived the school as less receptive to their involvement and their children as less successful in school.

  11. School Quality, Exam Performance and Career Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; Rajah, N.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school quality on performance in national exams and the career decision at age 16. We use micro data for the UK, which provides a rich set of variables on parental background, previous achievements, and community variables. We find that,

  12. Stepping Up: How Are American Cities Delivering on the Promise of Public School Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine; Heyward, Georgia; Gross, Betheny

    2017-01-01

    In America today, families in almost every urban community have some kind of public school choice. This report focuses on "public school choice," under which families are able to choose from both an array of traditional public schools and public charter schools. Public school choice has grown rapidly in the past 20 years; new charter…

  13. Spiral of Decline or "Beacon of Hope": Stories of School Choice in a Dual Language School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Colomer, Soria E.

    2015-01-01

    Public schools in some areas of the U.S. are as segregated as they were prior to court-ordered busing, in part due to school choice policies that appear to exacerbate extant segregation. In particular, Latina/o students are increasingly isolated in schools characterized as being in cycles of decline. Our case study of one such school is based on a…

  14. High Pressure Reform: Examining Urban Schools' Response to Multiple School Choice Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Carkhum, Rian; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades, policymakers have sought to address the problem of school failure by exposing traditional public schools to competitive market forces. In this analysis, we examine how two traditional public schools in a "high pressure/high choice" urban school cluster in Texas responded to a number of overlapping choice…

  15. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  16. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  17. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  18. School choice & social stratification: how intra-district transfers shift the racial/ethnic and economic composition of schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristie J R; Larsen, Elisabeth S; Hausman, Charles

    2015-05-01

    The liberation model hypothesizes that school choice liberates students from underperforming schools by giving them the opportunity to seek academically superior schooling options outside of their neighborhoods. Subsequently, school choice is hypothesized to diminish stratification in schools. Data from one urban school district is analyzed to test these hypotheses. We specifically examine which factors influence the propensity for parents to participate in choice, and how school choice changes the racial/ethnic and economic composition of schools. We further examine how school choice influences similar changes within distinct sociogeographic areas within the district. We find that families who are zoned to more racially/ethnically and economically diverse schools in sociogeographically diverse areas are more likely to participate in school choice. We also find that intra-district choice is associated with a slight increase in social stratification throughout the district, with more substantial stratification occurring in the most demographically diverse areas and schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling issues & choices in the data mining optimization ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keet, CM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Data Mining Optimization Ontology (DMOP), which was developed to support informed decision-making at various choice points of the knowledge discovery (KD) process. It can be used as a reference by data miners, but its primary purpose...

  20. The Influence of School on the Choice of Language Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research seeks to examine the role that context or learning situation plays in strategy choice by comparing the strategy patterns of a private English medium secondary and a government secondary school in Botswana. More specifically, the main objectives of this study are to, firstly, investigate whether the 'type of ...

  1. Pupils in Upper Secondary School Sports: Choices Based on What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Magnus; Lund, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In the fields of both education and sport, the possession of capital and habitus influences an individual's lifestyles and choices, which in turn affects the social selection within these fields. In this article, we will study the Swedish system of school sports as an overlap between the fields of education and sport, and thus viewed as a double…

  2. Nutrition Knowledge and Food Choices of Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Jay; Jones, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of a 3-week school-based nutrition education program on nutrition knowledge and healthy food choices of fifth graders randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Found that the experimental group exhibited a significant increase in nutrition knowledge from pretest to posttest and significant change in compliance in…

  3. Does School Choice Increase the Rate of Youth Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Russell S.; King, Kerry A.

    2008-01-01

    Because entrepreneurial activity is a key source of economic growth, promoting youth entrepreneurship has become a priority for policymakers. School choice programs force administrators and teachers to be more entrepreneurial in their jobs by encouraging innovation and by creating competition and a more business-like environment in K-12 education.…

  4. Parental perceptions: a case study of school choice amidst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article stems from a case study of parental school choice which was nested within a longitudinal .... which solidly advocates maintenance if not also development of home languages in .... urban region in South Africa where the language of instruction has become English. ..... Am Main: Multilingualism Network. Heugh K ...

  5. Diversity and Choice in School Education: A Modified Libertarian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Argues from a modified libertarian position that diversity and choice in school education are desirable unless some convincing argument and evidence can be shown that the costs greatly outweigh the benefits and any costs incurred cannot be reduced or overcome by limited state intervention. (MJP)

  6. Selected Legal Issues in Catholic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Mary Angela

    This book examines legal issues that affect Catholic high schools. Chapter 1 discusses sources of the law and how fairness and due process, federal and state statutes, and various guidelines shape the law. Tort law, corporal punishment, search and seizure, defamation of character, and negligence are covered in chapter 2. Chapter 3 details issues…

  7. Rational Choice, Consumer Vulnerability and Empowerment: Diverging Economic Perspectives and Issues for Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Bălău-Ariton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of consumer choice seen from two quite diverging perspectives: rational choice theory and consumer empowerment as it is currently measured by available research at European Union level. The question we try to answer is: In what manner do the assumptions on consumer rational choice influence the actual understanding of choice and the improvement of the fairness of the choice? To this aim we review the basic theoretical ideas on rational choice and consumer empowerment, as well as the conclusions of previous research on Romanian consumers’ empowerment current situation. The main finding of this analysis is that Romanian consumer choice needs more awareness, an increase of consumer skills and more active individual involvement in discussing these issues.

  8. Education Savings Accounts: A Promising Way Forward on School Choice. WebMemo. No. 3382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Across the country, states are enacting and expanding school choice options for families. This year alone, 12 states and the District of Columbia have implemented new school choice options for children or expanded existing options, leading The Wall Street Journal to label 2011 "The Year of School Choice." Among the many school choice…

  9. Current issues in the understanding of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer food choice is framed in terms of the formation of quality expectations before and quality experience after the purchase. For the formation of quality expectations, lack of consumer ability to form expectations that will be predictive of later experience is mentioned as a problem......-called credence qualities - qualities which are invisible to the consumer both before and after the purchase. Such qualities provide a challenge for communication about the product, not only to induce consumers to buy the product, but also to reinforce their choice after the purchase. Concerning experienced...... quality after the purchase, the role of home production - turning products into meals - is mentioned as important, but underresearced topic. Finally, differences in consumer behaviour between normal situations and situations of food crises are addressed. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  10. Macro Issues of Mikro Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bray

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mikro Primary School is an Afrikaans medium public school whose governing body refused to accede to an order of the Western Cape Department of Education to change the language policy of the school so as to convert it into a parallel medium Afrikaans/English school. The Supreme Court of Appeal held that section 29(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, means that everyone has a right to be educated in an official language of his or her choice at a public educational institution to be provided by the State if reasonably practicable, but not the right to be so instructed at each and every public educational institution, subject only to it being reasonably practicable to do so. The court held that the language policy and admission policy of Mikro were not contrary to any provision of the Constitution, the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996, the Western Cape Provincial School Education Act 12 of 1997 or the Norms and Standards. The MEC and the department were prohibited and restrained from compelling or attempting to compel the school or its principal to admit learners for instruction otherwise than in compliance with its language policy and applicable provisions of the Schools Act and the Norms and Standards. The court declared the conduct of the department’s officials to be an unlawful interference with the government and professional management of the school in contravention of section 16 of the Schools Act and prohibited and restrained them from interfering unlawfully. The court rejected a previous interpretation of the term “organ of state” and relied on the Constitution which determines that any institution exercising a public power or performing a public function in terms of any legislation is an organ of state (section 239(b(ii. This means that the public school (acting through its governing body is clearly an organ of state because as an institution it exercises a public-education power and performs public

  11. The Choice between Rights-Preserving Issue Methods : Regulatory and Financial Aspects of Issuing Seasoned Equity in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, A.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the choice between two rights-preserving issue methods of seasoned equity offers in the UK as well as the factors determining the offer price and stock market announcement reactions.Firstly, equity issues in the UK are underwritten for different reasons than in other

  12. The Choice between Rights-Preserving Issue Methods: Regulatory and Financial Aspects of Issuing Seasoned Equity in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Korteweg, A.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the choice between two rights-preserving issue methods of seasoned equity offers in the UK as well as the factors determining the offer price and stock market announcement reactions.Firstly, equity issues in the UK are underwritten for different reasons than in other countries.Only severely financially distressed companies choose not to underwrite their share offer. Second, the average announcement reaction to non-underwritten issues is much more negative than to underwrit...

  13. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  14. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.

  15. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589

  16. Issues of Language Choice, Ethics and Equity: Japanese Retirees Living in Malaysia as Their Second Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapa, Siti Hamin; Musaev, Talaibek; Hieda, Natsue; Amzah, Normalis

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss two issues related to Japanese retirees adopting Malaysia as their second home. The first is that of the preferred language choice of the retirees. To collect data for language choice a self-report questionnaire was administered and an interview was conducted. The findings suggest that the majority of the retirees chose…

  17. "It's Our Best Choice Right Now": Exploring How Charter School Parents Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying premises of the charter school movement is that quality drives consumer choice. As educational consumers, parents are viewed as rational actors who, if given the choice, will select better performing school. In examining the choice processes of charter school parents, however, this study calls into question the extent to…

  18. Affect of school related factors in the student's choices of the high school

    OpenAIRE

    Gönül Cengiz; Osman Titrek; Özcan Erkan Akgün

    2007-01-01

    It is studied that to determine the school related factors which affects the students’ choices of the high school, according to the type of the schools. This is a survey study. The participants are 523  9 th grade students in 21 secondary schools in Adapazarı. SPSS is used for analyzing data. Kay-Kare Test is used to determine the demografic differences due to the type of the school. To analyze the data for the school related factors, Kruskal Wallis is used. As a result, it is expr...

  19. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice criteria of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Vigar-Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with boarding schools throughout the country and beyond. Customers base their choices ofproducts and services on their perceptions of various offerings available, evaluated according to selection criteria they deem to be important. Marketing theory uses the term "positioning" to describe the process ofconstructing the place that a product occupies in the customer's mind relative to competing products. For schools in this sector to position themselves appropriately, they first need to determine the criteria parents use to evaluate one school against another. This study set out to determine these criteria. A sample of 169 parents and old boys, chosen using the database of a particular boys' boarding school in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, were sent questionnaires. Quantitative analysis was conducted to determine the most important criteria. The top two criteria were found to be a safe environment and competent staff.

  20. Understanding school travel : how residential location choice and the built environment affect trips to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This project investigates issues related to parents decisions about childrens school transportation. This has become an important area : of research due to the growing concerns that increased reliance on private automobile in school travel has ...

  1. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  2. The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I chronicle the recent history of efforts to broaden school choice in the Commonwealth of Australia and the opposition to these efforts put forth by Australia's largest teacher union, the Australian Education Union (AEU). Evidence is presented on the positive effects that flow from the public funding of nongovernment schools and…

  3. Nuclear choice: are health and safety issues pre-empted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, G.B. II.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines the scope of the NRC's regulatory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act in order to determine its proper effect on state siting laws. At the outset, a brief history of federal regulation of commercial nuclear power plants is set forth, and the cases that have dealt with the pre-emption issue in this area are reviewed. Next, an examination of the doctrine of federal pre-emption is conducted, focussing on the legal principles as they have been developed by the Supreme Court. Since the application of the pre-emption doctrine turns largely on the intent of Congress, the Atomic Energy Act and other pertinent federal legislation are examined to discern how far Congress has sought to extend its power over regulation of nuclear power. Some policy questions are also explored to determine whether it is appropriate to imply an intent on the part of Congress to pre-empt the field. Finally, a conclusion having been reached, the practical problems of what types of evidence may be admitted into the state siting agency's hearing are discussed and some solutions offered

  4. Design choices and issues in fixed-target B experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1993-01-01

    The main priority of any experiment on B physics in the years to come will be an endeavour to observe CP violation in the B sector. Such measurements imply the following requirements of the experiment. Trigger: a muon trigger will be sensitive to J/ψ reactions and muon tags; an electron trigger will double the number of lepton events; in order to include kaon tags and self-tagging reactions, the experiment must not rely entirely on lepton triggers. Secondary Vertex triggers and hadron p T triggers should be included in order to have the maximum flexibility. Detector: vertex detector; particle identification; good momentum resolution; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters; muon detector. In addition the following issues have to be addressed: Collider or fixed-target mode? If fixed target, extracted beam or internal target? If internal target, gas jet or wire target? If a gas jet, hydrogen or a heavy gas? Beam pipe design. Silicon microvertex design and radiation damage. K s 0 decay path. Particle identification. Momentum resolution. Order of detectors. No single method stands out as the open-quotes obvious one.close quotes An extracted beam yields better vertex resolution and an internal target easier triggering. A flexible and diverse triggering scheme is of prime importance in order to be sensitive to as many reactions as possible, the experiment should not be limited to lepton triggers only. Proposed experiments (P867, HERA B) at existing machines will be invaluable for testing new devices and strategies for the LHC and SSC experiments

  5. How Do Marginalized Families Engage in School Choice in Inequitable Urban Landscapes? A Critical Geographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The normalization of school choice in the education system is purported to provide more schooling options for all families, particularly those who do not have the means to move into affluent areas with "better" schools. Nonetheless, it is still unclear to what extent the policy of school choice has been effective in achieving the goal of…

  6. The Readability and Complexity of District-Provided School-Choice Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marc L.; Nagro, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public school choice has become a common feature in American school districts. Any potential benefits that could be derived from these policies depend heavily on the ability of parents and students to make informed and educated decisions about their school options. We examined the readability and complexity of school-choice guides across a sample…

  7. Between 'Enrichment' and 'Endangerment': 'Cultural Diversity' and the Politics of Belonging in the Berlin School Choice Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Anna; Dean, Isabel; Breidenstein, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Even though choice is not officially a feature in the German primary school system, some parents intervene in determining which school their child attends. Especially in urban contexts, the informal school market is growing. This demand is based on promises with respect to a certain quality of education as well as on issues that prevail in certain…

  8. How School Choice Programs Can Save Money. WebMemo #727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    Educational choice can improve educational achievement and states' bottom lines. Not only do choice programs help students from lower-income families attend schools that they otherwise might not be able to attend, but they can also save money in the process. A record number of state legislatures have considered school choice legislation this year,…

  9. Interest, Not Preference: Dewey and Reframing the Conceptual Vocabulary of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2016-01-01

    School choice positions parents as consumers who select schools that maximize their preferences. This account has been shaped by rational choice theory. In this essay, Terri Wilson contrasts a rational choice framework of "preferences" with John Dewey's understanding of "interest." To illustrate this contrast, she draws on an…

  10. Going Through Medical School and Considering the Choice of Family Medicine: Prescription or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauksch, Hans O.; And Others

    A study of the choice of specialty by medical students suggests that Family Medicine depends on students whose choice predates medical school; the number of those interested diminishes significantly over the four years. Interviews suggest several characteristics of the medical school that mitigate against the choice of family medicine and steer…

  11. Teachers’ Working Conditions Amid Swedish School Choice Reform: Avenues for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Åsa Parding

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, governance changes, including customer choice agendas, have permeated the public sector and, consequently, welfare sector professionals’ work. One example is the education sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss avenues for further research when it comes to teachers’ working conditions in the light of current choice agendas. This is accomplished by presenting an overview of previous studies on implications of the reforms for teachers’ working conditions. How are these conditions described in relation to the current school choice agenda in Sweden? What directions should be applied to increase knowledge of these conditions? We conclude by identifying some avenues for further research: the issues of organization of work, temporal and spatial dimensions of working conditions, and finally comparative studies of various forms, are suggested as warranting further investigation to highlight the diversified labor market in which teachers find themselves today.Keywords: Competition, governance change, privatization, professional work, school choice, Sweden, teaching profession, working conditions

  12. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  13. School Choice: Private School Choice Programs Are Growing and Can Complicate Providing Certain Federally Funded Services to Eligible Students. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-16-712

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Voucher and education savings account (ESA) programs fund students' private school education expenses, such as tuition. In school year 2014-15, 22 such school choice programs were operating nationwide, all but one of which was state funded. Under two federal grant programs, one for students with disabilities and one for students from disadvantaged…

  14. School Quality and Social Stratification: The Determinants and Consequences of Parental School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven M.

    Those who favor expansion of consumer choice in education claim that competition would force schools to improve. Critics claim that it would sort students by race and class. A competitive market will provide what consumers demand, yet neither side has empirical evidence on such consumer preferences to back up their claims. This paper offers such…

  15. Determinants of School Choice: Understanding How Parents Choose Elementary Schools in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Rational choice theory suggests that parents are utility maximizers who make decisions from clear value preferences, that they are able to demand effective action from local schools and teachers, and that they can be relied upon to pursue the best interests of their children. This paper presents a different perspective and argues that parents…

  16. Motivations influencing the specialty choices of medical school graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zarghami M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing national concern about distortions in the size, specially composition, and availability of the physician workforce -especially after "cultural revolution n- has evoked challenges in Iran. Purpose: To determine various factors that influence medical graduates choices for residency program. Methods: All applicants for residency program in Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences and Health Services completed the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire, and rated each factor using 0 to 4 Likert-type scale. Factors' ratings were also compared across applicants of different residency program, and demographic variables. Results: The top two factors rated as having strong influences were ones related to interest in helping peop1e (rated 3.07, and intellectual content of the specially (rated 3. Malpractice insurance cost has the least influence (rated 0.98. Most of men preferred independence, whereas most of women preferred predictable working hours. Opportunity to make differences in people's l(fe influenced the specially choices of usual participants. whereas those who used war veterans quota paid more attention to independence and exercise of social responsibility. Patient contact factors were less important to graduates who chose diagnostic speciafties. Also, there was a significant association between the participants' age and four factors. Conclusion: These graduates based their specially preference heavily on the opportunity that the specially affords to help people, and intellectual content of the specially. Knowing the hierarchy of influences on graduates' motivations should help education strategists determine what experiences and perceptions must change if a different mix of specially decision is to result. Keywords: SPECIAL TY, MEDICAL SCHOOL, SARI, MAZANDARAN

  17. Neglected Issues: How Charter Schools Manage Teachers and Acquire Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Hall, Stephanie M.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter schools are commonly discussed as being more effective at matching student and family interests with school mission, ensuring family choice of educational products and improving education quality and the efficiency of resource use as a result of the competitive dynamics they are assumed to generate between themselves…

  18. Middle School Administrators’ Beliefs and Choices about Using Corporal Punishment and Exclusionary Discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students’ punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators’ choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents,

  19. K-12 Schools: The Effect of Public School Choices on Marine Families’ Co-Location Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE K-12 SCHOOLS: THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC SCHOOL CHOICES ON MARINE FAMILIES’ CO...be educated ? One theory regarding decision-making in general is the rational choice theory . This approach to explaining the process of making...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. K-12 SCHOOLS

  20. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  1. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.

  2. School children's own views, roles and contribution to choices regarding diet and activity in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dicastillo, O; Grande, G; Callery, P

    2013-01-01

      Behaviours regarding food and activity are learned during childhood and continue throughout life. Children can be very important agents in making decisions concerning their own well-being and care and their perspective is essential to understanding how they and/or others make choices for them to achieve a healthy lifestyle. However, their perspectives remain under-researched. This study provides an insight into school children's own perspectives, behaviours and contribution to food and activity choices.   The paper reports on the findings from an ethnographic study with 38 Spanish children aged 5-7 years. Information was obtained through participant observations, diaries kept by children and group interviews. Data were analysed using techniques of analytical induction and constant comparison.   The children who took part in this study described choices about activities with enthusiasm. Children saw activity as a way of learning new things, mastering skills and socializing. They were willing to try and experience new activities and games. However, the activities performed depended on parents' agendas and security issues. In contrast, children reported less interest in and active involvement in food choices. They contributed to family food choices indirectly through the expression of their preferences, not wanting to eat what they disliked or tasting new foods.   Children had strong preferences and motivations, particularly about activities which could be harnessed in interventions to prevent obesity and promote healthy diet and activity. Parental involvement and commitment is also important both to encourage exercise according to children's interests and active informed food choices, including introduction to unfamiliar foods. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Girls, Boys and Subject Choice: A Report on Sex Differences in Participation Rates in Subjects in Western Australian Government Secondary Schools. Discussion Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Jim

    Many of the issues confronting schools and society relate to the changing roles of males and females. Concern has also been expressed over the preparedness of graduates to face an uncertain job market and rapid technological change. To study the relationship between school subject choice and career opportunities for Australian youth, school…

  4. Political Justice, Schooling and Issues of Group Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article explores issues associated with schooling and political justice. Such issues are understood in light of the contention surrounding how Western schooling contexts might best represent marginalised groups--in ways that accord them a political voice. The significance of group identity politics is explored drawing on international debates…

  5. Can Public Transportation Improve Students' Access to Denver's Best Schools of Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bethany; Denice, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Transportation remains a vexing concern in cities that offer students school choice. Time and again, research has shown that families typically want high-performing schools or schools with unique academic programs. But those schools tend to be concentrated in a city's affluent neighborhoods, often long distances from low-income households and…

  6. Choice and Diversity of Schooling Provision: Does the Emperor Have Any Clothes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Politicians have been fascinated with choice and diversity in schooling provision for more than a decade now and this intense interest shows no sign of abating. In this article, the author suggests that the precise connection between choice and diversity in schooling provision is very little understood, and that the relationship between them…

  7. A Case Study of School Choice and Special Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Lisa E.

    2017-01-01

    School choice is deeply rooted in the marketization theories originally presented by Milton Friedman in the 1950s. There are many school choice options available in Arizona. The purpose and primary research question of this case study explored how a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) and other factors influenced the parents' decisions to…

  8. School Choice and the Pressure To Perform: Deja Vu for Children with Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.; Welner, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the tension between the principles underlying the inclusion of students with disabilities and those underlying school choice, particularly market competition and parental autonomy. It examines findings from five states and a case study of a school-choice system that indicate the exclusion of students with disabilities.…

  9. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  10. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Munro, Geoffrey; Buykx, Penny; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John; Clark, Madeline

    2017-08-01

    Children's positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults' alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government) schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults' alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals' and school communities' beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults' use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  11. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  12. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  13. A Case Study of Technology Choices by High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens-Hartman, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine student technology choices when given the freedom to choose technology devices to complete a project-based learning activity in a content area of study. The study also analyzed factors affecting technology choice as well as how technology proficiency scores aligned to technology choices. Patterns and…

  14. Charter Schools: An Experiment in School Reform. ASPIRA Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Belinda Corazon; And Others

    Charter schools incorporate the focus of magnet schools but often go beyond their academic specialization to more social goals. They can operate at both elementary and secondary levels, although they are always quite small. The greatest difference, however, between charter schools and other public schools is their status as a bridge between public…

  15. Ethnic Conflicts in Schools. Multicultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Susan

    This book for young readers explores ethnic conflict in the schools. Public schools in the United States are among some of the places where members of a country's different ethnic and racial groups are brought together and required to work together more closely. A racial group is a group of people who share certain physical traits and often share…

  16. Students? approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students? characteristics and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students? medical school choice and their relationship with students? characteristics and motivation during the students? medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and sta...

  17. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read.…

  18. The Choice of Law Issues in Resolution of Marine Insurance Disputes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnia Rani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine insurance business in Indonesia such as marine hull and machinery insurance and cargo insurance are subject to applicable laws and practices in the United Kingdom. Although Indonesia already has marine insurance law which is regulated in Wetboek van Koophandel, in fact, this busisness subject to English Law and Practice. The choice of law are listed in the insurance policy. Submission of the law and practice in UK raises the issue for the parties in the insurance contract, between Insurer and Insured. Although the principle of contract is a law for those who make it, but in practice there is a problem. The problem is especially when there is a dispute between Insurer and Insured. When disputes occur, each party has a different opinion regarding which country's laws may be applied to resolve disputes between Insurance Companies and Policyholders (the proper law of the contract, the applicable law. When referring to the provisions contained in the marine insurance policy which is a contract of the parties, it should be settled under the legal system and practice of law which is in force in the United Kingdom, because the choice of law is written in the contract. However, the problem arises again, whether the choice of law in the insurance contract can be applied, if the insurance company as a legal entity is established under Indonesian law and domiciled in Indonesia, as well as the policy holders who are Indonesian. On the basis of such matters, this paper intended to elaborate the principles of international civil law in Indonesia regarding the choice of law in the contract and is also associated with the personal status of the insurance company, the personal status of the policyholder who are Indonesian, as well as the consequences of the choice of law listed in marine hull and machinery insurance or cargo insurance and national laws which can be applied to marine insurance disputes occurring in Indonesia.  Keywords : Marine Insurance

  19. School and family effects on the ontogeny of children's interests, self-perceptions, and activity choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J S

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we have presented two perspectives on the link between social context and the following motivational constructs: self-concept of ability and sense of personal efficacy in specific activity domains; perceptions of the value of skills in various domains; interest in various activities; activity choice; persistence; performance; and general self-esteem. In the first section, we discussed how social-contextual variables in both the family and the home could produce individual differences in the motivational constructs of interest. We presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our recent empirical work. In the second section, we discussed how systematic changes in the social environments that confront children as they develop could explain age-related changes in the motivational constructs of interest. Again we presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our empirical work testing the hypotheses generated from this framework. Throughout this section we have argued that optimal development takes place when there is good stage-environment fit between the needs of developing individuals and the opportunities afforded in their social environments. Furthermore, we suggested that the negative changes in motivational variables often associated with early adolescent development result from regressive changes in school and home environments. For example, the transition to junior high school, in particular, often confronts early adolescents with regressive environmental changes such as a decrease in the opportunity to participate in classroom decision making, a decrease in teacher support and teacher efficacy, and an increase in teaching styles and reporting practices likely to induce a focus on relative ability and comparative performance as well as excessive social comparison. Not surprisingly, there is also a decrease in intrinsic motivation and an increase in school misbehavior associated with this

  20. Power issues at school; Energie macht Schule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heup, Juergen

    2011-09-15

    Energy and power are not only current issues in politics and society but also subjects for the classroom. In these time of short budgets, energy consultants are able to offer free teaching materials. However, this is a controversial issue as they may take the opportunity to advertise themselves.

  1. Parental Choice of School, Class Strategies, and Educational Inequality: An Essay Review of "School Choice in China--A Different Tale?" (X. Wu, New York, NY: Routledge, 2014, 168 pp. ISBN 978-0-415-81769-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasingly global nature of marketized school choice policies, this makes it even more crucial to investigate how the multiple scales, forms, and emphases of school choice in different countries are influenced by particular political, economic, and cultural conditions. While much of the critical research on school choice policies has…

  2. The Geography of School Choice in a City with Growing Inequality: The Case of Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin

    2018-01-01

    This analysis aims to measure the impact of school choice policy on secondary school students' enrolment patterns within the social geography of Vancouver, an increasingly polarized global city. The rationale for the study is to examine the impact of "education market" reforms on the socio-economic composition of schools in a Canadian…

  3. The New Orleans OneApp: Centralized Enrollment Matches Students and Schools of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.; Valant, Jon; Gross, Betheny

    2015-01-01

    In most of the U.S., the process for assigning children to public schools is straightforward: take a student's home address, determine which school serves that address, and assign the student accordingly. However, states and cities are increasingly providing families with school choices. A key question facing policymakers is exactly how to place…

  4. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  5. Struggles for Educational Equity in Prince Edward County, VA: Resistance, Southern Manifesto Ideologies, and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillerson-Brown, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In light of contemporary school choice proposals and the 60th anniversary of the Southern Manifesto, the Prince Edward County, Virginia public schools crisis provides interesting historical discussion. Prince Edward County (PEC), a rural community in central Virginia, was one of five school districts represented in the 1954 "Brown v. Board of…

  6. School Choice, Gentrification, and the Variable Significance of Racial Stratification in Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Francis A., III; Swain, Walker A.

    2017-01-01

    Racial and socioeconomic stratification have long governed patterns of residential sorting in the American metropolis. However, recent expansions of school choice policies that allow parents to select schools outside their neighborhood raise questions as to whether this weakening of the neighborhood-school connection might influence the…

  7. Determinants of Tracking Intentions, and Actual Education Choices among Junior High School Students in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingquan; Loyalka, Prashant; Wei, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes rural middle school students' tracking intentions (academic high school, vocational high school, or going to work), actual education choices, and the factors affecting them, using a random sampled baseline survey and follow-up survey of 2,216 second-year students residing outside of county seats in forty-one impoverished…

  8. The Tax-Credit Scholarship Audit: Do Publicly Funded Private School Choice Programs Save Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    This report follows up on previous work that examined the fiscal effects of private school voucher programs. It estimates the total fiscal effects of tax-credit scholarship programs--another type of private school choice program--on state governments, state and local taxpayers, and school districts combined. Based on a range of assumptions, these…

  9. The Economics of School Choice. A National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxby, Caroline M., Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of a series of conferences held by the National Bureau of Economic Research on school finance, public economics, and school choice. After an introduction by Carolyn M. Hoxby, the papers are: (1) "Does Public School Competition Affect Teacher Quality?" (Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin); (2) "Can School…

  10. Choice, Stability and Excellence: Parent and Professional Choice in Buffalo's Magnet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    1986-01-01

    Reports on teacher, principal, parent, and student reactions to a desegregation plan implemented in Buffalo, New York, which permits teachers to choose the magnet schools in which they desire to teach and parents to select their children's schools. (GC)

  11. Avoiding the "Inexorable Push toward Homogenization" in School Choice: Education Savings Accounts as Hedges against Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that rational choice dynamics will lead to diversity of school supply is at the heart of K-12 school choice arrangements. Yet as the field of school choice becomes more established, there will be the "inexorable push toward homogenization." If vouchers, tuition tax credit scholarships, and education savings accounts become…

  12. Schools of Education: Legal and Political Issues of Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Robert H.; Florio, David H.

    1977-01-01

    A policy-making forum created to examine substantive issues related to the formulation of a national accreditation policy for schools of education will help sort out and accommodate differences in ideological positions. (Author)

  13. Boys' Boarding School Management: Understanding the Choice Criteria of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with boarding schools throughout the…

  14. Challenges of Charter Schools with Special Education: Issues of Concern for Charter School Authorizers and Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Kaniturk Kose

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charter schools, as one type of school choice, have been attracting a growing number of students since first inception in Minnesota in 1991. Although charter schools are a fledgling reform, they are already a significant part of the federal and state efforts to improve schools and have a growing number of students. Like traditional public schools, charter schools accept all students equally. As a result, they are also obligated to support and serve students with disabilities and meet the requirements of constitutional provisions and federal laws enacted for students with disabilities. This article intends to provide a succinct literature review examining the operational and organizational challenges regarding the design and delivery of special education in the young charter school movement so that charter school authorizers and service providers are cognizant of the issues of concern when serving students with disabilities at charter schools. The literature was located through searching through the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC, Google Scholar, and the Dissertation Abstracts International. Other information is gleaned from the U.S. Department of Education, Center for Education Reform, and the federal and state statutes regarding students with disabilities.

  15. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  16. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  17. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  18. Internships in School Psychology: Selection and Accreditation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, W. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students in school psychology often report unique issues and challenges when seeking a doctoral internship. The number and range of accredited internship positions available to School Psychology (SP) students in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Match is quite limited, and they often obtain…

  19. Emerging Crucial Issues for School and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dwight W.

    This monograph contends that education in the future can best prepare students to deal with pressing social issues if it works toward three major objectives. These objectives are: (1) to prepare people to live according to a productive work ethic in which work and leisure pursuits are balanced; (2) to instill in students a life ethic in which…

  20. Avoiding Corporal Punishment in School: Issues for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Sinclair, Esther

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the legal status and societal values that promote the use of corporal punishment in public schools, and on the role of the elementary school counselor in helping teachers deal with punishment. Discusses factors affecting the effectiveness of punishment and suggests alternatives. (JAC)

  1. Planning, Promoting and Passing School Tax Issues. [Revised Edition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Robert L.; Pittner, Nicholas A.

    This book provides Ohio citizens with information on school tax issues and levy campaigning. The material is presented in a structural step-by-step process that lends itself to the practical application for preparing a levy. This book is a guide to understanding various tax issues, tax reduction factors, and the changing tax duplicate that affects…

  2. Citizens and/or Consumers: Mutations in the Construction of Concepts and Practices of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on school choice highlights the tendency among some White, middle-class parents to engage with discourses of community responsibility and ethnic diversity as part of their responsibility and duty as choosers and who therefore exercise choice in ways that undercut the individualistic and self-interested character framing…

  3. The Impact of Middle-School Students' Feedback Choices and Performance on Their Feedback Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Maria; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel examination of the impact of students' feedback choices and performance on their feedback memory. An empirical study was designed to collect the choices to seek critical feedback from a hundred and six Grade 8 middle-school students via Posterlet, a digital assessment game in which students design posters. Upon…

  4. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  5. School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of eleventh grade students in South Korea, we investigated how the residentially based school assignment policy called the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP) shaped the separation of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) students between schools. We found that there was a smaller between-school…

  6. Making Good Choices: Districts Take the Lead. Comprehensive School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…

  7. Preventing School Employee Sexual Misconduct: An Outcome Survey Analysis of Making Right Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Glenn; Grant, Billie-Jo; Mueller, Jessica; Sonnich, Steve

    2018-05-30

    This treatment-only study examines the impact of Making Right Choices, an online course prevention program designed to promote the knowledge, awareness, and prevention of school employee sexual misconduct. The sample included 13,007 school employee participants who took the Making Right Choices course between May 6, 2011, and March 12, 2017, in California and New York. The 20-item measure, Preventing Misconduct Assessment, was administered to participants at the end of the online course; completion of the measure was voluntary. Descriptive statistics revealed that a large majority of participants reported increasing their knowledge and awareness of school employee sexual misconduct because of their participation in the Making Right Choices online course. This study yields important findings regarding the impact of a sexual misconduct prevention program and, specifically, the difference it may make for non-licensed school employees. These findings indicate that school employees are accepting of sexual misconduct training programs and rate them as having value.

  8. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  9. Enhancing School Wellness Environments to Make to Make the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, JA; Alie, K

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Health’s Division of Prevention & Health Promotion has partnered with Virginia Cooperative Extension’s Family Nutrition Program and Virginia Tech in order to enhance Extension’s efforts to promote and support student health in select K-12 schools by implementing a variety of evidence-based nutrition and physical activity platforms intended to enhance school wellness environments, policies, and practices. Additionally, the implementation of a consistent statewide hea...

  10. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  11. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  13. Title I Middle School Administrators' Beliefs and Choices about Using Corporal Punishment and Exclusionary Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students' punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators' choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents, their job requirements, the expectations of students'…

  14. Adolescents' Views about a Proposed Rewards Intervention to Promote Healthy Food Choice in Secondary School Canteens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…

  15. Whose Choice?: Student Experiences and Outcomes in the New Orleans School Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Frank; Cook-Harvey, Channa; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    As charters and other public and private schools of choice have created a new landscape in many urban areas across the country, some districts have adopted the idea of creating "portfolios" of options. Central to the philosophy of a portfolio district is continuous improvement, as lowest-performing schools are transformed or replaced.…

  16. High School Track Choice and Financial Constraints: Evidence from Urban Mexico. Policy Research Working Paper 7427

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro; Bobba, Matteo; Pariguana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Parents and students from different socioeconomic backgrounds value differently school characteristics, but the reasons behind this preference heterogeneity are not well understood. In the context of the centralized school assignment system in Mexico City, this study analyzes how a large household income shock affects choices over high school…

  17. School Choice Options Limit Access to Higher Education for Various Groups of Students in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco; Picard, France

    2017-01-01

    The choice of selected school options by pupils in secondary school, particularly mathematics and physical sciences, have implications for future educational pathways in higher education [Felouzis, G. (1997). "L'efficacité des enseignants, Sociologie de la relation pédagogique." Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Moreau, G. (2005).…

  18. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  19. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  20. The Inequalities in School Choice in Spain in Accordance to PISA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardibul, Josep-Oriol; Villarroya, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In Spain as in other European countries, policies on school choice have been implemented in tandem with the channelling of public resources into private education. Given the application of public money to private schooling, the primary objective of this paper is to analyse the extent to which Spanish families enjoy equality in their ability to…

  1. Can Interdistrict Choice Boost Student Achievement? The Case of Connecticut's Interdistrict Magnet School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert; Cobb, Casey D.; Bell, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    Connecticut's interdistrict magnet schools offer a model of choice-based desegregation that appears to satisfy current legal constraints. This study presents evidence that interdistrict magnet schools have provided students from Connecticut's central cities access to less racially and economically isolated educational environments and estimates…

  2. School Choice and Market Failure: How Politics Trumps Economics in Education and Elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteritti, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay traces the roots of the equity approach to school choice to the work of Coons & Sugarman, which began as an outgrowth of their involvement with the landmark California school finance case, "Serrano v. Priest" (1971). Comparing the equity approach to the market model espoused by Milton Friedman, the author argues that the former is…

  3. Trust and Parents' Involvement in Schools of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Michal; Katz, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers and policymakers have been focusing for the last three decades on increasing parental involvement in schools. Their work focused on the positive effects that parental involvement has on varied aspects of school quality and functioning. In this study we examined "trust," a known predictor of parental involvement in…

  4. School Choice: Neoliberal Education Policy and Imagined Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The launch in Australia of a government website that compares all schools on the basis of student performance in standardized tests illustrates the extent to which neoliberal policies have been entrenched. This paper examines the problematic nature of choosing schools within the powerful political context of neoliberalism. It illustrates how key…

  5. Children as Researchers in Primary Schools: Choice, Voice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, Sue

    2012-01-01

    "Children as Researchers in Primary Schools" is an innovative and unique resource for practitioners supporting children to become "real world" researchers in the primary classroom. It will supply you with the skills and ideas you need to implement a "children as researchers" framework in your school that can be adapted for different ages and…

  6. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  7. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  8. Issues and challenges in implementing mobile learning in malaysian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Mariam; Woollard, John

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the issues and challenges in implementing mobile learning via mobile phones to support English Language learning in Malaysian schools. The findings are drawn from interviews of English subject leaders, ICT subject leaders, head teachers and deputy head teachers from 4 schools in the United Kingdom. In addition, the study also describes the perspectives from the experts in education in Malaysia. They are English subject leaders, ICT subject leaders, head teachers, deputy h...

  9. Modeling school choice: A comparison of public, private-independent, private-religious and home-schooled students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive R. Belfield

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private–religious schooling, private–independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legalization across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to investigate the motivation for home-schooling, relative to the other schooling options. Here, we use two recent large-scale datasets to assess the school enrollment decision: the first is the National Household Expenditure Survey (1999, and the second is micro-data on SAT test-takers in 2001. We find that, generally, families with home-schoolers have similar characteristics to those with children at other types of school, but mother’s characteristics – specifically, her employment status – have a strong influence on the decision to home-school. Plausibly, religious belief has an important influence on the schooling decision, not only for Catholic students, but also those of other faiths.

  10. Complexity of Choice: Teachers' and Students' Experiences Implementing a Choice-Based Comprehensive School Health Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulz, Lauren; Gibbons, Sandra; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Wharf Higgins, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive School Health models offer a promising strategy to elicit changes in student health behaviours. To maximise the effect of such models, the active involvement of teachers and students in the change process is recommended. Objective: The goal of this project was to gain insight into the experiences and motivations of…

  11. Ventilation in school buildings. Special issue; Ventilatie in schoolgebouwen. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Bruchem, M.; Smits, E.H.J.; Van Dijken, F. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Joosten, L.; Clocquet, R. [DHV Bouw en Industrie, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Pernot, C. [TNO Bouw, Delft (Netherlands); Haans, L.; Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leenaerts, C.L.M.; Donze, G.J. [W/E adviseurs duurzaam bouwen, Gouda (Netherlands); Leysen, L.M. [Astma Fonds, Leusden (Netherlands); Blezer, I.H.W. [Hollman Adviseurs, Venlo (Netherlands); Meester, A.W.J. [Alusta, Natuurlijke Ventilatietechniek, Etten Leur (Netherlands); Bronsema, B. [Faculteit der Bouwkunde, Bronsema Consult, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    In this special issue one editorial and 9 articles are dedicated to several aspects with regard to ventilation in school buildings: (1) healthy and draught-free ventilation in schools; (2) air quality and comfort in primary schools; (3) preparatory study on the indoor environment in primary schools; (4) options to improve ventilation in school buildings; (5) the relation between the indoor environment in classrooms and the health of students; (6) the activities of the Asthma Fund to create healthy school buildings for children suffering asthma; (7) the necessity of mechanical ventilation in school buildings; (8) demand-controlled ventilation in schools; (9) first experiences with a newly built primary school. [Dutch] In deze speciale aflevering zijn 1 redactioneel artikel en 9 artikelen gewijd aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. ventilatie in schoolgebouwen: (1) onderzoek naar gezond en tochtvrij ventileren; (2) luchtkwaliteit en comfort op basisscholen: (3) voorstudie binnenmilieu basisscholen; (4) opties om de ventilatie in scholen te verbeteren; (5) de relatie tussen het binnenmilieu in klaslokalen en de gezondheid van studenten; (6) activiteiten van het Astma Fonds voor gezonde schoolgebouwen voor kinderen met astma; (7) de noodzaak voor mechanische ventilatie in schoolgebouwen; (8) vraaggestuurde ventilatie in scholen; (9) de eerste ervaringen in een nieuwe basisschool in Voorschoten.

  12. Review of "School Choice by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs 1990-2006"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This review considers the recently released study by Susan Aud of the Milton & Rose D. Friedman Foundation, concerning the fiscal effects of school vouchers policies. Aud calculates the simple difference between, on the one hand, state and local government spending on students attending traditional public schools, and, on the other, the government…

  13. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W G; Hulsman, Robert L; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-12

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students' characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Students indicated 'city' (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and 'selection procedure' (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students' medical study. Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students' different approaches is important.

  14. Students’ approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students’ medical school choice and their relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation during the students’ medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students’ characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Results Students indicated ‘city’ (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and ‘selection procedure’ (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students’ medical study. Conclusions Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students’ different approaches is important. PMID:28624778

  15. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. In Defense of Societal Issues as Organizers for School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Offers a defense of societal issues as organizers for school science programs in response to criticisms of this thesis discussed in SE 534 649. Indicates that there appears to be no evidence that using nontraditional topics as organizers will make science more subject to manipulation and perversion. (JN)

  17. Science choices and preferences of middle and secondary school students in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J. Hugh; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Allman, Verl

    This research sought to answer two questions: (1) What are Utah junior and senior high school students' preferences and choices regarding science subjects? (2) Could preferences and choices be related to the type of school, age or gender? Two thousand students from grades six through twelve participated in this study. Findings show that zoology and human anatomy and physiology were most preferred. Ecology was least prefered. Topics in the physical sciences were also low. There was a trend among girls to prefer natural sciences such as botany while boys tended to prefer the physical sciences. Generally, students' choices were limited to those subjects presently taught in the formal school curriculum. They appeared unaware of the many science related subjects outside the texts or the approved course of study.

  18. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  19. Pension Choices and the Savings Patterns of Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the savings behavior of public school teachers who are enrolled in a hybrid pension plan that includes a defined contribution (DC) component. Few states have incorporated DC features into teacher pension systems and little is known about how providing teachers with greater control over deferred compensation might affect their…

  20. Identifying Influencers in High School Student ICT Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Ron; Grant, Kenneth A.; Sawal, Lea

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of influencers in Canadian high school student decisions to pursue Information and Communications Technology (ICT) careers and education. With growing rates of retirements of ICT workers expected over the next 10-15 years, industry representatives are concerned that the shortfall in replacement workers will have a…

  1. The Fiscal Impact of a Tuition Assistance Grant for Virginia's Special Education Students. Parent Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Parents of students with disabilities face a number of difficult choices in determining how to get the best education for their children. Too often, the special education system in public schools fails its students. Parents must become both experts and advocates for their children in order to navigate a burdensome maze of regulations to fight for…

  2. Empowering Parents' Choice of Schools: The Rhetoric and Reality of How Hong Kong Kindergarten Parents Choose Schools under the Voucher Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kit-Ho Chanel; Lam, Chi-Chung

    2011-01-01

    School choice gives parents greater power over their children's education. But ever since the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS) was introduced in Hong Kong in 2007, school choice has become a hotly debated topic. The scheme was introduced to empower kindergarten parents in choosing a school for their children by offering them direct fee…

  3. Examination about the effects of future career choice on time perspective in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Manabu

    2015-03-30

    This study investigated types of career choice in high school students and examined the effects of career paths on time perspective development. The participants were 4,756 third grade students from nine public high schools in Tokyo. The high school questionnaire survey was conducted throughout autumn of 2008, 2009, and 2010. One year later, 962 graduates participated in the follow-up questionnaire survey by post. Distinguishing gender difference among career paths was found. Girls tend to choose significantly shorter learning careers (p time perspective than other groups (p time perspective between "school to school transition" and "school to work transition". It is suggested that the "school to work transition" tends to be more critical for adolescents and has negative effects on time perspective. These results suggest that the goal content in careers may promote or inhibit the formation of time perspectives during the graduation transition.

  4. PARENTING AND SOCIAL ROLES IN TURKISH TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: ISSUES AND CHOICES IN PARENTING FOR TURKISH EXPATRIATE FAMILIES LIVING IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ECIRLI

    2012-01-01

    This article looks into the issues and challenges of parenting in Turkish families upholding traditional values that live in Bucharest, the capital of Romania. Based on theoretical mainstreams on parenting and the structure of Turkish families, a qualitative research was designed with two aims. The first was to describe the issues and choices in parenting for Turkish expatriate families living in a foreign country. The second was to find out to which of the three ideal-types of families accor...

  5. A discrete choice experiment studying students' preferences for scholarships to private medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Rei; Kakihara, Hiroaki

    2016-02-09

    The shortage of physicians in rural areas and in some specialties is a societal problem in Japan. Expensive tuition in private medical schools limits access to them particularly for students from middle- and low-income families. One way to reduce this barrier and lessen maldistribution is to offer conditional scholarships to private medical schools. A discrete choice experiment is carried out on a total of 374 students considering application to medical schools. The willingness to receive a conditional scholarship program to private medical schools is analyzed. The probability of attending private medical schools significantly decreased because of high tuition, a postgraduate obligation to provide a service in specific specialty areas, and the length of time of this obligation. An obligation to provide a service in rural regions had no significant effect on this probability. To motivate non-applicants to private medical schools to enroll in such schools, a decrease in tuition to around 1.2 million yen (US$ 12,000) or less, which is twice that of public schools, was found to be necessary. Further, it was found that non-applicants to private medical schools choose to apply to such schools even with restrictions if they have tuition support at the public school level. Conditional scholarships for private medical schools may widen access to medical education and simultaneously provide incentives to work in insufficiently served areas.

  6. An Empirical Investigation on Chinese High School Students' Choice of Pursuing Undergraduate Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiankun

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has greatly promoted student mobility around the world. Being a developing economy, China witnessed significant growth of students studying internationally, especially with the number of students study at undergraduate programs. However, empirical research on high school students' choice and the decision-making process of pursuing…

  7. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W. G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in

  8. Where Do We Go from Here?: Post-High School Choices of American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a post-high school context choice schema that attempts to identify the factors that lead young U.S. males to enter the work force, the military, or college. Data are from the Youth in Transition Study, a longitudinal study beginning in 1966. Twenty-five potentially important predictors are identified. (SLD)

  9. Taking Stock of Private-School Choice: Scholars Review the Research on Statewide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Harris, Douglas N.; Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph; Austin, Megan

    2018-01-01

    In the past few years, four states have established programs that provide public financial support to students who choose to attend a private school. These programs--a tax-credit-funded scholarship initiative in Florida and voucher programs in Indiana, Louisiana, and Ohio--offer a glimpse of what expansive statewide choice might look like. What…

  10. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  11. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  12. Constructing a multiple choice test to measure elementary school teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of technology education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and validation of a multiple choice test to measure elementary school teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of technology education. Pedagogical Content Knowledge is generally accepted to be a crucial domain of teacher knowledge and is, therefore, an important

  13. Researching School Choice in Regional Australia: What Can This Tell Us about the Ethnographic Imaginary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolidis, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    This is an exploration of methodological debates related to ethnographic research. Reflection on conducting research on school choice in an Australian regional centre is the beginning point for a discussion of what Appadurai describes as a dialectical relationship between the neighbourhood and its capacity to exist and reshape itself in relation…

  14. Sam Walton's Son Played Major Role in Setting Agenda on School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the school choice movement lost one of its leading champions when John T. Walton, an heir to the Wal-Mart retailing fortune, died in a plane crash at age 58. Advocates of expanded educational options say Mr. Walton, more than anyone else, was the driving force behind the Walton Family Foundation's education work, and its focus on…

  15. Reviving Magnet Schools: Strengthening a Successful Choice Option. A Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Magnet schools make up the largest system of choice in the U.S. They were originally conceived to accomplish the twin goals of innovation and integration. Over the years, however, the integrative mission of magnet programs has somewhat receded, particularly during the second Bush Administration. Meanwhile, political and financial support has…

  16. Why Don't Housing Choice Voucher Recipients Live Near Better Schools? Insights from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Horn, Keren Mertens; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Housing choice vouchers provide low-income households with additional income to spend on rental housing in the private market. The assistance vouchers provide is substantial, offering the potential to dramatically expand the neighborhood--and associated public schools--that low-income households can reach. However, existing research on the program…

  17. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  18. School Choice Research in Five European Countries: The Circulation of Stephen Ball's Concepts and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Agnès; Kosunen, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the influence of Stephen Ball's work on research on markets and school choice in five European countries (Finland, France, Norway, Spain, and Sweden). The main focus is on the intellectual circulation of ideas, but the authors also take into account the relationship between ideas and social and political changes, as well as…

  19. Arizona Likely Voter Survey on Proposed Legislation to Enhance School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenski, Margaret C.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the results of a telephone survey of 602 likely Arizona voters on various measures to enhance school choice in Arizona. This research was conducted by Arizona Opinion of Tucson for The Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation of Indianapolis. All fieldwork was conducted on March 23-26, and 28-29, 2005 by DataCall Inc. of…

  20. Embracing Pedagogical Pluralism:An Educator's Case for (at Least Public School Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ferrero

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical and curricular beliefs and commitments are expressions of deeper philosophical and ideological worldviews that empirical research can sometimes modify but not ultimately eliminate. The pluralism these views produce is reasonable in that they all represent plausible interpretations of liberal-republican values and professional standards of practice; they should be granted some room to flourish under a system of carefully regulated autonomy and choice. Three objections to a conception of school choice grounded in a notion of reasonable pluralism among educational doctrines are addressed: 1 that it would undermine educators' efforts to secure status for themselves as professionals by admitting that “best practices” in education offer rough guidance at best; 2 that it would leave parents and students vulnerable to quackery; 3 that it abandons the common school tradition and its aspirations. I conclude with an examination of why the conceptual basis on which a society designs a system of choice makes a difference.

  1. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  2. School Choice Considerations and the Role of Social Media as Perceived by Computing Students: Evidence from One University in Manila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansigan, Rolando R.; Moraga, Shirley D.; Batalla, Ma. Ymelda C.; Bringula, Rex P.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study utilized a validated questionnaire that gathered data from freshmen of two different school years. Demographic profile, marketers (i.e., source of information of students about the school), influencers (i.e., significant others that persuaded them to enroll in the school), level of school choice, and level of consideration…

  3. Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Sarah; Bielick, Stacey; Aud, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This report updates two previous reports: "Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 1999" (Bielick and Chapman 2003) and "Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2003" (Tice et al. 2006). Using data from the National Household Education Survey (NHES) of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  4. The Effect of Positive or Negative Frame on the Choices of Students in School Psychology and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagley, N. S.; Miller, Paul M.; Jones, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Doctoral students (N=109) in school psychology and educational administration responded to five decision problems whose outcomes were framed either positively as gains or negatively as losses. Frame and profession significantly affected the number of risky choices. Educational administration students made more risky choices than school psychology…

  5. Risk attitudes, competition and career choices – The willingness to take risk and the choice of further education among Finnish upper secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Valve, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is risk attitudes and the choice of further education among Finnish secondary school students. Data comes from a survey compiled in 2011 for 18 secondary schools in Finland. The data has 3418 respondents in total, 1984 (approximately 58 percent) of whom are female. There are three main questions in this study. First, do gender, parental education and standard of living affect the secondary school student’s willingness to take risks? We measure the risk attitude...

  6. Can school choice improve more than just academic achievement? An analysis of post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul L; Ferrell, Natalie; Broussard, Marsha; Brown, Lisanne; Chrestman, Sarah K

    2014-04-01

    Recent evaluations of school choice school reforms have focused on improving academic achievement but have ignored associations with adolescent health and the risk of interpersonal violence. The innovative school choice model implemented in post-Katrina New Orleans provides a unique opportunity to examine these effects. Using a sample of approximately 1700 students from the 2009 School Health Connection Survey, the relationships between the type of school attended and depression, suicide planning, absences attributable to fears for personal safety, and threats of violence at school are examined. Multivariate regression analysis adjusting for self-selection into the type of school attended-a city-run high-performing school, a state-run failing school, or an independent charter school-estimates the effects of school type on student health. Relative to students at state-run schools, students who choose to attend city-run schools are less likely to plan for suicide or to miss school because they are afraid of becoming victims of violence. These beneficial effects tend to be larger for students traveling from higher violence neighborhoods. The effects for charter schools are similar but less robust. Local school jurisdictions that implement reforms allowing adolescents and their families greater freedom in school choice may also improve adolescent health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  7. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating schools,…

  8. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [School choice and vocational guidance for schoolchildren with chronic diseases and other health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancić, Franciska; Majski-Cesarec, Slavenka; Musil, Vera

    2010-09-01

    By following a child's growth, development, and health, school medicine specialist can see opportunities for career choice. Special attention is needed for schoolchildren with chronic diseases and developmental difficulties, because of limited occupation choices. Studies report 10 % to 15 % prevalence of chronic diseases among schoolchildren. Parents and children should be informed about child's limitations before career choice. It would be helpful for the students to develop interests for occupations that are not contraindicated for their condition. Physical examination gives an insight into the psycho-physical abilities of an eighth-grade primary school student for further education. During examination, counselling and vocational guidance is provided for all students with chronic diseases and other health problems. All procedures are oriented to personal abilities and preferences. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons for vocational guidance in the Varazdin County of Croatia. It included eighth-grade students from ten primary schools from 1998/99 to 2007/08. Of 4939 students, 458 (9.3 %) with chronic diseases and health difficulties were referred to vocational guidance. Of these, 41.3 % were referred due to mental and behavioural disorders. These students were assessed and received a recommendation for at least two occupations. Forty-eight students (10.5 %) did not follow the recommendation.In a coordinated effort, school physicians, vocational guidance experts, and school and local authorities should secure enrollment of students with chronic diseases and health difficulties in secondary schools and follow their development and education to provide them the best available career opportunities.

  10. Career choices for radiology: national surveys of graduates of 1974-2002 from UK medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.; Lambert, T.W.; Goldacre, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report on trends in career choices for radiology among UK medical graduates. Materials and methods: One and 3 years after graduation, and at longer time intervals thereafter, postal questionnaire surveys were sent to all doctors who graduated from UK medical schools in 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002. Doctors were asked to specify their choice of long-term career and to identify factors influencing their choice. Employment details were also collected. Results were analysed using χ 2 statistics and binary logistic regression. Results: Seventy-four percent (24,621/33,412) and 73% (20,720/28,459) of doctors responded 1 and 3 years after graduation. Choices for radiology in year 1 increased significantly over time (1.7% of 1974 graduates to 3.2% of 2002 graduates; χ 2 test for trend = 15.3, p < 0.001). In particular, there has been a steady increase from the cohorts of 1993 onwards. Thirty-eight percent of those who chose radiology in year 1, and 80% who chose radiology in year 3, were still working in radiology 10 years after graduation. Hours and working conditions influenced long-term career choices more for radiology than for other careers. Conclusions: The proportion of UK trained junior doctors who want to become radiologists has increased in recent years. However, although medical school intake and the numbers making an early choice for radiology have risen, it is unclear whether sufficient UK graduates will be attracted to radiology to fulfil future service requirements from UK trained graduates alone

  11. Primary schools, markets and choice: studying polarization and the core catchment areas of schools

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R J; Johnston, RJ

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish polarization from other conceptions of segregation by conceiving the former as a local phenomenon. To this end we argue that evidence for any school-level separation of ethnic groups must be sought and contextualised within the local markets within which schools operate. By determining the ‘core catchment’ areas of primary schools from geographical micro-data reporting where pupils reside and which school they attend within the study region of Birmingham, England,...

  12. Career choice motivation and value priorities of future nursery and elementary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić-Jablanović Milica V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study that aimed to establish the nature of the link between the value orientation of future nursery and elementary school teachers and the motivation for their career choice. Two instruments were used - the Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21 and the Career Choice Scale. The findings suggest that the motivation for the respondents' career choice and their value orientation are relatively homogeneous, but also that two groups of students can be distinguished according to dominant motivating factors, and that these two groups also differ in their value priorities. Non-parametric correlation showed that each type of motivation reflected different values - in individuals whose dominant motivation was intrinsic, the values of benevolence, self-direction and achievement were more pronounced, while stronger altruistic motivation correlated with more pronounced values of benevolence and universalism. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation correlated with the values of hedonism and power, which the initial theoretical model locates at the opposite end to the values corresponding to altruistic motivation. The research findings are important for understanding the reasons behind nursery and elementary school teachers' career choice and the goals they are guided by in their life and work, and are also important for the career guidance process.

  13. Agent-Based Simulation of School Choice in Bandung, Indonesia: The Emergence of Enrolment Pattern Trough Individual Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanan Sarwo Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is motivated by the reality that school choice programs that is currently implemented in Bandung that, always resulting student deficit (lack of student in some schools. In this study, a mechanism that can describe how the enrollment pattern in a school choice program emerge as a result of individual preferences of the prospective students, is constructed. Using computer simulation, virtual experiments are conducted. In these experiments, the enrollment patterns and the number of student deficit that were resulted by various school choice program configurations are analyzed. Based on the experiment results, modification of the current program that can minimize the number of student deficit can be purposed.Keywords: agent-based simulation, school choice, computer simulation

  14. Urban School Choice and Integration: The Effect of Charter Schools in Little Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Gary W.; Jensen, Nathan C.; Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of charter schools on school integration in the Little Rock, Arkansas metropolitan area. We find that charters are less likely to be hyper-segregated than traditional public schools (TPS), but TPS have compositions more closely reflecting the region. However, differences in each case are slight. Using student-level data to…

  15. Religion and Primary School Choice in Ireland: School Institutional Identities and Student Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2018-01-01

    Ireland's demographic profile has changed significantly in the past 20 years, being now characterised by increasing cultural, ethnic and religious diversity. However, primary schooling in Ireland has remained highly denominational, mostly Roman Catholic, in nature, with a small number of minority faith schools and multi-denominational schools.…

  16. Creating School Change: Discovering a Choice of Lenses for the School Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatea, Ellen S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a variety of epistemological lenses for viewing the school change process for school administrators' use. Applies these lenses in an actual case study depicting school change, illustrating how administrators can shift focus, position, and mode of inquiry from their usual rational viewpoint. Analyzes implications of using such lenses for…

  17. Beyond Choice to New Public Schools: Withdrawing the Exclusive Franchise in Public Education. Policy Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolderie, Ted

    A strategy for revitalizing public education by stimulating the creation of new public schools is proposed in this report. The proposed system goes beyond school choice and is based on the withdrawal of local districts' exclusive franchise to own and operate public schools. The proposal is based on the premise that the state must provide both…

  18. Trends in the Use of School Choice, 1993 to 2003. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-045

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Peter; Chapman, Christopher; Princiotta, Daniel; Bielick, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Opportunities for school choice in the United States have expanded since the 1990s. This report uses data from the National Household Surveys Program (NHES) to present trends that focus on the use of and users of public schools (assigned and chosen), private schools (church-and nonchurch-related), and homeschoolers between 1993 and 2003. The…

  19. From Here to There and Back Again: The Story of a Mother, Her Son, Disability, and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Glenys

    2016-01-01

    Nelly and her children live in Queensland, Australia. When it came time for her second youngest son to start school, Nelly was not prepared for the difficulty that she had enrolling him at the school of her choice. In spite of her son's disability, Nelly thought that it was natural that he would go to his local school with his sister. It is not…

  20. Accountability Synopticism: How a Think Tank and the Media Developed a Quasimarket for School Choice in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a locally developed school ranking system affected student enrolment patterns in British Columbia over time. In developing an annual school "report card" that was published in newspapers and online, the Vancouver-based Fraser Institute created a marketplace for school choice by devising an accountability scheme…

  1. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  2. Towards models of strategic spatial choice behaviour: theory and application issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Models of spatial choice behaviour have been around in urban planning for decades to assess the feasibility of planning actions or to predict external (competition) effects on existing destinations. The well known spatial interaction models of the 1970s have gradually been replaced by discrete

  3. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…

  4. Values and the Vote: Linking Issue Interpretations to the Process of Candidate Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhavan V.; Domke, David; Wackman, Daniel B.

    1997-01-01

    Explores how "moral" issues interact with voters' core values. Finds that subjects' (military reservists, Reserve Officer Training Corps student members, and undergraduate students) interpretation of issues (as either ethical or material in nature) is strongly related to differences in the type of decision-making strategy used, even after…

  5. Choices and Changes: Eccles’ Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students’ Longitudinal Reflections about their Choice of a STEM Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles’ comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students...... in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model......, and that significant changes in the students’ reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EVMBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students’ dynamical educational choice processes where students...

  6. What Can International Comparisons Teach Us about School Choice and Non-Governmental Schools in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Avram, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    All European states have a primary obligation to establish and maintain governmental schools everywhere, but as the result of political struggle and constitutional guarantees, they have also allowed and often financed non-state schools based on special pedagogical, religious or philosophical ideas. Depending on the level of state grants for…

  7. School Choice in Rural Nigeria? The Limits of Low-Fee Private Schooling in Kwara State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The rise in low-fee private (LFP) primary schooling serving relatively poor clients is becoming well-documented. However much of this literature focuses on urban areas whose dense populations are favourable to market growth and competition. This paper goes some way to filling a gap in the literature on whether LFP schools are serving the needs of…

  8. Choices and changes: Eccles' Expectancy-Value model and upper-secondary school students' longitudinal reflections about their choice of a STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-03-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles' comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model could be used to detect significant changes in the students' educational choice processes. An important finding was that the quantitative EV-MBC surveys and the qualitative interviews gave quite different results concerning the students' considerations about the choice of tertiary education, and that significant changes in the students' reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EV-MBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students' dynamical educational choice processes where students in parallel considered several different potential educational trajectories. We therefore call for further studies of the EV-MBC model's use in describing longitudinal choice processes and especially in investigating significant changes.

  9. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  10. Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Daniel; Nsangi, Allen; Oxman, Andrew D; Oxman, Matt; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Morelli, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-07-22

    As part of the Informed Health Choices project, we developed a podcast called The Health Choices Programme to help improve the ability of people to assess claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about the effects of treatments. We did this randomised controlled trial in central Uganda. We recruited parents of children aged 10-12 years who were in their fifth year of school at 35 schools that were participating in a linked trial of the Informed Health Choices primary school resources. The parents were randomly allocated (1:1), via a web-based random number generator with block sizes of four and six, to listen to either the Informed Health Choices podcast (intervention group) or typical public service announcements about health issues (control group). Randomisation was stratified by parents' highest level of formal education attained (primary school, secondary school, or tertiary education) and the allocation of their children's school in the trial of the primary school resources (intervention vs control). The primary outcome, measured after listening to the entire podcast, was the mean score and the proportion of parents with passing scores on a test with two multiple choice questions for each of nine key concepts essential to assessing claims about treatments (18 questions in total). We did intention-to-treat analyses. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001676150. We recruited parents between July 21, 2016, and Oct 7, 2016. We randomly assigned 675 parents to the podcast group (n=334) or the public service announcement group (n=341); 561 (83%) participants completed follow-up. The mean score for parents in the podcast group was 67·8% (SD 19·6) compared with 52·4% (17·6) in the control group (adjusted mean difference 15·5%, 95% CI 12·5-18·6; pparents had a predetermined

  11. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  12. Mother’s freedom of choice and the rights of an unborn child: a comparison between the views of freshmen and senior medical school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Marcelo Shigueo Yosikawa; Cabar, Fabio Roberto; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of freshman students with senior students of the Faculty of Medicine- University of São Paulo concerning the respect for the mother’s freedom of choice, the need to protect the unborn child, the proportionality between the mother’s freedom of choice and the protection of the unborn child, and issues related to legal abortion. To determine whether the medical knowledge acquired throughout the academic years can influence the views of medical students on these issues. METHODS: First- and sixth-year students of the Faculty of Medicine – University of São Paulo answered a questionnaire; the inclusion criteria were as follows: a first- or sixth-year student of the medical school and a signature on the free informed consent form. To compare the proportions, a chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used. The significance level was set to 5%. RESULTS: Regarding the mother’s freedom of choice, in the case when a pregnant woman undergoes a cesarean section by means of a court order despite her intention to not have a cesarean, 55.7% of the first-year students have answered that the mother’s choice should be respected. Among the sixth-year students, only 28.9% believe that the mother’s intention should be considered (p<0.0001). With reference to the mother’s choice in connection with antiretroviral medication, 38.1% of the first-year students agreed that the mother’s intention should be respected, whereas 33% of sixth-year students believed that the mother’s intention should be respected (p=0.453). CONCLUSION: There was a tendency to consider the unborn child’s rights over the mother’s choice as students spent more time in medical school. PMID:27759844

  13. Career choices for public health: cohort studies of graduates from UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Michael J; Laxton, Louise; Lambert, Trevor W; Webster, Premila

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe UK-trained doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in public health and their eventual speciality destinations. Analysis of longitudinal studies of medical graduates from all UK medical schools in selected year-of-qualification cohorts from 1974 to 2008; data collected by postal questionnaires at various times after qualifying; and selection, for this paper, of doctors who expressed an early preference for a career in public health and/or who eventually practised in it. Of all doctors eventually practising in public health, for whom we had early choices, public health had been the unreserved first choice of 8% (10/125) in their first post-qualification year, 27% (33/122) in their third year and 59% (51/86) in their fifth year. Including first choices for public health 'tied' with an equal preference for a different speciality, and doctors' second and third choices for public health, 19% (24/125) of practising public health doctors had considered public health as a possible career in their first post-graduation year, 41% (50/122) in the third and 83% (71/86) in the fifth year. Comparisons with other specialities show that doctors in public health chose their speciality relatively late after qualification.

  14. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  16. Socio- Demographic Characteristics and Career Choice of Private Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramona S. Braza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the career choice of the high school students of the different private institutions in San Jose, Batangas as a basis for developing a career program guide to help the students in choosing their career.The descriptive method was used the study with the questionnaire and standardized test as the main data gathering instruments. Parents, students and teachers served as respondents of the study. The study revealed that most preferred career of the respondents is the academic track particularly the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM strand. The proposed program guide formulated focused on how to help the students decide on their future career. When properly given, it will benefit the students. The researchers recommended that the proposed career program guide that has been formulated may be shown to school heads for their suggestions; the students should be provided with effective orientation on what career is really all about. This could be done by the school guidance counselor or by the teachers and parents as well and there must be a close–up tie among the guidance personnel, teachers, students, and parents to promote a better understanding of the factors which influence the career choice of the students.

  17. Schooling girls in a rural community: An examination of female science identity and science career choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who

  18. Anatomy of British Business School Brands: Attributes Affecting Choice Among Pakistani Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research studies that investigate business school brands from an Asian consumer perspective are scarce. Current study aims at discovering the branding attributes of UK Business Schools that influence Pakistani business students to apply for admission in higher degrees. Following a naturalistic tradition, data has been collected through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 25 students who were planning to study in United Kingdom. The respondents were identified through personal sources and were later selected using the purposive sampling technique. Thematic analysis was performed to generate themes from the collected data. The data analysis generated four dominant themes that influence the choice of a business school in United Kingdom. These are “financial assistance”, “employability”, “brand reputation” and “rankings”. The study is a pioneer work in the field of university branding from a developing country perspective of Pakistan. The research will be useful to British higher education marketers in devising student-centered branding initiatives. It will also benefit the Pakistani academia, as the country can develop business school brands as well by imparting these attributes to better compete with business schools in UK.

  19. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind school; South Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadamiro, Christianah Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    The causes of Blindness vary from place to place with about 80% of it been avoidable. Furthermore Blind people face a lot of challenges in career choice thus limiting their economic potential and full integration into the society. This study aims at identifying the causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a school for the blind in South -Western Nigeria. This is a descriptive study of causes of blindness and career choice among 38 pupils residing in a school for the blind at Ikere -Ekiti, South Western Nigeria. Thirty eight pupils comprising of 25 males (65.8%) and 13 females (34.2%) with age range from 6-39 years were seen for the study, The commonest cause of blindness was cataract with 14 cases (36.84%) while congenital glaucoma and infection had an equal proportion of 5 cases each (13.16%). Avoidable causes constituted the greatest proportion of the causes 27 (71.05%) while unavoidable causes accounted for 11 (28.9%). The law career was the most desired profession by the pupils 11 (33.3%) followed by Teaching 9 (27.3%), other desired profession includes engineering, journalism and farming. The greatest proportion of causes of blindness identified in this study is avoidable. There is the need to create public awareness on some of the notable causes particularly cataract and motivate the community to utilize available eye care services Furthermore there is need for career talk in schools for the blind to enable them choose career where their potential can be fully maximized.

  20. The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments. PEPG 05-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    Stigma and school voucher threats under a revised 2002 Florida accountability law have positive impacts on student performance. Stigma and public school choice threats under the U.S. federal accountability law, No Child Left Behind, do not have similar effects in Florida. Significant impacts of stigma, when combined with the voucher threat, are…

  1. Teaching Healthful Food Choices to Elementary School Students and Their Parents: The Nutrition Detectives[TM] Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L.; Katz, Catherine S.; Treu, Judith A.; Reynolds, Jesse; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Michael, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program designed to teach elementary school students and their parents, and to distinguish between more healthful and less healthful choices in diverse food categories. Methods: Three schools were assigned to receive the Nutrition Detectives[TM] program and…

  2. Macro issues of Mikro Primary School | Bray | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mikro Primary School is an Afrikaans medium public school whose governing body refused to accede to an order of the Western Cape Department of Education to change the language policy of the school so as to convert it into a parallel medium Afrikaans/English school. The Supreme Court of Appeal held that section ...

  3. THE INTERDEPENDECY OF ECOLOGICAL AND HEALTH ISSUES IN THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC FOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Pál Zsuzsa

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades the number of the studies on actual and potential consumerâ€(tm)s behavior toward the organic foods has been increased considerably. The main issues investigated by these studies are concentrated among themes like motivation, purchasing intention, barriers of the adoption, and their impact on the marketing strategy and operational tasks in an organization. Most of the studies in this field appeal to the one of the most influential behavioral intention model, namely to ...

  4. Inequality in the Transition from Primary to Secondary School: School Choices and Educational Disparities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Marcus; Stubbe, Tobias C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of educational pathway decision making at the transition from primary to secondary school in the German education system by analysing data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). The highly reliable data of the German sample of the 2001 PIRLS make it possible to take into…

  5. Professional choice self-efficacy: predicting traits and personality profiles in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Augusto Matteo Ambiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to verify the predictive capacity of the Big Five personality factors related to professional choice self-efficacy, as well as to draw a personality profile of people with diverse self-efficacy levels. There were 308 high school students participating, from three different grades (57.5 % women, from public and private schools, average 26.64 years of age. Students completed two instruments, Escala de Autoeficácia para Escolha Profissional (Professional Choice Self-efficacy Scale and Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (Factorial Personality Battery. Results were obtained using multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance with repeated measures profile and Cohen’s d to estimate the effect size of differences. Results showed that Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were the main predictors of self-efficacy. Differences from medium to large were observed between extreme groups, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were the personality factors that better distinguish people with low and high levels of self-efficacy. Theses results partially corroborate with the hypothesis. Results were discussed based on literature and on the practical implications of the results. New studies are proposed.

  6. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N

    2003-11-01

    Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.

  8. Burnout in Prospective Elementary School Teachers: Is It Related to Reasons for Choosing the Elementary School Teaching Major, Beliefs about the Teaching Career and Satisfaction with the Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the relationships between elementary school teacher candidates' motivations for choosing the teaching profession, beliefs about the teaching profession, satisfaction with the choice, and burnout. The study was carried out with 171 senior elementary school teacher candidates at one public university in…

  9. The Australian Education Union's Response to Kevin Donnelly's "The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopgood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to Kevin Donnelly's article, "The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under," and aims to correct specific errors and misrepresentations as found by Susan Hopgood, Federal Secretary of the Australian Education Union. She argues that the article is misleading…

  10. Response to 'Word choice as political speech': Hydraulic fracturing is a partisan issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, Jill E; Simis, Molly

    2016-04-28

    In 2015, Hopke & Simis published an analysis of social media discourse around hydraulic fracturing. Grubert (2016) offered a commentary on the research, highlighting the politicization of terminology used in the discourse on this topic. The present article is a response to Grubert (2016)'s commentary, in which we elaborate on the distinctions between terminology used in social media discourse around hydraulic fracturing (namely, 'frack,' 'fracking,' 'frac,' and 'fracing'). Additionally preliminary analysis supports the claim that industry-preferred terminology is severely limited in its reach. When industry actors opt-out of the discourse, the conversation followed by the majority of lay audiences is dominated by activists. exacerbating the political schism on the issue. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : market design issues paper : choice of market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A model for the competitive electricity market in New Brunswick was not specified by the White Paper: New Brunswick Energy Policy, published in March 2001. One of the tasks of the Market Design Committee (MDC) is to select a market model for the province. This report was prepared with this objective in mind. It begins by providing a description of the basic functions that must be performed by any electricity system. Different market models will function differently, and a descriptions of how the functions would be performed under each model is presented. Considering the specific size and geographic location of New Brunswick, a number of actual markets that could be of interest are presented. The various electricity markets normally use one of four market models: vertically integrated monopoly utility, a competitive pool market, a bilateral contract market, and a single-buyer market. The first model was not explained as it represents the existing, non-competitive model whereby the government owns and/or regulates price and investment decision. The case where a market operator receives bids and offers from buyers and sellers and matches them to derive a price and schedule for the spot market is what is called the competitive pool market. When electricity trade takes place through a series of contracts between individual buyers and sellers, it is referred to as a bilateral contract market. Finally, the single-buyer market is defined as a monopoly where the buyer purchases from multiple sellers based on competition amongst them. Different examples are provided of applications of the three markets described in the paper. Both New England and New Zealand were chosen to better illustrate the concepts of a fully competitive pool-based market, as they either have close ties to New Brunswick, or share physical similarities. The single-buyer model is illustrated by the case of Northern Ireland where size is similar. The choices made in Quebec were described in the final

  12. What's in Your Portfolio? How Parents Rank Traditional Public, Private, and Charter Schools in Post-Katrina New Orleans' Citywide System of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane A.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Imbrogno, Jason P.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of schools preferred by parents in New Orleans, Louisiana, where a "portfolio" of school choices is available. This tests the conditions under which school choice induces healthy competition between public and private schools through the threat of student exit. Using unique data from parent applications to…

  13. Group Counseling in the Schools: Considerations for Child and Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Tony D.; Gustafson, Amy L.; Borges, Silvia M.

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists are increasingly being confronted with a wide spectrum of psychological, psychosocial, familial, and home-school issues impacting child development. With one in six children raised in alcoholic families, with divorce impacting approximately 60% of families, and with such issues as teenage pregnancy, parental neglect, as well…

  14. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  15. The issue of gauge choice in the Landau problem and the physics of canonical and mechanical orbital angular momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Kitadono, Y.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2018-05-01

    One intriguing issue in the nucleon spin decomposition problem is the existence of two types of decompositions, which are representably characterized by two different orbital angular momenta (OAMs) of quarks. The one is the mechanical OAM, while the other is the so-called gauge-invariant canonical (g.i.c.) OAM, the concept of which was introduced by Chen et al. An especially delicate quantity is the g.i.c. OAM, which must be distinguished from the ordinary (gauge-variant) canonical OAM. We find that, owing to its analytically solvable nature, the famous Landau problem offers an ideal tool to understand the difference and the physical meaning of the above three OAMs, i.e. the standard canonical OAM, g.i.c. OAM, and the mechanical OAM. We analyze these three OAMs in two different formulations of the Landau problem, first in the standard (gauge-fixed) formulation and second in the gauge-invariant (but path-dependent) formulation of DeWitt. Especially interesting is the latter formalism. It is shown that the choice of path has an intimate connection with the choice of gauge, but they are not necessarily equivalent. Then, we answer the question about what is the consequence of a particular choice of path in DeWitt's formalism. This analysis also clarifies the implication of the gauge symmetry hidden in the concept of g.i.c. OAM. Finally, we show that the finding above offers a clear understanding about the uniqueness or non-uniqueness problem of the nucleon spin decomposition, which arises from the arbitrariness in the definition of the so-called physical component of the gauge field.

  16. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  17. THE INTERDEPENDECY OF ECOLOGICAL AND HEALTH ISSUES IN THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Zsuzsa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the number of the studies on actual and potential consumer’s behavior toward the organic foods has been increased considerably. The main issues investigated by these studies are concentrated among themes like motivation, purchasing intention, barriers of the adoption, and their impact on the marketing strategy and operational tasks in an organization. Most of the studies in this field appeal to the one of the most influential behavioral intention model, namely to the theory of planned behavior. In an organic food context the researchers try to adopt this model including some specific aspects. In this paper, based on a brief literature review, we propose a conceptual model for the organic food buying intention. In our structure the two key purchasing drivers, the health and environmental concerns are interrelated, and the last one exert their impact on the buying decision trough the health attitude. This paper presents the argument for this proposed model. The proposed model, after testing it, could serve as a way of harmonizing the different attribute and benefit-related messages to the consumers’ motivations.

  18. PECULIARITIES OF MOTIVATION AND SELF-ATTITUDE DURING THE CHOICE OF SPECIALIZATION IN A MEDICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Malyutina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Personal backgrounds of the choice of specialization by graduates of a medical high school are studied in this article. The hypothesis is checked that the strategies of testees in the situation of the choice of specialization are determined by the peculiarities of self-attitude and motivation. Depending on the specifity of perception of the situation of specialization 4 groups of testees are distinguished and described. They have different types of an individual strategy: functionally efficient, optimal, investigative and troublous.

  19. A Qualitative Examination of School Counselors' Training to Recognize and Respond to Adolescent Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Cynthia T.; Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of adolescent mental health issues and the impact they have on adolescent development and school success, school counselors are challenged to provide appropriate prevention and intervention services. Yet the sufficiency of school counselor training for these challenges is unclear. Qualitative procedures were used to examine…

  20. Free to Lead: Autonomy in Highly Successful Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ableidinger, Joe; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomy is a key component of the charter school concept. By allowing charter schools to have autonomy over decisions concerning finance, personnel, scheduling, curriculum and instruction, states have enabled many of these schools to produce stellar results for their students. This issue brief explores autonomy at five excellent charter schools…

  1. Successful School Turnarounds: Seven Steps for District Leaders. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Julie; Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2009-01-01

    President Obama and Secretary Duncan have called upon states, districts, and education leaders to change the lives of millions of children by dramatically improving the nation's 5,000 lowest performing schools. These chronically failing schools will require intensive intervention to turn around performance that has fallen short of expectations for…

  2. Exploring Issues of School Violence: The "Code of Silence."

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Irene M.; da Costa, Jose L.

    Although school violence has been a concern in the United States for over two decades, the topic has only recently generated serious study in Canada. Central to the development of effective violence-mitigation policies is an understanding of how and why student victims, perpetrators, and observers respond to the school-based violence they…

  3. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  5. Medical students' choice of specialty and factors determining their choice: a cross-sectional survey at the Addis Ababa University, School oF Medicine, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Nebyou; Biluts, Hagos; Bekele, Abebe; Seme, Assefa

    2014-07-01

    A consideration of the future specialization interests of undergraduate medical students might help in understanding the needs of higher medical education and future manpower availability for healthcare in a country. This study assessed the career of choice made by medical students of the Addis Ababa University in the year 2012. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 161 medical students of the Addis Ababa University, School of Medicine, Ethiopia in April 2012 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using computer based statistical software IBM SPSS data editor version 20.0. In addition to descriptive statistics difference in proportions was compared using Chi-square test Of the 161 students, 101 (62.7%) were male. The mean age of respondents was 24.1 years (SD 2.02, ranging from 21 to 35). Majority, 138 (85.7) wanted to pursue their specialty training in the near future, their first career of choice being surgery for, 50 (31.1%), followed by internal medicine for, 44 (27.3%) and Obstetrics and Gynaecology for, 29 (18.0%]), However 18 (11.2%) did not specify their career of choice. The basic science fields such as anesthesiology, and oncology were the least favored choices by the students. The main reasons that influenced the students' decisions to opt for a particular specialty were inspiration during their clinical practicein 67 (41.6%). Financial reward (24.2%), dedication to the field (19.2%) possession of competency needed for the speciality (18.6%) and Influence of teacher (16.1%) were also factors that influenced future choice of speciality of the students. The majority of medical students preferred to pursue their specialty training. As the number and interest in certain specialties is huge, training centers must be ready to cater for the interests shown by the students. The lack of interest towards certain specialists such as basic sciences, anesthesiology, and oncology requires a special attention by policy makers.

  6. School Violence, Role of the School Nurse in Prevention. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blout, JoAnn D.; Rose, Kathleen C.; Suessmann, Mary; Coleman, Kara; Selekman, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, healthcare providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs. The…

  7. Issues and challenges facing school libraries in selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    and 79% of schools had no library at all (Department of Basic Education (DBE) ... particularly in literacy and mathematics, as compared to national curriculum standards and international ... range of new and ever-changing technologies.

  8. Legal Issues in Educational Technology: Implications for School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses several legal issues involving the use of educational technology: Freedom of speech, regulation of Internet material harmful to minors, student-developed Web pages, harassment and hostile work environment, staff and student privacy, special education, plagiarism, and copyright issues. Includes recommendations for addressing technology…

  9. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  10. Differences in body dissatisfaction, weight-management practices and food choices of high-school students in the Bangkok metropolitan region by gender and school type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongwatpol, Pitipa; Gates, Gail E

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare body dissatisfaction, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices by gender and school type. A questionnaire was used to obtain height, weight, body image perception using Stunkard's figure rating scale, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices. Nine single- and mixed-gender schools located in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Students in 10th-12th grade, aged 15-18 years (n 2082). Only 18% of females and 21% of males did not indicate body dissatisfaction. About 66% of females selected a thinner ideal figure than their current figure. Among males, 44% wanted a thinner figure, but 35% wanted a bigger figure. However, univariate analysis found differences by school type but not gender in the degree of body dissatisfaction; students in single-gender schools had more body dissatisfaction. Females reported using more weight-management practices but less physical activity, while males reported healthier food choices. Participants in single-gender schools had healthier food choices compared with those in mixed-gender schools. Adolescents who were at increased risk of a greater degree of body dissatisfaction were females, attended single-gender schools, had lower household income, higher BMI and less physical activity. Most participants reported being dissatisfied with their current body shape, but the type and level of dissatisfaction and use of weight-management practices differed by gender and type of school. These findings suggest that programmes to combat body dissatisfaction should address different risk factors in males and females attending single- and mixed-gender schools.

  11. Families, School Choice, and Democratic Iterations on the Right to Education and Freedom of Education in Finnish Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira; Silvennoinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the ways in which the right to education and freedom of education are expressed in local school choice policies in Finland. We aim to discover the elements that form democratic iterations on the right to education and freedom of education by contrasting their manifestations in three local institutional spaces for parental…

  12. The Role of Personality in Relation to Gender Differences in School Subject Choices in Pre-University Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, H.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Boys and girls to some extent differ in personality characteristics while they also prefer different school subjects in secondary education. This study has attempted to unravel the relations among gender, personality, and students' subject choices. The study was based on a sample of 1,740 9th grade

  13. An Australian Study Comparing the Use of Multiple-Choice Questionnaires with Assignments as Interim, Summative Law School Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    To the author's knowledge, this is the first Australian study to empirically compare the use of a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) with the use of a written assignment for interim, summative law school assessment. This study also surveyed the same student sample as to what types of assessments are preferred and why. In total, 182 undergraduate…

  14. Cultural Capital and Gender Differences in Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling and Higher Education Choice in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    This article employs the concept of cultural capital to examine the ways in which social difference in terms of gender are played out in parental involvement in children's schooling and higher education choice. The intention has been to provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which Chinese mothers and fathers are involved in the process.…

  15. Schooling in modern Europe exploring major issues and their ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husén, Torsten

    1993-11-01

    Basing its arguments on a major study conducted on behalf of the Academia Europaea by a study group coordinated by the author, this paper sets out a number of important findings concerning problems besetting schooling in modern Europe. The paper begins by stressing the importance of studying the state of European education at a particularly significant time when major political changes are taking place, trade and labour markets are in a process of rapid integration, schools as institutions are becoming increasingly complex and there is a need to establish a new European identity and consciousness. The main questions examined, against the current background of industrialization, urbanization, changing demography and growing European integration, are those relating particularly to educational response to growing international competition and the consequences of changing family structure. Among problems considered are those arising from the changing capacity of schools to provide a substitute for the family and other influences in modern society at a time when, for various reasons, these are declining and schooling is generally being prolonged. Priority areas proposed for school education in the new circumstances include the promotion of European citizenship, the teaching of foreign languages to all, a preparation for working life geared to its rapidly changing structure and the expansion of appropriate scientific and technological education. The need to find solutions to the problems of educating immigrant groups and to develop evaluation systems in order to monitor quality maintenance are particularly highlighted.

  16. Secondary School Admissions Policies in Eastern Africa: Some Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W. T. S.

    1974-01-01

    This discussion considers some regional issues implicit in current procedures regulating admission to secondary education in four countries of Eastern Africa and places these procedures in their general political context. (Author)

  17. Effects of Choice Architecture and Chef-Enhanced Meals on the Selection and Consumption of Healthier School Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott A.; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known about the long-term effect of a chef-enhanced menu on healthier food selection and consumption in school lunchrooms. In addition, it remains unclear if extended exposure to other strategies to promote healthier foods (eg, choice architecture) also improves food selection or consumption. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of chef-enhanced meals and extended exposure to choice architecture on healthier school food selection and consumption. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A school-based randomized clinical trial was conducted during the 2011–2012 school year among 14 elementary and middle schools in 2 urban, low-income school districts (intent-to-treat analysis). Included in the study were 2638 students in grades 3 through 8 attending participating schools (38.4%of eligible participants). INTERVENTIONS Schools were first randomized to receive a professional chef to improve school meal palatability (chef schools) or to a delayed intervention (control group). To assess the effect of choice architecture (smart café), all schools after 3 months were then randomized to the smart café intervention or to the control group. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES School food selection was recorded, and consumption was measured using plate waste methods. RESULTS After 3 months, vegetable selection increased in chef vs control schools (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.36–2.24), but there was no effect on the selection of other components or on meal consumption. After long-term or extended exposure to the chef or smart café intervention, fruit selection increased in the chef (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.23–4.25), smart café (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13–1.87), and chef plus smart café (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.26–4.25) schools compared with the control schools, and consumption increased in the chef schools (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03–0.30 cups/d). Vegetable selection increased in the chef (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83–3.54), smart café (OR, 1.91; 95

  18. Physical education issues for students with autism: school nurse challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Elaine M; Brimer, Debbie

    2014-08-01

    Extant studies indicate persons with autism have difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, repetitive behaviors, and poor ability to generalize learned skills. Obesity has also been identified as significantly affecting children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Negative experience in physical education (PE) may be the antecedent behavior to lack of activities that are mediators to sedentary lifestyles and contributors to the chronic illnesses associated with overweight and obesity. Students with ASD often cannot perform required activities to meet required PE standards. It is imperative school nurses be aware of the many challenges students with ASD bring into a PE class. School nurses provide education for the members of the school community, including the Individualized Education Plan team, regarding the need for attention to limitations, including physical activity, of students with ASD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Issues and Challenges Facing School Libraries in Selected Primary Schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Ash, Margie; Wilmot, Di

    2015-01-01

    There is no national policy for school libraries which compels school governing bodies and principals to have a library in their schools. It is thus not surprising that in 2011, only 21% of state schools had libraries, only 7% had stocked libraries and 79% of schools had no library at all (Department of Basic Education (DBE) Republic of South…

  20. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mi...

  1. Global Social Issues in the Curriculum: Perspectives of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Prøsch, Åsa Kremer

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss principals' perspectives on the priority given to the place in the curriculum of and the supporting practices related to health and sustainability education in schools in Denmark (for pupils aged 6-16). The study is situated within the discourses about critical health and sustainability education and treats the two…

  2. Raising the Issue of Domestic Abuse in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen; Macdonald, Elspeth; Paton, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that around 30 per cent of children may witness domestic abuse, by which we mean physical or mental violence perpetrated by men on women. This paper reports the views of older children--a group from which there is little direct evidence available. Ninety-eight percent of pupils in a Scottish Secondary School consented to…

  3. Legal Issues & Education Technology: A School Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    Rapid development of new technologies has outpaced the development of related law, leaving educators in doubt about the management of copyright, privacy, liability, and security. A key provision of facilitating a healthy and safe environment for technology use is the school district's "Acceptable Use Policy" (AUP), which states that use…

  4. Professional Issues in School Counseling and Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents and has become a public health concern in the United States. In addition, certain groups of students are more at risk for suicide than others. School counselors have an ethical obligation to protect their students and are in an ideal position to educate students and staff about the risks…

  5. "STOP the Violence": FCCLA Program Tackles School Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "STOP the Violence--Students Taking on Prevention" is a program designed to involve students and address school violence at its core from the peer-to- peer perspective. Developed by members of the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), the program empowers young persons to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth…

  6. Enrichment in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Luck, Rachel; Wu, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This brief highlights key information about enrichment activities, which represent one of the main components of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative. Over time, the ELT initiative has supported over two dozen schools across the Commonwealth. A comprehensive evaluation of the ELT initiative found that implementation of the…

  7. On the Legal Issues of Teaching Evolution in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively teach evolution to all students, even those resistant to learning evolution, science teachers may question the extent to which religion can legally be discussed in the public high school science classroom. Evolution is taught from a variety of approaches, each of which has legal implications. Four approaches to teaching…

  8. Secondary School Curricula Issues: Impact on Postsecondary Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, Norma Jean

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the complex needs of students with disabilities in learning rigorous standards-based curricula, the need of educators to teach this population standards-based curricula effectively, and the contextual factors that affect teaching and learning standards-based curricula in secondary schools. Exemplary and promising practices…

  9. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  10. The Relationship between Intuitive Action Choices and Moral Reasoning on Animal Ethics Issues in Students of Veterinary Medicine and Other Relevant Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-01-01

    With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas. Action choices showed significant relationships to PI, MN, and UP questions, and these varied across program groups. Having a previous degree or more experience with farm animals had a negative relationship, and experience with horses or companion animals a positive relationship, with intuitive action choices favoring life and bodily integrity of animals. This study helps to explain the complex relationship between intuitive moral action choices and moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. As a useful research and educational tool for understanding this relationship, the VetDIT can enhance ethical decision making.

  11. Socioscientific Issues and Multidisciplinarity in School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Helen

    2014-05-01

    The inclusion of socioscientific issues (SSIs) in the science curriculum is a well-established trend internationally. Apart from claims about its innate value, one of the rationales for this approach is its potential for helping to counter declining interest and participation. SSIs involve the use of science and are of interest to society, also raising ethical and moral dilemmas. Introducing such problems presents a significant and usually cross-disciplinary challenge to curriculum developers and teachers. The aim of this paper is to examine how this challenge has been met when judged against contemporary views of the issues concerned. It first explores how SSIs have been interpreted in an important and innovative science course for students aged 14-16 in England, entitled Twenty First Century Science. This paper analyses the Twenty First Century Science textbooks, focusing in detail on two SSIs, reproductive genetic technology and climate change. For each of these issues, the key ideas present in the social science literature surrounding the problems are outlined. This review is then used as an analytical framework to examine how the issues are presented in the textbooks. It is argued in this paper that the perspectives the textbooks take on these issues largely do not include perspectives from social science disciplines. It goes on to suggest that the development of future SSI-based curricula needs to take account of these wider, often interdisciplinary, perspectives.

  12. Middle School Cafeteria Food Choice and Waste Prior to Implementation of Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Changes in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla; Bednar, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The study objective was to document choices of entrées, vegetables, fruits, grains/breads, and beverages on lunch trays and to determine the amount of each that was discarded after mealtime. Methods: A convenience sample of two urban middle school cafeterias in Texas participated in the study which took place in the 2010-2011…

  13. School Choice or the Politics of Desperation? Black and Latinx Parents of Students with Dis/Abilities Selecting Charter Schools in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Super, Gia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the city of Chicago to examine how Black and Latinx parents of students with dis/abilities1 engage with school choice. Using analytical tools from grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and a theoretical lens informed by critical notions of space, race and dis/ability, we analyze interviews with parents of students…

  14. Making Visible and Acting on Issues of Racism and Racialization in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Jhonel A.

    2017-01-01

    Schools, as social systems, may knowingly or unintentionally perpetuate inequities through unchallenged oppressive systems. This paper focuses on mathematics as a subject area in school practices in which inequities seem to be considered normal. Issues of racism and racialization in the discipline of mathematics are predominantly lived through the…

  15. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  16. An Exploration of School Leadership Issues Relating to the "December Dilemma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anna L.; Vasek, Austin; Davis, Derek

    2012-01-01

    School leadership is required to navigate difficult issues concerning the religious liberties of their students. December is a month filled with secular and religious holidays. It is the one month on the school calendar filled with joyous cultural celebrations. However, it can also become a quandary for leadership when attempting to balance the…

  17. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  18. Specialty Choice Among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Medicine: The Role of Specialty Prestige, Perceived Inclusion, and Medical School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkin, Nicole A; Pachankis, John E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) in medicine experience unique stressors in training. However, little is known about SGM specialty choice. This study examined predictors of SGM specialty choice, associations between specialty prestige and perceived SGM inclusion, and self-reported influences on specialty choice. Medical trainees and practitioners (358 SGM, 1528 non-SGM) were surveyed online. We operationalized specialty choice at the individual level as respondents' specialty of practice; at the specialty level, as a percentage of SGM respondents in each specialty. We examined specialty prestige, perceived SGM inclusivity, and medical school climate as predictors of SGM specialty choice, and we compared additional influences on specialty choice between SGM and non-SGM. The percentage of SGM in each specialty was inversely related to specialty prestige (P = 0.001) and positively related to perceived SGM inclusivity (P = 0.01). Prestigious specialties were perceived as less SGM inclusive (P gender identity strongly influenced specialty choice (P role models, and work-life balance as strong influences on specialty choice. Exposure as a medical student to SGM faculty did not predict specialty prestige among SGM. Specialty prestige and perceived inclusivity predict SGM specialty choice. SGM diversity initiatives in prestigious specialties may be particularly effective by addressing SGM inclusion directly. Further research is needed to inform effective mentorship for SGM medical students. Exposure to SGM in medical training reduces anti-SGM bias among medical professionals, and SGM in medicine often assume leadership roles in clinical care, education, and research regarding SGM health. Supporting and promoting SGM diversity across the spectrum of medical specialties, therefore, represents a critical avenue to improve the care delivered to SGM populations and addresses the role of providers in the health disparities experienced by SGM.

  19. Specialty Choice Among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Medicine: The Role of Specialty Prestige, Perceived Inclusion, and Medical School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) in medicine experience unique stressors in training. However, little is known about SGM specialty choice. This study examined predictors of SGM specialty choice, associations between specialty prestige and perceived SGM inclusion, and self-reported influences on specialty choice. Methods: Medical trainees and practitioners (358 SGM, 1528 non-SGM) were surveyed online. We operationalized specialty choice at the individual level as respondents' specialty of practice; at the specialty level, as a percentage of SGM respondents in each specialty. We examined specialty prestige, perceived SGM inclusivity, and medical school climate as predictors of SGM specialty choice, and we compared additional influences on specialty choice between SGM and non-SGM. Results: The percentage of SGM in each specialty was inversely related to specialty prestige (P = 0.001) and positively related to perceived SGM inclusivity (P = 0.01). Prestigious specialties were perceived as less SGM inclusive (P gender identity strongly influenced specialty choice (P work–life balance as strong influences on specialty choice. Exposure as a medical student to SGM faculty did not predict specialty prestige among SGM. Conclusion: Specialty prestige and perceived inclusivity predict SGM specialty choice. SGM diversity initiatives in prestigious specialties may be particularly effective by addressing SGM inclusion directly. Further research is needed to inform effective mentorship for SGM medical students. Exposure to SGM in medical training reduces anti-SGM bias among medical professionals, and SGM in medicine often assume leadership roles in clinical care, education, and research regarding SGM health. Supporting and promoting SGM diversity across the spectrum of medical specialties, therefore, represents a critical avenue to improve the care delivered to SGM populations and addresses the role of providers in the health disparities

  20. Effect of Motives for Food Choice on Oral Health among Primary School Children in Mangalore: An Analytical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Viral Vijay; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun; Nayak, Vijayendranath

    2017-05-01

    Parents influence children's eating behaviours by making some foods available than others and by acting as models of eating behaviour. Food selected by parents influence general and oral health of their children. Aim of this study was to assess oral health parameters among primary school children and motives for food choice among their parents in Mangalore. A total of 759 primary school children aged 5-10 years, and their parents participated in this study. Motives for food choice among parents of children were evaluated by using Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Oral health status of students was assessed by using World Health Organisation (WHO) Basic Oral Health Assessment Form. Data pertaining to dietary habits and demographics was also collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics along with Pearson's correlation and Binary logistic regression were executed for the present study and level of significance was fixed at pfood choice motives positively influenced dietary patterns and caries experience of their children. Caries experience was less in children whose parents reported higher scores on FCQ. Understanding the barriers, identification of risk factors for poor food choices and targeting interventions might formulate ways by which the desired behaviour can be achieved.

  1. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  2. The Impact of Debt Limitations and Referenda Requirements on the Cost of School District Bond Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary H.; Munley, Vincent G.

    2011-01-01

    One distinction between the markets for corporate and municipal bonds involves institutional constraints that apply to some municipal bond issues. This research focuses on how public finance institutions, in particular explicit debt limits and referenda requirements, affect the borrowing cost of individual school district bond issues. The…

  3. Delivering School-Based Mental Health Services by School Psychologists: Education, Training, and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Morris, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with the priority goals of the 2002 Future of School Psychology Conference, the National Association of School Psychologists' "Blueprint for Training and Practice III" advocates for school psychologists becoming "leading mental health experts in schools." In this regard, the present article reviews the prevalence and incidence of…

  4. Current issues of preventing tobacco use in secondary school graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Here is identified the tendency to reduce the effectiveness of anti-tobacco prevention work among graduating students of secondary school. This decline may be due to psychological and social reasons. It is shown that risk factors of involving in chemical dependency are meaningfully disclosed in longitudinal studies, whereas the dynamics of personal change during the formation of anti-addictive prevention skills are more fully disclosed in the comparative age sections. The typical phenomena, accompanying the downward trend in prevention, are the growth of problem behavior and the crisis of mass dropout. Such phenomena are so great that they are recognized as a crisis at a state level.

  5. Foods in schools: Children with diabetes can make wise meal choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students, parents, and school staff often believe there are no healthful foods available in schools for children with diabetes. This paper explains modern school food environments and how children with diabetes can eat school foods. National School Lunch Program meals usually consist of an entree, t...

  6. Masculinities in School Physical education: theoretical issues and political horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teofilo de Brito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the recognition of the urgency of the theme of gender and sexuality within the approach of the difference inclusion in School Physical education by academic research, in this article, we focus the notion of masculinity. We present and problematize the Raewyn Connell‟s theory of hegemonic masculinity, as well as the queer perspective, theoretical references identified in the literature review, which is also exposed. Based on the proposal of Jacques Derrida‟s deconstruction and the notion of performative gender, as developed by Judith Butler, we conclude this reflection with the proposition of normalizing masculinity and queer masculinity as search operators, in the theoretical and political will to favor openness to a more radical inclusion in research and lessons of SPE.

  7. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-01-01

    Background McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. Methods During the 6?month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n?=?80); a student online PA interest survey (n?=?465); a PA and nutr...

  8. Group Counseling in the Schools: Legal, Ethical, and Treatment Issues in School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Tony D.

    2009-01-01

    School psychologists are interested in providing effective and efficient direct services to children. With a wide spectrum of psychological problems impacting children, group counseling represents one viable and valuable intervention. Given the complexity of group counseling, many schools and school psychologists are interested in legal and…

  9. Review of the School Meals Service and Other School Nutritional Issues in Wales. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J.; Powell, R.; Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the Welsh Local Government Association (WLGA) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to gather evidence on local authority (LA) and school approaches to nutrition in schools in order to inform the work of the WLGA Schools Food Task and Finish Group. This report presents the findings of that research.…

  10. State School Finance System Variance Impacts on Student Achievement: Inadequacies in School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael J.; Wiggall, Richard L.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.; Emanuel, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate funding for the nation's schools to meet the call for higher student achievement has been a litigious issue. Spending on schools is a political choice. The choices made by state legislatures, in some cases, have failed to fund schools adequately and have incited school finance lawsuits in almost all states. These proceedings are generally…

  11. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, Trine Riebeling; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Peréz-Cueto, Federico Jose Armando

    2016-05-01

    The primary objective of this review is to assess the prevalence and quality of published studies on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions promoting vegetable consumption among adolescents. Additionally, this review aims to identify studies estimating adolescents' attitude towards choice architectural nudge interventions. Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searched systematically for experimental studies with a predefined search strategy in the period November-December 2013. Publications were included following predetermined inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated as of high, moderate or weak quality. Finally, studies were grouped by the type of intervention and underwent a narrative synthesis. The search showed that only very few studies investigated the effects of choice architectural nudging interventions on vegetable consumption, and none of them had attitude towards behavioural interventions as an outcome measure. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. The results of the 12 studies were inconclusive, and the majority of studies were of weak or moderate quality. This review uncovers a gap in knowledge on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions aiming to promote the intake of vegetables among adolescents in a school context. It also highlights that no previous studies have considered the attitudes towards choice architectural nudge interventions as a potential factor for their success - or lack thereof - in achieving the desired goal of increased vegetable consumption. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  12. Experiments to Generate New Data about School Choice: Commentary on "Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments" and Merrifield's Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Nathan; Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Benefiting from new data provided by experimental economists, behavioral economics is now moving beyond empirical tests of standard behavioral assumptions to the problem of designing improved institutions that are tuned to fit real-world behavior. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the potential for new experiments to advance school choice…

  13. Influences on choice of surgery as a career: a study of consecutive cohorts in a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Dejano T

    2006-06-01

    To examine the differential impact of person-based and programme-related features on graduates' dichotomous choice between surgical or non-surgical field specialties for first-year residency. A 10-year cohort study was conducted, following 578 students (55.4% male) who graduated from a university medical school during 1994-2003. Data were collected as follows: at the beginning of medical studies, on career preference and learning frame; during medical studies, on academic achievement, cross-year peer tutoring and selective clinical traineeship, and at graduation, on the first-year residency selected. Contingency and logistic regression analyses were performed, with graduates grouped by the dichotomous choice of surgery or not. Overall, 23% of graduates selected a first-year residency in surgery. Seven time-steady features related to this choice: male sex, high self-confidence, option of surgery at admission, active learning style, preference for surgery after Year 1, peer tutoring on clinical surgery, and selective training in clinical surgery. Logistic regression analysis, including all features, predicted 87.1% of the graduates' choices. Male sex, updated preference, peer tutoring and selective training were the most significant predictors in the pathway to choice. The relative roles of person-based and programme-related factors in the choice process are discussed. The findings suggest that for most students the choice of surgery derives from a temporal summation of influences that encompass entry and post-entry factors blended in variable patterns. It is likely that sex-unbiased peer tutoring and selective training supported the students' search process for personal compatibility with specialty-related domains of content and process.

  14. Making Good Choices: A Guide for Schools and Districts. Revised Edition. [with CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Maria

    This guide was designed to help schools develop effective programs in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It emphasizes that a school's CSR approach should be based on its needs, keeping in mind that one model may not provide every aspect of a school's comprehensive reform effort. Even so, a CSR model that meets the U.S. Department of Education's…

  15. Many Options in New Orleans Choice System: School Characteristics Vary Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-­Trigatti, Paula; Harris, Douglas N.; Jabbar, Huriya; Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on the differences between charter schools and district schools, treating all charters within a community as essentially alike. In effect, these studies take a "top­-down" approach, assuming that the governance of the school (charter versus district) determines the nature of the school. This approach may be…

  16. Apples to Apples: Common School Performance Frameworks as a Tool for Choice and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsko, Sarah; Opalka, Alice; Sutter, Jessica; Weeldreyer, Laura; Stewart, David

    2016-01-01

    Many districts are expanding and diversifying the school options available to parents--a trend that shows no signs of reversing. While all public schools are required to test and publically report results, it remains nearly impossible for families and education and civic leaders to make school-to-school comparisons, especially across district-run…

  17. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Chin; Lin, Ching-Yi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-11-01

    issues. Other factors such as fixed hours of duty with no emergency, easier lifestyle, and more time to take care his/her families were also important factors affecting career choice in medical students regardless of their gender; however, the junior students disclosed lower concern on the issues. In addition, four major misperceptions of gender and health issues were prevalent in the 7(th)-year students; therefore, we recognized the importance of integrating gender issues into medical curriculum to diminish gender misunderstanding and prejudice, and to provide gender-specific health care is mandatory in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. What's New in USDA's Food Distribution Program for Schools? School Programs USDA Foods Update. Volume 14, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update on all the new products and projects that U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has been working on, in its effort to help schools meet the nutritional needs of the students and to help in the President's challenge to End Childhood Hunger by 2015. This issue includes: (1) Back to…

  19. How would we deal with radiation related issues in high school educational programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Kuniko

    1999-01-01

    Current educational curriculum will be more improved and the materials in schools will be somewhat different by the year of 2002 when students have two days off in a week. It is a well known fact that recent Japanese people's level of understanding about Science and Technology is the second from the bottom among OECD nations and, as a matter of fact, few schools are dealing with scientific issues such as atomic energy or radiation. High school teachers need to survey what students know about atomic power and radiation, how deep they studied in previous schools and what kind of interest they have in conservation of world energy sources or environmental issues discussed today. Through questionnaires to 328 students, it became clear that they were most interesting to the effect of radiation or radioactivity on any kind of things in the environment, and that they want to know solutions for those problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layers and Garbage disposal. (M. Suetake)

  20. Does students' exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical school affect specialty choice and residency program selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Terry D; McLaughlin, Margaret A; Witte, Florence M; Fosson, Sue E; Nora, Lois Margaret

    2005-04-01

    To examine the role of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical students' choice of specialty and residency program. Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were distributed in 1997 to fourth-year students enrolled in 14 public and private U.S. medical schools. In addition to reporting the frequency of gender discrimination and sexual harassment encountered during preclinical coursework, core clerkships, elective clerkships, and residency selection, students assessed the impact of these exposures (none, a little, some, quite a bit, the deciding factor) on their specialty choices and rankings of residency programs. A total of 1,314 (69%) useable questionnaires were returned. Large percentages of men (83.2%) and women (92.8%) experienced, observed, or heard about at least one incident of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical school, although more women reported such behavior across all training contexts. Compared with men, significantly (p harassment influenced their specialty choices (45.3% versus 16.4%) and residency rankings (25.3% versus 10.9%). Across all specialties, more women than men experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection, with one exception: a larger percentage of men choosing obstetrics and gynecology experienced such behavior. Among women, those choosing general surgery were most likely to experience gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection. Interestingly, correlations between exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment and self-assessed impact on career decisions tended to be larger for men, suggesting that although fewer men are generally affected, they may weigh such experiences more heavily in their choice of specialty and residency program. This study suggests that exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate education may influence some medical students' choice of specialty and, to a lesser

  1. Everyday and medical life choices: decision-making among 8- to 15-year-old school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, P

    1992-01-01

    How much do young patients expect to be involved in medical decisions affecting them? We are investigating this question during interviews with 8- to 15-year-olds having orthopaedic surgery. Many youngsters taking part in our research project on consent to surgery are more than usually dependent on their parents. We wondered how their views would compare with those of their peers at school. This paper reports a schools survey carried out as a background to the research with young people in hospital. Students in seven schools answered questionnaires on choices about late-night television viewing, new friends, timing homework, seeing their family doctor and consenting to surgery. They were asked about agreement with their parents, how they negotiate disagreement, and when they think they were/will be old enough to make everyday and medical decisions without their parents' help.

  2. F actors Affecting Non Bank - Issued POS E - microp a ym en t Choice: A Study of Taiwan Market

    OpenAIRE

    Wee Kheng Tan; Shih Kuo Chen

    2008-01-01

    I n Taiwan , o rgani z ations with existing captive markets, that is, transport - related companies and convenience stores, have issue d their own non bank - issued POS e - micro payment programs and achieve d good success. Due to legal restriction imposed on non bank - issued programs, Taiwan’s market has evolve d further resulting in two major categories: non bank - iss...

  3. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  4. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Controversies in the Hydrosphere: an iBook exploring current global water issues for middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.; Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    This project looks to help teachers utilize iPad technology in their classrooms as an instructional tool for Earth system science and connections to the Big Ideas in Earth Science. The project is part of Penn State University's National Science Foundation (NSF) Targeted Math Science Partnership grant, with one goal of the grant to help current middle school teachers across Pennsylvania engage students with significant and complex questions of Earth science. The free Apple software iBooks Author was used to create an electronic book for the iPad, focusing on a variety of controversial issues impacting the hydrosphere. The iBook includes image slideshows, embedded videos, interactive images and quizzes, and critical thinking questions along Bloom's Taxonomic Scale of Learning Objectives. Outlined in the introductory iBook chapters are the Big Ideas of Earth System Science and an overview of Earth's spheres. Since the book targets the hydrosphere, each subsequent chapter focuses on specific water issues, including glacial melts, aquifer depletion, coastal oil pollution, marine debris, and fresh-water chemical contamination. Each chapter is presented in a case study format that highlights the history of the issue, the development and current status of the issue, and some solutions that have been generated. The next section includes critical thinking questions in an open-ended discussion format that focus on the Big Ideas, proposing solutions for rectifying the situation, and/or assignments specifically targeting an idea presented in the case study chapter. Short, comprehensive multiple-choice quizzes are also in each chapter. Throughout the iBook, students are free to watch videos, explore the content and form their own opinions. As a result, this iBook fulfills the grant objective by engaging teachers and students with an innovative technological presentation that incorporates Earth system science with current case studies regarding global water issues.

  6. Effect of Nutritional Intervention on Food Choices of French Students in Middle School Cafeterias, Using an Interactive Educational Software Program (Nutri-Advice)

    OpenAIRE

    Turnin , Marie-Christine; Buisson , Jean-Christophe; Ahluwalia , Namanjeet; Cazals , Laurent; Bolzonella-Pene , Caroline; Fouquet-Martineau , Caroline; Martini , Pascale; Tauber , Maïté; Hanaire , Hélène

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Objective : To evaluate the impact of interactive Nutri-Advice kiosks on children's nutritional skills and their ability to apply it to food choices in a middle school cafeteria menu (food choice competencies). Design : Quasi-experimental design; pre/post-test. Setting : Freestanding interactive computer terminals (kiosks) were installed in three middle schools in Toulouse, France. Participants : A total of 580 children were enrolled into the study (mean age, 13 ± 1 ye...

  7. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  8. A Symbiosis of Sorts: School Violence and the Media. Choices Briefs, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeroff, Gene I.

    This brief examines the effects of media coverage of school violence on school violence. The news media take notice precisely because shootings in a school are unusual. The media did not take much notice of shootings in the 1980s and 1990s in inner city communities because these infractions were not judged to be anomalies; they did not measure up…

  9. Languages, Cultural Capital and School Choice: Distinction and Second-Language Immersion Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone; Paz, Jesus Bergas; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that languages, increasingly marginalised in schools in English-speaking countries, are gaining "elitist" ground as part of the "value-added" marketisation of schools and parents' desire for their children to gain "positional goods" through schooling. In arguing our case, the paper draws on survey…

  10. Developing an Indicator System for Schools of Choice: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard S.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Liu, Sunny

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an indicator system that goes beyond a single indicator of school progress or performance. The system relies on a set of school indicators that uses data that public schools routinely report to state agencies for compliance purposes. The framework for the indicator system is based on the idea of…

  11. Public and Private Schooling in France: An Investigation into Family Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouet, Gabriel; Leger, Alain

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980s, 35 percent of French pupils attended private schools at some point. The private sector (largely state-supported Catholic schools) offered a second chance that was not seized equally. Research shows public-sector recruitment was more democratic; private schools equalized results more successfully. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  12. Gender Tracking and Student Choice: Case Study of a Girls' Vocational High School, 1911-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nancy

    The Lucy Flower Technical High School was the only Chicago public high school exclusively for girls. Its founders' goal was to train young women both for sex-segregated employment and for their "primary function" as housewives. The form this aim took in practice and the response to the school over time by Chicago's young women offer…

  13. School Choice in Sweden: An Interview with Thomas Idergard of Timbro. WebMemo. No. 2828

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Across the United States, policymakers are increasingly adopting education policies that give families the power to choose their children's schools. Nonetheless, the idea of providing school vouchers to allow children to attend private schools remains controversial. For instance, congressional leaders and the Obama Administration have tried to end…

  14. Refusing Relevance: School Administrator Resistance to Offering Professional Development Addressing LGBTQ Issues in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elizabethe C.; Smith, Melissa J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide insight to the multiple ways that school leaders resist, avoid, or block LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, queer, and questioning) professional development for their staff and, thus, resist the conversations around school responsibility to these students and families. Research…

  15. Making Visible and Acting on Issues of Racism and Racialization in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonel A. Morvan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schools, as social systems, may knowingly or unintentionally perpetuate inequities through unchallenged oppressive systems. This paper focuses on mathematics as a subject area in school practices in which inequities seem to be considered normal. Issues of racism and racialization in the discipline of mathematics are predominantly lived through the practice of streaming where students are enrolled in courses of different levels of difficulty. Such practice denies marginalized groups of students the full benefit of rich learning experiences. These issues should be of concern for activists, advocates, and allies as well as individuals and groups who are systematically and directly affected. The purpose of this paper is to make visible issues of racism and racialization in school mathematics to a range of stakeholders that include: school administrators, teachers, students, parents, education advocates, academics, educational researchers, and politicians. The ultimate goal is that the knowledge gained through this call to action will contribute toward eliminating social injustice in all school systems, particularly as it relates to skin colour, country of origin, culture, language, customs, and religion.

  16. Sexuality and the Schools: Handling the Critical Issues. the Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series. Roadmaps to Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Joan L.; And Others

    This book provides suggestions for handling important and emotionally charged issues of sexuality in the schools. Six chapters offer information on teenage pregnancy, HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), sexual orientation, sexual harassment, and sex education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Searching for Intimacy"…

  17. Justifying the Use of Internet Sources in School Assignments on Controversial Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Teemu

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This study concerns students' criteria in the evaluation of Internet sources for a school assignment requiring reflections on a controversial issue. The findings are elaborated by analysing students' discursive accounts in justifying the use or non-use of sources. Method: The interview data was collected in a Finnish upper secondary…

  18. Pathways to a Sustainable Future: A Curriculum Guide for Maine Schools Exploring Waste Management Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewonki Foundation, Wiscasset, ME.

    This action guide is designed to help students and teachers become aware of the concepts and issues of waste management, and to motivate them to action in the classroom, school, home, and community. The guide emphasizes interdisciplinary activities that concentrate on the process of problem solving. Activities are identified by appropriate grade…

  19. Judicial Review: Issues of State Court Involvement in School Finance Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, William Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Due to state legislatures' reluctance to initiate school-funding reform, judicial bodies are asked to provide relief from alleged inequities. Before providing judicial review, the judiciary must decide whether an issue is justiciable (does not violate separation of powers) and warrants court intervention. Children's education has not substantially…

  20. Are Educational Leadership Candidates Prepared to Address Diversity Issues in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak C.

    2006-01-01

    Standard 4 of the Educational Leadership Constituency Council (ELCC) Standards addresses school diversity issues and specifies requirements that all educational leadership programs need to meet. In response, all educational leadership programs in Georgia referenced ELCC Standards and have worked to foster diversity as a priority in their programs.…

  1. Adequate Education: Issues in Its Definition and Implementation. School Finance Project, Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther, Ed.

    Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…

  2. "Some of Those Girls Can Be Real Drama Queens": Issues of Gender, Sexual Harassment and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s many feminists working for gender justice in education have highlighted the predominance and seriousness of sexual harassment in schools and condemned the enduring trivialization of such behaviours. This paper develops this body of work by focusing on how issues of sexual harassment are located within prevailing contemporary…

  3. The Opinions of Middle School Mathematics Teachers on the Integration of Mathematics Course and Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan Turkkan, Buket; Karakus, Memet

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of middle school mathematics teachers on the integration of mathematics course and social issues. For this purpose, qualitative research method was used in this study. As for determining the participants of the research, criterion sampling among purposeful sampling methods was used. Being a…

  4. Virtual K-12 Public School Programs and Students with Disabilities: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This policy forum proceedings document contains a short introduction section that describes the current status of virtual public school programs in general and special education programs in particular. Next, this document provides a state-of-the-nation report that describes the exponential growth these programs and the evolving policy issues for…

  5. Planning for Parent Choice: A Guide to Parent Surveys and Parent Involvement in Planning for Parent and Professional Choice in the Public Schools. [Parent Choice and the Public Schools: Volume 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    This guide, second in a series of four volumes, offers a method of surveying parents' attitudes about choosing schools for their children and provides a survey instrument used over a period of 5 years in four Massachusetts urban school districts. Section 1 introduces the basic research questions pursued in the survey. Section 2, "The Parent…

  6. Linking implementation process to intervention outcomes in a middle school obesity prevention curriculum, ‘Choice, Control and Change’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the link between process evaluation components and the outcomes of a school-based nutrition curriculum intervention, ‘Choice, Control and Change’. Ten New York City public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned into intervention or control condition. The curriculum was to improve sixth to seventh grade students’ energy balance related behaviors, based on social cognitive and self-determination theories, and implemented during the 2006–2007 school year (n = 1136). Behaviors and psychosocial variables were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Process components were evaluated with classroom observations, teacher interviews, and a student questionnaire. Using ‘Teacher Implementation’ (dose delivered) and ‘Student Reception’ (dose received) process data; intervention group was further categorized into medium- and high-implementation groups. Analysis of covariance revealed that, compared with control group, only high-implementation group showed significant improvement in students’ behavior and psychosocial outcomes. Hierarchical linear models showed that ‘Teacher Implementation’ and ‘Student Reception’ significantly predicted students’ sweetened beverage outcomes (P < 0.05). ‘Student Satisfaction’ was also greater when these implementation components were higher, and significantly associated with behavior and psychosocial outcomes (P < 0.05). Implementation process influenced the effectiveness of the ‘Choice, Control and Change’ intervention study. It is important to take into account the process components when interpreting the results of such research. PMID:25700557

  7. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-04-03

    McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. During the 6 month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n = 80); a student online PA interest survey (n = 465); a PA and nutrition survey among 5(th) (10-11 years) and 8(th) graders (13-14 years) with questions adapted from the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (n = 442, response rate = 82.2%); six semi-structured school and community focus groups (n = 44); school site visits (n = 11); and BMI screening (n = 550, response rate = 69.7%). One third of children in McDowell County meet the national PA minimum of 60 minutes daily. At least 40% of 5(th) and 8(th) graders engage in electronic screen activity for 3 hours or more every day. The prevalence of obesity in 5(th) graders is higher in McDowell County than the rest of WV (~55% vs. 47% respectively). SWOT analyses of focus group data suggest an overall interest in PA but also highlight a need for increase in structured PA opportunities. Focus group data also suggested that a central communication (e.g. internet-based) platform would be beneficial to advertise and boost participation both in current and future programs. Schools were commonly mentioned as potential facilities for public PA participation throughout the county, both with regards to access and convenience. School site visits suggest that schools need more equipment and resources for before, during, and after school programs. An overwhelming majority of participants in the McDowell CHOICES needs assessment were interested to participate in more PA programs throughout the county as well as to improve opportunities for the provision of such programs. Public schools were widely recognized as the hub

  8. Food choice, plate waste and nutrient intake of elementary- and middle-school students participating in the US National School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.

  9. Citizenship Education and Socioscientific Issues: Implicit Concept of Citizenship in the Curriculum, Views of French Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrue, Catherine; Albe, Virginie

    2013-05-01

    The educative goal of citizenship education through science education converges to the declared purpose of the SSI research movement. Socioscientific issues formulated in science education research covering topics as biotechnology, environmental issues, sustainable development, energy choices, have been introduced in French Middle Schools. But citizenship is often not clarified and can be multiple. After having clarified who is the citizen targeted by SSI research movement, the concept of citizen in the French curriculum needs to be clarify. What do these citizens have in common with the citizen that a sociology literature review let see oscillating between obedience and critical thinking has also been investigated. The paper also looks at the teachers' views and their contribution to citizenship education through socioscientific topics described in the national curriculum. From the analysis, different teachers' views of citizenship education have been highlighted: a normative citizenship education in connection with civility and rules and an emancipatory citizenship education to develop pupils' skills such as searching and evaluating information, argumentation and critical thinking in order to enable pupils to build their own argued opinion and to participate to public debates. This last emancipatory view of citizenship education is congruent with the aim of social empowerment within the SSI research movement.

  10. Effects of socioscientific issues-based instruction on argumentation ability and biology concepts of upper secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faelt, Surasak; Samiphak, Sara; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2018-01-01

    Argumentation skill is an essential skill needed in students, and one of the competencies in scientific literacy. Through arguing on socioscientific issues, students may gain deeper conceptual understanding. The purpose of this research is to examine the efficacy of a socioscientific issues-based instruction compared with an inquirybased instruction. This is to determine which one is better in promoting 10th grade students' argumentation ability and biology concepts of digestive system and cellular respiration. The forty 10th grade students included in this study were from two mathematics-science program classes in a medium-sized secondary school located in a suburb of Buriram province, Thailand. The research utilizes a quasi-experimental design; pre-test post-test control group design. We developed and implemented 4 lesson plans for both socioscientific issues-based instruction and inquiry-based instruction. Ten weeks were used to collect the data. A paper-based questionnaire and informal interviews were designed to test students' argumentation ability, and the two-tier multiple-choice test was designed to test their biology concepts. This research explore qualitatively and quantitatively students' argumentation abilities and biology concepts, using arithmetic mean, mean of percentage, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that there is no significant difference between the two group regarding mean scores of the argumentation ability. However, there is significant difference between the two groups regarding mean scores of the biology concepts. This suggests that socioscientific issues-based instruction could be used to improve students' biology concepts.

  11. Pathways through Secondary School in a Comprehensive System: Does Parental Education and School Attended Affect Students' Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    As the Australian labour market restructured during the 1980s and 1990s, Year 12 retention rates more than doubled between 1983 and 1993 secondary schools diversified to include vocational education and training programs as alternative pathways through school. From a human capital perspective, the completion of vocational qualifications in school…

  12. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  13. Alternative-Specific and Case-Specific Factors Involved in the Decisions of Islamic School Teachers Affecting Teacher Retention: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Hafez, Alaa Karem

    2015-01-01

    Teacher retention is a concern in all educational sectors in America. It is of special importance to Islamic schools, which tend to lack the resources necessary in recruiting and training new teachers. This dissertation addressed this problem in full-time Islamic schools in New York State by conducting a discrete choice experiment, which reflects…

  14. The Conceivable Benefits of Being Comprehensive--Finnish Local Education Authorities on Recognising and Controlling the Social Costs of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, numerous education reforms have sought to dismantle centralised bureaucracies and replace them with devolved systems of schooling that emphasise parental choice and competition between increasingly diversified types of schools. Nevertheless, the "Finnish variety of "post-comprehensivism" continues to emphasise…

  15. "Nowhere That Fits": The Dilemmas of School Choice for Parents of Children with Statements of Special Educational Needs (SEN) in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa-Patel, Meanu; Devecchi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Giving parents a choice with regard to their children's education has been central to the political discourse of school reform at least since the 1988 Education Reform Act (ERA). With regard to children with a Statement of special educational needs (SSEN), a plethora of policies and laws have given parents the right not only to choose a school,…

  16. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  17. Imagination in School Children's Choice of Their Learning Environment: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Derek; Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe

    2012-01-01

    A visual research project addressed school children's concepts of ideal learning environments. Drawings and accompanying narratives were collected from Year 5 and Year 6 children in nine Queensland primary schools. The 133 submissions were analysed and coded to develop themes, identify key features and consider the uses of imagination. The…

  18. Homework Policy and Student Choice: Findings from a Montessori Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine M.; Glaze, Nelda

    2017-01-01

    The use of homework has been a controversial topic in education for many years: what types of homework to give, how much, and how often. In previous years, Ocean Montessori School (a pseudonym), the site of this study, offered homework like that of traditional public schools, such as worksheets and rote skill practice. Feeling conflicted about the…

  19. School or Madrassa? Parents' Choice and the Failure of State-Run Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jehanzaib

    2012-01-01

    Two major assumptions have dominated much of the discourse on Islamic schools in Pakistan since the rise of the Taliban in the 1990s and following the US attack on Afghanistan in October 2001. First, the Pakistani state-run education system is failing. Because of the poor quality of education at public schools, parents choose to send their…

  20. Contemporary Bilingual Life at a Canadian High School: Choices, Risks, Tensions, and Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a ethnographic study that investigated how immigrant high school students used Cantonese and English to achieve academic and social success in a Canadian high school where English was the language of instruction. Argues that immigrant students found meaningful ways to acquire the cultural capital of the dominant society. (CAJ)

  1. Girls' career choices as a product of a gendered school curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prising 20 sixth form school girls and 20 teachers was used. These were ... led on the English system (see also Wolpe, 2006), with Zimbabwean girls being educated for ... fore, in spite of the Zimbabwean education system's claim to be liberative, it has remained ... a disadvantage as regards school and career aspirations.

  2. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine Riebeling; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden

    2016-01-01

    towards choice architectural nudge interventions. Methods: Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searched systematically for experimental studies with a predefined search strategy in the period November – December 2013. Publications were included following pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were...

  3. College-Level Choice of Latino High School Students: A Social-Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…

  4. A discrete-choice model with social interactions : With an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.; Kooreman, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete-choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties-in particular the correspondence between interaction strength, number of agents, and the set of equilibria-and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation

  5. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.; Kooreman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between the interaction strength, the number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of

  6. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Kooreman, P.

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete-choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between interaction strength, number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation

  7. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessems Kathelijne MHH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests. Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses. Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies.

  8. The Opinions of Middle School Mathematics Teachers on the Integration of Mathematics Course and Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Turhan Turkkan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of middle school mathematics teachers on the integration of mathematics course and social issues. For this purpose, qualitative research method was used in this study. As for determining the participants of the research, criterion sampling among purposeful sampling methods was used. Being a middle school mathematics teacher as an occupation was considered as a criterion for determining the participants. The participants of the research consist of 13 middle school mathematics teachers in Turkey. So as to collect the research data, the semi-structured interview form created by the researchers was used. The data analysis was performed according to the content analysis, and Nvivo 10 program was used for the analysis. As a result of this study, the themes of the situation and methods of the integration of mathematics course and social issues, the attainment of democratic values in mathematics course and the ways of its attainment, gaining awareness of social justice and equality in mathematics course and the ways of its gaining, the activities performed by teachers for social issues in mathematics course and the teachers’ suggestions for the integration of mathematics course and social issues were reached and the results were discussed within this frame.

  9. Medical school accreditation in Australia: Issues involved in assessing major changes and new programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Medical Council (AMC is an independent company for quality assurance and quality improvement in medical education in Australia and New Zealand. Accreditation procedures for the 20 medical schools in these two countries are somewhat different for three different circumstances or stages of school development: existing medical schools, established courses undergoing major changes, and new schools. This paper will outline some issues involved in major changes to existing courses, and new medical school programs. Major changes have included change from a 6 year undergraduate course to a 5 year undergraduate course or 4 year graduate-entry course, introduction of a lateral graduate-entry stream, new domestic site of course delivery, offshore course delivery, joint program between two universities, and major change to curriculum. In the case of a major change assessment, accreditation of the new or revised course may be granted for a period up to two years after the full course has been implemented. In the assessment of proposals for introduction of new medical courses, six issues needing careful consideration have arisen: forward planning, academic staffing, adequate clinical experience, acceptable research program, adequacy of resources, postgraduate training program and employment.

  10. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chin Chung

    2013-11-01

    economic incentive” were more appreciated by the senior than the junior students (p < 0.05. Effect of “family” or “spouse” did not differ significantly regardless of gender or seniority. The 7th-year students had experiences in clinical medicine and had different considerations in career choice in comparison to the 1st-year students, and gender played a role in senior students. In addition, the senior rather than the junior students regarded “training and learning environments”, “risk of lawsuit”, and “economic incentive” as more important factors affecting the career choices, and male students paid more attention to these issues. Other factors such as fixed hours of duty with no emergency, easier lifestyle, and more time to take care his/her families were also important factors affecting career choice in medical students regardless of their gender; however, the junior students disclosed lower concern on the issues. In addition, four major misperceptions of gender and health issues were prevalent in the 7th-year students; therefore, we recognized the importance of integrating gender issues into medical curriculum to diminish gender misunderstanding and prejudice, and to provide gender-specific health care is mandatory in Taiwan.

  11. Intercultural education: Issues statement valuation and ethnic indian school Pan Kararu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warna Vieira Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Education is distinguished from four dimensions: community, specific, and different cultures. This paper aims to investigate the issue of intercultural situations from everyday school Pankararus Ezekiel, in order to contribute to discussions on intercultural dialogue in areas of cultural clash. At school we Pankararus Ezekiel identified through ethnographic research two situations involving intercultural theme: in the classroom, in the confrontation of specific knowledge and universal knowledge of the sayings, and relations between indigenous teachers and non-indigenous counterparts. Porting, we realize that education differently, based on a proposal to interculturality is, above all, understand the other perspective of recognition and respect of cultural diversity in our country.

  12. Assessing Vocational Development in Prospective School Librarians. A Review of: Jones, S. (2010. The occupational choice of school librarians. Library Trends, 59(1-2, 166-187.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore the motivations for choosing school librarianship as a career.Design – Narrative research, qualitative interviews.Setting – The School Media program specialization in a Master of Library Science program at a large research university.Subjects – Five graduate school students seeking initial certification as school library media specialists.Methods – The researcher employed narrative research, based on career construction theory and the Life Story Interview, (McAdams, 1995. This methodology is a set of loosely-structured, open-ended questions designed to encourage detailed, in-depth responses from the participant teller, combined with a more structured Career Style Interview (Savickas, 2005 designed to elicit self-defining stories.Data was collected through qualitative interviews, using personal narrative interviews that focused on the entire life of each person from birth to present (Life Story Interviews and additional questions in an interview format (Career Style Interview.Data was collected and analyzed in two stages. The analysis first examined participants as individuals then tried to identify commonalities among the stories. Each life story was examined to determine a career style on the basis of vocational personality, career adaptability and life theme. The interview data was then analyzed for thematic connections and occupational choice. Main Results – The final analysis identified the following themes as relevant to the study, and to the career choices of graduate students planning to be school librarians: parental expectations; career changers; librarian mentors; prior library work experiences; reading; library experiences; altruism-service; desire to work with children; financial stability and security; flexibility of work schedule; emotional distance; and vocational personality.In general, the participants appear to value safe, traditional career choices that allow them to put family first and

  13. Middle School Students' Use of Epistemological Resources while Reasoning about Science Performance Tasks and Media Reports of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Brandy L. E.

    The goal of science education is to prepare students to make decisions about the complicated socioscientific issues that are an inescapable part of modern life, from personal medical decisions to evaluating a political candidate's environmental platform. We cannot expect adults to maintain a deep conceptual understanding of the current state of every branch of science that might prove relevant to their lives, so we must prepare them to rely on other knowledge to make these decisions. Epistemological beliefs about scientific knowledge--what it is, its purpose, how it is constructed--are one type of knowledge that could be brought to bear when evaluating scientific claims. Complicating this situation is the fact that most adults will get most of their information about these socioscientific issues from the news media. Journalists do not have the same goals or norms as scientists, and this media lens can distort scientific issues. This dissertation addresses the question of whether we can assess epistemological change in a way that gives us meaningful information about how people will apply their epistemological understanding of science when they make decisions in the real world. First, I designed a written assessment made up of performance tasks to assess middle school students' implicit epistemological beliefs, and looked at whether we can use such an assessment to see epistemological change over two years. I then gave the same students news articles about whether there is a link between vaccines and autism and looked at their reasoning about this issue and how the journalistic features of two different articles impacted their reasoning. Finally, I examined the external validity of the epistemology assessment by looking at whether it predicted anything about students' responses to the news articles. While I was able to find evidence of differences between eighth graders' and sixth graders' use of epistemological resources within the performance tasks, I found that

  14. Choices and Changes: Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students' Longitudinal Reflections about Their Choice of a STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles' comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students in their last year in upper-secondary school…

  15. Implementation Issues in Multicultural Education: What Are Secondary Public School Educators Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVonne Fedynich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study sought to explore the issues that faced secondary teachers in a rural central Georgia public high school when attempting to implement a multicultural education program.  The key issues of this study centered on the teachers’ multicultural education training and the school’s multicultural education program. Data were gathered from a total of thirty randomly chosen teachers in the Social Studies, Math and English departments at the school. Twenty-five of the thirty teachers received a hard copy four question Likert scale survey to complete. The remaining 5 participants took part in face-to-face interviews discussing six open-ended questions.  The findings pointed to several issues facing the teachers such as the lack of an officially implemented multicultural education program, the lack of support from school administrators, no in-service training available for teachers, parental and student misapprehension, and a lack of an officially defined policy on implementation and support of a multicultural education program from administrators locally and district-wide.

  16. How would we deal with radiation related issues in high school educational programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Kuniko [Attached High School of Akita Keizai Houka Univ., Akita (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Current educational curriculum will be more improved and the materials in schools will be somewhat different by the year of 2002 when students have two days off in a week. It is a well known fact that recent Japanese people's level of understanding about Science and Technology is the second from the bottom among OECD nations and, as a matter of fact, few schools are dealing with scientific issues such as atomic energy or radiation. High school teachers need to survey what students know about atomic power and radiation, how deep they studied in previous schools and what kind of interest they have in conservation of world energy sources or environmental issues discussed today. Through questionnaires to 328 students, it became clear that they were most interesting to the effect of radiation or radioactivity on any kind of things in the environment, and that they want to know solutions for those problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layers and Garbage disposal. (M. Suetake)

  17. Argumentation Quality of Socio-scientific Issue between High School Students and Postgraduate Students about Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisa, A.; Widodo, A.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Argumentation is one factor that can help improve critical thinking skills. Arguing means to defend statements with the various data, denials, evidence, and reinforcement that support the statement. The research aimed to capture the quality of argument skills by students in grade 12 high school students and in postgraduate student on social-scientific issues of cancer. Both group subjects are not in the same school or institution, chosen purposively with the subject of 39 high school students of grade 12 in one district of West Java and 13 students of Biology education postgraduate in one of University in West Java - Indonesia. The results of the quality structure of arguments in both subject groups show the same pattern, which is claim - warrant - and ground, with the quality of counterclaim aspects on the postgraduate students look better than grade 12 students. This provides an illustration that the ability in argumentation between students and teachers in the socio-scientific issue of cancer should be evaluate so that the learning process would be more refined in schools.

  18. Motivations and attitudes affecting high school students' choice of foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Strobelt, Jody; Chen, Huabin

    2003-01-01

    There are some foreign languages that enjoy great status in the United States, while other foreign languages are rarely represented at the high school level. The present study explored the following questions: Why do students choose to take a particular foreign language? Do students gravitate toward it because it is widely thought to be the easiest language to learn or because they perceive greater career opportunities with proficiency in this particular language, or is it simply because there are more classes offered? As long as foreign language study is elective in high schools and as long as a variety of languages are offered, the answers to these questions will remain important for foreign language educators, especially in schools where the various language programs compete with one another for student enrollments and the programs' ultimate survival.

  19. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  20. Influencing College and Higher Education Choices in Disadvantaged Hispanic High School Students Through a School-Based Health Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harsimran; Matza, Maria; Latham, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Statistics representing professional health care providers do not adequately reflect the shift in the nation's diverse population. Latinos are significantly underrepresented at all levels of appropriate academic programs critical for entry to health profession careers. This project describes the implementation of a student-run, faculty-facilitated Future Nurse and Health Club at a school (with majority Latino students) to emphasize the importance of higher education in health care. Demographic and psychosocial profiles of club members were also developed to understand community needs. The Future Nurse and Health Club was established in partnership with faculty and researchers representing a university-based nursing program, school officials, and community leaders. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from club members and their parents using a variety of techniques including questionnaires and focus groups. The findings of the study highlighted a variety of student- and parent-related factors including poor lifestyle habits and perceptions of support that could potentially influence Latino high school students' interest and progress in health care-related higher education. A school-based health career club involving active participation of parents and students with support from health care professionals such as academic nursing faculty has the potential to simultaneously raise student interest in health-related careers and health needs of their community.

  1. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  3. Introducing Argumentation About Climate Change Socioscientific Issues in a Disadvantaged School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

    2018-03-01

    Improving the ability of young people to construct arguments about controversial science topics is a desired outcome of science education. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of an argumentation intervention on the socioscientific issue of climate change with Year 10 students in a disadvantaged Australian school. After participation in a professional development workshop on climate change science, socioscientific issues and argumentation, an early career teacher explicitly taught argumentation over four non-consecutive lessons as part of a 4 week (16 lesson) topic on Earth science. Thirty students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire to determine their understanding of climate change science and their ability to construct an argument about a climate change socioscientific issue. Students' understanding of climate change improved significantly (p size. There was also a significant increase (p Qualitative data, comprising classroom observation field notes, lesson transcripts, work samples, and teacher and student interviews, were analysed for the extent to which the students' argumentation skills improved. At the end of the intervention, students became aware of the need to justify their decisions with scientific evidence. It is concluded that introducing argumentation about climate change socioscientific issues to students in a disadvantaged school can improve their argumentation skills.

  4. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mixed-method research approaches, was used to conduct the research. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers in the qualitative strand of the study to explore the phenomenon. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. During the quantitative strand of the research, 113 prospective teachers were administered a questionnaire form. The results of the study revealed that none of the participating prospective teachers mentioned about the religious and cultural characteristics of socioscientific issues, and they need training about how to use socioscientific issues in teaching.

  5. Prospective elementary school teachers’ views about socioscientific issues: A concurrent parallel design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Özden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mixed-method research approaches, was used to conduct the research. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers in the qualitative strand of the study to explore the phenomenon. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. During the quantitative strand of the research, 113 prospective teachers were administered a questionnaire form. The results of the study revealed that none of the participating prospective teachers mentioned about the religious and cultural characteristics of socioscientific issues, and they need training about how to use socioscientific issues in teaching.

  6. Ethical issues in obesity prevention for school children: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Planning and conducting preventive measures against obesity for school children is beset with ethical issues which should be known to make well-informed decisions. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive spectrum of these ethical issues by means of a systematic review. In this context, the study also assesses the value of different search strategies for ethical literature in public health. Literature was searched in Medline, EBSCO and others. Three different search strategies with varied scopes were applied and their output was compared. Qualitative content analysis was used for extracting and categorizing ethical issues. 109 publications (published from 1995 to 2015) were finally included. The qualitative analysis resulted in 60 potentially relevant ethical issues. The three search strategies showed substantial differences regarding their search results. The presented spectrum provides an initial evidence base for dealing with ethical issues adequately. The findings of the study further suggest that a broader scope is more fruitful for systematic reviews on ethical issues in the field of public health.

  7. Measuring primary school teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in technology education with a multiple choice test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Fatih Tasar, M.; Cakankci, G.; Akgul, E.

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a crucial part of a teacher’s knowledge base for teaching. Studies in the field of technology education for primary schools showed that this domain of teacher knowledge is related to pupils’ increased learning, motivation, and interest. The common methods to

  8. Wise Choices? The Economics Discourse of a High School Economics and Personal Finance Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Tamara Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Today's high school students will face a host of economic problems such as the demise of the social safety net, mounting college student debt, and costly health care plans, as stated in the rationale for financial literacy provided by the Council for Economic Education's National Standards for Financial Literacy. These problems are compounded by…

  9. Beginning Secondary Teachers in PNG: Family Background, Choice of Subject and the Curriculum Needs of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. P.

    1985-01-01

    Some results from the 1982 New Teachers survey will be related to the teacher training programme at Goroka Teachers college. These will be put in the context of the subject courses run at G.T.C. and the subjects taught in secondary schools. Indications of who chooses to teach and why will be found by examining the sociological background of the…

  10. School Choice in a Stratified Geography: Class, Geography, Otherness, and Moral Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay-Egozi, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Using open-ended, semi-structured interviews, this study pulls together insights on social class and geography to explore how parents choose schools differently for their children in a unique Israeli setting. Querying parents' feelings and perceptions about themselves and others in their immediate and distant locality offers an opportunity to…

  11. Personality Traits' Effects on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for High School Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selection of a high school major among 368 Israeli adolescents (Mage = 16.07, SD = 0.41). Structural equation analyses showed that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower…

  12. Diabetes Cooking Schools Improve Knowledge and Skills in Making Healthful Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Wells, Linda; Bock, Margaret Ann

    2012-01-01

    Rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing nationally and in New Mexico, particularly in ethnic minorities. A key self-care area with challenging barriers is healthy eating. The New Mexico Cooperative Extension Service conducts diabetes cooking schools statewide together with community health providers. The study reported here determined if this…

  13. Tensions in Creating Possibilities for Youth Voice in School Choice: An Ethnographer's Reflexive Story of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnam-Kappel, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The following article relates a reflexive ethnographic research project that focuses on youth voice in relation to the process of choosing a high school and a language of instruction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this methodological article is to relate a story of research and explore the tensions between theory and practice experienced by a…

  14. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  15. Test Performance and Social Comparison Choices of High School Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Gail Anna; Cherry, Frances

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that high school girls would perform better if they anticipated test results to be private, and that boys would perform better under conditions of anticipated public feedback. Found the hypothesis to be supported for girls in average ability classes; girls in advanced ability classes performed better with public feedback. (Author/GC)

  16. Converging on Choice: The Interstate Flow of Foundation Dollars to Charter School Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Setari, R. Renee

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research has been documenting the pivotal role that philanthropic funding plays in advancing state and local charter school reform. However, there is little understanding of the geographic flow of these funding patterns and the market, policy, and organizational conditions that have concentrated funding in some clusters of states…

  17. Energy-Smart Choices for Schools. An HVAC Comparison Tool. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A CD ROM program provides comparison construction cost capabilities for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in educational facilities. The program combines multiple types of systems with square footage data on low and high construction cost and school size to automatically calculate HVAC comparative construction costs. (GR)

  18. Factors Affecting Student Career Choice in Science: An Australian Study of Rural and Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study done at Oxford University on why young people chose to pursue a career in the physical sciences and engineering. Characteristics of schools that appeared to influence students to pursue a study of science were also investigated. Currently, England, Australia, Canada, China, Japan, and Portugal have contributed information to…

  19. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  20. Management and Administration Issues in Greek Secondary Schools: Self-Evaluation of the Head Teacher Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Argyriou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the importance school headmasters attach to a number of activities associated with the effective performance of their duties. This recording aims to examine the potential of these school headmasters to exercise their role and work within the highly bureaucratic and hierarchical Greek educational system. These activities include (a establishment and realization of a common vision and mission of the school unit as well as its culture identification and formation, (b teaching and tutoring of students, (c management and development of the educational personnel, (d conducting of administrative affairs and management of resources, and (e good relations with parents, entities of external environment of the school unit, and the local community. The study found that the headmasters consider activities concerning their bureaucratic/conductive role as well as their leading behaviour as “very important” at very high percentages (over 70.0%. However, tasks involving them in administrative issues are, according to them, “less” up to “least important” so that their role is effectively fulfilled. Statistically significant diversifications have been observed in certain activities associated with the efficient performance of their duties in relation to their gender, years of experience in leadership position, and the size of the school unit.

  1. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 3. The nutritional significance of beverage and dessert choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The consumption patterns of beverages and desserts features highly in the current debate surrounding children's nutrition. The aim of this study was to continuously monitor the choice of beverages and desserts made by nearly 1000 children in a school cafeteria. A newly developed smart card system was used to monitor the food choices of diners (7-16-year-old boys) in a school cafeteria over 89 days. A wide variety of beverages and desserts were on offer daily. Despite coming from an affluent, well-educated demographic group, the boys' choices of beverages and desserts mirrored those of children in general. Buns and cookies were over 10 times more popular than fresh fruits and yogurts. Sugary soft-drinks were over 20 times more popular than fresh fruit drinks and milk combined. Appropriate choices could, over a month, reduce intake of added sugar by over 800 g and fat by over 200 g. The smart card system was very effective at monitoring total product choices for nearly 1000 diners. In agreement with a recent national school meal survey, where choice is extensive, children show a preference for products high in fat and/or sugar. The consequences of these preferences are discussed.

  2. Cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior for predicting healthy food choice in secondary school students of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Evidence Matter? How Middle School Students Make Decisions About Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Katherine Beth

    People worldwide are faced with making decisions daily. While many decisions are quick (e.g., what clothes to wear), others, such as those about environmental issues (e.g., overfishing), require more thought and have less immediate outcomes. How one makes such decisions depends on how one interprets, evaluates, and uses evidence. The central objective of this thesis was to investigate environmental science literacy in general, and specifically, to understand how evidence and other factors impact decision-making. I conducted three main studies: First, I provide an example of how decision-making practices affect environmental systems and services through a descriptive case study of Atlantic bluefin tuna overfishing. I reviewed the scientific, historical and cultural factors contributing to a paradox of marine preservation in the Mediterranean and highlighted the need for education and informed decision-making about such social and ecological issues. This study motivated me to investigate how people make decisions about environmental issues. Second, I interviewed middle school students to understand how they describe and evaluate evidence hypothetically and in practice about environmental issues---a key component of environmental literacy. Students discussed how they would evaluate evidence and then were then given a packet containing multiple excerpts of information from conflicting stakeholders about an environmental issue and asked how they would make voting or purchasing decisions about these issues. Findings showed that students' ideas about evaluating evidence (e.g., by scientific and non-scientific criteria) match their practices in part. This study was unique in that it investigated how students evaluate evidence that (1) contradicts other evidence and (2), conflicts with the student's prior positions. Finally, I investigated whether middle school students used evidence when making decisions about socioscientific issues. I hypothesized that holding a strong

  4. Will a Short Training Session Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality by Dental School Faculty? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A

    2017-08-01

    Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.

  5. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.

  6. Chemistry: content, context and choices : towards students' higher order problem solving in upper secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is often claimed to be difficult, irrelevant, and uninteresting to school students. Even students who enjoy doing science often have problems seeing themselves as being scientists. This thesis explores and challenges the negative perception of chemistry by investigating upper secondary students’ views on the subject. Based on students’ ideas for improving chemistry education to make the subject more interesting and meaningful, new learning approaches rooted in context-based learning...

  7. Ability, Schooling Choices and Gender Labor Market Discrimination: Evidence for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the gender differences in the Chilean labor market. We formally deal with the selection of the individuals into schooling levels and its consequences on the gender gaps. Our approach allows for the presence of not only heterogeneity in observable variables but also unobserved heterogeneity. We link this unobserved heterogeneity to unobserved scholastic ability. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set for Chile. This data set contains...

  8. Ethics teaching on 'Beginning of Life' issues in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Christopher; Fialova, Lydie

    2014-12-01

    Medical ethics forms an essential component of an undergraduate medical programme. In the UK the Institute of Medical Ethics has released a consensus statement detailing its recommendations for a minimum curriculum for ethics. One important issue it highlights for inclusion is 'Beginning of Life', which includes a wide range of themes. This paper presents an evaluation of the current teaching and assessment of these important issues in UK medical schools, complemented by a specific analysis of students' reaction to the teaching they received at the University of Edinburgh as part of their Obstetrics and Gynaecology rotation. Schools which responded to the survey reported a wide range of teaching and assessment methods. While there was a good overall coverage of topics, only one of them was covered by every institution and the religious/cultural elements of those topics were often neglected. The medical schools viewed better clinical integration of ethics teaching as the best route to improvement, but the students reported a desire for more ethics teaching in the form of specific tutorials, lectures or discussions. It is likely that a combination of these approaches will lead to significant improvements in the delivery of ethics teaching in this area and in others. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Prime-time television exposure to high priority school-aged social-developmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sherrie; Itano, Davin; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the material children and adolescents are exposed to while watching prime-time television so that school educators, health professionals, and parents can focus on issues of maximum exposure that must be addressed. Prime-time programming was recorded from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. Hawaiian Standard Time daily for 2 weeks in July 2005. Recordings were then viewed to identify social behaviors of interest. Each hour on average, sex was referenced 1.8 times, drugs 0.6 times, tobacco 0.3 times, alcohol 2.4 times, and violence/crime 6.0 times per network. Messages advocating exercise, anti-drug advocacy, and anti-smoking advocacy were each shown 0.2 times per hour; while anti-alcohol advocacy was shown 0.1 times per hour. School educators, health professionals, and parents must recognize that prime-time television frequently exposes viewers to issues that are of critical importance to the health and social development of school-aged children and adolescents.

  10. Why and How Do Parents Decide to Send Their Children to the Interdistrict School Choice Program at the Magnet Program for Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin S.

    The New Jersey Interdistrict School Choice Program allows parents to send their students to schools outside of their local school district. Determining why parents send their students to choice schools is important to school leaders who are trying to attract new students, as well as those who are trying to retain their current students. This study examined the reasons why parents decided to send their students to the Magnet Program for Math and Science (MP4M&S), a school choice program in a suburban school district in northwest New Jersey, during the 2015- 2016 school year. A large volume of research has focused on school choice programs in urban and poor communities. This study addressed the gap in the research by focusing on an affluent suburban school district. This mixed methods study focused on three areas, why parents choose to send their students to the MP4M&S, what criteria they used to make their decision, and where they got their information. Research shows that these three areas of focus can be influenced by parental level of education, socioeconomic status, geographic location, academic rigor, school quality, and school environment. Parents from different groups, based upon their out-of-district status, were interviewed. The information from the interviews was used to focus a survey that was given to the families of all 137 students in the MP4M&S during the 2015-2016 school year. The results of this study show that parents found the academic focus, academic rigor, the school environment, the original research project, the activity offerings, and the economics involved in attending the program to be important attractors. The study also found that the Information Nights, the school website, and interactions with members of the MP4M&S community to be important sources of information. Finally, the study found that there were few differences between in and out-of-district parents when assigning importance to both the attractors and the sources in the study

  11. Intended Career Choice in Family Medicine in Slovenia: An Issue of Gender, Family Background or Empathic Attitudes in Final Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Marija Petek; Selic, Polona

    2017-06-01

    Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes. An intended career in family medicine was reported using a five-point Likert scale. Of the 175 medical school seniors in study year 2013/14, there were 64 (36.6%) men and 111 (63.4%) women, while in the second group (study year 2014/5), there were 68 (40.5%) men and 100 (59.5%) women; 168 students in total. They were 24.9±1.6 (generation 2013/4) and 24.9±1.7 (generation 2014/15) years old. Thirty-six percent of the students in the academic year 2013/14 intended to choose family medicine as a future career, and a similar proportion in academic year 2014/15 (31.7%). Gender (χ 2 =6.763, p=0.034) and empathic attitudes (c 2 =14.914; p=0.001) had a bivariate association with an intended career choice of family medicine in the 2014/15 generation. When logistic regression was applied to this group of students, an intended career choice in family medicine was associated with empathic attitudes (OR 1.102, 95% CI 1.040-1.167, p=0.001), being single (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.150-11.628, p=0.028) and the father having only primary school education (OR 142.857 95% CI 1.868, p=0.025), but not with gender (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.854-1.621, p=0.320). The level of students' father's education, and not living in an intimate partnership, increased the odds on senior medical students to choose family medicine, yet we expected higher JSE-S scores to be associated with interest in this speciality. To deepen our understanding, this study should be

  12. Representation of Migration Issues in Geography Textbooks for Primary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đorđević

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the population, migratory movements and the consequences of these developments contribute to the formation of all-round development of personality of students and their scientific view of the world. A migration issue through varied and always current content encourages thinking and independent reasoning. It is therefore necessary to examine in detail the phenomenon of migration. In this way children develop critical thinking towards important socio-geographical and globalization processes. Consequently, they get acquainted with the ways of dealing with migration flows, which represent a global challenge today. The aim is to analyze the migration point to their representation in the geography textbooks for primary and secondary school. Bearing in mind that the socio-geographical theme interdisciplinary comparison is conducted geography curricula in Serbia, as well as selected European countrie. The results show the specificity and their underrepresentation in geography textbooks for primary and secondary school.

  13. Exploring Issues of Implementation, Equity, and Student Achievement With Educational Software in the DC Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ahn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present analyses from a researcher-practitioner partnership in the District of Columbia Public Schools, where we are exploring the impact of educational software on students’ academic achievement. We analyze a unique data set that combines student-level information from the district with data of student usage of a mathematics game platform: First in Math (FIM. These data offer a window into long-standing issues in the educational technology literature around implementation, equity, and student achievement. We show that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement. Such observations from data are helpful for school districts and researchers to inform equitable implementation of new technologies and maximize benefits to learners.

  14. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  15. Children's agenda-based regulation: The effects of prior performance and reward on elementary school children's study choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Stacy; Ariel, Robert; Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John

    2017-12-01

    The main goal of the current experiments was to examine the influence of monitoring and reward on elementary school children's study decisions. First and third graders studied names for 10 animals (e.g., "The elephant's name is Suzy") and then were given a cued recall test on which they were shown the animal and needed to recall the name. Next, they were given an opportunity to restudy the animal-name pairs, and some of these pairs were slated to earn a reward (a sticker) if correctly recalled. In Experiment 1, both groups of children were (a) more likely to restudy previously unrecalled pairs than previously recalled pairs and (b) more likely to restudy pairs that were slated to receive a reward. In Experiment 2, we further explored children's use of reward using a forced-choice selection task. Namely, during selection, pairs were presented in dyads where one pair was slated for a reward and the other pair was not, and the children could choose only one pair from each dyad for restudy. Both first and third graders chose to restudy pairs slated for a reward. Thus, even young elementary school children consider both rewards and performance monitoring when regulating their learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative analysis of multiple-choice and student performance-task assessment in the high school biology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Patrick Ryan

    This study compared the performance of high school students on laboratory assessments. Thirty-four high school students who were enrolled in the second semester of a regular biology class or had completed the biology course the previous semester participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to examinations of two formats, performance-task and traditional multiple-choice, from two content areas, using a compound light microscope and diffusion. Students were directed to think-aloud as they performed the assessments. Additional verbal data were obtained during interviews following the assessment. The tape-recorded narrative data were analyzed for type and diversity of knowledge and skill categories, and percentage of in-depth processing demonstrated. While overall mean scores on the assessments were low, elicited statements provided additional insight into student cognition. Results indicated that a greater diversity of knowledge and skill categories was elicited by the two microscope assessments and by the two performance-task assessments. In addition, statements demonstrating in-depth processing were coded most frequently in narratives elicited during clinical interviews following the diffusion performance-task assessment. This study calls for individual teachers to design authentic assessment practices and apply them to daily classroom routines. Authentic assessment should be an integral part of the learning process and not merely an end result. In addition, teachers are encouraged to explicitly identify and model, through think-aloud methods, desired cognitive behaviors in the classroom.

  17. Study on a model of street vended food choices by Korean high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kiwoong; Park, Sanghyun; Joo, Nami

    2011-10-01

    Street vended food (SVF) includes food and beverages prepared and sold outdoors or in public areas by street merchants for consumption on the scene or later without further preparation. Due to its low price and convenience, SVF has been popular in Korea for a long time, particularly with high school students. Beyond Korea, SVF is also popular in southeast Asia and southern Africa in the form of ready-to-eat food. This study on high school students, who are main consumers of SVF in Korea, focused on the factors that affect consumer loyalty. The study was performed by questionnaire and used AMOS software to develop a structural equation model. The results of verifying the model's fidelity were χ(2) = 685.989, df = 261, GFI = 0.851, AGFI = 0.814, NFI = 0.901, CFI = 0.907, RMR = 0.048, indicating a satisfying structural model. SVF quality and service, emotional response, and the physical environment had a statistically significant effect on consumer loyalty. In contrast, SVF sanitation had no statistically significant effect on consumer loyalty. Based on these results, the sanitary management of SVF needs to be addressed immediately combined with education for SVF providers to maintain a clean environment.

  18. Discussing nuclear issues at school by history and geography teachers in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigue, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief survey involving 30 history and geography teachers from the Paris region shows that they address nuclear energy in class. National programs allow various approaches at different levels, without really focusing on the subject. The discussion brings the question down to a trivial issue, in accordance with the general french consensus, but that does not prevent pupils from asking questions, preoccupied as they are by certain choices which have already been made for the future. In order to answer those questions to the best extent possible in view of the underlying ethical problem, teachers would welcome better training, up-to-date, pluri-disciplinary and objective information, as well as appropriate and easy-to-use educational material

  19. Effect of Nutritional Intervention on Food Choices of French Students in Middle School Cafeterias, Using an Interactive Educational Software Program (Nutri-Advice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnin, Marie-Christine; Buisson, Jean-Christophe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Cazals, Laurent; Bolzonella-Pene, Caroline; Fouquet-Martineau, Caroline; Martini, Pascale; Tauber, Maïthé; Hanaire, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of interactive Nutri-Advice kiosks on children's nutritional skills and their ability to apply it to food choices in a middle school cafeteria menu (food choice competencies). Quasi-experimental design; pre/post-test. Freestanding interactive computer terminals (kiosks) were installed in three middle schools in Toulouse, France. A total of 580 children were enrolled into the study (mean age, 13 ± 1 years). Each child's physiological profile was stored in a personal barcode card. During 1 school year, once a day, each child could access the kiosk with this card, trying to find the most balanced meal according to his or her profile and the food available on the cafeteria menu. Children's food choice competency changes and body mass index z-score were evaluated. Significance of change in food choice competencies (postintervention vs baseline) was examined using paired t test. Across the study, children chose significantly less cheese and pastry or desserts, and significantly more starchy food and dairy, and tended to choose fruits and vegetables more often. Body mass index z-score decreased significantly during the period. Personalized nutrition counseling through an interactive device has the potential to improve the food choice competencies of children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. International Perspectives on Academic and Professional Preparation of School and Educational Psychologists: Introduction to a Special Issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology" is devoted to promoting an understanding of some current features of school psychology programs and to suggest ways to further strengthen preparation. Information summarized in these 12 articles is intended to assist us in determining the relevance…

  1. Harassment, Bullying, and Discrimination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Legal Issues for North Carolina Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Will

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to inform students, parents, school personnel, and officials of the legal issues related to harassment, bullying, and discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. This report describes existing research on the current school climate for LGBT youth as well as the harmful effects of…

  2. Linking Housing and School Integration Policy: What Federal, State and Local Governments Can Do. Issue Brief No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This Issue Brief states that, in spite of the obvious "reciprocal relationship" between housing and school policy, government housing and education agencies have rarely collaborated to promote the common goals of racial and economic integration. Recent efforts to promote collaboration among housing and school agencies have focused on…

  3. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  4. The Winds of Katrina Still Call Our Names: How Do Teachers and Schools Confront Social Justice Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Joan T.

    2007-01-01

    Certainly, individuals in many colleges and public schools address the impact of race, class, and power on schools, yet the institutions as a whole continue, even a year after Katrina, to ignore the imperative to explicitly and consistently deal with these issues. Human justice must become an institutional mantra, not just the conversation of a…

  5. Marketing, Information, and Parental Choice: A Comparative Case Study of Third-Party, Federally Funded Out-of-School-Time Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Molly S.; Good, Annalee G.

    2016-01-01

    Information and promotional marketing play central but complex roles in market-based educational programs. This in-depth qualitative study examines these complexities using the case of Supplemental Educational Services, a parental choice program providing federally funded tutoring to low-income students in K-12 public schools. Examining the…

  6. Choice of Scottish Gaelic-Medium and Welsh-Medium Education at the Primary and Secondary School Stages: Parent and Pupil Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the reasons for parental choice of Scottish Gaelic-medium and Welsh-medium primary education in the year 2000 and of the reasons for pupils' decisions to continue with Gaelic or Welsh-medium education at secondary school in 2007. Parents in both contexts cited the quality of Celtic-medium education…

  7. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  8. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andres Cartes-Velasquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below, city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34 that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800, a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  9. A Qualitative Study of Factors That Influence Contraceptive Choice among Adolescent School-Based Health Center Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Gilmore, Kelly; Cady, Janet; Akers, Aletha Y; Ahrens, Kym R

    2016-06-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods can prevent teen pregnancy yet remain underutilized by adolescents in the United States. Pediatric providers are well positioned to discuss LARCs with adolescents, but little is known about how counseling should occur in pediatric primary care settings. We explored adolescent womens' attitudes and experiences with LARCs to inform the development of adolescent-centered LARC counseling strategies. Qualitative analysis of one-on-one interviews. Participants were recruited from 2 urban school-based, primary care centers. Thirty adolescent women aged 14-18 years, diverse in race/ethnicity, and sexual experience. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive and deductive coding. Major themes were identified to integrate LARC-specific adolescent preferences into existing counseling approaches. Participants (mean age, 16.2 years; range, 14-18 years) represented a diverse range of racial and/or ethnic identities. Half (15/30) were sexually active and 17% (5/30) reported current or past LARC use. Five themes emerged regarding key factors that influence LARC choice, including: (1) strong preferences about device-specific characteristics; (2) previous exposure to information about LARCs from peers, family members, or health counseling sessions; (3) knowledge gaps about LARC methods that affect informed decision-making; (4) personal circumstances or experiences that motivate a desire for effective and/or long-acting contraception; and (5) environmental constraints and supports that might influence adolescent access to LARCs. We identified 5 factors that influence LARC choice among adolescent women and propose a framework for incorporating these factors into contraceptive counseling services in pediatric primary care settings. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of choice architecture and chef-enhanced meals on the selection and consumption of healthier school foods: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Richardson, Scott A; Cluggish, Sarah A; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the long-term effect of a chef-enhanced menu on healthier food selection and consumption in school lunchrooms. In addition, it remains unclear if extended exposure to other strategies to promote healthier foods (eg, choice architecture) also improves food selection or consumption. To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of chef-enhanced meals and extended exposure to choice architecture on healthier school food selection and consumption. A school-based randomized clinical trial was conducted during the 2011-2012 school year among 14 elementary and middle schools in 2 urban, low-income school districts (intent-to-treat analysis). Included in the study were 2638 students in grades 3 through 8 attending participating schools (38.4% of eligible participants). Schools were first randomized to receive a professional chef to improve school meal palatability (chef schools) or to a delayed intervention (control group). To assess the effect of choice architecture (smart café), all schools after 3 months were then randomized to the smart café intervention or to the control group. School food selection was recorded, and consumption was measured using plate waste methods. After 3 months, vegetable selection increased in chef vs control schools (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.36-2.24), but there was no effect on the selection of other components or on meal consumption. After long-term or extended exposure to the chef or smart café intervention, fruit selection increased in the chef (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.23-4.25), smart café (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.87), and chef plus smart café (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.26-4.25) schools compared with the control schools, and consumption increased in the chef schools (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.30 cups/d). Vegetable selection increased in the chef (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83-3.54), smart café (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.46-2.50), and chef plus smart café schools (OR, 7.38, 95% CI, 5.26-10.35) compared with the control schools

  11. Parents, Quality, and School Choice: Why Parents in Nairobi Choose Low-Cost Private Schools over Public Schools in Kenya's Free Primary Education Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Piper, Benjamin; Ong'ele, Salome; Kiminza, Onesmus

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost private schools (LCPS) are widespread in Kenya, particularly in urban areas. This study examines the reasons that parents send children to fee-charging schools in a context of free public primary education. Drawing on parent survey and interview data, as well as interviews with national policy makers, we found that parents who chose LCPS…

  12. Studies of self-pollution in diesel school buses: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Considerable interest has focused on levels of exhaust emissions in the cabins of diesel-powered school buses and their possible adverse health effects. Significantly different policy and engineering issues would be raised if compelling evidence found that inc-cabin contamination was due to self-pollution from bus emissions, rather than ambient pollution, neighboring vehicles, and/or re-entrained road dust. We identified 19 reports from 11 studies that measured diesel exhaust particulate in the cabins of 58 school bus of various type. Studies were evaluated in light of their experimental design, their data quality, and their capacity to quantify self-pollution. Only one study had a true experimental design, comparing the same buses with and without emission controls, while four others used intentional tracers to quantify tail pipe and/or crankcase emissions. Although definitive data are still lacking, these studies suggest that currently available control technologies can nearly eliminate particulate self-pollution inside diesel school buses.

  13. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues in dental school environments: dental student leaders' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; pschools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; pschool administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.

  14. Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? Intertemporal choice, attachment and theory of mind in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Antonella; Castelli, Ilaria; Sanvito, Laura; Massaro, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Intertemporal choice is a decision-making dilemma related to outcomes of different entity located at different time points. Economic and psychological literature on this topic showed the phenomen of temporal discounting, i.e., the proclivity to devalue the outcome distant in time on the basis of the time delay necessary to obtain it. The goals of this research are to investigate two different components of intertemporal choice separately, namely time and outcome, in school-age children, and the possible link among such components and the security of attachment style and theory of mind. Ninety one children aged between 6 and 10 years performed two intertemporal choice tasks, first and second order false belief tasks and the Separation Anxiety Task in the Family and School versions. Results showed that the two components of intertemporal choice (waiting tolerance and sensitivity to delayed outcome) are stately interrelated; the quality of the attachment to the family caregiver affects the tolerance to waiting time and first order false belief understanding affects both the components of intertemporal choice. PMID:24904496

  15. Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? Intertemporal choice, attachment and theory of mind in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Antonella; Castelli, Ilaria; Sanvito, Laura; Massaro, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Intertemporal choice is a decision-making dilemma related to outcomes of different entity located at different time points. Economic and psychological literature on this topic showed the phenomen of temporal discounting, i.e., the proclivity to devalue the outcome distant in time on the basis of the time delay necessary to obtain it. The goals of this research are to investigate two different components of intertemporal choice separately, namely time and outcome, in school-age children, and the possible link among such components and the security of attachment style and theory of mind. Ninety one children aged between 6 and 10 years performed two intertemporal choice tasks, first and second order false belief tasks and the Separation Anxiety Task in the Family and School versions. Results showed that the two components of intertemporal choice (waiting tolerance and sensitivity to delayed outcome) are stately interrelated; the quality of the attachment to the family caregiver affects the tolerance to waiting time and first order false belief understanding affects both the components of intertemporal choice.

  16. Elementary school teachers' techniques of responding to student questions regarding sexuality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Kirchofer, Gregg; Telljohann, Susan K

    2003-01-01

    Fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school teachers' (n = 277) techniques of responding to students' human sexuality-related questions were assessed. Few teachers (34%) reported receiving formal training in sexuality education. The most commonly asked student questions dealt with STDs, puberty, homosexuality, pregnancy, and abortion. Teachers' willingness to answer sexually-related questions in front of the class varied (73% to 14%) by content of the question. There were no questions on the questionnaire in which more than one in five teachers would choose not to answer. The most common questions the teachers identified they would not respond to dealt with topics such as abortion, masturbation, homosexuality, and issues about the male genitals. Finally, none of the questions was perceived by more than one in eight of the teachers as questions they would not be allowed to answer.

  17. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  18. Turkish preservice science teachers' socioscientific issues-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media

  19. Escolha, estratégia e competição por escolas públicas Choice, strategy and competition for public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, políticas que buscam estimular a liberdade de escolha de escolas por parte dos pais visam declaradamente promover melhoria educacional por meio de mecanismos competitivos e/ou de accountability. Há discussão acumulada na sociologia sobre os quase-mercados formados em políticas de escolha escolar. O artigo investiga os processos de escolha e de acesso escolar em um contexto que denominamos "quase-mercado oculto". No caso brasileiro, a ausência de regulação permite que severos mecanismos de segmentação se manifestem em meio à complexa hierarquia escolar existente nas redes compostas por escolas públicas "comuns". O artigo apresenta a elaboração conceitual presente na literatura internacional e nossas reflexões para o caso brasileiro, além de resultados de uma pesquisa, especialmente de sua fase qualitativa, referente às entrevistas realizadas com professores(as, diretores(as e com pais de alunos do Ensino Fundamental da rede municipal na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.Frequently, policies that seek to encourage parents´ school choice aim to promote educational improvement by means of competitive and/or accountability mechanisms. There is a growing discussion within sociology around the quasi-markets formed with school choice policies. The paper investigates the processes of school choice and access in a context called "hidden quasi-market". In the Brazilian context, the absence of regulation allows the emergence of severe mechanisms of segmentation that take place within a complex school hierarchy existing among "ordinary" school systems. The article presents a conceptual elaboration present in the international literature and our considerations regarding the Brazilian context. It also brings some results, especially those concerning the qualitative phase of the research, including interviews with teachers, principals and students’ parents from municipal elementary schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  20. Issues about home computer workstations and primary school children in Hong Kong: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py Szeto, Grace; Tsui, Macy Mei Sze; Sze, Winky Wing Yu; Chan, Irene Sin Ting; Chung, Cyrus Chak Fai; Lee, Felix Wai Kit

    2014-01-01

    All around the world, there is a rising trend of computer use among young children especially at home; yet the computer furniture is usually not designed specifically for children's use. In Hong Kong, this creates an even greater problem as most people live in very small apartments in high-rise buildings. Most of the past research literature is focused on computer use in children in the school environment and not about the home setting. The present pilot study aimed to examine ergonomic issues in children's use of computers at home in Hong Kong, which has some unique home environmental issues. Fifteen children (six male, nine female) aged 8-11 years and their parents were recruited by convenience sampling. Participants were asked to provide information on their computer use habits and related musculoskeletal symptoms. Participants were photographed when sitting at the computer workstation in their usual postures and joint angles were measured. The participants used computers frequently for less than two hours daily and the majority shared their workstations with other family members. Computer furniture was designed more for adult use and a mismatch of furniture and body size was found. Ergonomic issues included inappropriate positioning of the display screen, keyboard, and mouse, as well as lack of forearm support and suitable backrest. These led to awkward or constrained postures while some postural problems may be habitual. Three participants reported neck and shoulder discomfort in the past 12 months and 4 reported computer-related discomfort. Inappropriate computer workstation settings may have adverse effects on children's postures. More research on workstation setup at home, where children may use their computers the most, is needed.

  1. Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: findings from the Healthy Choices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn; Greaney, Mary L; Wang, Monica L; Mezegebu, Solomon; Peterson, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school students in 47 Massachusetts schools participating in Healthy Choices, an obesity prevention program. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association of individual race/ethnicity and daily SSB consumption and the potential mediating effect of the density of food outlets (the number of fast food outlets and convenience stores in a 1500 m buffer area surrounding the school) on this association adjusting for individual and school demographics. More SSB consumption was reported by students of all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to their White peers except Asians. The density of fast food restaurants and convenience stores was not associated with individual SSB consumption (β=0.001, p=0.875) nor did it mediate the association of race/ethnicity and SSB consumption. Racial and ethnic differences in SSB consumption among MA middle school students cannot be fully explained by the location of fast food restaurants and convenience stores. © 2013.

  2. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  3. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  4. School Vouchers: Stealing from the Poor to Give to the Rich?

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    School vouchers are defined as certificates of government funding that are allocated to students and intended to defer the cost of tuition at a private school of the student or the student's parents' choice. With strong views on opposing sides, the issue of school choice and the corresponding use of vouchers has certainly been catapulted into the…

  5. Behavioral and EEG reactions in primary school-aged children to emotionally colored verbal stimuli with the condition of their own or forced choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiusheeva T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare behavioral and EEG reactions of primary school-aged children during the recognition of syntactic errors in emotionally (positively or negatively colored sentences that appeal to the choice of the child differently. 20 children (mean age 9,0±0,3 years, 12 boys, 8 girls were examined. We found out that the children with a high quality of solving a linguistic task concentrate all their attention on finding an error in the sentences, and children with a low quality of solving a task demonstrate increased emotionality, possibly connected with their unsuccessfulness. The strongest EEG reactions in the ranges of alpha- and theta- rhythms were recorded in children with slow speed and bad quality of the solution of the task. The recognition of sentences with negative emotions took longer than sentences with positive emotions. The increase of emotions (synchronization in theta range during the recognition of negative sentences was provoked by the expectation of failure and “identification” with it. The children found the mistake better in the sentences with their own choice than in the sentences that describes the forced-choice situation. Desynchronization (i.e. decrease in the spectral power and synchronization (i.e. increase in spectral power was detected on the EEG in the alpha-rhythm range. Desynchronization was associated with the recognition of sentences describing the children’s own choice; synchronization was recorded when recognizing sentences describing the forced-choice situation.

  6. Curricular issues and the possibility of discussion in film clubs with teachers: the religious issue in public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the research "Educational networks, Cultural flowsand Teaching work- the case of cinema, its images and sounds", financed by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ and Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, we have sought to understand through these of film in cine clubs with student teacher sand teachers, the 'cultural worlds' by which these participantsthinkers circulate in the educational networks that form and in which they are formed. The idea is that these multiple contact processes with images and sounds make important contributions to the circles developed in school every day. In this article, we detect and expose the ways in which religious affiliations are in these 'cultural worlds' in different ways, many of them discriminating a few, and the ways in which some of these participantsthinkers seek respectful contacts with others, in these space times. We argue in favour of the importance of these 'talks', at school and at the present time, in an attempt to overcome many discriminatory actions that are becoming frequent.

  7. Insulin Administration in Catholic Schools: A New Look at Legal and Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…

  8. Economic School Integration: An Update. The Century Foundation Issue Brief Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    In 2000, an Idea Brief asserted that the best way to improve education would be to give every schoolchild the opportunity to attend a middle class public school (economic school integration). This brief reviews recent research and policy developments regarding economic school integration, noting that school segregation based on socioeconomic…

  9. Biogeochemical Cycles for Combining Chemical Knowledge and ESD Issues in Greek Secondary Schools Part I: Designing the Didactic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalidi, Sophia; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical cycles support all anthropogenic activities and are affected by them, therefore they are intricately interlinked with global environmental and socioeconomic issues. Elements of these cycles that are already included in the science/chemical curriculum and textbooks intended for formal education in Greek secondary schools were…

  10. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  11. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  12. The problems during choice of profession and comparison of these problems with anxiety and depression in final year of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between prevalence of anxiety, depressive disorder symptoms and some sociodemographic variables in the final year of high-school students, secondly to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors which affect choosing professions among the high school senior students in the province of Van. Methods: In this context, the study was performed in the provincial center of Van in the second semester of 2011. Unpaired t test and one way Anova test were used for statistical analysis. Socio-demographic Information Form, Awareness of Career Choice Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were applied to a total of 412 students. Results: In this study BAI and BDI scores were 15.4±13.3 and 15.3±12.8 respectively. BAI scores of the students in Anatolian high school were found higher than the normal high school. Both the anxiety and depressive levels of female students were higher than the males. The mean age was 16,8 years, 73.8% of whom were male. In 58% of the students’ BAI point, in 66% BDI point were higher than 41; and in 37% BDI point were higher than 17. Female students had higher BAI points. There was a positive correlation between BAI and BDI points. Conclusion: It was noticed in our study that the great amount of anxiety discovered in last grade high school students affect. The student’s job choice negatively. We think that providing last grade high school students with guidance service about job selection will be useful.

  13. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-01-01

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is$6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient

  14. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Nørnberg, Trine R; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The primary objective of this review is to assess the prevalence and quality of published studies on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions promoting vegetable consumption among adolescents. Additionally, this review aims to identify studies estimating adolescents’ attitude towards choice architectural nudge interventions.Methods: Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searched systematically for experimental studies with a predefined search strategy in the period Novemb...

  15. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  16. Improving Public Education through Comprehensive School Reform: An Issue Brief from the International Reading Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program is a new initiative that could affect International Reading Association members in the United States--but will benefit only those who take advantage of it. The purpose of the CSR initiative is to provide financial incentives for schools to develop comprehensive school reforms. Funding is available to…

  17. Strategies for Transitioning to an Inclusive School Environment. Issue Brief #10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Judith

    2017-01-01

    For many students with disabilities, their school experience began or quickly became non-inclusive. As schools increasingly adopt inclusive practices, these students and their families may have questions or concerns. This brief provides strategies, suggestions, and resources for schools to help families understand and become a vital part of the…

  18. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  19. Social Organization of Classes and Schools. Issue Paper 89-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    This paper describes the importance of knowledge about the social organization of schools and classrooms for beginning teachers. The paper begins with a consideration of schools and classrooms as cultural settings and examines the beginning teacher's role within them. The remaining sections of the paper examine the interweaving of school social…

  20. How Safe Are You at Work? Occupational Health and Safety Issues for School Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, John A.

    Schools are becoming increasingly violent places. This workshop presentation examines ways to improve counselor facilities and to enhance work safety. Client populations for school counselors have changed significantly in recent times as school administrators refer more welfare related problems for help. Although violent attacks on counselors may…