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Sample records for school children results

  1. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

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    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement. The causes of visual impairment were grouped as avoidable and unavoidable. Children with residual visual acuity better than 20/1250 were included in the low vision rehabilitation programme. Results: A total of 120 patients were evaluated and 79.2% were legally blind (visual acuity less than 0.05, 18.4% had low vision (visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.3, and 0.8% had normal vision (>0.3. The main causes of visual impairment were retinal dystrophies (24.2% and retinopathy of prematurity (17.5%. Of all diseases related to visual impairment, 27.6% were avoidable. Improvement in visual acuity was achieved with low vision aids in 57.5% of all patients. Conclusion: The incidence of visual impairment due to avoidable causes can be decreased by ophthalmic screening. Treatment of these children in the early stages of visual development can improve visual acuity. Even in cases with delayed diagnosis, low vision aids are important for visual and neurobehavioral development, and these programmes may improve quality of life and education in these children.

  2. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç; Aysun İdil; Hüban Atilla; Ayşen Topalkara; Cem Alay

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination inc...

  3. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl Kızıltunç, Pınar; İdil, Aysun; Atilla, Hüban; Topalkara, Ayşen; Alay, Cem

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children's medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement. The causes of visual impairment were grouped as avoidable and unavoidable. Children with residual visual acuity better than 20/1250 were included in the low vision rehabilitation programme. A total of 120 patients were evaluated and 79.2% were legally blind (visual acuity less than 0.05), 18.4% had low vision (visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.3), and 0.8% had normal vision (>0.3). The main causes of visual impairment were retinal dystrophies (24.2%) and retinopathy of prematurity (17.5%). Of all diseases related to visual impairment, 27.6% were avoidable. Improvement in visual acuity was achieved with low vision aids in 57.5% of all patients. The incidence of visual impairment due to avoidable causes can be decreased by ophthalmic screening. Treatment of these children in the early stages of visual development can improve visual acuity. Even in cases with delayed diagnosis, low vision aids are important for visual and neurobehavioral development, and these programmes may improve quality of life and education in these children.

  4. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç; Aysun İdil; Hüban Atilla; Ayşen Topalkara; Cem Alay

    2017-01-01

    .... The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement...

  5. The Submerged Dyslexia Iceberg: How Many School Children Are Not Diagnosed? Results from an Italian Study

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    Barbiero, Chiara; Lonciari, Isabella; Montico, Marcella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Penge, Roberta; Vio, Claudio; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emanuele; Ferluga, Valentina; Bigoni, Anna; Tullio, Alessia; Carrozzi, Marco; Ronfani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although dyslexia is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders affecting children, prevalence is uncertain and available data are scanty and dated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dyslexia in an unselected school population using clearly defined and rigorous diagnostic criteria and methods. Methods Cross sectional study. We selected a random cluster sample of 94 fourth grade elementary school classes of Friuli Venezia Giulia, a Region of North Eastern Italy. We carried out three consecutive levels of screening: the first two at school and the last at the Neuropsychiatry Unit of a third level Mother and Child Hospital. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of dyslexia, defined as the number of children positive to the third level of screening divided by the total number of children enrolled. Results We recruited 1774 children aged 8–10 years, of which 1528 received parents’ consent to participate. After applying exclusion criteria, 1357 pupils constituted the final working sample. The prevalence of dyslexia in the enrolled population ranged from 3.1% (95% CI 2.2–4.1%) to 3.2% (95% CI 2.4–4.3%) depending on different criteria adopted. In two out of three children with dyslexia the disorder had not been previously diagnosed. Conclusions This study shows that dyslexia is largely underestimated in Italy and underlines the need for reliable information on prevalence, in order to better allocate resources both to Health Services and Schools. PMID:23118930

  6. Promoting oral health of children through schools--results from a WHO global survey 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the range of school-based approaches to oral health and describes what is meant by a Health Promoting School. The paper then reports the results of a World Health Organization global survey of school-based health promotion. Purposive sampling across 100 countries produced 108...... evaluations of school oral health projects spread across 61 countries around the globe. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion noted that schools can provide a supportive environment for promoting children's health. However, while a number of well-known strategies are being applied, the full range of health...... promoting actions is not being used globally. A greater emphasis on integrated health promotion is advised in place of narrower, disease- or project-specific approaches. Recommendations are made for improving this situation, for further research and for specifying an operational framework for sharing...

  7. Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with ADHD that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school.

  8. Prevention of Anxiety Symptoms in Children: Results from a Universal School-Based Trial

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    Essau, Cecilia A.; Conradt, Judith; Sasagawa, Satoko; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal school-based cognitive behavior prevention program (the FRIENDS program) for childhood anxiety. Participants were 638 children, ages 9 to 12 years, from 14 schools in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. All the children completed standardized measures of anxiety and depression, social and…

  9. A Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School…

  10. The Influence of Familiarization on Physical Fitness Test Results in Primary School-Aged Children.

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    Vrbik, Ivan; Sporiš, Goran; Štefan, Lovro; Madić, Dejan; Trajković, Nebojša; Valantine, Irena; Milanović, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    The number of familiarization sessions in fitness assessments seems to be critical and inconsistent. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to determine the number of familiarization attempts that stabilize the results in particular physical fitness tests. The secondary aim was to establish the test reliability through familiarization sessions. Thirty-nine primary school children participated in this research (age: 10.8 years, body mass: 40.6 ± 8.9 kg, and body height: 145.3 ± 7.2 cm). During six sessions, with one session every third day, participants performed the following tests to assess explosive strength (vertical jump and standing long jump), coordination (polygon backward and polygon with turn) and flexibility (toe touch). The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant increases (p polygon backward and polygon with turn performances from the first to third familiarization session. The standard error of measurement decreased as sessions progressed, indicating little within subject variation between the coordination test results following a familiarization period. Statistically significant differences were identified in the vertical jump test from the fourth test session compared with the first session. On the other hand, statistically significant differences for the standing long jump test were only found in the final session compared with the initial session. In the toe touch test, there were no significant increases from the first to the final familiarization session. All tests showed high a reliability coefficients, ranging from 0.979 to 0.991. Polygon backward and polygon with turn performance may be a practical, reliable method to assess coordination in primary school-aged children. However, completion of at least 3 practice sessions is suggested for participants to obtain a stable score. In addition, both jump tests are feasible for assessing skill-related fitness in young children, although the

  11. School feeding program has resulted in improved dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children.

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    Zenebe, Mastewal; Gebremedhin, Samson; Henry, Carol J; Regassa, Nigatu

    2018-01-23

    School Feeding Program (SFP) is a targeted safety net program designed to provide educational and health benefits to vulnerable children. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effect of the intervention on the nutritional status and school attendance of children. The study is aimed at examining the effects of SFP on dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children in Boricha district, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted based on a representative data collected from 290 students drawn from the district. A school-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on school children aged 10-14 years. Data were collected using structured pretested questionnaire. The effects of SFP on dietary diversity score (DDS), class attendance rate, body-mass-index for age (BAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were assessed using multivariable linear regression model. The finding showed significantly higher mean (±SD) of DDS in SFP beneficiaries (5.8 ± 1.1) than the non-beneficiaries (3.5 ± 0.7) (P nutritional status, and class attendance of school children, we strongly recommend scaling up the program to other food insecure areas.

  12. Inequality in School Readiness and Autism among 6-Year-Old Children across Iranian Provinces: National Health Assessment Survey Results

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    Amiri, Masoud; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Dashti, Marziyeh; Aminaee, Tahereh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the national inequality of school readiness and autism among 6-year-old Iranian children before school entry using a national health assessment survey. Methods In a cross-sectional nationwide survey, all Iranian children entering public and private elementary schools were asked to participate in a mandatory national screening program in Iran in 2009 in two levels of screening and diagnostic levels. Findings The study population consisted of 955388 children (48.5% girls and 76.1% urban residents). Of the whole children, 3.1% of the 6-year-old children had impaired vision. In addition, 1.2, 1.8, 1.4, 7.6, 0.08, 10, 10.9, 56.7, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.6 percent had color blindness, hearing impaired, speech disorder, school readiness, autism, height to age retardation, body mass index extremes, decayed teeth, disease with special needs, spinal disorders, and hypertension, respectively. The distribution of these disorders was unequally distributed across provinces. Conclusion Our results confirmed that there is an inequality in distribution of school readiness and autism in 6-year-old children across Iranian provinces. The observed burden of these distributions among young children needs a comprehensive national policy with evidence-based province programs to identify the reason for different inequality among provinces. PMID:23550225

  13. Inequality in School Readiness and Autism among 6-Year-Old Children across Iranian Provinces: National Health Assessment Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Amiri; Roya, Kelishadi; Mohammad-Esmaeil, Motlagh; Mahnaz, Taslimi; Marziyeh, Dashti; Tahereh, Aminaee; Gelayol, Ardalan; Parinaz, Poursafa

    2013-02-01

    To assess the national inequality of school readiness and autism among 6-year-old Iranian children before school entry using a national health assessment survey. In a cross-sectional nationwide survey, all Iranian children entering public and private elementary schools were asked to participate in a mandatory national screening program in Iran in 2009 in two levels of screening and diagnostic levels. The study population consisted of 955388 children (48.5% girls and 76.1% urban residents). Of the whole children, 3.1% of the 6-year-old children had impaired vision. In addition, 1.2, 1.8, 1.4, 7.6, 0.08, 10, 10.9, 56.7, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.6 percent had color blindness, hearing impaired, speech disorder, school readiness, autism, height to age retardation, body mass index extremes, decayed teeth, disease with special needs, spinal disorders, and hypertension, respectively. The distribution of these disorders was unequally distributed across provinces. Our results confirmed that there is an inequality in distribution of school readiness and autism in 6-year-old children across Iranian provinces. The observed burden of these distributions among young children needs a comprehensive national policy with evidence-based province programs to identify the reason for different inequality among provinces.

  14. A family-school intervention for children with ADHD: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas J; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F

    2012-08-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School Success (FSS), designed to improve the family and educational functioning of students in Grades 2-6 who meet criteria for ADHD combined and inattentive types. Key components of FSS were conjoint behavioral consultation, daily report cards, and behavioral homework interventions. FSS was provided over 12 weekly sessions, which included 6 group sessions, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Participating families were given the choice of placing their children on medication; 43% of children were on medication at the time of random assignment. Children (n = 199) were randomly assigned to FSS or a comparison group controlling for non-specific treatment effects (Coping With ADHD Through Relationships and Education [CARE]). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. The analyses controlled for child medication status. FSS had a significant effect on the quality of the family-school relationship, homework performance, and parenting behavior. The superiority of FSS was demonstrated even though about 40% of the participants in FSS and CARE were on an optimal dose of medication and there were significant time effects on each measure. This relatively brief intervention produced effect sizes comparable to those of the more intensive Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) behavioral intervention. © 2012 American Psychological Association

  15. Prevention of anxiety symptoms in children: results from a universal school-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Conradt, Judith; Sasagawa, Satoko; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2012-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal school-based cognitive behavior prevention program (the FRIENDS program) for childhood anxiety. Participants were 638 children, ages 9 to 12 years, from 14 schools in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. All the children completed standardized measures of anxiety and depression, social and adaptive functioning, coping strategies, social skills, and perfectionism before and after the 10-week FRIENDS program and at two follow-up assessments (6 and 12 months) or wait period. Children who participated in the FRIENDS program exhibited significantly fewer anxiety and depressive symptoms, and lower perfectionism scores than children in the control group at 12-month follow-up. Younger children (9-10-year-olds) displayed treatment gains immediately after the intervention, whereas older children (11-12-year-olds) showed anxiety reduction only at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Perfectionism and avoidant coping acted as mediators of pre- to postintervention changes in anxiety scores. This study provides empirical evidence for the utility of the FRIENDS program in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms among German children. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  17. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.

    -over intervention. A total of 784 third and fourth graders received NND school meals for 3 months and habitual packed lunch for 3 months. Dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D was measured, and DXA-scans performed, at baseline and after each dietary period. Results Intake of fatty fish (? 3.6-7.2 g/d) and vitamin D (? 0...... Nordic Diet (NND) school meals with two weekly fish servings affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and bone in children. Methods The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy NND) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomized controlled cross...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (pschool meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  18. Vitamin D supplementation and growth in urban Mongol school children: Results from two randomized clinical trials.

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    Davaasambuu Ganmaa

    Full Text Available Symptomatic vitamin D deficiency is associated with slowed growth in children. It is unknown whether vitamin D repletion in children with asymptomatic serum vitamin D deficiency can restore normal growth.We tested the impact of vitamin D-supplementation on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and short-term growth in Mongol children, with very low serum vitamin D levels in winter.We conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in urban school age children without clinical signs of rickets. The Supplementation Study was a 6-month intervention with an 800 IU vitamin D3 supplement daily, compared with placebo, in 113 children aged 12-15 years. A second study, the Fortification Study, was a 7-week intervention with 710 ml of whole milk fortified with 300 IU vitamin D3 daily, compared with unfortified milk, in 235 children aged 9-11 years.At winter baseline, children had low vitamin D levels, with a mean (±SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration of 7.3 (±3.9 ng/ml in the Supplementation Study and 7.5 (±3.8 ng/ml in the Fortification Study. The serum levels increased in both vitamin D groups-by 19.8 (±5.1 ng/ml in the Supplementation Study, and 19.7 (±6.1 ng/ml in the Fortification Study. Multivariable analysis showed a 0.9 (±0.3 SE cm greater increase in height in the vitamin-D treated children, compared to placebo treated children, in the 6-month Supplementation Study (p = 0.003. Although the children in the 7-week Fortification Study intervention arm grew 0.2 (±0.1 cm more, on average, than placebo children this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2. There were no significant effects of vitamin D supplements on differences in changes in weight or body mass index in either trial. For the Fortification Study, girls gained more weight than boys while taking vitamin D 3 (p-value for interaction = 0.03, but sex was not an effect modifier of the relationship between vitamin D3 and

  19. Vitamin D supplementation and growth in urban Mongol school children: Results from two randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Stuart, Jennifer J; Sumberzul, Nyamjav; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Giovannucci, Edward; Kleinman, Ken; Holick, Michael F; Willett, Walter C; Frazier, Lindsay A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic vitamin D deficiency is associated with slowed growth in children. It is unknown whether vitamin D repletion in children with asymptomatic serum vitamin D deficiency can restore normal growth. We tested the impact of vitamin D-supplementation on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and short-term growth in Mongol children, with very low serum vitamin D levels in winter. We conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in urban school age children without clinical signs of rickets. The Supplementation Study was a 6-month intervention with an 800 IU vitamin D3 supplement daily, compared with placebo, in 113 children aged 12-15 years. A second study, the Fortification Study, was a 7-week intervention with 710 ml of whole milk fortified with 300 IU vitamin D3 daily, compared with unfortified milk, in 235 children aged 9-11 years. At winter baseline, children had low vitamin D levels, with a mean (±SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration of 7.3 (±3.9) ng/ml in the Supplementation Study and 7.5 (±3.8) ng/ml in the Fortification Study. The serum levels increased in both vitamin D groups-by 19.8 (±5.1) ng/ml in the Supplementation Study, and 19.7 (±6.1) ng/ml in the Fortification Study. Multivariable analysis showed a 0.9 (±0.3 SE) cm greater increase in height in the vitamin-D treated children, compared to placebo treated children, in the 6-month Supplementation Study (p = 0.003). Although the children in the 7-week Fortification Study intervention arm grew 0.2 (±0.1) cm more, on average, than placebo children this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2). There were no significant effects of vitamin D supplements on differences in changes in weight or body mass index in either trial. For the Fortification Study, girls gained more weight than boys while taking vitamin D 3 (p-value for interaction = 0.03), but sex was not an effect modifier of the relationship between vitamin D3 and change

  20. Experiences of school bullying among internationally adopted children: results from the Finnish Adoption (FINADO) Study.

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    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Mäkipää, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The children were identified through official adoption organizations. The response rate in the target sample was 49.4%: the study sample consisted of 364 children (190 girls, 52.2%). The children's background factors and symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) were evaluated using a FINADO questionnaire. Their learning difficulties and social and language skills were assessed using a standardized parental questionnaire (Five to Fifteen). Of the participants, 19.8% reported victimization by peers while 8% had bullied others. Both victimization and bullying were associated with severe symptoms of RAD at the time of adoption (RR 2.68, 95%CI 1.50-4.77 and RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.17-3.69 for victimization and bullying, respectively). Lack of social skills was associated with victimization (RR 1.74, 95%CI 1.06-2.85) but not independently with being a bully (RR 1.50, 95%CI 0.91-2.45). In a multivariate analysis the child's learning difficulties and language difficulties were not associated with either bullying others or victimization.

  1. Immediate Effects of a Program to Promote School Readiness in Low-Income Children: Results of a Pilot Study

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    Pears, Katherine C.; Healey, Cynthia V.; Fisher, Philip A.; Braun, Drew; Gill, Colt; Conte, Holly Mar; Newman, Judy; Ticer, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-income backgrounds demonstrate poorer school readiness skills than their higher-income peers. The Kids In Transition to School (KITS) Program was developed to increase early literacy, social, and self-regulatory skills among children with inadequate school readiness. In the present study, 39 families participated in a pilot…

  2. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

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    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…

  3. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru.

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    Latorre-Arteaga, Sergio; Gil-González, Diana; Enciso, Olga; Phelan, Aoife; García-Muñoz, Angel; Kohler, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (Hyperopia) or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS) is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design : A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I) and elementary school children (Group II) was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity wassustainability and improvements in education and quality of life resulting from childhood vision screening require further research.

  5. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

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    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  6. Keeping Children in School

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    Janine Huisman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study household and context determinants of school dropout using data for 130,000 children in 363 regions of 30 developing countries using multi-level discrete-time event-history analysis. Most (72% of the variation in school dropout is due to household-level factors, with socioeconomic resources (parental education, father’s occupation, and wealth being most important. Household structure plays a role too. Earlier born, non-biological children and children living with one parent drop out more. Important context factors are educational resources (availability of schools and teachers and level of development of the region. Interaction analysis reveals that many effects of household-level factors depend on context characteristics, stressing the importance of a situation-specific approach. Results also indicate that the transition from primary to secondary education is a major breaking point in children’s educational careers and that extending the duration of primary education might be an effective strategy to keep children in school longer.

  7. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  8. School-Phobic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel

    1976-01-01

    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  9. Factors relating to the feeling of school avoidance among elementary school children: Results from the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education) Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Masahiro; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to evaluate whether lifestyle factors including media use and social and family environments are associated with elementary school children's feeling of school avoidance.Methods Total study population for this study was 2,057 children in 5 elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, which participated in the MEXT Super Shokuiku School Project. A questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2014 and 1,936 students responded (Response rate: 94.1%). Of those who responded, data from 1,698 respondents were relevant for this study. The questionnaire included questions on lifestyle factors (e.g., eating habits, media use, exercise habits, and sleep), health status, and the social and family environments. Children responded to questions on lifestyle factors, health status, and feeling of school avoidance with their parents. Parents were asked to only respond to the questions on social and family environments. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the feeling of avoiding school, as the dependent variable, is associated with the independent variables such as social and family environment factors and lifestyle factors. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated.Results The percentage of children who had the feeling of avoiding school was 32.2% in the study sample. In comparison with the 6 th graders, the 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th graders were more likely to have this feeling. Relevant adjusted ORs [95%CI] for Grades 1-5 were found to be 1.48 [1.02-2.13], 1.63 [1.10-2.42], 1.60 [1.08-2.39], and 1.56 [1.03-2.35], respectively. Other factors positively correlated with this feeling were skipping breakfast (OR 1.76, 95%CI [1.12-2.75]), daily snacking (OR 1.64, 95%CI [1.21-2.22]), watching TV for 3 hours or longer (OR 1.55, 95%CI [1.05-2.28]), video gaming for 0.5-2 hours (OR 1.37, 95%CI [1.08-1.74]), feeling sleepy (OR 1.51, 95%CI [1.14-1.99]), not feeling well upon waking up

  10. Attention Training for School-Aged Children with ADHD: Results of an Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Hughes, Carroll; Ames, Laure; Pickering, Joyce; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter; Castillo, Christine L.; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Foxwell, Aleksandra; Bolanos, S. Gina; Hines, Tabatha; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Emslie, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The article discusses a feasibility study conducted to examine whether Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, could be utilized in a clinical setting with children diagnosed with ADHD, and whether children who received the intervention made attention and executive functioning…

  11. High incidence of sleep problems in children with developmental disorders: results of a questionnaire survey in a Japanese elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Michiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Mizue; Iemura, Akiko; Yamashita, Yushiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Kitani, Shingo; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Uchimura, Naohisa; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present school-based questionnaire was to analyze the sleep problems of children with developmental disorders, such as pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The sleep problems of 43 children with developmental disorders were compared with those of 372 healthy children (control group). All children attended one public elementary school in Kurume, Japan; thus, the study avoided the potential bias associated with hospital-based surveys (i.e. a high prevalence of sleep disturbance) and provided a more complete picture of the children's academic performance and family situation compared with a control group under identical conditions. Children's sleep problems were measured with the Japanese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Children with developmental disorders had significantly higher total CSHQ scores, as well as mean scores on the parasomnias and sleep breathing subscales, than children in the control group. The total CSHQ score, bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and daytime sleepiness worsened with increasing age in children with developmental disorders; in contrast, these parameters were unchanged or became better with age in the control group. In children with developmental disorders, there was a significant association between a higher total CSHQ score and lower academic performance, but no such association was found in the control group. For both groups, children's sleep problems affected their parents' quality of sleep. There were no significant differences in physical, lifestyle, and sleep environmental factors, or in sleep/wake patterns, between the two groups. Children with developmental disorders have poor sleep quality, which may affect academic performance. It is important for physicians to be aware of age-related differences in sleep problems in children with developmental disorders. Further studies are needed to identify the association between sleep quality and

  12. Bullying victimization among 13 to 15-year-old school children: results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  13. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study

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    Vayssiere Christophe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche ( Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context. Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3% were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6], early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0] and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]. Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours.

  14. Factors of children's school readiness

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    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  15. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru

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    Sergio Latorre-Arteaga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia, farsightedness (Hyperopia or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. Objective: To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design: A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I and elementary school children (Group II was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity was<6/9 [20/30] (Group I and≤6/9 (Group II in one or both eyes, measured with the Snellen Tumbling E chart at 6 m, were referred for a comprehensive eye exam. Specificity and positive predictive value to detect refractive error were calculated against clinical examination. Program assessment with participants was conducted to evaluate outcomes and procedures. Results: A total sample of 364 children aged 3–11 were screened; 45 children were examined at Centro Oftalmológico Monseñor Enrique Pelach (COMEP Eye Hospital. Prevalence of refractive error was 6.2% (Group I and 6.9% (Group II; specificity of teacher vision screening was 95.8% and 93.0%, while positive predictive value was 59.1% and 47.8% for each group, respectively. Aspects highlighted to improve the program included extending training, increasing parental involvement, and helping referred children to attend the hospital. Conclusion: Prevalence of refractive error in children is significant in the region. Vision screening performed by trained teachers is a valid intervention for early detection of refractive error, including screening of preschool children

  16. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu Lucía; Shamah-Levy Teresa; Monterrubio Eric A; Ramírez-Silva Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino Raquel; Rivera Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administer...

  17. Project PANK: Rationale, study protocol and baseline results of a multidisciplinary school based intervention in children with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors

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    Rui Batalau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular disease risk factors occur more frequently in children with obesity. Project PANK is a multidisciplinary school-based intervention lasting 6 months to improve BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, blood pressure (BP, nutrition, physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviour (SB, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG. Methods/DesignA total of 77 children (7-10 years were recruited from an urban school. The protocol includes PA and SB individual meetings for children/parents; increasing school exercise; PA and SB lessons for children; A goal in the number of steps/day to accomplish in and after school. In nutrition, the protocol includes three individual meetings for children/parents and six lessons for children. ResultsPositive associations were found between the BMI Z-score, WC, and WHtR with TG; the BMI Z-score and WHtR with glucose; the light PA time and HDL-C; the vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA with CRF; the caloric intake and lipids with LDL-C, BMI z-score, WC, and WHtR. A negative association was found between CRF and TG. ConclusionBaseline results stress the importance of multidisciplinary school-based interventions. We hypothesized that PANK will improve blood variables, anthropometric measures, and BP, by changing food intake, enhancing PA and CRF, and decreasing SB.

  18. School readiness among children with behavior problems at entrance into kindergarten: results from a US national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Guillermo; Lotyczewski, Bohdan S; Halterman, Jill S; Hightower, Alan D

    2012-03-01

    The impact of behavior problems on kindergarten readiness is not known. Our objective was to estimate the association between behavior problems and kindergarten readiness on a US national sample. In the US educational system, kindergarten is a natural point of entry into formal schooling at age 5 because fewer than half of the children enter kindergarten with prior formal preschool education. Parents of 1,200 children who were scheduled to enter kindergarten for the first time and were members of the Harris Interactive online national panel were surveyed. We defined behavior problems as an affirmative response to the question, "Has your child ever had behavior problems?" We validated this against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, scores on a reliable socioemotional scale, and child's receipt of early intervention services. We used linear, tobit, and logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between having behavior problems and scores in reliable scales of motor, play, speech and language, and school skills and an overall kindergarten readiness indicator. The sample included 176 children with behavior problems for a national prevalence of 14% (confidence interval, 11.5-17.5). Children with behavior problems were more likely to be male and live in households with lower income and parental education. We found that children with behavior problems entered kindergarten with lower speech and language, motor, play, and school skills, even after controlling for demographics and region. Delays were 0.6-1 SD below scores of comparable children without behavior problems. Parents of children with behavior problems were 5.2 times more likely to report their child was not ready for kindergarten. Childhood behavior problems are associated with substantial delays in motor, language, play, school, and socioemotional skills before entrance into kindergarten. Early screening and intervention is recommended.

  19. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  20. Using Tailored Videos to Teach Inhaler Technique to Children With Asthma: Results From a School Nurse-Led Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Alexander, Dayna S; Elio, Alice; DeWalt, Darren; Lee, Charles; Sleath, Betsy L

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to test whether a tailored inhaler technique video intervention: (1) could be feasibly implemented by school nurses and (2) improve the inhaler technique of children with asthma. School nurses recruited a convenience sample of 25 children with asthma (ages 7-17) and assessed their inhaler technique. Children then watched a tailored video that provided: (1) step-by-step feedback on which steps (out of 8) they performed correctly, (2) praise for correctly-performed steps, and (3) statements about why incorrectly-performed steps are important. Nurses reassessed the child's inhaler technique immediately after watching the video and again 1month later. Non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests were calculated to assess whether children's technique significantly improved from baseline to post-video and baseline to 1-month follow-up. A focus group with the school nurses was conducted post-intervention to discuss feasibility issues. Children's inhaler technique improved by 1.2 steps (with spacer; p=0.03) and 2.7 steps (without spacer; ptechnique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  2. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  3. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  4. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, including 3rd and 4th graders from nine public schools. In autumn 2011, fasting blood samples were drawn and serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH analysed. Background interviews were......Background: Low vitamin D concentrations among children and adolescents at northern latitudes are frequently observed. Also, inverse associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and PTH concentrations have been found in children of different ages. More studies on the link between vitamin D...... status and childhood bone health are needed. Objective: To evaluate the status of serum 25(OH)D in autumn and the association between 25(OH)D concentrations and bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish children (55°N). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using baseline data from...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary school children in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C

    2013-06-01

    Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.

  6. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sánchez-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF, has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  7. Stress levels in parents of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of an international survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprieno, Urania; Gagliano, Antonella

    2016-10-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was an international, non-clinical opinion survey, which aimed to compare stress levels in parents of children with/without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the back-to-school period. Here, we present results relating to the Italian sample, comparing them with European data. The questionnaire was built using a modified Holmes and Rahe stress scale. Parents of children with/without ADHD evaluated potentially stress-causing situations on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). In Italy, 107 parents of children with ADHD (mean age ± SD 40.3±7.3 years) and 105 parents of children without ADHD (mean age 42.2±6.6 years) participated in the survey. The mean age of children with ADHD was 10.3±3.1 years; 77.6% were male, 72.9% had been diagnosed with at least one comorbid condition - in particular conduct disorder (24.3%), learning disorders/dyslexia (23.4%) and language/communication disorder (19.6%) - and 32.7% were receiving ADHD medication. Parents of children with ADHD showed significantly higher stress levels (p≤0.005) compared with the non-ADHD group in all areas analyzed that were related to the return to school. Significant differences between groups (Pstress levels compared with parents of children without ADHD. Considering parental stress is important for the management of children with ADHD, as stress can affect the control of behavioral symptoms of children.

  8. Lunch at school and children's cognitive functioning in the early afternoon: results from the Cognition Intervention Study Dortmund Continued (CoCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Maike; Müller, Katrin; Falkenstein, Michael; Stehle, Peter; Kersting, Mathilde; Libuda, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Studies about effects of school lunch on children's cognition are rare; two previous studies (CogniDo, CogniDo PLUS) generally found no negative effects of lunch on children's cognitive performance at the end of lunch break (i.e. 45 min after finishing lunch), but suggested potential beneficial effects for single parameters. Therefore, the present study investigated the hypothesis of potential positive effects of school lunch on cognitive performance at early afternoon (90 min after finishing lunch). A randomised, cross-over intervention trial was conducted at a comprehensive school with fifth and sixth grade students. Participants were randomised into two groups: On day 1, group 1 did not eat lunch, whereas group 2 received lunch ad libitum. On day 2 (1 week later), group 2 did not eat lunch and group 1 received lunch ad libitum. The cognitive parameters task switching, working memory updating and alertness were tested using a computerised test battery 90 min after finishing the meal. Of the 204 recruited children, fifty were excluded because of deviations from the study protocol or absence on one of the 2 test days, which resulted in 154 participants. Data showed no significant effects of lunch on task switching, working memory updating and alertness (P values between 0·07 and 0·79). The present study suggests that school lunch does not seem to have beneficial effects on children's cognitive functions regarding the conducted tests at early afternoon. Together with our previous studies, we conclude that school lunch in general has no negative effects on cognitive performance in children. However, beneficial effects seem to be restricted to a relatively short time period after eating lunch.

  9. [Role of the father in the development of school-age children. Results of an epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanz, B; Geisel, B; Laucht, M; Esser, G; Schmidt, M H

    1986-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological follow-up study, data collected from 356 children at ages 8 and 13 and from their parents were analyzed to examine the relationship of parental child-rearing behavior and parents' psychological problems to the intellectual, emotional and social development of the offspring. The results revealed that while children are growing up father and child influence each other in specific ways. The fathers were particularly active in developing their children's cognitive abilities and had a strong influence especially on the development of their sons. At both age 8 and age 13, children whose parents had psychiatric disturbances, regardless of which parent was affected, were much more likely than those with normal parents to have psychiatric disorders themselves. Significant parental gender effects were found, however, when the form of the child's disorder was considered: At age 13, the children were at a higher risk for a conduct disorder if the father had a problem than if the mother did. In further analyses, children who had lost their fathers were compared with those in intact families. Significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders were found for the fatherless boys, whereas no such effect could be detected for the fatherless girls.

  10. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  11. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  12. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  13. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  14. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting.In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent; and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting.Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively; or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  15. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  16. Influence of a Short-Term Disability Awareness Program on Knowledge and Attitudes of School-Aged Children in Southern Belize: Results of a Community-University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Dawn M; Cal, Francisco; Boissonnault, Jill S

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the attitudes of children living in Central America toward people with disabilities or the effectiveness of a disability awareness program in influencing their knowledge and attitudes. The study objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of a disability awareness program in influencing Belizean children's knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities in the immediate short term and to describe the development of a university-community partnership that resulted in the development of a culturally appropriate disability awareness program. This was a single-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study with cluster sampling. Study participants included 247 children (11-14 years old) from 8 primary schools in Toledo District, Belize. A paper-based disability awareness survey measuring knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities was administered before and after an intervention. The intervention was a 90-minute multimodal disability awareness program. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the influence of the intervention on knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Significant improvements in knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities were evident immediately after the intervention. Children were not randomized to a control group. Although this feature was a limitation in terms of study design, the researchers believed that respecting the wishes of the school principals by providing the disability awareness intervention to all students was important. This study provided an example of how a university-community partnership can positively influence community outcomes. Further research is needed to assess long-term changes in Belizean children's knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behaviors toward people with disabilities, as well as the social inclusion and participation of children with disabilities.

  17. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  18. Evaluation of a manual-based programme for the promotion of social and emotional skills in elementary school children: results from a 4-year study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo; Crusellas, Lorena; Sá, Isabel; Gomes, Paulo; Matias, Carla

    2010-09-01

    The promotion of socio-emotional skills in educational contexts is highly beneficial to individuals' global adjustment and development. Evaluation research suggests that interventions for the promotion of socio-emotional skills are effective. However, most of this work has been carried out in the USA and there is now a pressing need to evaluate interventions at the cross-cultural level. This 4-year study evaluated the effectiveness of a teacher manual-based intervention for the promotion of social and emotional skills in Portuguese elementary school children. Using a quasi-experimental design, teachers taught manual-based strategies to children in the experimental group, focusing on specific social and emotional skills. These strategies were integrated as part of the curricular activities. Results showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group on the evaluated outcomes (self-control, emotional differentiation, emotional regulation, social skills, and self-esteem). For each of the dimensions studied, effect sizes were large (above 0.80). Findings are similar to those reported by international research evaluating the effectiveness of programmes for the promotion of social and emotional skills in school-age children. This study is an important contribution in the establishment of evidence-based socio-emotional skills programmes at the cross-cultural level.

  19. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-03-01

    Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)-ACTRN12609000854235.

  20. Children, everyday numbers and school numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Maria Ignatius Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationship made by school children between “daily” numbers, or rather, numbers deployed outside the school, and numbers worked out in school under various circumstances, or rather, orally and in writing, is investigated. Analysis has been undertaken with ten six-year-old children by means of a clinical and critical method. Research results show that children interact with the environment and recognized the figures, name them, conjecture on their written mode and give coherent meaning to the figures. Analysis also demonstrates that children use numbers outside the school. They understand and exemplify the number’s different meanings in an out-class context. Since the children do not give a weighty meaning to “school” numbers, pedagogical activity with numbers fails to put into practice the recommendations of the official policy.

  1. SPECIAL SCHOOL FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    POTTS, ALFRED M.

    MANY CHANGES HAVE OCCURRED IN MIGRANT CHILDREN OVER THE 5 YEARS THE SPECIAL SCHOOL HAS BEEN IN OPERATION. MOST NOTABLE IS THAT THE CHILDREN ARE MUCH CLEANER AND BETTER BEHAVED. THE CHILDREN ARE ISSUED COMBS, TOOTHBRUSHES, TOWELS, AND SOAP. STUDENTS SHOWER THREE TIMES EACH WEEK AND PERFORM A DAILY ROUTINE OF BRUSHING TEETH AND COMBING HAIR. MILK…

  2. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect ...

  3. School Children's Emotion in Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Pecková, Jarmila

    2006-01-01

    Title: School Children's Emotions During the Physical Education Aims: To determine and to compare the emotional reactions of school children in the hour of physical education based on a questionnaire Demore. Focus on girls and boys aged 10 to 15 years, or more pupils sixth and ninth standard and sport classes. Statistically processed and compared results between gender and orientation and evaluate the survey data in tables and graphs. Method: Analysis of survey responses received to the quest...

  4. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  5. Impact of toilet hygiene training program: results from 11- to 16-year-old secondary school Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cövener Özçelik, Cağrı; Aktaş, Eda; Celik, Derya; Ocakçı, Ayşe Ferda

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of toilet hygiene education in secondary school students. The study was quasi-experimental with a pre-test-post-test design and includes a control group. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Istanbul, Turkey with 100 students (50 students for experiment and 50 students for control). The experiment and control groups were in the same school population. Data were collected with the student information form and toilet hygiene evaluation form (THEF), which were developed by the researchers. When we examined the toilet hygiene techniques used by the students, they indicated 58 % (n = 58) wiped perinea from front to back, 25 % (n = 25) back to front and 17 % (n = 17) randomly. It was found that 69 % (n = 69) of the students changed their underwear every 2-3 days; 80 % (n = 80) were trained by parents on toilet hygiene. Total THEF scores, which were obtained pre and post (shortly after) education, showed significant differences in the experiment group (p = 0.000). Total THEF scores obtained post education (shortly after and 1 month later) showed significant differences in the experiment group (p = 0.009). The toilet hygiene education program is found to be successful in secondary school students.

  6. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a 'peer-training' model--results of the 'ABC for life' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, P; Connolly, M; Laverty, L; McGrath, P; Connolly, D; McCluskey, D R

    2007-10-01

    The 'ABC for life' programme was designed to facilitate the wider dissemination of basic life support (BLS) skills and knowledge in the population. A previous study demonstrated that using this programme 10-12-year olds are capable of performing and retaining these vital skills when taught by medical students. There are approximately 25,000 year 7 school children in 900 primary schools in Northern Ireland. By using a pyramidal teaching approach involving medical students and teachers, there is the potential to train BLS to all of these children each year. To assess the effectiveness of a programme of CPR instruction using a three-tier training model in which medical students instruct primary school teachers who then teach school children. School children and teachers in the Western Education and Library Board in Northern Ireland. A course of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--the 'ABC for life' programme--specifically designed to teach 10-12-year-old children basic life support skills. Medical students taught teachers from the Western Education and Library Board area of Northern Ireland how to teach basic life support skills to year 7 pupils in their schools. Pupils were given a 22-point questionnaire to assess knowledge of basic life support immediately before and after a teacher led training session. Children instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using this three-tier training had a significantly improved score following training (57.2% and 77.7%, respectively, pteachers, previously trained by medical students, can teach BLS effectively to 10-12-year-old children using the 'ABC for life' programme.

  7. Bullying experience in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aulia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.

  8. Malaria and nutritional status among pre-school children: results from cross-sectional surveys in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, Jennifer F.; Kwena, Arthur M.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Hawley, William A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Shi, Ya Ping; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2005-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) affects millions of children in the developing world. The relationship between malaria and PEM is controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether undernutrition is associated with increased or decreased malaria attributable morbidity. Three

  9. [School readiness survey of Montreal children starting school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Isabelle; Lavoie, Sylvie; Guay, Danielle; Boucheron, Laurence; Durand, Danielle; Goulet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to provide a picture of the school readiness of 5-year-old Montréal children starting school and to identify disparities between neighbourhoods and the socio-economic factors determining these differences. 10,513 children were assessed using the Early Development Instrument. The results show that in Montréal, one child in three is vulnerable in at least one area of school readiness. Figures range from 22% to 43% in the different territories. A significant association was found between parents' level of education and the vulnerability of children. Differences between languages are found when analyzing school readiness based on groups of children by mother tongue. A comparative analysis between Montréal and two other large Canadian cities shows that the average score of children in Montréal is higher than the average score of Vancouver children in all areas and higher than the average score of Toronto children in two areas. The differences between territories in Montréal raise questions about public policies and inequalities in access to services and resources between affluent and less affluent neighbourhoods. A comparative analysis between Montréal and two Canadian cities provides a nuanced view of the perception of child vulnerability in Montréal when compared to the rest of Canada.

  10. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  11. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in Swiss primary school children: results from a representative national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murer, Stefanie B; Saarsalu, Siret; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic affecting around 10 % of 5- to 17-year olds. With the causes for obesity being multifactorial, a better understanding of the influencing factors is essential for effective treatment and prevention programs. The aim of this study was therefore to identify specific risk factors for overweight and obesity in children in Switzerland. A nationally representative sample of children aged 6-12 years was recruited (n = 2724). Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI (kg/m(2)). In addition, a questionnaire was distributed to all children asking about their physical activity, media consumption, and dietary habits as well as some parental factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys was 11.8 and 7.5 %, respectively, and in girls, it was 11.9 and 5.7 %. In univariate analyses, a number of parental, dietary, and activity factors were shown to be associated with BMI category. Based on a multinomial logistic regression, parent nationality and media consumption were the most important factors predicting obesity in boys, while in girls it was parental education, nationality, and physical activity. We have demonstrated that parental nationality and education play an important role in the development of childhood obesity, together with media consumption and physical activity. However, risk factors are also different according to child gender. Thus, an important target group for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in Switzerland are immigrant families, and the problem needs to be tackled differently in boys and girls as their risk factors are not the same.

  12. Home Schooling Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Jane G.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 121 families who were home schooling children with special needs found family profiles were similar to the general home schooling population and, unlike the general home schooling population, children often spent as much time in a school setting as in a home school environment. Four case studies identified themes as needs-based…

  13. Relationship between overweight and health-related quality of life in secondary school children in Fiji: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Waqa, G; Goundar, R; Swinburn, B

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between excess weight (overweight and obesity) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of secondary school children in Fiji, by gender, age and ethnicity. The study comprised 8947 children from forms 3-6 (age 12-18 years) in 18 secondary schools on Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight, and weight status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force recommendations. HRQoL was measured by the self-report version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. HRQoL was similar in children with obesity and normal weight. Generally, this was replicated when analyzed separately by gender and ethnicity, but age stratification revealed disparities. In 12-14-year-old children, obesity was associated with better HRQoL, owing to better social and school functioning and well-being, and in 15-18-year olds with poorer HRQoL, owing to worse physical, emotional and social functioning and well-being (Cohen's d 0.2-0.3). Children with a BMI in the overweight range also reported a slightly lower HRQoL than children with a BMI in the normal weight range, but although statistically significant, the size of this difference was trivial (Cohen's d Fiji. This is in contradiction to the negative relationship between excess weight and HRQoL shown in studies from other countries and cultures. The assumption that a large body size is associated with a lower quality of life cannot be held universally. Although a generally low HRQoL among children in Fiji may be masking or overriding the potential effect of excess weight on HRQoL, socio-economic and/or socio-cultural factors, may help to explain these relationships.

  14. Children of alcoholic parents: health, growth, mental development and psychopathology until school age. Results from a prospective longitudinal study of children from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, L; Rydelius, P A; Zetterström, R

    1993-02-01

    Of 640 women who paid their first visit to the two maternal welfare centres in a new Stockholm suburb during one prospective year, 532 (85%) were interviewed with regard to 41 stress factors forming a "life stress score" (LSS). The interviews were supplemented with data from hospital, social welfare and police records concerning the expectant mother and the father. The 532 mothers were divided into three groups according to the degree of psychosocial stress (group 1 (n = 194) without psychosocial stress; group 2 (n = 171) with severe psychosocial stress; and group 3 (n = 167) in an intermediate group). In group 2, there were 23 mothers and 51 fathers in 64 families known to suffer from alcoholism/heavy drinking at the time of the first interview and these comprised our study group. The pregnancies and deliveries in the families were investigated with prospective methods. There were 497 liveborn children of whom 54 were born into families known for alcoholism/heavy drinking. The physical health and development of the children was followed by prospective data from the child welfare centers. Data concerning psychological development and psychiatric health of the child were obtained by interviewing the mother and evaluating the child during visits at home at one and four years of age. At one year of age, 452 of the children (226 boys, 226 girls) and at four to five years of age, 412 of the children (202 boys, 210 girls), were evaluated using the Griffiths' Development Scales. Findings from these evaluations form the basis for comparison of development of children from alcoholic/heavy drinking parents with all other children. For 388 children, data were available from all examinations up to the end of the fourth year, including 38 children (12 boys, 26 girls) in the study group and 350 other children (183 boys, 167 girls). The present findings indicate that children of alcoholic parents in the general population who were followed from pregnancy up to the end of their

  15. School food in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Michelle; Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Cabrera, Georgina A; Mata, Irma I; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Villa, Antonio R; James, W Philip T

    2008-09-01

    To establish the school eating habits of Mexican children, who are prone to obesity and later to high rates of adult chronic diseases. Questionnaires for students and parents with staff questionnaires and interviews. Randomly sampled schools in a socio-economically representative district of Mexico City. Subjects were 1504 adolescents aged 10-19 years attending schools in Mexico City, 27 teachers and seven headmasters, sampled from both public and private schools and from the full range of socio-economic groups. Foods brought from home were of a higher nutritional quality than those purchased at school, where purchases were dominated by crisps, soft drinks and other items with high energy density. Girls were more inclined to purchase inappropriately; those from poorer homes purchased less. Private-school students irrespective of socio-economic grade brought more food from home and purchased more expensive food at school. School policies allowed food and drink vendors to market any products within the schools, which benefited financially from these activities. Current school food policies are conducive to amplifying the current epidemic of obesity and related adult chronic diseases, and need to change.

  16. Enuresis in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehbens, James A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies relating to the more popular explanations of enuresis, are discussed and research relating to each is presented. Evidence supporting, or failing to support, treatment methods is also presented. Research possibilities for the school psychologist are suggested. (Author)

  17. Children of imigrants in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kolednik, Urška

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of enlarged migration flows it is more and more common for children of different ethnical, religious and cultural backgrounds to meet in schools. All students must have equal conditions to learn, progress and achieve the best possible results. This thesis includes a theoretical and an empirical part. The theoretical part is divided in seven content sections dealing with various aspects of the education problem of migrant children. Theoretical part focuses on the national g...

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF ANXIETY AMONG CHILDREN IN SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, BEEMAN N.

    THE BASIC PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ATTEMPT TO FIND OUT WHETHER ANXIETY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WAS TO A SIGNIFICANT DEGREE THE RESULT OF SCHOOL EXPERIENCES AND CONDITIONS. THE ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF SCHOOL ANXIETY WERE ALSO TO BE ANALYZED. THE METHOD OF STUDY INVOLVED OBTAINING MEASURES OF SCHOOL ANXIETY AT THE BEGINNING AND END…

  19. The School Entry Gap: Socioeconomic, Family, and Health Factors Associated with Children's School Readiness to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Magdalena; Duku, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Notwithstanding the constant debate in the scientific and policy literature on the precise meaning of school readiness, research consistently demonstrates a wide variation between groups of children resulting in a gap at school entry. Recently, the teacher-completed Early Development Instrument (EDI), a new measure of children's school readiness…

  20. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  1. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...... were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who...

  2. MIXTECAN CHILDREN AT SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWADESH, EVANGELINA ARANA

    SINCE ONLY ONE FOURTH OF THE POPULATION SPOKE SPANISH, THE LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION, EDUCATION BEFORE 1955 WAS ESSENTIALLY PRECLUDED FOR 150,000 MIXTECAN INDIANS LIVING IN SOUTHERN OAXACA, MEXICO. IN 1955, 7 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS WERE ESTABLISHED BY THE NATIONAL INDIAN INSTITUTE, WITH TEACHERS FROM THE LOCAL POPULATION AND INSTRUCTION IN MIXTECO, THE…

  3. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  4. Preparation of preschool children for school attendance

    OpenAIRE

    DRAŽANOVÁ, Judita

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of a theoretical part which describes the developmental period of preschool children between the fifth and seventh year and deals with the issue of school readiness, preparing preschool children to enter school, and with areas that are key success in school. In a practical part, skills and general knowledge of the specific research sample of children from kindergarten are tested. Consequently, practical exercises and opportunities to develop these children are proposed.

  5. School readiness of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Frances E; Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-08-01

    To examine school readiness in preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) on three of five domains compared with reported norms of children with typical development (CTD). A representative population of 151 preschool-age children with CP (87 males, 64 females; 131 [87%] with spasticity, 17 [11%] dyskinesia, 3 [4%] hypotonia) were assessed at 48 or 60 months corrected age. Children were functioning in the following Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels: I, 74 (49%); II, 17 (11%); III, 14 (9%); IV, 26 (17%); V, 20 (13%). Children's motor performance, self-care, and social function were assessed using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) and communication using the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP). Results were compared with a reference sample of CTD (PEDI CTD n=412; CSBS-DP CTD n=790). Linear regression was used to compare these data by functional severity. Children with CP had significantly lower PEDI scores in all domains than CTD. Self-care scores ranged from 0.5 to more than 4SD below CTD, motor performance was 2 to >4SD below CTD, and social function between 0.5 and >4SD below CTD. Fifty-five per cent of children demonstrated significantly delayed communication skills. Non-ambulant children displayed significantly lower scores than ambulant children. Preschool-age children with CP perform significantly below their peers in three of five key readiness-to-learn skill areas including mobility, self-care, social function, and communication abilities. Broader emphasis needs to be placed on multimodal screening and intervention to prepare children with CP for school entry. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Children's school performance: impact of general and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenshine, Stephanie L; Vann, William F; Gizlice, Ziya; Lee, Jessica Y

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: a) the sociodemographic and health factors associated with poor school performance among North Carolina children; and b) the impact of poor oral health status on school performance while controlling for other health and sociodemographic factors. We used data from the 2005 Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program, a follow-back telephone survey to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System involving parents/guardians of children 0 to 17. This project includes sections on oral health and school performance. Our principal outcome variable was school performance and our major explanatory variable was children's oral health status, based upon parental report. Our sample consisted of 2,871 school children, weighted to reflect the North Carolina census. Bivariate analysis revealed that sex, race, parental education, low socioeconomic status, poor general health, poor oral health, and the interaction of poor oral health and general health were significantly related to school performance (P effects of poor oral health and general health on school performance. Children with both poor oral health and general health were 2.3 times more likely to report poor school performance. Children with either poor oral health or general health were only 1.4 times more likely to report poor school performance. Our results show that children who have both poor oral health and general health are more likely to have poor school performance. Our findings suggest that the improvement of children's oral health may be a vehicle to improve their educational experience.

  7. Infection and co-infection with helminths and Plasmodium among school children in Côte d'Ivoire: results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Yapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty, and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d'Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: More

  8. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  9. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  10. Inverse association between intelligence quotient and urinary retinol binding protein in Chinese school-age children with low blood lead levels: results from a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan; Huang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Examine the relationship between blood lead concentration and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) in Chinese children 8-12 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, and participants included 446 children from three primary schools in Jiangsu, China. We collected environmental and genetic information from questionnaires. Blood lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). IQ was assessed using the Combined Raven's Test and then converted to a standard IQ score according to Chinese children's norm. Morning urine samples were collected to measure retinol binding protein (RBP). The average blood lead concentration was 33.13 μg L(-1) (geometric mean), and the blood lead concentration (BoxCox transform) was inversely and significantly associated with IQ (r=-0.11, p=0.02). The geometric mean of blood Mn, Cd and Se was 7.02 μg L(-1), 0.18 μg L(-1) and 94.77 μg L(-1), respectively. Blood Mn, Cd and Se showed no association with IQ, but all of them associated with urinary RBP. Urinary RBP was identified as a new factor associated with IQ (β=-6.49, p=0.011). Urinary RBP was recognized as a new indicated factor associated with children's IQ. Mn, Cd and Se exposure might affect urinary RBP concentration and further IQ. Findings also support that blood lead concentrations in 8-12 years old children, even IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W; Riley, Leanne; Butchart, Alexander; Meddings, David R; Kann, Laura; Harvey, Alison Phinney

    2009-06-01

    To examine associations between exposure to physical violence (PV) or sexual violence (SV) and adverse health behaviours among a sample of children in five African countries. In a cross-sectional analysis of data from Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe - countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey in 2003 or 2004 - we compared the relative frequency of several adverse health behaviours among children (primarily students 13-15 years of age) who did and who did not report exposure to PV or SV. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for such behaviours and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for age and sex. Exposure to PV during the 12 months preceding the survey was reported by 27-50% (average: 42%) of the children studied in the five countries, and lifetime exposure to SV was reported by 9-33% (average: 23%). Moderate to strong associations were observed between exposure to PV or SV and measures of mental health, suicidal ideation, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, lifetime drug use, multiple sex partners and a history of sexually transmitted infection (P health behaviours. In developing countries, increased awareness of the frequency of exposure to violence among children and its potential health consequences may lead to heightened attention to the need for health promotion and preventive programmes that address the problem.

  12. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  13. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  14. Primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...

  15. Stability and change in results of schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doolaard, Simone

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the stability and changes in primary school results over an eight-year period, and stems from the tradition of school effectiveness research. To estimate the (in)stability of results, a longitudinal, multilevel design with repeated measurements at school level was used. It

  16. Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F; Marsh, Herbert W; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  17. Ghrelin, adipokines, metabolic factors in relation with weight status in school-children and results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhojan, Christine; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Larifla, Laurent; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline; Clepier, Josiane; Plumasseau, Jean; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Foucan, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Overweight in Guadeloupe is a public health matter affecting children and adults. In the present study we evaluated the metabolic profile, including serum ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels, in normal weight, overweight and obese school children and we analyzed the potential changes in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors after a 1-year lifestyle intervention program. Parameters were assessed at baseline and at 1 year. Three groups (G) were defined according the International Obesity Task Force reference values, G1: normal weight / G2: overweight / G3: obese. The lifestyle intervention included dietary counseling, regular physical activity and family support. A total of 120 children (G1: n = 44, G2: n = 39, G3: n = 37), aged 11- 15 years and 59 % girls were enrolled. Obese children showed significant lower HDL-C, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations, higher triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, insulin and leptin levels and also higher frequencies of abdominal obesity (G1: 2.3 %, G2: 28.2 %, G3: 73 %) and insulin resistance (GI: 39 %, G2: 72 %, G3: 89 %) than the other groups. In the overall sample, the linear regressions exploring the associations of ghrelin, adiponectin and leptin with age, gender, BMI z-score, HOMA-IR and tanner stage as independent variables showed strong associations of leptin levels with weight status and insulin resistance at baseline. The models accounted for 58 % of variability in leptin levels compared with 26 and 15 % for adiponectin and ghrelin levels respectively. In 83 children who completed the program, significant decreases in BMI z-score in overweight and obese children were noted. Leptin levels decreased significantly only in the obese group whereas adiponectin concentrations increased significantly in the three groups, In obese children, a significant correlation was found between changes in BMI Z-score, and changes in leptin levels (r = 0.39; P = 0.049) but not with changes in

  18. Ranking schools on external knowledge tests results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Cankar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of external knowledge test results for school ranking and the implicit effect of such ranking. A question of validity is raised and a review of research literature and main known problems are presented. In many western countries publication of school results is a common practice and a similar trend can be observed in Slovenia. Experiences of other countries help to predict positive and negative aspects of such publication. Results of external knowledge tests produce very limited information about school quality—if we use other sources of information our ranking of schools can be very different. Nevertheless, external knowledge tests can yield useful information. If we want to improve quality in schools, we must allow schools to use this information themselves and improve from within. Broad public scrutiny is unnecessary and problematic—it moves the focus of school efforts from real improvement of quality to mere improvement of the school public image.

  19. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Bhawra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non-Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. Methods: We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900 from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Results: Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Conclusion: Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  20. School performance of children in kinship care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R J; Dubowitz, H

    1994-07-01

    This study represents the first comprehensive assessment of the school performance of children placed in the care of a relative, an arrangement termed kinship care. The educational programs, academic achievement, and cognitive and language skills of the children were assessed with a teacher questionnaire and standardized tests. Compared to their peers, high rates of grade retention and participation in special and remedial education, as well as significant academic achievement, cognitive, and language deficits were found. Most teachers, however, reported that educational services were appropriate and several interventions had proven successful. Analyses of predictor variables showed that placement at a later age and fewer children in the home were associated with higher academic achievement. Results are reviewed in the context of other foster care studies, and recommendations are made regarding future research and educational needs of children in kinship care.

  1. School inclusion for children with mental health difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Holttum, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight research on the exclusion from school of children with disabilities, and especially those identified as experiencing emotional disturbance. Two studies of schools that are inclusive are then described in order to examine how they achieve good results.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Three papers are summarized. The first examines things that predict children with disabilities being excluded from school, including characteristics of chil...

  2. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-01-01

    ... from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current...

  3. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt test performance: differences in public and private school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests.

  4. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mekel S.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  5. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Guo, Yanling; Wilk, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  6. Emergency response readiness for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2015-09-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether a 1-day basic life support (BLS) training program can significantly increase emergency response readiness for primary school children.Methods One hundred and seven children aged 11-12 years completed a program led by surf lifesaving instructors. A 50-item quiz was administered 1 week before and 1 and 8 weeks after training.Results Significant improvements were gained in knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; P school-based training that provides a general foundation for emergency response readiness.What is known about this topic? The importance and value of teaching BLS to school children is well established in the US, UK and Europe. However, in the past 20 years there has been little or no published Australian evaluation research in this area, despite thousands of training programs running each year around the country for children in first aid, CPR and water safety.What does this paper add? This paper confirms that Australian primary school children can benefit significantly from short, targeted BLS training programs that provide the basic skills and confidence for them to respond in an emergency situation.What are the implications for practitioners? The paper provides a training and evaluation framework that can be used by health educators for age-appropriate BLS programs. The study shows that making training real-world and relevant, especially having hands-on CPR practice with manikins, can address common barriers to performing first aid and CPR reported by young people.

  7. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  8. Is central obesity associated with poorer health and health-related quality of life in primary school children? Cross-sectional results from the Baden-Württemberg Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Wirt, Tamara; Kobel, Susanne; Schreiber, Anja; Kettner, Sarah; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-03-22

    Childhood obesity and its consequences are a growing threat to national economies and health services. The aim of this study was to determine associations between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as a measure of central obesity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and absenteeism of primary school children in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Cross-sectional data from 1888 first and second grade children (7.1±0.6 years) participating in the baseline measurements of the Baden-Württemberg Study were analyzed. Parents completed questionnaires including a rating of their children's HRQoL using KINDLR and EQ5D-Y VAS. Days of absence because of illness, and number of visits to a physician during the last year of school/kindergarten were asked, as well as the number of days parents took off work to care for their sick child. Anthropometric measurements were taken by trained staff. The Mann-Whitney-U test was used for statistical analysis of differences between WHtR groups. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with sick days. A total of 158 (8.4%) children were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5). These children had significantly more sick days (9.05 vs. 6.84, p physical activity pattern, maternal health awareness and family education level. Parent-rated HRQoL was significantly lower in centrally obese children for the EQ5D-Y VAS (88.1 vs. 91.6, p < 0.001), and the KINDLR subscales 'school' (79.9 vs. 82.5, p < 0.05) and 'friends' (75.4 vs. 78.3, p < 0.05), but not for the total score. Cross-sectional results show higher rates of absence, more visits to a physician and lower HRQoL in children with central obesity. Each missed day at school implies a hazard to academic achievement and each additional visit to a physician is related to higher health care costs. Thus, the negative impact of central obesity is already measurable in primary school children, which emphasizes the urgent need for early delivery of health promotion and targeted

  9. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  10. The Unique School Environment of Rural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodendorf, Diane M.

    Recorded observations, camera work, conversations with 19 children in grades K-4 in a Nebraska 2-room school house, and interviews with the teacher were techniques used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the small rural school environment and its impact on children. Five attributes were found to be significant and unique small school…

  11. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  12. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  13. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  14. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  15. Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma Town. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... RESULTS: Majority (80.0%) of the studied children encountered some form of physical punishment of which 21.0% had abusive punishment as evidenced by bruises, lacerations or swelling reported as a result ...

  16. Online schools and children with special health and educational needs: comparison with performance in traditional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik

    2012-04-30

    In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a

  17. After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The…

  18. Strategies for retaining adolescent foster children in school

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is facing a high rate of children in need of care due to high escalation of the HIV/AIDS related illness. The children are being left without biological parents, and they are eventually placed in the foster care custody of their extended families. Sometimes there are challenges that are experienced by the foster parents and the adolescents’ foster children, as a result the adolescents’ foster children end up leaving school. Foster care learners who stay away from school o...

  19. Homework particularities for small school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p homework after lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  20. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  1. School children's accessibility to insecticide-treated bednets in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology and the Parents' School. Association. Verbal consent was obtained from the school children who participated in the study. Results. Demographic characteristics. There were 454 study participants of whom 253. (55.7%) were male and 201 (44.3%) female. The mean age was 14 years, range 10-19 years,.

  2. Children and Learning Climate at Home and at School: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that most of the children had serious financial and sociological problems at home which had effects on their academic progress. There was a positive correlation between alcoholic fathers on the one hand and family quarrels and poor academic performance of children in school on the other. It was also ...

  3. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6 - 12 years. Results: A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight ...

  4. Effects of the National School Lunch Program on Bone Growth in Japanese Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Toshiyuki; Kaba, Naoko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese school lunch program with milk was designed to supply 33-50% of the necessary nutrients per day and 50% of the recommended dietary allowance for calcium, which is difficult to obtain from Japanese meals. Although this program contributes to the mental and physical development of children, the effect of these meals on the bone growth in children remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the effect of school lunch with milk on bone growth between elementary school children attending schools that did not enforce the school lunch with milk program (box-lunch group) and those attending schools that did enforce the program (school-lunch group). The study subjects included fourth-grade children during the 2009-2013 school years, of whom 329 children were in the school-lunch group and 484 children in the box-lunch group. The bone area ratio of the right calcaneus was evaluated using quantitative ultrasound (Benus III). Dietary intakes were assessed using brief self-administered diet history questionnaires. The subjects were asked to record their activities for 3 d so that the mean physical activity intensity and the time spent sleeping could be estimated. The bone area ratios (%) were significantly higher in the school-lunch group than in the box-lunch group (males 31.0±0.3 vs. 30.3±0.2; females 30.6±0.2 vs. 29.7±0.2). This tendency did not change even after adjustment for confounding factors associated with bone growth. The results suggest that nutrients supplied by the Japanese school lunch program contributed to increased bone growth in elementary school children.

  5. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  6. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  7. School Phobic Children and Adolescents: A Challenge to Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sandra R.

    1980-01-01

    Although fearful avoidance of school is a complex and serious problem among school-age children, there are techniques available to professionals for assisting children to overcome school-related anxiety. It is important for school personnel to identify school-phobic children and to assist in planning the earliest possible intervention. (Author)

  8. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  9. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  10. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  11. [Air quality and respiratory health of school children in Pancevo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić-Tanasković, Mica; Nikolovski, Dubravka; Belojević, Goran

    2006-10-01

    Air pollution is the leading environmental problem in Pancevo. Sources are traffic, home heating, industry, land fields, and street dust. Air pollution has harmful effect on population health, particularly the health of children. To estimate school-children's respiratory health in Pancevo. The air quality in Pancevo and Vrsac was measured by standard methods. The health condition was tested by anthropometric, clinical examination and spirometric measures in school children of II-V classes of three primary schools in Pancevo and one in Vrsac, in 2002. Data from 1136 children were analyzed: 796 in Pancevo, and 340 in Vrsac. Parents answered the questions in questionnaires: non standardized questionnaire about children's health, social status and smoking in the family, questionnaire about pregnancy, physical activity and standardized ISAAC questionnaire about asthma and eczema. During the 2002/2003 heating season in Vrsac, concentrations of SO2 and soot were less than limit concentrations of emission and significantly less than in Pancevo air. Results showed that the asthma, wheezing during physical activity (p Morning cough (p < 0.05) and wheezing (p < 0.01) was significantly more frequent in boys from Pancevo than boys from Vrsac. Children from Pancevo were much higher than children in Vrsac. Less vital capacity (p < 0.05) and mild restriction (p < 0.001) were more often in children from Pancevo than children in Vrsac. Our investigation confirmed that children from Pancevo had problems with respiratory health more often than children in Vrsac.

  12. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-03

    -slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. ... Conclusion: This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums ... This cross-sectional, descriptive survey was carried out.

  13. Working School Children in a Nigerian Community: Revisiting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working School Children in a Nigerian Community: Revisiting the Issues. ... work on school performance and health consequences of child labour among school children in a rapidly ... The academic records of the students were also reviewed.

  14. Growth and development of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignerová, J; Bláha, P; Kobzová, J; Krejcovský, L; Paulová, M; Riedlová, J

    2000-02-01

    With the support of the Internal Grant Agency of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic in 1997-1999 work proceeded on the grant "Semi-longitudinal study of the somatic growth of school children in the Czech Republic". The objective of this project is to assess the growth rate of the basic bodily characteristics in children and youth aged 6 to 14 years, to confirm the positive secular trend in height and body weight or its slowing or stagnation, and also to evaluate the growth and development of children under the new socio-economic conditions. In addition to thirty somatic characteristics which are assessed repeatedly every six months, in 1,925 children some supplementary data were obtained from parents. From hitherto assembled data ensues that there was no significant change of the mean length at birth nor of the birth weight as compared with 1989. The increase in height up to adolescence continues, in the higher age groups probably stagnation occurs. Despite a slight increase of mean body weight values since 1981, a gradual decline of the BMI values was observed. In boys this tendency is less marked than in girls, in particular in the oldest age groups. This trend was confirmed also by the results of the present investigation. As compared with the results of the 5th Nationwide Anthropological Survey in 1991 the group of overweight children, i.e. those above the 90th percentile of BMI comprises 6.9% boys and 8.9% girls from a total of almost 2,000 children, as compared with the expected 10%.

  15. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets : Children's Perspectives on School Gardening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school

  16. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  17. Awareness of dengue fever among school children: a comparison between private and government schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is the mosquito born viral disease spreading its tentacles all over the world. Dengue constitutes for major cause of deaths in children. According to WHO, globally it was estimated that approximately 70-100 million people were infected every year. Therefore, the study has been conducted with the aim to assess knowledge regarding dengue fever among school children. Methodology: Total of 500 children were selected from 9th and 10th class of private and government schools using total enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaire method. After assessing knowledge classes were taken by investigators focusing on prevention of dengue fever. Results: Finding of study revealed that among Private schools excellent knowledge was found in 06 (01.2% children, good in 123 (24.6% children, average 112 (22.4% children and poor in 02 (00.41 whereas in Government schools none of students had excellent knowledge, 76(15.2% children were having good knowledge, 178(35.6% children were having average knowledge & 03 (00.6 children were having poor knowledge. The mean knowledge scores were higher in students of Private schools i.e. 31.45 ± 6.41 as compared to students of Government schools i.e. 28.17 ± 5.39 at t=6.19 (p=0.00. Conclusion: It is concluded that majority of school students of private and government schools were having average knowledge regarding prevention of dengue fever. Therefore, there is need for further information, education and communication programs regarding prevention of dengue fever and this can be achieved by organizing health education campaigns in community involving schools.

  18. Refractive Errors in Primary School Children in Nigeria | Faderin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...

  19. Rural School Children Picturing Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

  20. Discrepancies in racial designations of school children in Minneapolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, R F; Gomez-Marin, O; Prineas, R J

    1988-01-01

    To determine the frequency of inaccuracies in racial designations of school children in a health survey, racial designations were examined for a sample of 1,509 children in Minneapolis public schools who participated in the first home interview of the Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. The data were obtained from three sources: the school enrollment data based on parentally supplied information and teachers' visual judgments, school survey interviewers participating in a research project, and the parents themselves, at home interviews. Assuming the correctness of the information obtained from the parent in the home interview, cross tabulation comparisons were made of the accuracy of the information obtained from the other sources, and within sources. Results show a high degree of agreement between the parents' or teachers' designations at enrollment, and survey interviewers' sight judgments. Furthermore, sight judgments of interviewers show high repeatability. There was a significant degree of disagreement between the designations by teachers' and screeners' visual judgments, obtained in school, and the interviews with the parents. Misidentification occurred for up to 20 percent of Native American children, a rate which, if prevalent, may significantly affect public health studies which are based on racial identifications of school children. When possible, researchers studying Native American or mixed race populations should verify racial designations from school documents or sight judgments. Questionnaires to be answered by parents need to have sufficiently detailed categories to enable parents of different racial groups to identify different racial groups accurately.

  1. Ocular disorders in children in Zaria children's school | Abah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study like the previous one was a school eye health screening conducted in Zaria children school located at the centre of Zaria, a city in northern Nigeria. Aims and Objectives: to ... The predominance of uncorrected refractive error is similar to what is obtainable in other parts of the world especially in the urban areas.

  2. Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignores...... that uncertainty about future returns results in a need for risk diversification, that children function as old-age security providers when there are no available pension systems, that the human capital investment decision of one child is likely to be influenced by that of his/her siblings, and that rural parents...

  3. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the meaning of Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school – analyzed from the children’s perspectives (Aronsson, Hedegaard, Højholt, & Ulvik, 2012).The text is based on an ethnographic study where a group of Danish children where followed...... participation possibilities within the children’s communities in preschool. The results from the research implies that if the children’s perspectives could rule practice, the professional cooperation within the transition from preschool to school would focus on helping children - in concrete ways in lessons...

  4. Winter camp for pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Golc, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    This thesis details the importance of physical activity for a healthy development of pre-school children in all areas of their development. The focus is placed mainly on outdoor physical activity, in all seasons of the year and in all types of weather. Also highlighted is the importance of outdoor physical activity, stretching over several days, in the form of a winter camp for pre-school children. Pre-school teachers, who take over the organisation of a winter camp, face a challenging task, ...

  5. School wellbeing among children in grades 1 - 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løhre Audhild

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of children's school wellbeing have not been extensively studied. In this cross-sectional study of school children we assessed how factors assumed to promote wellbeing and factors assumed to adversely influence wellbeing were associated with self-reported wellbeing in school. Methods Children from five schools, 230 boys and 189 girls in grades 1-10, responded to the same set of questions. We used proportional odds logistic regression to assess the associations of promoting and restraining factors with school wellbeing. Results In a multivariable analysis, degree of school wellbeing in boys was strongly and positively related to enjoying school work (odds ratio, 3.84, 95% CI 2.38 to 6.22 and receiving necessary help (odds ratio, 3.55, 95% CI 2.17 to 5.80 from teachers. In girls, being bothered during lessons was strongly and negatively associated with school wellbeing (odds ratio, 0.43, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.85. Conclusions Different factors may determine school wellbeing in boys and girls, but for both genders, factors relevant for lessons may be more important than factors related to recess. Especially in boys, the student-teacher relationship may be of particular importance.

  6. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Çiçek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens Hj; de Vries, Tjalling W; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko

    2017-03-29

    There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various parameters of methylphenidate use. We linked children from a pharmacy prescription database with standardized achievement test results at the end of primary school. We explored differences in test scores between current methylphenidate users versus never users and methylphenidate users who stopped treatment at least 6 months before the test, early versus late starters, different dosage of methylphenidate, and concurrent antipsychotic or asthma treatment. Out of the 7736 children, 377 (4.9%) children were treated with methylphenidate at the time of the test. After adjusting for confounders the methylphenidate users (532.58 ± .48) performed significantly lower on the test than never users (534.72 ± .11). Compared with late starters of methylphenidate treatment (536.94 ± 1.51) we found significantly lower test scores for the early starters (532.33 ± .50). Our study indicates that children using methylphenidate still perform less at school compared to their peers. Our study also suggests that earlier start of methylphenidate treatment is associated with a lower school performance compared to children starting later with the treatment. This result could either indicate a limited effect of long term treatment or a more strongly affected group of early starters.

  7. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  8. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  9. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and cognitive and educational performance among school children in an area of moderate malaria transmission: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the coast of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Katherine E; Karanja, Peris; Turner, Elizabeth L; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Allen, Elizabeth; Jukes, Matthew C H; Brooker, Simon J

    2012-05-01

    Studies have typically investigated health and educational consequences of malaria among school-aged children in areas of high malaria transmission, but few have investigated these issues in moderate transmission settings. This study investigates the patterns of and risks for Plasmodium falciparum and anaemia and their association with cognitive and education outcomes on the Kenyan coast, an area of moderate malaria transmission. As part of a cluster randomised trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia and the associations between health status and measures of cognition and educational achievement. Results are presented for 2400 randomly selected children who were enrolled in the 51 intervention schools. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection and anaemia was 13.0% and 45.5%, respectively. There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of P. falciparum infection by school. In multivariable analysis, being male, younger age, not sleeping under a mosquito net and household crowding were adjusted risk factors for P. falciparum infection, whilst P. falciparum infection, being male and indicators of poor nutritional intake were risk factors for anaemia. No association was observed between either P. falciparum or anaemia and performance on tests of sustained attention, cognition, literacy or numeracy. The results indicate that in this moderate malaria transmission setting, P. falciparum is strongly associated with anaemia, but there is no clear association between health status and education. Intervention studies are underway to investigate whether removing the burden of chronic asymptomatic P. falciparum and related anaemia can improve education outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urines from German school-aged children: results of the Duisburg birth cohort and Bochum cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Koch, Holger M; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Some phthalates and also bisphenol A (BPA) interfere with the human endocrine system and are labelled as reproductive toxicants. Children's exposure to these contaminants is suspected to be associated with developmental disorders and other health impairments. We provide biomonitoring data on 21 urinary phthalate metabolite and BPA levels in first morning urine of 8-10 year old children. Participants were children born between 1999 and 2002 of the Duisburg birth cohort (8-9 years, N=113) and of the Bochum cohort study (8-10 years, N=352). Additionally, for the Duisburg birth cohort we compare current data of children from Duisburg (8-9 years) with data from 2 years earlier when the children were 6-7 years old. We analyzed influences of important covariates on exposure levels by multiple regression analysis and those from two sampling time points by generalized equation estimation models adjusted for important covariates. Compared to recently published studies the phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations were within the range of background levels. There were no significant differences between children from Bochum and Duisburg. Comparison between the two Duisburg birth cohort data sets (2007-2008 and 2009-2010) showed significant correlations for most of the phthalate metabolites (r Spearman between 0.25 and 0.51; p ≤ 0.05) but not for BPA (r Spearman=0.162; p=0.143). Most of the phthalate metabolites in the groups of the 6-7 and 8-9 years old Duisburg children were negatively associated with higher age, except for BPA concentrations with nearly constant levels. Exposure levels may be influenced by changes in child specific exposure patterns with age but also by the rapidly changing phthalate market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2017-08-01

    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left-behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labor migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labor out-migration. Results show that fathers' economically successful labor migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non-migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared to sons of non-migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation no different than daughters of non-migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labor migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys' schooling, but not girls'. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.

  12. School bag carriage and pain in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckree, T; Silal, S P; Lin, J

    2004-01-07

    In South Africa (SA), anecdotal evidence for the incidence of shoulder, back and neck pain in school children is alarming but no scientific studies have confirmed this impression. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between pain and school bag carriage in scholars in Durban, SA. A study was carried out at four different schools in the Verulam and Chatsworth Regions in Kwa-Zulu Natal, SA. Schools were selected by convenience. One hundred and seventy six scholars between the ages of 11 and 14 years correctly filled out a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions. Each child also had his/her body and bag weight measured. In this study, most of the scholars experienced shoulder and a combination of shoulder and other bodily pain. The majority of the children carried backpacks over two shoulders. The type of bag carried was significantly related to pain experienced (0.00). A significantly larger number of female scholars experienced pain. The shoulder and other bodily pain experienced by the sample of scholars are strongly related to the type of bag and the gender of the children. More in-depth studies into identifying risk factors for bodily pains in school children are indicated.

  13. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Linking immigrant parents' educational expectations and aspirations to their children's school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Lee, Daphnee H L

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of parental expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment to children's academic performance in school among 783 immigrant-origin children aged 5-18 years in Canada. The results of hierarchical regression analyses, after accounting for student and family background characteristics, indicated that immigrant parents' expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment were positively linked to immigrant-origin children's academic performance in school. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  15. Exploring walking path quality as a factor for urban elementary school children's active transport to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriero, Frank C; James, Nathan T; Shields, Timothy M; Gouvis Roman, Caterina; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Pollack, Keshia M

    2013-03-01

    Path quality has not been well studied as a correlate of active transport to school. We hypothesize that for urban-dwelling children the environment between home and school is at least as important as the environment immediately surrounding their homes and/or schools when exploring walking to school behavior. Tools from spatial statistics and geographic information systems (GIS) were applied to an assessment of street blocks to create a walking path quality measure based on physical and social disorder (termed "incivilities") for each child. Path quality was included in a multivariate regression analysis of walking to school status for a sample of 362 children. The odds of walking to school for path quality was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.72-1.07), which although not statistically significant is in the direction supporting our hypothesis. The odds of walking to school for home street block incivility suggests the counter intuitive effect (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.19). Results suggest that urban children living in communities characterized by higher incivilities are more likely to walk to school, potentially placing them at risk for adverse health outcomes because of exposure to high incivility areas along their route. Results also support the importance of including path quality when exploring the influence of the environment on walking to school behavior.

  16. School Architecture for Autism Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Khajehpasha, Sepideh; Sharifi M, Ebrahim Samin; Arezoumand, Hadi; Saeidi M, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Lately many researches have done in relation to the link between architecture and autism or the autism likely environments which show that architecture could be effective in the states of the children suffering from autism disorders. The education center for the autism children need special spaces for education and treatment. Surveys in many Asian countries show that most of the care centers of the children suffering from autism are created by the changing the use of the spaces like houses or...

  17. What helps children to move more at school recess and lunchtime? Mid-intervention results from Transform-Us! cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.; Arundell, L.; Cerin, E.; Carson, V.; Brown, H.E.; Crawford, D.C.; Hesketh, K.D.; Ridgers, N.D.; te Velde, S.J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Salmon, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the interpersonal and physical environment mediators of the Transform-Us! mid-intervention effects on physical activity (PA) during recess and lunchtime. Methods: Transform-Us! is a clustered randomised school-based intervention with four groups: sedentary behaviour

  18. Prehospital emergency care for children at school and nonschool locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S; Vernon, D D; Fines, R J; Dean, N P

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether school-based emergency medical services (EMS) incidents are different from nonschool-based EMS incidents for school-aged children. We examined South Dakota EMS incident reports involving children ages 5 to 18 years old from 1994 through 1996 (n = 12603). Patient characteristics, dispatch reason, primary medical complaint, injury type, contributing factor of injury, and performed interventions were analyzed. During the study period, there were 140455 total EMS incident reports, of which 12603 (9.0%) were for school-aged children. EMS dispatches to a school represented 755 (6.0%) of all EMS incidents for school-aged children. The number of school-based EMS incidents was highest at the beginning of the school year, whereas the number of nonschool-based EMS incidents was highest during the summer months. School-based EMS incidents peaked at noon, whereas nonschool-based EMS incidents peaked after school. For both locations, the average age of the patient was 14 years old. The dispatch reason for school-based EMS incidents differed from those for nonschool-based EMS incidents. The top three school-based EMS dispatch reasons were falls (36.2%), other trauma (27.0%), and medical illness (24.5%). Motor vehicle crashes (30.8%), medical illness (26.2%), and other trauma (11.4%) were the leading nonschool-based EMS dispatch reasons. Injuries accounted for a significantly greater proportion of school-based than nonschool-based EMS incidents (70.7% vs 62.6%). Excluding pain, the most frequent type of injury was a fracture or dislocation in school-based EMS incidents and open soft-tissue injury in nonschool-based EMS incidents. A total of 11 students sustained an injury resulting in paralysis. The body region that was most commonly injured was a lower extremity (23%) in school-based incidents, whereas the head was the most commonly injured body region in nonschool-based incidents (20%). Sports were the largest contributing

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  20. Children, childhood and schooling: adjustment in the transition from kindergarten to primary school nine years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Barcelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.

  1. Stress levels experienced by parents of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of a European and Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Doddamani, Lakshman; Dutray, Benoit; Gagliano, Antonella; Haertling, Fabian; Bloomfield, Ralph; Ramnath, Gracita

    2015-03-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was designed to compare stress in parents of children/ adolescents with/without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in six European countries and Canada when children prepare to return to school. Parents of children/adolescents (6-17 years) with/without ADHD were recruited and interviewed by a consumer research organization. Parents rated potentially stress-causing situations (both standard and specifically related to the return to school) on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). Mean scores were compared using Student's t-test. In Europe, 613/693 (mean [SD] age: 40.7 [7.0]/40.1 [6.9] years) and in Canada, 102/150 (mean [SD] age: 44.4 [8.1]/44.1 [7.2] years) parents of children with/without ADHD, respectively, participated in the survey. Children with ADHD (mean [SD] age: 11.2 [3.2]/12.6 [3.2] years in Europe/Canada) had generally similar characteristics in both samples. Parents in the ADHD group showed higher stress levels than parents in the non-ADHD group in all situations (p school was considered one of the most stressful events during the year. In Europe and Canada, ADHD has a significant impact on parental stress, particularly during the back-to-school period. This can have important implications as parental stress can affect presentation of ADHD symptoms.

  2. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. School Performances among Internationally Adopted Children in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Monica

    2001-01-01

    Examined the school competence of internationally adopted children from Colombia and Korea and a matched sample of Norwegian-born children. Found that adopted children had lower school performance than Norwegian-born children. Most of the disparity was explained by adopted children's language skills and high frequency of hyperactive behavior.…

  4. School stress reported by children in grades 4, 5, and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, S K; Johnson, P L

    1991-04-01

    Stress in the school environment of 269 elementary school children attending Grades 4, 5, and 6 of a metropolitan school district were assessed using the School Stress Questionnaire. The effects of sex, ethnic background (minority vs nonminority), type of classroom placement (regular education versus special education), and family structure (traditional versus nontraditional or divorced) were investigated. Children from nontraditional or divorced families had significantly higher school stress than children from intact families. The possibility that these results are a reflection of society's negative attitudes toward children living in nontraditional families is raised.

  5. Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leschinska K.O.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls. The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of children. The general assessment shows only 48% of children have sufficient availability for school education.

  6. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.

  7. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  8. Children's School Assessment: Implications for Family-School Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel-Amaya; Martinez, Rosario; Perez, M. Henar

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this chapter is to analyse parents' perceptions of children's assessment in primary school. Understanding these perceptions may shed light on their knowledge of assessment and involvement in their child's education. The sample population consisted of one hundred and eighty eight Spanish parents (N=188) of students in third grade in…

  9. Reading Development in Typically Developing Children and Children With Prenatal or Perinatal Brain Lesions: Differential School Year and Summer Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    Summer slide, uneven growth of academic skills over the calendar year, captures the fact that the learning gains children make over the school year do not continue at the same pace over the summer, when children are typically not in school. We compared growth of reading skills during the school year and over the summer months in children with pre-or perinatal brain lesion (PL) and typically-developing (TD) children from varying socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds as a new way to probe the role of structured environmental support in functional plasticity for reading skills in children with PL. Results showed that children with PL performed lower than TD children on both reading decoding and reading comprehension. Group differences were primarily driven by children with larger lesions and children with right hemisphere lesions (RH). For reading comprehension, children with RH showed greater growth during the school year but more slide during the summer months than both TD children and children with left hemisphere lesions, implicating a particularly strong role of structured input in supporting reading comprehension in this group. TD children from lower SES backgrounds fell behind their TD peers from higher SES backgrounds on decoding and reading comprehension, but did not show differential patterns of school year and summer growth. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering the role of a host of factors interacting at multiple levels of analyses, including biological and environmental, in influencing developmental trajectories of typically and atypically-developing children.

  10. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  11. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.

    2015-01-01

    depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed...... by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed...... in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education (

  12. Academic performance of school children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R C; Ojinnaka, N C; Iloeje, S O

    2008-04-01

    Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on effect of epilepsy on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy. This study is aimed at determining the academic performance of children with epilepsy with the hope that the findings will help in formulating policies that will be used in their educational programme. The academic performance of 50 epileptic children attending normal primary school was compared with those of non-epileptic classmates matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. The academic performance was assessed using the overall scores achieved in the terminal examination in the 2001/2002 academic years, as well as the scores in individual subjects. There were 36 males and 14 females. The most common seizure type among the epileptic children was generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Thirteen (26%) of the epileptic children had a low overall score, and therefore poor academic performance, compared to 16% of the controls. (p = 0.35). However, the mean score of the epileptic children was significantly lower than that of the controls in English (p = 0.02), Science (p = 0.02) and Social studies (p = 0.02). The overall academic performance of epileptic children without other chronic disorders attending normal schools is not different from that of normal children in the same setting, though they are under-achieving in some subjects.

  13. Geochemical Treasure Hunt for Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesmer, Maja; Frick, Daniel; Gerrits, Ruben; des GFZ-GeoWunderWerkstatt, Schülerlabor

    2017-04-01

    How can you inspire school children for geochemistry, and scientific exploratory urge? The key is to raise their curiosity and make learning new things a hands-on experience. The Fellows of the European Marie Curie Initial Training Network IsoNose designed and established a "Geochemical Treasure Hunt" to excite children for scientific investigations. This workshop explains primary school children the research and scientific methods of isotopic geochemistry, and their use to understand processes on the Earth's surface. From obtaining 'samples', performing various experiments, the school children gather clues leading them to the hidden treasure on the Telegrafenberg (campus of the GFZ Potsdam). The course was designed for school children to learn hands-on the meaning of elements, atoms and isotopes. In small groups the children conduct experiments of simplified methods being indispensable to any isotope geochemist. However, prior to working in any laboratory environment, a security briefing is necessary. For the course, two stages were implemented; firstly the use of harmful substances and dangerous equipment was minimised, and secondly children were equipped with size-matched personal protective equipment (lab coats, gloves, and safety googles). The purification of elements prior to isotopic analysis was visualised using colour chromatography. However, instead of using delicate mass spectrometers for the isotope ratio measurements, the pupils applied flame spectroscopy to analyse their dissolved and purified mineral solutions. Depending on the specific element present, a different colour was observed in the flame. The children plotted their colours of the flame spectroscopy onto a map and by interpreting the emerging colour patterns they localized the treasure on the map. In small teams they swarmed out on the Telegrafenberg to recover the hidden treasure. The project leading to this outreach activity has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie

  14. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.

  15. Psychomotor assessment of 2nd grade children of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carvalho Silvério

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychomotor is a multidisciplinary science that incorporates motor, affective and cognitive aspects. This study aimed to measure the psychomotor skills to see if the results are within the expected for the age group studied and investigate whether there are differences between the performance of boys and girls. 91 children participated in this research. 59.3% were boys (M = 7.16 years, SD = 0.37 of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais-Brasil. The results of psychomotor tests of Oliveira (2014 indicated that the profile of children was within the expected range, according to the stages of development of psychomotor skills. The only statistically significant difference between the sexes appeared in the psychomotor skills "body schema", with higher average of children. It is suggested that more studies will be developed with children of different types of institutions to confront these findings.

  16. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-04-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  17. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  18. Migrant children and migrants' children: Nativity differences in school enrollment in Mexico and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Glick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a re-consideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children's schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. Objective: This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children's school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico. The analyses are designed to determine whether duration of residence has a similar association with school enrollment across these different settings. Methods: The analyses are based on nationally representative household data from the 2010 Mexican Census and the 2006‒2010 American Community Survey. Logistic regression models compare school enrollment patterns of Mexican and U.S.-born children of Mexican origin in the United States and those of Mexican and U.S.-born children in Mexico. Interactions for nativity/duration of residence and age are also included. Results: The results demonstrate that, adjusting for household resources and household-level migration experience, Mexican-born children in the United States and U.S.-born children in Mexico, particularly those who arrived recently, lag behind in school enrollment. These differences are most pronounced at older ages. Conclusions: The comparisons across migration contexts point to greater school attrition and non-enrollment among older, recent migrant youth, regardless of the context. The interactions suggest that recent migration is associated with lower schooling for youth who engage in migration at older ages in both the United States and Mexico. Contribution: These analyses point to the importance of considering different types of migration and age at arrival to understand educational patterns.

  19. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  20. Comparison of the diagnostic results school readiness in town and village

    OpenAIRE

    Růžičková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis titled The comparison of the diagnostic results of school readiness in the city and in the village is focused on the problems of the school age development. The object is to give the opinion on better readiness for school of the children in the city or in the village. The theoretical part contains the characteristics of preschool child's motor, cognitive, perceptual, social and emotional development. There is the concept of the school readiness and the individual parts of ...

  1. Obesity in Nursery School Children in Corum, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Selen Ozakar; Uysal, Gulzade; Aysegul Buyukgonenc, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular body mass index (BMI) screenings in schools is important to ensure that 3- to 6-year-old children are not negatively affected by obesity in terms of their current and future health. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the overweight and obesity results of 3- to 6-year-old children and to guide children and their family in making healthier dietary choices by informing them. Methods This analytical-descriptive study was conducted in Corum, Turkey, in the year 2011. The study’s sample consisted of all available 3- to 6-year-old children entering nursery school (specifically, the Buharaevler, Karsıyaka, Nasrettin Hoca, Ulukavak, Mimar Sinan, and Sevgi nursery schools). Findings from the study were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) program were used in the comparison of study data. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results It was determined that 9.5% of the participating female children and 5.2% of the male children were underweight and that the boys were more obese than the girls in general. The correlation between the child’s gender and their BMI was not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The overweight frequency of the children was 12.1%, and the obesity frequency was 14.3%. Furthermore, it was determined that the obesity rates of the children increased with their age. Accordingly, the correlation between the child’s age and BMI was found to be statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). Conclusions An approach to preventing obesity must not be enacted only in health centers. Schools should also offer information and resources for families in order to prevent obesity in children. PMID:28180017

  2. Pin Worm Survey on Infant School Children in Gunma Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 久美子; 阿部, 美幸; 伊藤, 恵美; 金田, 聡子; 関口, 直美; 深町, 容子; 松渕, ユカ子; 柳, 博美; 鈴木, 守

    1991-01-01

    Pin worms (Enterobius vermicularis) are the commonest intestinal parasite in Japan. Examination of this worm infection is usually made by microscopic observation on the swab taken on a scothch tape. We conducted a survey of pin worm infection among infant school children of 4-6 years old. Suitable days for swab examination were studied by comparing the detection rate according to the consecutive days tested. Results were summarized as follows: 1. Three hundred sixteen children (172 boys and 1...

  3. The importance of working memory for school achievement in primary school children with intellectual or learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Given the well-known relation between intelligence and school achievement we expect children with normal intelligence to perform well at school and those with intelligence deficits to meet learning problems. But, contrary to these expectations, some children do not perform according to these predictions: children with normal intelligence but sub-average school achievement and children with lower intelligence but average success at school. Yet, it is an open question how the unexpected failure or success can be explained. This study examined the role of working memory sensu Baddeley (1986) for school achievement, especially for unexpected failure or success. An extensive working memory battery with a total of 14 tasks for the phonological loop, the visual-spatial sketchpad and central executive skills was presented in individual sessions to four groups of children differing in IQ (normal vs. low) and school success (good vs. poor). Results reveal that children with sub-average school achievement showed deficits in working memory functioning, irrespective of intelligence. By contrast, children with regular school achievement did not show deficits in working memory, again irrespective of intelligence. Therefore working memory should be considered an important predictor of academic success that can lead both to unexpected overachievement and failure at school. Individual working memory competencies should be taken into account with regard to diagnosis and intervention for children with learning problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  5. Specificity of school readiness assessment of children with mental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Klausová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the school readiness assessment of children with mental disability. Thesis is devoted to theoretical knowledge in relation to pre-school age and also specifically for children with mental disability. Thesis describes the school readiness of child and compares foreign and local view on it. It also includes the issue of school readiness of children with mental disability. Furthermore, the thesis focuses on the school readiness assessment and on resources and tools that...

  6. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  7. Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

  8. The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the chance to…

  9. Prevalence of Refractive Error Among school children in Meseret ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of visual impairment among school children is so prevalent that it greatly reduces children's ability to study and attend classes finally leading to a grave socio economic burden to the society. The study determined the prevalence of refractive error among school children of Meseret General Primary School, ...

  10. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English......) achieved upon completion of lower secondary school (9th grade; age 15 or 16 years) were compared between groups. Results A total of 549 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the cholesteatoma group and 15 106 for the control group. High parental education and female sex were strongly associated...

  11. Migrant children and migrants' children: Nativity differences in school enrollment in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E; Yabiku, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a reconsideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children's schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children's school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico. The analyses are designed to determine whether duration of residence has a similar association with school enrollment across these different settings. The analyses are based on nationally representative household data from the 2010 Mexican Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Logistic regression models compare school enrollment patterns of Mexican and U.S.-born children of Mexican origin in the United States and those of Mexican and U.S.-born children in Mexico. Interactions for nativity/duration of residence and age are also included. The results demonstrate that, adjusting for household resources and household-level migration experience, Mexican-born children in the United States and U.S.-born children in Mexico, particularly those who arrived recently, lag behind in school enrollment. These differences are most pronounced at older ages. The comparisons across migration contexts point to greater school attrition and non-enrollment among older, recent migrant youth, regardless of the context. The interactions suggest that recent migration is associated with lower schooling for youth who engage in migration at older ages in both the United States and Mexico.

  12. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-An Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were measured by trained school nurses using standard procedures at the beginning and end of each school year for 11 consecutive assessments. Group-based trajectory clustering and multinomial logit modeling were conducted. Results When using BMIz score, six trajectory groups were identified revealing substantial consistency in BMIz score across time. When using a categorical variable separating overweight/obese children (BMI ≥ 85%ile from the rest, five developmental trajectories (persistently non-overweight/obese weight: 51.1 %; early-onset overweight/obese: 9.2 %; late-onset overweight/obese: 9.7 %; becoming healthy weight: 8.2 %; and chronically overweight/obese: 21.8 % were identified. When using a categorical variable separating obese children (BMI ≥ 95%ile from the rest, three trajectories (persistently non-obese: 74.1 %, becoming obese: 12.8 %; and chronically obese: 13.2 % were identified. For both cutoffs (≥ BMI percentile 85 % or 95 %, girls were more likely than boys to be classified in the persistently non-overweight and/or obese group (odds ratios (OR ranged from 0.53 to 0.67; and Hispanic children and non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to be chronically overweight and/or obese than non-Hispanic White children (OR ranged from 1.57 to 2.44. Hispanic children were also more likely to become obese (OR: 1.84 than non-Hispanic White children when ≥ BMI percentile 95 % was used. Conclusions Boys, Hispanic

  13. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  14. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Surani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.

  15. School Zone: Learning Environments for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne P.; Vlastos, George

    Architectural solutions to some educational problems are explored and a systematic method is presented for designing schools as learning environments for children. Classroom environments and outdoor play areas are considered as functional art forms and seen as three-dimensional textbooks. The book demonstrates a way of using curriculum as a design…

  16. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2014-01-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was…

  17. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with hooigworms, Trichuris'trichirua and Ascaris lumbricoides infections are improved after treatment with albendazole J. Nutrition 1994, 124: 1199-1206. Nokes C. Grantham- McGregor, S.M. Sawyer A.W.. Cooper ES, Bundy, D.A.P. Parastic helminth infection and cognitive function in school children proceeding of the Royal ...

  18. Children's Sleep and School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…

  19. Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisorrachatr Suwat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children and 140 controls (normal weight children were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Results Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p Conclusions It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control.

  20. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  1. How Can We Help Make Schools Safe for Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Chester R.; Fuller, James O.

    The primary cause of anxiety for many parents today is protecting their children from acts of violence at school. This brochure discusses what steps parents and school administrators can take to make schools safer. First, the brochure discusses what is being done to ensure children's safety in school, such as teaching prevention skills, providing…

  2. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  3. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

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    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  4. A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Polat UNUTKAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as follows: Ø Does pre-school education variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does age variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does gender variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does socio-economical status variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills?

  5. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  6. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

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    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  7. Oral hygiene awareness among school children of rural Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the survey was to assess awareness regarding oral hygiene practice amongst children toward oral health in rural population of Mangalore city. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out among 2636 children (boys: 1508 and girls: 1128 who were in the age group of 5-12 years studying in various schools of rural Mangalore. Data on oral hygiene practice were collected by means of self-administered questionnaire. Results: This survey found that 52% children brush their teeth twice a day and 98.9% children brushed in horizontal direction. Other oral hygiene aids were sparsely used (5.3%. None of the school children had any form of interactive sessions on oral hygiene practice with their respective class teacher. Conclusion: Results of the study suggest that basic oral hygiene knowledge and practice of the study participants was good but advanced knowledge needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs and awareness amongst teachers are needed to improve oral health of school children.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. ... cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of <0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Out of 162 learners analyzed, ...

  9. Random proteinuria screening in elementary school children in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary levels of above 150mg/dl or 5mg/ml gave a positive result with the dipstick and were considered to increase the risk for kidney disease. Conclusion: Prevalence of proteinuria in elementary school children in Jos metropolis is on the increase. More work should be done on evaluation of urinary protein creatinine ratio ...

  10. Peer Acceptance and Black Children's Help-Seeking in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Le Gall, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Peer relations, academic competence, and help-seeking behaviors of Black elementary school children were examined. Results indicated that, in comparison to boys, girls were preferred more as helpers, were perceived to be more academically competent, and sought help from peers more often. The distribution of boys and girls across different peer…

  11. Screening of Primary School Children for | Opubiri | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross sectional study on screening for refractive error in school children was carried out in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State in June 2009. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study population (pupils aged 5-15 years). ... Data was analyzed with EPI INFO version 6. Results: A ...

  12. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  13. Social Skills and School Readiness in Young Children Exposed to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Monique M; Cosgrove, Seandra J; David, Kimberly B

    2017-04-01

    Witnessing violence is associated with negative outcomes for preschool-aged children, including lowered school readiness; however, not all children evidence negative outcome, indicating the presence of protective factors. This study examined social skills as a moderator of the relation between violence exposure and school readiness in preschoolaged children. Seventy-eight children completed a measure of school readiness, and their caregiver completed measures of social skills, witnessed violence exposure, and direct victimization. Results revealed that social skills moderated the witnessed violence- school readiness association, controlling for direct victimization and family income. When children evidenced more appropriate social skills, witnessed violence and school readiness were inversely related. However, for children whose caregivers endorsed less appropriate social skills, there was no association between witnessed violence and school readiness.

  14. [Hearing screening at nursery schools: results of an evaluation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbold, Viktor; Rohrer, Monika; Winkler, Cornelia; Welzl-Müller, Kunigunde

    2004-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the hearing screening of pre-school children at nursery schools in Tyrol, Austria. 47 nursery schools with a total of 2199 enrolled children participated in the study. At the screening, the children were presented a series of tones at frequencies 0.5 kHz (25dB), 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, and 4 kHz (20 dB each) from portable audiometers. The tones were presented over headphones for each ear separately and at irregular intervals. Failure to respond to any of the frequencies was considered failure of the screening. Parents were then advised in written form to have the child examined by an ENT-specialist. 1832 individuals were screened (coverage: 83% of nursery school children; corresponding to at least 63% of all Tyrolean children aged 3 to 5 years). Of these, 390 failed the test (referral rate: 21% of all screened). Examination through an ENT-specialist occurred with 217 children, and this confirmed the positive test in 139 children (hit rate: 64%). In most cases, a temporary conductive hearing loss due to external or middle ear problems (glue ear, tube dysfunction, cerumen, otitis media) was diagnosed. A sensorineural hearing loss was found in 4 children (in 3 of them bilateral). The need for therapy was recognized in 81 children (4% of all screened). Pre-school hearing screening identifies children with ear and hearing problems that need therapeutical intervention. Although the hearing problems are mostly of a temporary nature, some may require monitoring over some period. Also some children with permanent sensorineural hearing loss may be detected through this measure. Hearing screening is an efficient means of assessing ear and hearing problems in pre-school children. However, the follow-up rate needs to be improved for optimizing the efficacy.

  15. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children, and Their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular interest. Overall, parents gave their children higher school friendship ratings than the children gave themselves, and hearing children and their pare...

  16. Bed wetting in school children of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Shoaib; Zaidi, Zafar

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in Pakistani children and to examine the factors associated with it. A randomly selected cross-sectional study was conducted in five elementary schools, one in each of five districts of Karachi. The parents of 5000 children age between 3-13 years were asked to complete a questionnaire which included items about the frequency of daytime wetting and nocturnal enuresis, family history, urinary tract infection, parents and child's own concern about this problem and acquisition of treatments. Over all corrected response rate to the questionnaire was 69% (3395). Enuresis was present in 9.1% (308). There were 166 (53.9%) boys and 142 (46%) girls with a median age of 7 years. Only 54% (166) children sought help for their problem of which 26% consulted doctors, 16% visited homeopaths while 11% used hakeems and home remedies. Of the bed wetters, 30% were wet every night, 30% for more than three nights a week and 40% for less than three nights every week. Parents of 68.5% (211) children reported concern for the problem while 69.8% (215) children were also anxious about their enuresis. Among the concerned children group, 22% parents were not concerned about their child's problem. Family history of enuresis was present in 25.6% (79) children. The frequency of enuresis among the school going children in Karachi is 9.1% and is similar to that reported in European countries and other Asian countries including Korea and Taiwan. Enuresis causes concern to both parents and children, but only a small percentage of parents seek medical help for this problem.

  17. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-06

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  18. Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children: All Children in School by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics (UIS) launched the joint Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children in 2010 to accelerate efforts towards the goal of universal primary education by 2015. The goal of the…

  19. Obesity in Nursery School Children in Corum, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akca,Selen Ozakar; Uysal, Gulzade; Aysegul Buyukgonenc, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular body mass index (BMI) screenings in schools is important to ensure that 3- to 6-year-old children are not negatively affected by obesity in terms of their current and future health. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the overweight and obesity results of 3- to 6-year-old children and to guide children and their family in making healthier dietary choices by informing them. Methods This analytical-descriptive study was conducted in Corum, Turkey, in the year 20...

  20. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T; Pietrzak, Robert H; Snyder, Peter J; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  1. Ethnic distance in primary school children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to answer whether an ethnic distance in young children, age 11-12 (third and fourth year of primary schools, as well as if their parents can be determined and what are the levels of that distance. Main techniques used were Bogardus` scale of social distance (somewhat modified for the children and a questionnaire for the parents dealing with some aspects of knowledge about the culture. Results show that levels of ethnic distance are much higher in children, but also that this problem can be dealt with and in that spirit some directions on how to prevent the development of this distance were also given.

  2. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  3. Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintanar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

  4. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  5. Processes and conditions underlying the link between shyness and school adjustment among Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Cheah, Charissa S L; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the underlying processes and conditions that contribute to the school adjustment of shy children in Turkey, where children's interpersonal relationships in social settings and academic achievement are highly emphasized. First, we examined the unique mediating roles of children's feelings of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and loneliness in the associations between shyness and indices of school outcomes (academic achievement and school liking/avoidance). Second, we explored the moderating role of children's peer acceptance in these associations. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 599; M age  = 10.11 years, SD = 0.65; 48% girls) provided information on shyness, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and school liking/avoidance. Head teachers in each classroom reported on students' academic performance. The peer nomination method was used to assess children's peer relationships. Results revealed that when children displayed shy behaviours, they reported more depressive symptoms that were, in turn, associated with poorer academic performance, less school liking, and higher school avoidance. Moreover, shyness negatively predicted school liking at low levels of peer acceptance, suggesting that difficulties in peer relationships increased shy children's risk of school dissatisfaction. Overall, our findings support the importance of the interpersonal relationship context for children's adjustment within the Turkish cultural context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Shy children have difficulties initiating and maintaining social interactions, which put them at risk for a wide range of socio-emotional difficulties. Shy children have poor academic performance and experience school adjustment difficulties in North America. What does this study add? Shyness is an important risk factor for poorer academic performance and adjustment among children in Turkey. The association between shyness and

  6. Transition to school for children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Annabel; Spagnol, Vanessa; Grove, Rachel; Eapen, Valsamma

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify factors that promote a positive start to school for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, and PsychINFO searches were conducted to identify literature published after 1991 and relevant to school transition processes in children with ASD. Twenty studies were deemed eligible for inclusion. These studies evaluated a range of factors including school readiness, parent and teacher perspectives on transition practices, characteristics of children with ASD that are associated with successful transition to school and the impact of school based intervention programs. RESULTS A review of these studies showed that children with ASD are less school ready emotionally than their peers and those children with ASD appear to have more externalising behaviours and self-regulation difficulties that affect their school engagement and their relationships with their teachers. There was a paucity of research looking at interventions targeting school readiness. However, school-based behavioural interventions appear to improve cognitive, language and daily living skills, but have less impact on socialisation and peer inclusion. CONCLUSION Children with ASD face more challenges transitioning to school, particularly with social interaction. Further development and implementation of specific school-based interventions is needed in order to assist children with autism to maximise their success in starting school. PMID:29043156

  7. Does school mobility place elementary school children at risk for lower math achievement? The mediating role of cognitive dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele

    2015-12-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children's math achievement in fourth grade and that children's cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children's math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children's early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children's math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children's math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children's cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Beyond distance: children's school travel mode choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanam; Zhu, Xuemei; Yoon, Jeongjae; Varni, James W

    2013-02-01

    Long distance is a leading environmental barrier to walking to school and requires long-term, multilevel interventions. Meanwhile, childhood obesity remains highly prevalent, calling for more immediate solutions. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudinal and environmental correlates of walking to the elementary school, controlling for distance. Using parental survey data, 601 child pairs with matched home locations and different school travel modes (walking vs. private automobile) were examined, using conditional logistic regressions. Despite the same/similar objectively measured distance and home location, perceptions of distance, sidewalk and traffic conditions, park presence, and convenience of walking differed between walkers and automobile users. Parental attitudes and children's preferences were associated with the odds of walking. Safety concerns (traffic danger, stranger danger, and getting lost) were higher among drivers, but only significant in bivariate analyses. To promote walking to school, route/street improvements appear promising, but parallel educational and promotional efforts may be needed to address perceptual and attitudinal barriers.

  9. Asthma control in London secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine; Mosler, Gioia; Williams, Samson A; Whitehouse, Abigail; Raine, Rosalind; Grigg, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    The asthma control test (ACT) is a validated tool for assessing control in asthmatic children aged 12 years and older. Using the ACT, we sought to assess asthma control and knowledge in London secondary school children. Secondary schools in London, UK, participated in this study. Children with doctor-diagnosed asthma were invited to complete an online questionnaire that included the ACT and questions about asthma. Suboptimal asthma control was defined as an ACT score of ≤ 19 out of a maximum score of 25. Data are summarised as median and interquartile range (IQR), and were analysed by either Mann-Whitney test, or chi-square test. A p value of asthma control was reported by 49.6% of students. Over a third (42.4%) of students prescribed a short-acting β2-agonist inhaler felt uncomfortable using it at school, and 29.2% (n = 173) reported not using this inhaler when wheezy. 56.4% (n = 220) of those with regular inhaled corticosteroids did not take them as prescribed, and 41.7% did not know what this inhaler was for. Suboptimal control was associated with a greater proportion of students reporting that they were 'somewhat', 'hardly' or 'not at all' comfortable using inhalers at school (52.7% vs 29.1%, p asthma control and poor asthma knowledge are common in London schoolchildren.

  10. Learning disability in rural primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, K N; Agarwal, D K; Upadhyay, S K; Singh, M

    1991-04-01

    In rural primary school children observed for two years, 12.97 per cent of those having IQ greater than or equal to 90 were found to have poor achievement in arithmetic test and teacher's assessment. These learning disabled children had impaired perceptual maturity and conceptual grasp as observed on MISIC (Indian modification of WISC), Bender Gestalt test and Piaget's test. On WISC Bannatyne categories learning disabled children scored highest in verbal conceptualization (similarities, vocabulary, comprehension), followed by spatial (picture completion, object assembly, block design) and sequencing (arithmetic, digit span, coding) abilities. These children on Bender Gestalt test made more errors particularly distortions (distortion of parts, incorrect number of dots, shape of design lost etc). They also showed delayed development on Piagetian tasks class inclusion, conservation (for length, substance, liquid and number) ordinal relation and one to one correspondence. These observations indicate impaired perceptual maturity, conception and information processing deficit.

  11. Migrant children and migrants’ children: Nativity differences in school enrollment in Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a reconsideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children’s schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. OBJECTIVE This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children’s school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico. The analyses are designed to determine whether duration of residence has a similar association with school enrollment across these different settings. METHODS The analyses are based on nationally representative household data from the 2010 Mexican Census and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey. Logistic regression models compare school enrollment patterns of Mexican and U.S.-born children of Mexican origin in the United States and those of Mexican and U.S.-born children in Mexico. Interactions for nativity/duration of residence and age are also included. RESULTS The results demonstrate that, adjusting for household resources and household-level migration experience, Mexican-born children in the United States and U.S.-born children in Mexico, particularly those who arrived recently, lag behind in school enrollment. These differences are most pronounced at older ages. CONCLUSIONS The comparisons across migration contexts point to greater school attrition and non-enrollment among older, recent migrant youth, regardless of the context. The interactions suggest that recent migration is associated with lower schooling for youth who engage in migration at older ages in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:28077926

  12. A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    UNUTKAN, Ozgul Polat

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as follows: Ø Does pre-school education variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills...

  13. Elementary school children's cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Omrin, Danielle S; Evans, Angela D; Fu, Genyue; Chen, Guopeng; Lee, Kang

    2014-05-01

    Elementary school children's cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates were investigated using a guessing game. Children (n=95) between 8 and 12 years of age were asked to guess which side of the screen a coin would appear on and received rewards based on their self-reported accuracy. Children's cheating behavior was measured by examining whether children failed to adhere to the game rules by falsely reporting their accuracy. Children's theory-of-mind understanding and executive functioning skills were also assessed. The majority of children cheated during the guessing game, and cheating behavior decreased with age. Children with better working memory and inhibitory control were less likely to cheat. However, among the cheaters, those with greater cognitive flexibility use more tactics while cheating. Results revealed the unique role that executive functioning plays in children's cheating behavior: Like a double-edged sword, executive functioning can inhibit children's cheating behavior, on the one hand, while it can promote the sophistication of children's cheating tactics, on the other. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Diet and lifesyle of a cohort of primary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, E; Talarico, V; Mattace, F; Giancotti, L; Anastasio, E; Baserga, M

    2012-01-01

    The obesity is the disease of the new millennium, because it affects about 300 million people in the world, and especially it has a high prevalence in children. Obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, problems of adaptation and relationship with other, lower self-esteem and depression. The objective of our study is to identify children at risk of overweight/obesity in order to primary prevention. We have organized meetings with children, families and school's members where we discussed the results of our investigation about the importance of healthy diet and lifestyle. The study was carried out on 545 children (282F, 263M), age 6.-10 years, of two primary schools in Catanzaro, from 2008 to 2010. The valuation parameters were: gender, age, weight, height, blood pressure and waist circumference. To children were also administered a questionnaire about dietary habits and lifestyle. Fisher's test. We had that 62% of children was normal weight, 27% overweight, 11% obese. A particularly relevant datum is that the percentage of overweight-obese boys of 8 and 9 years old was higher (56%) than that of normal weight. We found cases of hypertension only in obese children. 98% of obese, 80% of overweight and 24% of normal weight children had a high waist circumference. We did not find differences in food quality among normal weight and overweight/obese children. Instead, we found significant differences in behavior between children: 90% of obese, 64% of overweight and 53% of normal weight children passed more than 2 hours in the afternoon watching television, playing computer and video games. 70% of normal weight, 82% of overweight and 95% of obese children practiced physical activity. Our study shows a alarming fact about the increase of the obesity in children. In particular the most important problem is that this condition could predispose to cardio-metabolic, endocrine, respiratory, musculoskeletal and

  15. Discrepancies in racial designations of school children in Minneapolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillum, R F; Gomez-Marin, O; Prineas, R J

    1988-01-01

    To determine the frequency of inaccuracies in racial designations of school children in a health survey, racial designations were examined for a sample of 1,509 children in Minneapolis public schools who participated in the first home interview of the Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. The data were obtained from three sources: the school enrollment data based on parentally supplied information and teachers' visual judgments, school survey interviewers participating in a research pr...

  16. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  17. Assent of school-age bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, Bonnie; Gonzales, Orlando; Mills, Debra

    2007-06-01

    This article discusses the issue of assent of school-age bilingual children to participate in a research study. The article reviews cognitive, cultural, and linguistic factors influencing verbal and nonverbal concept formation in bilingual children. At the applied level, the focus of the article is on methodological considerations in using this information to obtain assent from a child who is bilingual and speaks English as a second language. Recommendations for the assessment of the child's language dominance, language proficiency, and the development of the assent form are provided. Language diversity and its potential effects on the assent process need to be formally acknowledged and appropriately addressed.

  18. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  19. Social Skills and Satisfaction with Social Relationships in Home-Schooled, Private-Schooled, and Public-Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Marcia J.; Asaro, Jesika N.; Bergin, Jamie; D'Auria, Nicole; Gagnon, Katherine E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that 1.5 to 2.1 million children are home-schooled, there is limited research on the impact of home-schooling on children's social skills. This study compares 53 home-schooled, 49 private-schooled, and 48 public-schooled children between the ages of 8 and 12 on social skills, as measured by the Parent and Student Forms of the…

  20. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens H. J.; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various

  1. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  2. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  3. Can morbidity associated with untreated asthma in primary school children be reduced?: a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R; Williams, J; Britton, J; Tattersfield, A

    1991-11-09

    To determine whether an intervention programme based on existing school and community resources can reduce school absence and improve participation in games lessons and sport in children with unrecognised or undertreated asthma. Parallel group controlled intervention study. 102 primary schools in Nottingham: 49 were randomised to receive the intervention and 53 to be control schools. All children aged 5 to 10 years with parent reported absence from school because of wheezing in the previous year and taking no treatment or beta agonists only. Children with asthma were referred to their general practitioner for assessment of symptoms and treatment. Teachers were given education on asthma by the school nurse in 44 of the 49 intervention schools. Changes in school absence and missed games and swimming lessons because of wheezing, and schools' policy towards management of asthma in school. Of 17,432 children screened, 451 met the entry criteria--228 in intervention schools and 223 in control schools. 152 (67%) children in intervention schools visited their general practitioner, of whom 39 (26%) were given a new diagnosis of asthma and 58 (38%) had treatment for asthma increased or changed. Over the next academic year mean (SE) parent reported school absence due to wheezing fell significantly, but to a similar extent, in both intervention and control schools (0.82 (0.11) and 1.09 (0.21) weeks respectively). There was little change in school recorded absence or participation in games lessons and swimming lessons in either group. At the end of the study intervention schools were more likely to have improved aspects of management of asthma in school. The intervention resulted in a majority of children being assessed by their general practitioner and improved teachers' understanding and management of asthma, but it did not result in any appreciable reduction in morbidity.

  4. Active transport between home and school assessed with GPS: a cross-sectional study among Dutch elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Dirk; de Vries, Sanne I; Graham, Jamie M A; Pierik, Frank H

    2014-03-05

    Active transport to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport has therefore gained attention as a potential target to increase children's physical activity levels. Recent studies have recognized that the distance between home and school is an important predictor for active travel among children. These studies did not yet use the promising global positioning system (GPS) methods to objectively assess active transport. This study aims to explore active transport to school in relation to the distance between home and school among a sample of Dutch elementary school children, using GPS. Seventy-nine children, aged 6-11 years, were recruited in six schools that were located in five cities in the Netherlands. All children were asked to wear a GPS receiver for one week. All measurements were conducted between December 2008 and April 2009. Based on GPS recordings, the distance of the trips between home and school were calculated. In addition, the mode of transport (i.e., walking, cycling, motorized transport) was determined using the average and maximum speed of the GPS tracks. Then, proportion of walking and cycling trips to school was determined in relation to the distance between home and school. Out of all school trips that were recorded (n=812), 79.2% were classified as active transport. On average, active commuting trips were of a distance of 422 meters with an average speed of 5.2 km/hour. The proportion of walking trips declined significantly at increased school trip distance, whereas the proportion of cycling trips (β=1.23, ptransport (β=3.61, ptransport between home and school was the most frequently used mode of travel. Increasing distance seems to be associated with higher levels of passive transport. These results are relevant for those involved in decisions on where to site schools and residences, as it may affect healthy behavior among children.

  5. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG URBAN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF KOCHI CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shiji K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of obesity and overweight among urban school children in Kochi. SETTING AND DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of a school - based cross sectional study of an urban school of K ochi . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross - sectional study was conducted in a private school in Kochi, India. A total of 1 178 school children in the age group of 6 - 15 years were studied. Weight and he...

  6. Stress indicators influencing children at school

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštánková, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis follows stress factors impact on a child at primary school, on his health and mental conditions and then the implication of the learning process and integrating the child into a children's collective. The theoretical part contains information dealing with forms of stress in general, potential stressors for the child, the consequences of stress on the human organism. The practical part investigates the experiences with stress factors of pupils that are somehow connected with the...

  7. School children's backpacks, back pain and back pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oviedo, Paloma; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; García, Francisco Blanco; Gómez-Fernández, Dorotea; Fernández-Alonso, Anselmo; Carreira-Núñez, Isabel; García-Pacios, Pilar; Turiso, Javier

    2012-08-01

    To investigate whether backpack weight is associated with back pain and back pathology in school children. Cross-sectional study. Schools in Northern Galicia, Spain. All children aged 12-17. Backpack weight along with body mass index, age and gender. Back pain and back pathology. 1403 school children were analysed. Of these, 61.4% had backpacks exceeding 10% of their body weight. Those carrying the heaviest backpacks had a 50% higher risk of back pain (OR 1.50 CI 95% 1.06 to 2.12) and a 42% higher risk of back pathology, although this last result was not statistically significant (OR 1.42 CI 95% 0.86 to 2.32). Girls presented a higher risk of back pain compared with boys. Carrying backpacks increases the risk of back pain and possibly the risk of back pathology. The prevalence of school children carrying heavy backpacks is extremely high. Preventive and educational activities should be implemented in this age group.

  8. Young Children's Internet Use at Home and School: Patterns and Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight children in first and second grade completed a 10-item rating scale on Internet use at home and school. Results suggested that, in general, more children used the Internet at school than at home but home-based use was more often perceived as enjoyable. Three patterns of Internet use emerged suggesting three types of young users:…

  9. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age

  10. The Development of Afterlife Beliefs in Religiously and Secularly Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M.; Blasi, Carlos Hernandez; Bjorklund, David F.

    2005-01-01

    Children aged from 4;10 to 12;9 attending either a Catholic school or a public, secular school in an eastern Spanish city observed a puppet show in which a mouse was eaten by an alligator. Children were then asked questions about the dead mouse's biological and psychological functioning. The pattern of results generally replicated that obtained…

  11. Factors Affecting Underweight and Obesity Among Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, GyuYoung; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors associated with underweight and obesity in elementary school children in Korea. Study participants included 4,895 children attending 59 elementary schools across Korea. Children were grouped into underweight [behavior of children, and environmental characteristics of schools. Twelve percent of the children were overweight or obese. The results showed that demographic (age and gender), health status (atopic dermatitis and poor subjective health), and the characteristics of diet and exercise (unbalanced diet and diet experiences) were associated with underweight (p behavioral characteristics (fast food consumption and diet experiences), and school environmental characteristics (rural area) were associated with overweight/obesity (p elementary schools must consider behavioral and environmental characteristics of children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Immigrant and Native Children's Cognitive Outcomes and the Effect of Ethnic Concentration in Danish Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wurtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    native Danish children, and that children in schools with a high ethnic concentration score signi.cantly lower in the reading test than children in schools with a low ethnic concentration. These results are fairly robust across estimation methods. Immigrant children's lower cognitive outcome is related......This paper uses a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark to investigate how the ethnic concentration in the school in.uences cognitive out-comes for both immigrant and native Danish children. We .nd that immigrant children from non-Western countries have lower reading test scores than...... to the ethnic concentration in the schools they attend and their relatively low socioeconomic status. Instrumenting for ethnic concentration reveals that even after taking into consideration that individuals may sort across neighborhoods, ethnic concentration in the school and the child's own ethnicity...

  13. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Impact of allergic rhinitis in school going children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Elias; Panjabi, Chandramani; Shah, Ashok

    2012-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic pediatric disorder. The International Study for Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III found that the global average of current rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the 13-14 year age-group was 14.6% and the average prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the 6-7 year age-group was 8.5%. In addition to classical symptoms, AR is associated with a multidimensional impact on the health related quality of life in children. AR affects the quality of sleep in children and frequently leads to day-time fatigue as well as sleepiness. It is also thought to be a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing. AR results in increased school absenteeism and distraction during class hours. These children are often embarrassed in school and have decreased social interaction which significantly hampers the process of learning and school performance. All these aspects upset the family too. Multiple co-morbidities like sinusitis, asthma, conjunctivitis, eczema, eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media are generally associated with AR. These mostly remain undiagnosed and untreated adding to the morbidity. To compound the problems, medications have bothersome side effects which cause the children to resist therapy. Children customarily do not complain while parents and health care professionals, more often than not, fail to accord the attention that this not so trivial disease deserves. AR, especially in developing countries, continues to remain a neglected disorder.

  15. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  16. Sleep disorders in children beginning school: their causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Wiater, Alfred; Mitschke, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem among children beginning school and may be associated both with impaired school performance and with behavioral difficulties. Because these disorders manifest themselves highly variably among children of any given age, and even in an individual affected child, they need an appropriate diagnostic evaluation so that the many environmental and background factors that may be relevant to the further course of the problem can be assessed. Extensive data were obtained on approximately 1400 children who were tested before beginning school in 2005 by means of a special sleep questionnaire and another screening instrument that is used to assess behavioral strengths and difficulties (the SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Five percent of the children were found to have difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or nocturnal awakening. Less frequent problems included parasomnias such as pavor nocturnus (0.5%), sleepwalking (0.1%), and frequent nightmares (1.7%). Sleep disorders increase the risk of daytime fatigue and of psychological problems in general, including both hyperactivity and excessive emotional stress. These results imply that sleep problems and emotional disturbances are intimately connected and underscore the importance of diagnosing sleep problems in young children.

  17. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  18. Chinese handwriting performance of primary school children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sutie S T; Au, Ricky K C; Leung, Howard W H; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Chinese handwriting performance of typical children and children with dyslexia, and to examine whether speed and accuracy of handwriting could reliably discriminate these two groups of children. One hundred and thirty-seven children with dyslexia and 756 typical children were recruited from main stream primary schools for the study. They were requested to copy 90 Chinese characters using the Chinese Handwriting Assessment Tool (CHAT) jointly developed by a project team from two universities in Hong Kong. The process of handwriting was recorded and the stroke errors in writing were analyzed using the CHAT system. Results indicated that children with dyslexia wrote significantly slower, with greater average character size and variation in size (pmissing strokes and concatenated strokes. From the discriminant analysis, it was found that writing speed and accuracy were satisfactory discriminators that could discriminate students into the two groups, with reasonably good classification accuracy of over 70% for every grade. The results were discussed with theoretical implications in relation to fine motor skills, kinesthetic abilities, visual perceptual skills, and the demand of written tasks in school. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 'We are never invited': School children using collage to envision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... theory was used to frame how rural school children understand and envision care and support in a rural school context, explaining their ideas of transforming school care and support provided for vulnerable children. The findings point to the need for strengthened competencies and agency, improved collaboration and ...

  20. The pattern of deviant behaviour among urban primary school children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School children sometimes exhibit a range of deviant behaviour which could serve as a source of stress to the families and society. Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of deviant behavour in urban school children in Enugu and factors that may be associated with it. Methods: Two schools were ...

  1. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school hours alleviate short term hunger, increase attention span, facilitate learning and obviate the need for children to leave school in search of food.[4] Healthier and better nourished children stay in school longer, learn more and later become healthier and more productive adults. Content of lunch pack should supply a ...

  2. School Readiness for Gifted Children: Considering the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relevant to gifted children's readiness for school. It raises a number of questions that challenge thinking about what is meant by school readiness. Gifted children can often be ready for school entrance before the age traditionally considered appropriate. Their complex developmental profiles challenge accepted notions…

  3. Screening for refractive error among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Background: Vision screening study in primary school children has not been done in Bayelsa State. This study aims to screen for refractive error among primary school children in Bayelsa State and use the data to plan for school Eye Health Program. Methods: A cross sectional study on screening for refractive ...

  4. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN REGULAR SCHOOLS: STUDENTS ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila MALCOCI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova started the process of deinstitutionalization of children with disabilities/and special educational needs and their inclusion in biological families and mainstream community based services. Alongside with the deinstitutionalization, inclusion of children with special educational needs in regular community schools became a strategic direction of the educational policies in Moldova. In 2014, the Alliance of NGOs in the field of Social Protection of Family and Child conducted a research on assessment of inclusive education models implemented in pilot schools with the aim to identify positive practices, learned lessons and challenges in developing policies in the field of evidence-based education2 The research was conducted in 20 pilot schools from 12 counties. There were interviewed 200 teachers, 20 school managers, 360 students (162 pupils with SEN, 112 students studying in classes with children with SEN and 86 children studying in classes with no students having SEN. 10 focus group discussions with caregivers, students, teachers, parents (all in total 100 participants and 6 interviews with the general directorates of education and mayors were conducted. The article is focused on comparative analysis of perceptions, attitudes and behaviors of students with SEN and typical students regarding the inclusion of children with SEN in regular schools. The author concluded that the implementation of inclusive education resulted in rather positive changes in respective schools: provision with materials, modern devices, improvement of teaching quality and methods, change in the behaviors of children with SEN and in typical children; the typical children have positive attitudes and perceptions regarding the inclusion of children with SEN in their regular community schools; the level of school satisfaction of both: children with SEN and typical children is pretty high; the social and learning environment in pilot schools is friendly

  5. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  6. Empathy, Altruism, and Moral Development in Home Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Skylar T.; Medlin, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare empathy, altruism, moral reasoning, and prosocial behavior in home schooled children and children attending public schools, and to assess attitudes toward religion and values in their parents. Homeschooling parents were more concerned with teaching their children their values and religious beliefs,…

  7. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school‑age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, ...

  8. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis In Secondary School Children: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was on gender behaviour descriptive analysis of primary nocturnal enuresis in adolescent children using secondary school children. The participants included 50 secondary school children (26 males and 24 females) with M age of 14.89 and SD secondary age of 2.68. A questionnaire instrument designed by the ...

  9. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  10. Dietary adequacy of rural school children among bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 12% of the children reported consuming animal source foods. Most of the school children were eating three times or less in a day with lunch and supper as the major meals. The diet of the school children did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for energy (69%), fat (21%), vitamin A (24%), iron (65%) and ...

  11. Snoring in primary school children and domestic environment: A Perth school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Andy H

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide, may increase the risk of snoring for children. The aim of this study was to investigate domestic environmental factors associated with snoring in children. Methods A school-based respiratory survey was administered during March and April of 2002. Nine hundred and ninety six children from four primary schools within the Perth metropolitan area were recruited for the study. A sub-group of 88 children aged 4–6 years were further selected from this sample for domestic air pollutant assessment. Results The prevalences of infrequent snoring and habitual snoring in primary school children were 24.9% and 15.2% respectively. Passive smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for habitual snoring (odds ratio (OR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20–2.61, while having pets at home appeared to be protective against habitual snoring (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37–0.92. Domestic pollutant assessments showed that the prevalence of snoring was significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide during winter. Relative to the low exposure category (3, the adjusted ORs of snoring by children with medium (30 – 60 μg/m3 and high exposures (> 60 μg/m3 to NO2 were 2.5 (95% CI: 0.7–8.7 and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.4–14.3 respectively. The corresponding linear dose-response trend was also significant (P = 0.011. Conclusion Snoring is common in primary school children. Domestic environments may play a significant role in the increased prevalence of snoring. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide in domestic environment is associated with snoring in children.

  12. Early school engagement and late elementary outcomes for maltreated children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-12-01

    Children with a history of maltreatment and placement into foster care face elevated risks of poor psychosocial outcomes including school failure, substance use, externalizing, and deviant peer association. For children in the general population, school engagement appears to be a promotive factor in preventing negative outcomes. In this study, differences in 3 dimensions of school engagement (behavioral, affective, and cognitive) in early elementary school were explored in maltreated children in foster care (n = 93) and a community comparison group of low-socioeconomic status, nonmaltreated children (n = 54). It was also hypothesized that these 3 dimensions of school engagement would mediate the association between being maltreated and in foster care and several outcomes in late elementary school (Grades 3-5): academic competence, endorsement of substance use, externalizing behaviors, and deviant peer association. Measures were multimethod and multi-informant. Results showed that the children in foster care had lower affective and cognitive school engagement than children in the community comparison group. Structural equation modeling revealed that both affective and cognitive school engagement mediated the association between group status and academic competence in late elementary school. Cognitive engagement also mediated the association between group status and engagement in risk behaviors. The identification of dimensions of early school engagement that predict later outcomes suggests potential points of intervention to change trajectories of academic and behavioral adjustment for maltreated children in foster care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Factors contributing to school failure among school children in very fast developing Arabian Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Madeeha; Bener, Abdulbari

    2009-07-01

    Education is one of the main foundations for the child's development and also for national human resource development. Failure at school and grade retention is a serious concern among children, and their parents. The characteristics of school failure in Qatar have not been studied earlier. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of social, psychological, health and school related factors that cause school failure. All students who had failed their grades and had to be retained and repeat the year from 35 randomly selected schools of all grades elementary, intermediate and high school were included in this study for academic years from 2003 to 2008. Each student was individually interviewed by a well-trained school social worker. The study was performed on a total 699 children who were classified as school failures. Social reasons include living with one parent 26.9%, parental divorce (27%) parents showing no interest in their child's education and school system (41.6%), low income (19.3%), and smoking (19.6%). Frequent absence from school was a result in 33.3%; incomplete homework (45.9%) and teachers identified 63.7% of students to be hyperactive, inattentive and disruptive in classroom. Most frequent psychological disorders include examination phobia (68.8%), anxiety (49.4%), anger (32.5%), fear (43.2%) and learning disability (37.9%). The most prevalent health disorders included visual disorders (23.5%), asthma (14.9%), anemia (15.2%), and hearing deficiency (8.2%). Psychological and health related factors were found to be more prevalent in students who failed a grade in school. The primary care pediatrician can play a key role by identifying students at high risk and providing early intervention.

  14. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Crosatti Barbosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%, followed by light (4.6–7.6%, moderate (1.3–3.0% and vigorous (0.5–2.3% physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83 and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80 protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93 in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77, the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96 and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77 are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children.

  15. Single Mothers' Experiences of Support at Their Young Children's School: An Interpretative Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Erin M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot; Moate, Randall M.

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored six single mothers' experiences of support at their young children's school. Themes resulting from interpretative phenomenological analysis suggest the single mothers experienced tangible (e.g., school resources, school-wide events, structural flexibility, teachers' formal communication) and intangible (e.g.,…

  16. Perceptions of Parents of Children with Disabilities Regarding School District Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Jane W.; Suddick, David

    This paper discusses the results from a survey of 585 Illinois parents of children with disabilities that examined their satisfaction with school district practices. Five independent variables were statistically significant predictors of overall satisfaction with school district practices: (1) school responsiveness to concerns; (2) help in…

  17. Orderly Schools that Serve All Children; A Review of Successful Schools in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Susan C.

    Large numbers of school age youth in Ohio are not in school, sometimes because they lack motivation, in other cases because of misbehavior or attendance problems. This report examines school motivation and discipline problems and describes how a small sample of Ohio schools have worked to create orderly schools where children are motivated,…

  18. The integration (mainstreaming) of spina bifida children into ordinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonton, A P

    1981-12-01

    In 1976, an aggressive policy of integrating spina bifida children into ordinary schools was mounted in Sheffield. Analysis of the school placement pattern of 1235 patients, aged 2-29 years, showed an increase from 25% to 64% integrated for children born in 1968 and 1976, respectively. However, about a half of this 39% increase was attributable to selective non-treatment. The major deterrents to integration were found to be low intelligence and wheelchair dependency. Only 4% of children with IQs below 70 were in ordinary schools. 91% of children with IQs below 45 were in mentally handicapped schools. 88% of children with IQs between 46 and 70 were in physically handicapped schools. 18% of children with wheelchairs only were integrated, and this reduced to 8% if they also had valves and were incontinent. On the other hand, neither incontinence nor valve dependency on their own were major problems with respect to ordinary schooling.

  19. The Role of School Principals in Shaping Children's Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.

  20. Parental perceptions of the roles of home and school in health education for elementary school children in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-06-01

    A variety of legislation, initiatives and organizations exist to support, encourage and even oblige schools to collaborate more effectively with parents or guardians. However, there is minimal understanding of the experiences and opinions of parents and school staff about their roles, especially in relation to children's health education. This study examined how parents of 10-11-year-old children perceive the roles of both home and school in educating children about health. A questionnaire, based partly on the Finnish national core curriculum for basic education, was administered to 348 parents; the response rate was 53%. Factor analysis was used to define sum variables, which were then used as dependent variables in an analysis of variance examining the effects of children's gender and health; parents' education, gender, work status and year of birth; and school location (urban/rural). The results suggested that parents considered that either health education was mainly their responsibility, or it was a mutual responsibility with the school. Parents living in rural areas and the youngest group of parents were more likely to consider that health education should be shared with schools than were parents living in cities, or older parents. To expand awareness about the role of home and school in children's health education and to develop further health promotion within the whole school community, it is important to gather parents' views regarding health issues. This study was conducted as part of a broader program in the health promotion network of the Schools for Health in Europe (SHE).

  1. "My Child has Cerebral Palsy": Parental Involvement and Children's School Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children's education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement

  2. Elementary school age children's comprehension of specific idiomatic expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M; Mackey, T A

    1985-08-01

    This study explored the ability of elementary school age children to comprehend six idiomatic expressions. Eighty linguistically normal children, 20 from each of four different grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, fourth grade, and sixth grade) participated as subjects. All of the children completed a task designed to probe comprehension of specific idioms. A short story was presented, after which the subjects were required to identify events in the story, which were described using idiomatic phrases. When examined as a group, comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. These results are discussed with regard to clinical implications in the assessment and management of language-disordered children.

  3. Beach safety education for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Childhood drowning remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The Australian Water Safety Council has set as one of its highest priorities the reduction of drowning deaths in children aged 0-14 years. However, concerns have recently been raised that many students completing primary school still lack the ability to recognize potential aquatic risks, cope with emergencies or assist someone else in danger. In this study, 107 primary school children aged 11-12 completed a one day training programme led by surf lifesaving instructors. Pre, post and eight week follow-up measures showed statistically significant improvements in recognition of the red 'beach closed' flag, aquatic safety signs, how to identify a rip current and choosing the safest place to swim at a beach that included a rip current in the picture. Following training students were more willing to provide first aid assistance to family members and friends in an emergency situation. Findings reinforce the value of school-based training that provides a general foundation for aquatic safety, with the caveat that current programmes must be evaluated to ensure their content has a robust prevention focus.

  4. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  5. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  6. Determinants of School Enrolment of Children in Slums of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education plays a vital role to developing a nation. In India, urban slums constituting about 22.6% of the urban population are the poor and socially disadvantaged. This slum community is least concerned for school enrolment of their children inspite of the fact that primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools. In urban areas schools available are mostly of private sector that are not free and beyond affordability to slums; government and corporation schools are few, but beyond reach. Motive of the parents is to involve children in income generating activities and the girls are more deprived of school enrolment in poorer society. Objectives: 1 assess the enrolment status of slum children and 2 determine the factors influencing school enrolment.Methodology: The data was collected during 2011-12 from 15 randomly selected slums out of 227 in which a total of 893 families were contacted and mothers with children aged 5-15 years interrogated. In addition to child history on age, sex and school enrolment, the family background characteristics were e.g. religion, caste, and family size as well as age, education and occupation of both mother & father were recorded.Results: Out of 1145 children, male and female equal represented; mostly (90.9% were Hindus and half were SC/ST class. About 30% father and 57.2% mothers were illiterate; about half fathers were unskilled-worker and 96.0% mother’s house wife. Overall 31.3% children were not enrolled and were decreasing from 49.2% to 24.3% to 21.4% in the age groups 5-6, 7-9 and 10-15 years respectively. Enrolment was poor in Muslims (50.0% compared to Hindus (29.4%; enrolment was similar irrespective of child sex among Hindus, but in Muslims 62.5% male and 35.4% female children were only enrolled. Similar was the situation as one move from SC/ST (67.6% to OBC (73.4% and general caste (77.9%. Education of father and mother had significant role to enrolment but not the age and

  7. Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciated public health burden. School age children harbour the heaviest burden. Infected children experience growth stunting and diminished physical fitness as well as impaired memory and cognition. These adverse health consequences ...

  8. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    -old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified.Subjects/Methods:The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month......Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year...... periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales.Results:The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent...

  9. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy......-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young children is not influenced by spatial availability of unhealthy food. However...... foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region...

  10. Asymptomatic Proteinuria and Hematuria in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya M. Sorangavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken because many cases of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria are present in school children.Aims and Objectives:The study was under taken to evaluate asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria in 100 school children of both sexes from 6 to 15 years of age. Material and Methods: Samples were collected randomly from students of different classes at the Government Kannada Primary School, K H B Colony,Bijapur, Karnataka (India. The midstream urine sample was collected in a clean wide mouth jar,examined by dipsticks for proteinuria and hematuria by microscopy. Results:We found that asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria was more prevalent amongst the children between 10 to 13 years of age group with female predominance i.e.16% proteinuria and 5% of microscopic hematuria respectively. Conclusion:By this study we conclude that it would be possible to screen a large population of children for asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria at a relatively low cost.

  11. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed.  Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  12. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  13. THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN A GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF ANANTAPURAMU TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of overweight and underweight in Government High School children in Anantapuramu town and to assess the various determinants associated with the two nutritional statuses. Overweight and underweight are major health problems among high school children . METHODS: Cross - sectional study was carried out in government high school in Anantapuramu town by using preformed questionnaire. Totally 50 high school children from 8th, 9th and 10th standard were included in th e study. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip ratio were assessed. RESULTS : Majority of students were underweight. Only few students were overweight, and no cases of obesity were found. The overweight students were mainly boys and the underweight were mainly girls. Nutritional values of the majority of students were poor due to unhealthy food , lifestyles, lack of exercise, outdoor activities, imbalanced diet and inadequate food intake . CONCLUSION: Only 4% of gir ls were overweight compared to 8% boys who were overweight. In the present study, majority of high school students in 8th, 9th, and 10 th standards were underweight, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity were less.6 4% of female students were underwe ight as compared to 48% of male students who were under weight.

  14. [How much can school staff help children with diabetes type 1 in school?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirović, Husref; Toromanović, Alma

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate, according to parents and their children with diabetes, how far school personnel have an understanding of diabetes and is trained to provide appropriate treatment of diabetes emergencies. The study included 37 children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (17 girls and 20 boys) from 31 schools in the Canton of Tuzla, aged 7-18 years. A descriptive research method was used in the study and for data gathering a closed type survey was used. Only 13 or 35.3 % of the 37 surveyed parents were satisfied with the care of their child with diabetes at school, while 24 or 64.7 % parents expressed dissatisfaction with it. According to the parents' statements, class teachers are 100 % informed about the existence of students with diabetes type 1 at their schools, while PE teachers (97.9 %) and the headmasters of the schools (81.1 %) are less well-informed. Regarding the question about whether the school personnel is trained for diabetes-related tasks, the parents answered YES in 25.7 % cases; 54.3 % of them answered NO, and 20 % of them answered DON'T KNOW. However, only 35.2 % of parents found that some of the employees at the school are trained to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia while the number of positive answers concerning treatment of hypoglycemia (18.9 %) or glucagon administration (13.5 %) was much lower. The answer to the question: "Is blood glucose testing allowed in the classroom?" in 91.5 % cases was YES, 5.7 % NO and in 2.8 % of cases was DON'T KNOW. The results of our survey show that children with diabetes do not have appropriate diabetes care in school.

  15. Environmental Lead Exposure among Primary School Children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Abdel Rasoul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. Objective: To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ, hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. Methods: 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL, hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. Results: The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3 in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Conclusion: Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  16. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  17. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  18. Perceptions of animal welfare by children in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    António Almeida; Clara Vasconcelos; Joana Torres

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify children’s perceptions of the welfare of animals. The study sample consisted of 123 children aged 8 to 10, attending primary schools, who were interviewed. The questions were designed so as to generate both anthropocentric (centred on the interests of the human being) and/or biocentric (centred on the interests of other beings) arguments. Results showed a high incidence of biocentric arguments, associated with a contact with animals in places where nature is manage...

  19. WITHDRAWN: Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, Bozhena; Roberts, Ian; Oakley, Ann

    2016-10-11

    (mostly targeted at mothers); they did not disentangle the possible effects of these two interventions. The trials had other significant methodological weaknesses, pointing to the importance of improving on study design in this field. All the trials were carried out in the USA. Day care has beneficial effect on children's development, school success and adult life patterns. To date, all randomised trials have been conducted among disadvantaged populations in the USA. The extent to which the results are generaliseable to other cultures and socioeconomic groups has yet to be evaluated.

  20. Sustaining a school-based prevention program: results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Michael C; Flay, Brian R

    2009-02-01

    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors among a cohort of 5th-grade African American children followed through 10th grade. Sustainability project health educators trained parent educators to deliver the Aban Aya prevention curriculum in five schools, and project researchers studied the resultant curricular implementation and relations between the research and school-based teams. Study results showed uneven implementation across the five schools that we largely attributed to parent educator preparation and parent educator-health educator relations. These and related results are discussed to answer the study's primary research question: How viable was the sustainability project's parent-centered approach to sustaining a school-based prevention program?

  1. [School attendance of children with trisomy 21. A 4-year experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, C; Roth, M P

    1983-04-28

    Four years ago a class was started with 8 children from 7 to 11 years of age with Down's syndrome. The classroom is in a state school. The children lived at home. They were with the other children of the school for several classes and for lunch. Like other children they learned reading, writing and arithmetic. Psychomotricity was emphasized. The children's I.Q. and behavior were studied before entering the class. After 24 to 30 months every child was able to read and write. Their I.Q.'s were retested after 4 years and the results were far better than previously. The children gained confidence and began to cope very well at school and outside school.

  2. [The family dysfunction as a risk factor of obesity in Mexican school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rico, José Luis; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    it has been demonstrated that children obesity is a multifactorial disease and probably, the alteration of the family dynamic is another potential risk factor. The objective was to identify the association between obesity and family dysfunction in school children who attend to a family medicine unit. case and control study at Mexican Social Security Institute in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Sociodemographic factors and family dynamic of obese and non-obese subjects (n = 452) of six to nine years old from nuclear families were achieved. the association between family dysfunction and obesity was [OR = 1.63 (1.08-2.46), p = 0.01]. Area II, Identity formation, and area VI, Discipline and methods, showed a lower score in cases of children with obesity (p obesity in school children. the results showed an association between family dysfunction and obesity in school children. We suggest to consider it in the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children.

  3. School Functioning and Use of School-Based Accommodations by Treatment-Seeking Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Comer, Jonathan S.; Donaldson, Aberdine R.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Nadeau, Meredith S.; Reid, Gerald; Pincus, Donna B.

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring among children and are associated with increased risk for poor educational outcomes. However, little is known about the specific supports and accommodations provided to anxious children in schools. This study examines reports of school functioning and school-based supports and accommodations among a sample…

  4. Attitudes to Mathematics in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dowker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 44 Grade 3 children and 45 Grade 5 children from English primary schools were given the British abilities scales basic number skills subtest, and a Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety Questionnaire, using pictorial rating scales to record their Self-rating for maths, Liking for maths, Anxiety about maths, and Unhappiness about poor performance in mathematics. There were few year group differences in attitudes. Boys rated themselves higher than girls, but did not differ significantly in actual performance. Overall, Anxiety was not related to actual performance, but Self-rating was. This relationship between Self-rating and actual performance seemed to develop between Grade 3 and Grade 5. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. [Factors related to breakfast eating behavior among elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Toshi; Kawabata, Tetsuro

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify factors related to eating breakfast among elementary school children. The subjects were 196 fifth-grade pupils from two elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture. The main survey items were as follows: Number of eating breakfast days in the last week, appetite for breakfast, sleeping habits, knowledge on food, attitude related to eating breakfast, self-esteem, social skills, and eating behavior of family members. The Rosenberg Scale was used to measure global self-esteem and the Pope Scale for estimation of family-related self-esteem. Social skills were assessed using the scale developed by Shimada et al., which consists of subscales for pro-social skills, withdrawal behavior, and aggressive behavior. The main results were as follows: (1) The percentages of children who ate breakfast everyday in the last week were 78.3% for boys and 70.2% for girls, who no significant difference between the sexes. (2) The children who ate breakfast everyday in the last week (everyday-eating group) had more appetite for breakfast and went to bed earlier than the children who one or more days without eating (lack-of-eating group). (3) Compared with the lack-of-eating group, the everyday-eating group showed higher scores in family-related self-esteem and pro-social skills, and lower scores for aggressive behavior. (4) Regarding knowledge on food except influence of sugar for health, there were no differences between the everyday-eating and lack-of-eating groups. However, the former included more children who thought that eating every breakfast was very important, compared with the latter. (5) Children who expressed the following answers were more abundant in the everyday-eating group than in the lack-of-eating group: (1) Family members prepare breakfast every day; (2) They ate breakfast with family members everyday in the last week; (3) They often talk with family members during meals and snacks. From the above results, the following are suggested

  6. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives......, it is found that children build friendships, assist, inspire, and imitate one another in their collaborative encounters in paedagogical activities. In order to better support children’s learning and engaged participation in paedagogical activities, an increased attention to the institutional demands...

  7. A statewide hepatitis B vaccination program for school children in Hawaii: vaccination series completion and participation rates over consecutive school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilraj, Athmanundh; Strait-Jones, Judeth; Nagao, Marcia; Cui, Kate; Terrell-Perica, Steven; Effler, Paul V.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed a statewide school-based Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination program for preadolescents in Hawaii over three consecutive school years. Factors assessed included number of schools and students participating and number of students receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. METHODS: Records of the program, which targeted 4th and/or 5th graders in public and private schools, were reviewed for the period from 1996 to 1999. RESULTS: The proportion of participating schools increased from 76% of all schools in the state in School Year 1 to 94% in School Year 3. The proportion of children with completed consent forms who received three doses of HepB vaccine at school exceeded 80% throughout the project. In School Year 1, 10,003 (70%) of 14,333 children enrolled at participating schools received three vaccine doses in school; however, this proportion declined over subsequent school years to 51% (7,722/15,013) in School Year 2 and 24% (7,344/30,429) in School Year 3. A survey of 477 parents not consenting to school vaccination indicated that 84% of their children completed the vaccine series at a private provider office. CONCLUSION: Statewide school-based HepB vaccination campaigns for at-risk populations can result in a majority of children in targeted age groups receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, though declining participation may be observed as uptake in the private sector increases. PMID:12690066

  8. Active and Passive Commuting to School: Influences on Affect in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Angela; Bentley, Nick; Clough, Catherine; Fishlock, Adelle; Morrell, Frances; O'Brien, James; Radmore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Active commuting among school children is being encouraged for physical and environmental reasons, but little is known about its influence on affect. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children who walk further to school experience increased arousal and affective valence compared with children who walk a short distance. This was…

  9. Effect of School System and Gender on Moral Values and Forgiveness in Pakistani School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Anam; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khan, Nashi

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to compare children studying in private and public schools in Pakistan on forgiveness and moral values. It was hypothesized that the type of school and gender of the child are likely to affect forgiveness and moral values in children. A sample of 100 children with equal number of girls and boys was recruited from…

  10. Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

  11. Prevalence of refractive errors in pre-school and school children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The problem of visual impairment among school children is so prevalent that it greatly reduces children's ability to study and attend classes and finally leads to the formation of grave social consequences. As it is seen from hospital reports, quite a considerable number of school children are suffering from some ...

  12. Functional pain in hospitalised and school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, M; Maggio, M C; Campisi, F; Manzo, V; Costa, A; Montalbano, G; Mosa, C; Navarra, F; Manzoni, D; Licastro, G; Corsello, G

    2012-10-01

    Aim of the study was to recognise the role of psychological disagreement in children and adolescents suffering from functional pain. Two groups of children, adolescents and their parents were interviewed: group H (hospitalized patients), group S (students, at school). Suitable investigations excluded organic lesions. The following data were analysed: 1) presence of pain in relation with: i) sex and age; ii) relation with parents, brothers, other relatives, schoolfellows; 2) efficacy of possible treatments. Group H: 194 patients, median age 10 years; 134 referred pain: 62 out of 92 males and 72 out of 102 females; location of pain: abdomen, limbs, head, back. Family disagreements: 36, functional pain 32; schoolfellows disagreements 114, functional pain 79. Correlations of pain with sex, increasing age, family and schoolfellows disagreements: non statistically significant. Group S: 246 students, median age: 13 years; 188 referred pain: 78 out of 118 males and 110 out of 128 females; pain was statistically more frequent in females, it increased with age. Location of pain: limbs, abdomen, head, back. Family disagreements: 31, functional pain 28, schoolfellows disagreements 140, functional pain 114. Correlations of pain with family and schoolfellows disagreements: non-statistically significant. Several parents gave answers which were different from their children's. Pharmacological and dietary interventions failed to obtain regression of pain. In both groups, the referred disagreements were not statistically different among children with functional pain and those without pain; such psychological distress was not the only factor causing functional pain. The empiric treatment adopted was inefficacious.

  13. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency ... the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children ...

  14. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  15. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  16. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Mindfulness Training as a Program to Prevent Stress in Elementary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834335; Langenberg, George; Brandsma, Rob; Oort, Frans J.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  17. The effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness training as a program to prevent stress in elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Langenberg, G.; Brandsma, R.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  18. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  19. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Haese Sara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696 were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y. Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3% of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school

  20. Diet and lifesyle of a cohort of primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Caputo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the obesity is the disease of the new millennium, because it affects about 300 million people in the world, and especially it has a high prevalence in children. obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type ii, hypertension, problems of adaptation and relationship with other, lower self-esteem and depression. Aims: the objective of our study is to identify children at risk of overweight / obesity in order to primary prevention. We have organized meetings with children, families and school’s members where we discussed the results of our investigation about the importance of healthy diet and lifestyle. Patients-Methods: the study was carried out on 545 children (282F, 263M, age 6.-10 years, of two primary schools in Catanzaro, from 2008 to 2010. the valuation parameters were: gender, age, weight, height, blood pressure and waist circumference. to children were also administered a questionnaire about dietary habits and lifestyle. Statistical analysis: Fisher’s test. Results: We had that 62 % of children was normal weight, 27 % overweight, 11 % obese. A particularly relevant datum is that the percentage of overweight-obese boys of 8 and 9 years old was higher (56% than that of normal weight. We found cases of hypertension only in obese children. 98% of obese, 80% of overweight and 24% of normal weight children had a high waist circumference. We did not find differences in food quality among normal weight and overweight/obese children. instead, we found significant differences in behavior between children: 90% of obese, 64% of overweight and 53% of normal weight children passed more than 2 hours in the afternoon watching television, playing computer and video games. 70% of normal weight, 82% of overweight and 95% of obese children practiced physical activity. Discussion/conclusion: our study shows a alarming fact about the increase of the obesity in children. in particular the most important

  1. Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Dogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. “Personal Information Form” and “Psychological Compliance Measurement” were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 47-52

  2. Burden of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy in School ged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artan Shkoza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is the most common neurological complication in cancer treatment and probably the most common toxic neuropathy in our environment. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence and discomfort caused by neuropathic symptoms in children treated for hematologic cancers. The study included all children admitted to the pediatric oncology service at the University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa”, Tirana, by the year 2011 – 2013 divided in three diagnosis groups: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or other solid tumors. In a prospective cohort setting, data were collected by standard questionnaire for symptoms and signs of neurological damage, according to The Pediatric - Modified Total Neuropathy Scale (Ped - mTNS, as well as clinical evaluation of pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, muscle strength and deep tendon reflexes (DTR. The results obtained from Ped-mTNS, showed the high incidence of sensory and motor symptoms as well as functional deficits in balance and manual dexterity in children treated with anticancer drugs. Ped-mTNS scores, as the first measure designed to assess CIPN in school-aged children, are significantly higher for children undergoing neurotoxic chemotherapy. Even though the neuropathy in these children was relatively mild, it was associated with functional deficits in balance and manual dexterity, suggesting clinical importance. An important limiting factor of this study is the exclusion of children younger than 5 years old, whom discomfort is evident but not properly evaluated.

  3. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections among school children of Northern Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Pandey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the prevalence of parasitic infection among school aged children and to make necessary recommendations for preventive measures. Methods: The stool samples were examined for evidence of parasitic infections by direct microscopy and confirmed by concentration methods (formal ether sedimentation technique. Results: Among 300 samples, 15 (5.00% were found to be positive for Entamoeba histolytica 5 (1.67% followed by parasite Giardia lamblia 4 (1.33%, by parasite Ascaris lumbricoides 3 (1.00% by parasite Hymenolepis nana 2 (0.67%, by Cyclospora 1 (0.33%. Conclusions: Major contributors for the prevalence of parasites were found to be poor personal hygiene and the educational level of the children. This should be regarded as an issue of public health priority and demand for effective school health programs involving periodic health education and screening.

  5. Children's physical activity during a segmented school week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Schipperijn, Jasper; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Movement integration (MI) into traditional classroom teaching is a promising opportunity for children to increase physical activity (PA). Education outside the classroom (EOtC) can be regarded as MI, and has increased children's PA in case studies. The aim of this study....... Differences in proportion of time spent in PA intensities were tested using mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: More moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) occurred on days with physical education (PE) than days with EOtC (girls 0.79%, p = .001, CI = .26% to 1.31%; boys 1.35%, p = .003, CI = .32......% to 2.38%), while no difference was found between EOtC days and school days without EOtC and PE. Light physical activity (LPA) was higher on EOtC days than school days without EOtC and PE (girls 2.43% p

  6. Children's physical activity during a segmented school week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Schipperijn, Jasper; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    % to 2.38%), while no difference was found between EOtC days and school days without EOtC and PE. Light physical activity (LPA) was higher on EOtC days than school days without EOtC and PE (girls 2.43% p ...BACKGROUND: Movement integration (MI) into traditional classroom teaching is a promising opportunity for children to increase physical activity (PA). Education outside the classroom (EOtC) can be regarded as MI, and has increased children's PA in case studies. The aim of this study....... Differences in proportion of time spent in PA intensities were tested using mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: More moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) occurred on days with physical education (PE) than days with EOtC (girls 0.79%, p = .001, CI = .26% to 1.31%; boys 1.35%, p = .003, CI = .32...

  7. Experiences of social exclusion and bullying at school among children and youth with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    Although bullying amongst typically developing school-aged children has been well explored, it is under-researched for children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of exclusion and bullying among children with disabilities. We draw on qualitative in-depth interviews and a focus group with children and youth with disabilities (n = 15) to explore their experiences of exclusion and bullying. Our results showed that restrictions in the socio-contextual environment influenced the social exclusion that children experienced. Youth encountered social exclusion from both teachers and peers. Children reported that teachers' attitudes toward children with disabilities often influenced the social exclusion experienced by peers. Bullies engaged in both implicit and explicit forms of social exclusion toward children with disabilities which often lead to verbal and physical bullying. Children with cerebral palsy are victims of bullying and social exclusion within the school context. More opportunities for social inclusion are needed.

  8. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN KARACHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmala Khan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children were major part of our society and their health issues were too much, so it’s necessary that child should b healthy so their health assessment is important worldwide the acceptable method for assessment of health status is anthropometry (weight & height. This study was done to assess the anthropometric measurement of primary school going children of Karachi, sindh Pakistan, and evaluate how much students were underweight. Methods: The study was done in different primary school of Karachi including private semiprivate and government. The study design was cross sectional study. The sample size of our study was 240, including both genders male& female with range between 7-12 years. Result: The result shows that 34.9% were underweight (below 5th percentile, 63.44% were normal weight (between 5-95th percentile and only0.8% overweight (above 95th percentile.The result showed male-female ratio was 51.5% boys and 48.5% were underweight. The prevalence of underweight in private sector was only 9.5% but in government it was 45.5%.The height of student also calculated and 26.3% children were below the 5th percentile of height for the age, 62.8% were between 5th to 95th percentile and 10.9% above 95thpercentile. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight in primary school going children in Karachi shows the dietary requirements of children are not fulfilled properly and this may lead to many sever pathological conditions, so it is necessary to take positive steps regarding awareness of proper diet, hygiene and growth & development of child.

  9. Features of Graphomotor Skills Development in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzeva O.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of serial graphic skills and writing formation in elementary school children are represented in the article. Special characteristics of the development of these skills in 7 and 9 years old children in norm and with learning disabilities (LD were found using computerized experimental methods and general neuropsychological diagnostics. Third-formers in norm achieve significant results in the development of graphomotor skills and writing while children with LD have difficulties in its automating. 1st grade students with LD show complex cognitive difficulties that influence the formation of graphomotor skills and handwriting, in the 3d grade tempo characteristics and quality of writing primarily suffer. The main reason of such dysfunction is the decrease of serial organization of movements, planning and control functions, as well as the deficit of neurodynamic components of activity.

  10. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  11. Marketing active transportation to school to improve children's health: Utilizing parental perspectives from an inner-city environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.

  12. Features of vertical stability of junior school children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko A. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vertical stability in the formation of the spatial organization of the body and correct posture for junior school children with visual impairments was determined. In a pilot study involved 23 children with low vision and 60 healthy children, aged 7-10 years old. To obtain the results was used the test of E.Y. Bondarevskogo. The features of orthograde posture of children with low vision and their healthy peers. Distinctive features in terms of retention of vertical posture and goniometric characteristics have been revealed. Found that junior school children with low vision by about 60-65% yield in the reported figures from their healthy peers. The visually impaired junior school children have significantly less ability to retain the static vertical posture than children with normal vision have been proved and verified.

  13. Road traffic injuries to children during the school commute in Hyderabad, India: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Shailaja; Edwards, P; Murthy, G V S; Roberts, I

    2016-06-01

    India is motorising rapidly. With increasing motorisation, road traffic injuries are predicted to increase. A third of a billion children travel to school every day in India, but little is known about children's safety during the school commute. We investigated road traffic injury to children during school journeys. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Hyderabad using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. We used school travel questionnaires to record any road injury in the past 12 months that resulted in at least 1 day of school missed or required treatment by a doctor or nurse. We estimated the prevalence of road injury by usual mode of travel and distance to school. The total sample was 5842 children, of whom 5789 (99.1%) children answered the question on road injury. The overall prevalence of self-reported road injury in the last 12 months during school journeys was 17% (95% CI 12.9% to 21.7%). A higher proportion of boys (25%) reported a road injury than girls (11%). There was a strong association between road injury, travel mode and distance to school. Children who cycled to school were more likely to be injured compared with children who walked (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Travel by school bus was safer than walking (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). A sixth of the children reported a road traffic injury in the past 12 months during school journeys in Hyderabad. Injury prevention interventions should focus on making walking and cycling safer for children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Neighborhood Incivilities, Perceived Neighborhood Safety, and Walking to School Among Urban-Dwelling Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Pollack, Keshia M.; Curriero, Frank C.; Shields, Timothy M.; Smart, Mieka J.; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Background Walking to school is an important source of physical activity among children. There is a paucity of research exploring environmental determinants of walking to school among children in urban areas. Methods A cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data (2007) from 365 children in the “Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence” (MORE) Study (8 to 13 years; Mean 9.60 years, SD 1.04). Children and caregivers were asked about walking to school and perceived safety. Objective measures of the environment were obtained using a validated environmental neighborhood assessment. Results Over half (55.83%) of children reported walking to school most of the time. High levels of neighborhood incivilities were associated with lower levels of perceived safety (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.72). Living on a block above the median in incivilities was associated with a 353% increase in odds of walking to school (OR: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.68 to 7.39). Conclusions Children residing in neighborhoods high in incivilities are more likely to walk to school, in spite of lower levels of perceived safety. As a high proportion of children residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods walk to school, efforts should be directed at minimizing exposure to neighborhood hazards by ensuring safe routes to and from school. PMID:21415453

  15. Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.

  16. The role of anxiety symptoms in school performance in a community sample of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arrigo Valentina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years, middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years, and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC. T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Results Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3% had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (χ2 = 7.8, df = 2, p 2 = 11.68, df = 2, p Conclusion In this community sample of children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.

  17. Parent Emotional Expressiveness and Children's Self-Regulation: Associations with Abused Children's School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused…

  18. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    OpenAIRE

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city...

  19. A study of ways home schooling families in southwest Virginia believe public schools can better interface and assist families who choose to home school their children

    OpenAIRE

    Golding, Patricia Surratt

    1995-01-01

    As more and more families opt to home school their children, public schools are being faced with the need to know more about the families that home school their children within their division because many of these children will later enroll in public school. The purpose of this study was to determine ways that home schooling parents believe public schools can better interface and assist families who choose to home school their children. In light of the i...

  20. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  1. Supporting the moral development of pre-school aged[sic] children at nursery schools

    OpenAIRE

    Batistová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my dissertation was to describe the responsibilities of teachers in institutional pre-school education and how they bolster the moral development of pre-school age children, which takes place in the context of the children's mental progress and the formation of moral values gained from their families. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part describes the moral progress of pre-school age children, educational and institutional strategies to develop the moral consc...

  2. School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (Pchildren (Pchildren. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (Pchildren (Pchildren's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack

  3. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  4. Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Psychological Problems in Junior School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…

  5. The Structure and Implications of Children's Attitudes to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Paul; Attwood, Gaynor; Fuller, Carol; Last, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports a study of children's attitudes to school based on a questionnaire survey of 845 pupils in their first year of secondary school in England, together with interviews with a sample of the children. A clearly structured set of attitudes emerged from a factor analysis which showed a distinction between instrumental and affective…

  6. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school…

  7. Level of Depression in Intellectually Gifted Secondary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Salman; Begume, Nasreen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the difference in depression between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children. After a detailed review of literature the following hypothesis was formulated; there would be a significant difference between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children on…

  8. Correlation between caries experience in Sudanese school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between caries experience in Sudanese school children and dietary habits, according to a food frequency questionnaire and a modified 24-hr recall ... school children is accepted in the higher caries experience group in that the high consumption of soft drinks was found to be a risk indicator for dental caries.

  9. New School Blues: Helping Children Adjust After a Family Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for parents to help their children make the adjustment to a new school, focusing on: understanding how moving affects children, teens, and in-betweens; meeting the school counselor or psychologist; looking for warning signs (e.g., prolonged anxiety, depression, or interrupted sleeping); and providing reassurance. A sidebar…

  10. The Effect of Preschool on Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…

  11. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major factors that affect optimal performance in sport. The prevalence of EIA is reported to be on the increase among school children worldwide. The aim of this study was to indicate EIA prevalence among primary-school children in South Africa. A field study determined the ...

  12. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  13. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  14. Musculoskeletal pain and backpack usage among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School children travel to and from school on daily basis. Active transportation such as walking, running and cycling contribute significantly to the increase in physical activity, health, and wellbeing in children. However, there has been a growing concern on the effect of carrying heavy backpack on the health of ...

  15. Vulnerable children speak out: voices from one rural school in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the experiences of six grade six vulnerable children (aged between 11 -15 years) in one rural school, in Swaziland. Guided by Multiple Worlds theory, the paper elicited narratives of spaces and places depicting these children's schooling experiences. The study adopted a qualitative narrative approach ...

  16. Impact of school lunch programmes on nutritional status of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SLP had a positive significant effect on the nutritional status of participating children. More schools and parents in similar environments should therefore be encouraged to venture into the SLP because of their positive outcome on nutritional status as well as the diet quality of participating children. Key words: School Lunch ...

  17. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association between socioeconomic status and the occurrence of wax impaction among these ...

  18. Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... A total of 441 school children, 229 males and 212 females of mean age 13.52 years ± 1.83 who had no previous history of orthodontic treatment were assessed for occlusal, space and dental ...

  19. Assessment of Gross Malnutrition among Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Body mass index, obesity, overweight, primary school children, socioeconomic class, underweight. Assessment of Gross Malnutrition among Primary School Children. Using Body Mass Index as an Assessment Tool in Abakaliki Metropolis of Ebonyi State, South-East Nigeria. UV Asiegbu, OG ...

  20. The prevalence of anaemia in rural primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anaemia in rural primary school children in Ekwusigo Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... would be of benefit in improving the haemoglobin concentration of these rural school children. Keywords: Haemoglobin concentration, hookworm infection, iron deficiency, maternal education ...

  1. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  2. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  3. Our Children, Our Schools: Seeking Solutions for Improving the Climate in Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Ronald A.; Harrington, Sonja Y.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative study the researchers examined perceptions regarding school climate of parents with children who attend urban schools, based on several dimensions: quality of the instructional program, support for learning, school climate/environment for learning, parent/school relationships, and resource management. Of the 150 administered…

  4. Does a smoking prevention program in elementary schools prepare children for secondary school?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Spruijt, R.; Dijkstra, N.S.; Willemsen, M.C.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    A smoking prevention program was developed to prepare children in elementary school for secondary school. This study assessed the effects on smoking in secondary school. Methods: In 2002, 121 schools in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention

  5. Differences in adaptation to water between school and pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Gašperič, Urška

    2013-01-01

    With this research we wanted to determine whether there are differences in speed in adaptation to water during school and pre-school children and the influence of fear in adapting to water. The sample included 30 children, 15 children of 3. class of elementary school of Tone Pavček, aged 8-9 years, who were attending swimming lessons in Spa Šmarješke, and 15 children from kindergarten Pedenjped, unit Videk, aged 5-6 years, who were attending swimming lessons in elementary school Grm. Kids...

  6. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño (n = 329) in the north and Granada (n = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls (p = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p = 0.041; ♂: p = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p = 0.000; ♂: p = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p = 0.008, ♂: p = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity (p = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys (p = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls (p = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  7. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  8. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  9. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  10. [Obesity, overweight and physical activity in elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, D; De Giorgi, G; Porqueddu Zacchello, G; Zanon, A; Rigon, F

    1995-12-01

    This research presents an epidemiological study on the prevalence of obesity and overweightness in an Elementary School population. 243 children of third and fourth grade (males 52.26% and females 47.74%, 9-10 years old) of the Selvazzano (Padova) District, were evaluated during the annual medical visit. The Body Max Index (BMI) and the Cole index were calculated. The parents filled out a questionnaire which investigated the level and quality of involvement in sports. The statistical analysis was executed by the ANOVA test and post Hoc analysis. 59.02% of the children resulted within the ponderal normality with the Cole index resulted overweight (Cole index 110 divided by 120), 20% resulted obese (Cole index 120 divided by 140), 7.3% resulted highly obese (Cole index > 140). High level obesity was found in fourth grade boys (p sports are concerned, it is noted that 173 children (73.3%) practise some sport. The more practised sports, swimming (44.5%), soccer (27.1%) and gymnastic (15.02%), are practised twice a week by 58.3% of the children. Obesity and overweight in the examined population result high even in relation to data found in literature. When choosing a sport activity to prevent overweightness or obesity, one should advise parents, school operators and students to choose a sport with a great caloric consumption, at least 250-300 kcal per session, twice a week, along with a change in active lifestyle. Regarding swimming, the most practised sport, children should be sent at an early age (4-5 years old) in order to anticipate learning of the athletic gesture, and to do this at an age in which obesity and overweightness have less an incidence.

  11. Autoethnography: theater as a therapeutic tool for hospital School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Maribel Vargas Rivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article recounts the experience of a theater workshop conducted in a hospital school with children under diverse health conditions in 2011. The work became a possibility of art diffusion as a therapeutic tool and an invitation to reflect on disability and its real and/or symbolically constructed limitations. The central problem focused on identifying the presence of Occupational Risk Factors and Occupational Apartheid in the school achievement of the hospital school children and the author. Problems caused by environmental elements as well as by symbolic-social constructions generated by the idea of disability were observed. Objective: To describe the impact generated by a theater workshop as a therapeutic means in a children’s hospital school environment. Method: The autoethnographic methodology was chosen to validate the experience of the investigator as a source of information. Results: The ideas on Occupational Risk Factors, Occupational Apartheid, as well as the concepts developed in the workshop and those used to combat adverse conditions were theoretically analyzed. Conclusion: It is necessary that we experiment contexts that enable spaces free of evaluation and the freedom to use, enjoy and express all our abilities. We must be certain that the body keeps track of past experiences that potentialize the resilience of the soul, which we all deserve to have and which opens the path to the possibility of destroying our predetermined conditions.

  12. Family and school environmental predictors of sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Debora; Manfredini, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. A total of 65 primary school children (55.4% males, mean age 9.3 ± 1.9 years) were administered a 10-item questionnaire investigating the prevalence of self-reported SB as well as nine family and school-related potential bruxism predictors. Regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the potential predictors and SB. A positive answer to the self-reported SB item was endorsed by 18.8% of subjects, with no sex differences. Multiple variable regression analysis identified a final model showing that having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were the only two weak predictors of self-reported SB. The percentage of explained variance for SB by the final multiple regression model was 13.3% (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.133). While having a high specificity and a good negative predictive value, the model showed unacceptable sensitivity and positive predictive values. The resulting accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported SB was 73.8%. The present investigation suggested that, among family and school-related matters, having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were two predictors, even if weak, of a child's self-report of SB.

  13. Psychiatric morbidity in school children who suffered a stampede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet S Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child′s reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3, all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%. On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%. Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.

  14. Prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faride Malekshahi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural

  15. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  16. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Nadia M.; Rasheed, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and...

  17. RESULTS OF THE PROPHYLACTIC EXAMINATIONS OF CHILDREN UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF MOSCOW OUT-PATIENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Sukhinin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze the results of prophylactic follow-ups at the fixed periods of time of children of various age groups (younger than 1 year old, 1–14 years old and 15–17 years old attached to Moscow municipal pediatric out-patient clinic №118 during 2007–2011 years. Patients and methods: methods of medical and mathematical statistics were used. Form № 31 «Information on medical care for children and school-aged adolescents» was used. Results: children population of the region was 10 000 on average. The data on children’s physical development since their birth and their distribution among health groups on medical examinations are shown in the article.  The majority of children (both boys and girls had normal physical development; the prevalence of such children increased during the follow-up period. The number of preterm children has been decreasing. The distribution of children among health groups has stable pattern. More than a half examined children have the second health group, about one third — the first group. The authors showed dynamics of functional deviations (hearing and vision impairment, speech disorders and poor posture in pre-school and school children. Conclusions: determination of children among the health group has a stable pattern; yearly the amount of children and school adolescents observed in out-patient clinics has been increasing; the prevalence of revealed on prophylactic examinations disorders has been decreasing, however, in an age aspect there is an increase of children with the above-mentioned disorders. 

  18. Gas cooking and reduced lung function in school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Neuberger, Manfred

    RationaleOutdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) is associated with reduced respiratory health. This could be due to a unique biological effect of this gaseous pollutant or because it serves as a surrogate of fine particles from incineration sources. Cooking with gas in small kitchens produces high concentrations of gaseous irritants (mainly nitrogen dioxide), but not fine particles. ObjectivesTo study the relative impact of cooking with gas on lung function parameters in a cross sectional study of school children. MethodsNearly all elementary school children (2898 children aged 6-10 years) living in the city of Linz (capital of Upper Austria) underwent lung function testing. In a questionnaire administered simultaneously to their parents, information on household conditions including cooking and tobacco smoke exposure was collected. Impact of cooking with gas on lung function controlling for various confounders was analyzed using loglinear multiple regression. ResultsGas cooking reduced lung function parameters ranging from 1.1% (not significant) for MEF 25 up to 3.4% ( p=0.01) for peak expiratory flow (PEF). ConclusionsGas stoves can have an adverse impact on children's respiratory health. Parents and caretakers should be advised to insure good ventilation while and after cooking, especially in small and poorly ventilated rooms. This study adds to the growing evidence that gaseous pollutants from incineration sources affect respiratory health directly.

  19. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Hashem; Amestejani, Morteza; Karamyar, Mohammad; Nikibakhsh, Ahmad-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. Methods A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Conclusion Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children. PMID:23550208

  20. The dimension of inattention among children with school problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, M D; Busch, B; Aufseeser, C

    1982-09-01

    Within a population of children referred for school-related problems, youngsters with significant attention deficits were compared with children having other types of learning problems. Using data from parent and teacher questionnaires as well as results of multidisciplinary team assessments, each patient was assigned either to a group with significant attention deficits or to one with learning problems, but fewer, if any, problems with attention. Disagreement between observation sources was demonstrated. Children qualifying for the significant attention deficit group were characterized by a greater likelihood of having behavioral problems during the toddler and preschool years. They also had a higher prevalence of minor neurologic signs and difficulty on tests of language development. Their current behavioral and adjustment problems seemed to be more severe and widespread than those of the youngsters with whom they were compared. No major intergroup differences were observed with regard to age at referral, socioeconomic status, family history of learning and behavior problems, perinatal health risks, or psychosocial difficulties. There was considerable historic and symptomatic overlap between the two groups, suggesting that the clinical picture characteristic of significant attention deficits is relatively nonspecific and is either a primary or secondary finding in a large proportion of a heterogeneous population of children experiencing difficulties in school.

  1. Prevalence of geohelminth in soil and primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of geohelminthes infections among primary school children aged 8 to 13 years was conducted in four selected primary schools in Panda Development Area, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of four hundred and eighty (480) soil samples collected from the four schools, 314 (82.63) were found to be positive ...

  2. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  3. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  4. For Professors' Children, the Case for Home Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannapacker, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The number of families who home school their children is growing between five and 15% per year and it is believed that home schoolers outperform their public-educated peers, though critics believe that home schooling is a form of religious fanaticism and a means of avoiding diversity. A professor explains how he and his wife, home school their…

  5. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  6. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  7. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  8. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  9. Distribution of refractive errors among school children in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual screening in pre-school and school children has long been a tradition in developed nations of the world. And the significance of this cannot be overemphasized especially with the already established correlation between school performance and visual status. This study, which was carried our in Abia State of Nigeria ...

  10. Screening for Eye Disease in Nigeria School Children | Abubakar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They can also play a vital role in promoting ocular health of school children especially in developing countries where there is little or no provision for school health services in schools attended by those from a poor background. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology Vol. 9, No.1 (August 2001): pp6-9. KEY WORDS: screening ...

  11. Determinants of childhood obesity among basic school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obesity and its associ-ation with type of school (private vs. public), parental education and other lifestyle factors among school-aged children (6–12 years) in the Tamale Metropolis. This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted from ...

  12. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  13. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stacey L.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

  14. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

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    Vadivelan .K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school over the children health.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two sitting postures (crossed leg sitting and bench sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Aim of the Study to observe the influence of bench sitting and crossed-leg sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Methods: 200 school children (105 boys and 95 girls from private schools (those who are bench sitting and 200 school children (109 boys and 91 girls from government schools (those who are crossed leg sitting aged 6-10 years were included in this study. Active Knee Extension (AKE test with the aid of a simple and economically cheap stabilizing apparatus was used to determine hamstring flexibility. Measurements were taken for both right and left knee. Results: The mean Active Knee Extension (AKE score for bench sitting children was 132.4 and for crossed leg sitting children was 130.1. The difference observed in knee extension range of motion between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility was greater in bench sitting children as compared to crossed leg sitting children.

  15. Impact of fortified biscuits on micronutrient deficiencies among primary school children in Bangladesh.

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    Alayne M Adams

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies can compromise the development potential of school-aged children, and their later health and productivity as adults. School feeding and school-based fortification approaches have been utilized globally to redress nutritional deficiencies in this age group.We explored the acceptability and micronutrient impact of a Bangladesh Government supported school-based micronutrient fortification program for children attending rural primary schools in 10 disadvantaged sub-districts.We applied a mixed methods approach. The quantitative component assessed the impact of micronutrient fortification on 351 children aged 6-11 years using a cohort pre-post research design with a control group. The qualitative component explored the acceptability of the intervention using focus group discussions, body mapping and semi-structured interviews with teachers, school-going children and school authorities.Daily consumption of fortified biscuits by primary school children had a significant positive impact on mean levels of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, retinol and vitamin D controlling for sex, baseline deficiency status, CRP, and H. pylori. Levels of anemia and vitamin D deficiency were also significantly reduced. Qualitative findings indicated the widespread acceptability of the daily biscuit. Teachers perceived students to be more attentive in class, less tired, and some attributed better school performance to biscuit consumption. Children reported similar improvements in concentration and energy levels.This study is among the first in Bangladesh to comprehensively assess a school-based fortification program in terms of its acceptability and impact on micronutrient status of children aged 6-11 years of age. While results strongly support this modality of school feeding, research on the cognitive impacts of micronutrient fortified biscuits will help clarify the case for scaled-up investments in school- based feeding program in Bangladesh and

  16. Race and school enrollment among the children of African immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether previous findings of an immigrant schooling advantage among Blacks in the United States reflect a declining significance of race in the enrollment patterns of immigrants’ children. Using data from the 2000 US census, the study finds that, despite their advantage within the Black population, the children of Black Africans are collectively disadvantaged relative to the children of White Africans. Disparate enrollment trajectories are found among children in Black and White African families. Specifically, between the first and second generations, enrollment outcomes improved among the children of White Africans but declined among Black Africans’ children. The results also suggest that among immigrants from African multi-racial societies, pre-migration racial schooling disparities do not necessarily disappear after immigration to the United States. Additionally, the children of Black Africans from these contexts have worse outcomes than the children of other Black African immigrants and their relative disadvantage persists even after other factors are controlled.

  17. Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P&lt;0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P&lt;0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

  18. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoja GESHOSKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In special education and rehabilitation a large number of implemented researches on physical and motor development of children with disabilities have been targeted in comparison to development of standards for children with normal development. It is evident that the overall physical and motor development of children with disabilities is unfolding in various pace and it is achieving a different level compared to children with normal development. The theory and practice of special education and rehabilitation takes into account the specifics of the rhythm of physical development, that is predisposed to the biological development plans (regulated by internal factors, but differences in the pace and level of development of children with disabilities require a special research approach, interpretation and application of the results obtained. It is necessary to explain the specifics of the physical and motor development and the impact of sensory, cognitive and motor development disorders on physical growth and motor development among people of different calendar age and its results to be linked to programs for education and rehabilitation.

  19. Lunchbox contents of Australian school children: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanigorski, A M; Bell, A C; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A

    2005-11-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (Pschools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.

  20. Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Brabin, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure amongst primary school children. METHODS: A descriptive, community-based, cross-sectional study of self-reported parental smoking patterns and children's salivary cotinine concentrations in 245 children aged 5-11 years attending 10

  1. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  2. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  3. Factors associated with enuresis among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arousal difficulty and positive family history of enuresis were significantly more frequent in the enuretic group (p<0.05). Enuresis was associated with family stressors in 45 (21.0%) of the children. The enuretic children had higher rates of poor school performance compared with nonenuretic children (p < 0.001) however;

  4. Quantile peer effects of immigrant children at primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    We analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational performance of native Dutch children in primary schools. Using quantile regressions, our paper studies these peer effects at different parts of the test score distribution of native children. After accounting for

  5. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, C S; Mallik, A; Anand, K; Pandav, S; Karmarkar, M G

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are an important cause of mental handicap and poor educability of children. Though Delhi does not lie in the classical Himalayan goitre belt, it has been shown that IDD was endemic in Delhi. Studies of school children in Delhi reported a total goitre rate of 55% which indicates severe endemicity. The sale of uniodized salt has been banned in Delhi since July 1989. This study was done five years later to assess the impact of this measure on IDD prevalence in Delhi. A cross-sectional study was done among class VI students studying in government schools of Delhi. A complete list of government middle schools in Delhi was obtained and 30 were selected on the basis of 'probability proportion to size'. A sample size of 1200 was decided based on an expected prevalence of 50% with 5% error and design effect of three. All children in class VI of each school were clinically examined by a trained doctor for the presence of goitre and casual urine samples were collected in capped plastic tubes. The urinary iodine estimation was done by the wet ashing method. The total goitre rate was 20.5%. If the results were limited to children in the age group of 10-12 years it was 19.7%. The urinary iodine was less than the recommended 100 micrograms/L of urine in 23.6% of the children; 7.6% had no iodine in the urine. It is possible that some children could have substituted water in place of urine. The median urinary iodine level was 198 micrograms/L of urine. The study showed that IDD continues to be prevalent in mild endemic proportions. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the IDD rates have declined in the last few years. However, it continues to be an important public health problem in Delhi. It is essential to monitor the iodine content of salt on a regular basis. IDD control activities should be strengthened in Delhi and repeat surveys should be done every 3-5 years to monitor the progress achieved in eliminating IDD.

  6. Long-term effect of high-dose supplementation with DHA on visual function at school age in children born at <33 wk gestational age: results from a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Stokes, Sacha; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2016-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk of visual-processing impairments. Several lines of evidence have contributed to the rationale that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of preterm infants may improve outcomes in visual processing. The aim was to determine whether at 7 y of age children who were born very preterm and who received a high-DHA diet have better visual-processing outcomes than do infants fed a standard-DHA diet. This was a follow-up study in a subgroup of children from a randomized controlled trial. Infants were randomly assigned to milk containing a higher concentration of DHA (1% of total fatty acids; high-DHA group) or a standard amount of DHA (0.2-0.3% of total fatty acids as DHA; control group). The randomization schedule was stratified by sex and birth weights of DHA group and 55 in the standard-DHA group) children aged 7 y were assessed on a range of visual-processing measures, including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, vernier acuity, binocular stereopsis, and visual perception. There was no evidence of differences between the high-DHA and standard-DHA groups in any of the visual-processing measures. In the majority (12 of 13) of variables assessed, the direction of effect favored the control group. The study was large enough to detect a moderate treatment effect, if one truly existed. Supplementing human milk with DHA at a dose of ∼1% of total fatty acids given in the first months of life to very preterm infants does not appear to confer any long-term benefit for visual processing at school age. This trial was registered at anzctr.org/au as ACTRN12606000327583. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Morning and Afternoon Nursery Sessions: Can They Be Equally Effective in Giving Children a Positive Start to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Julie; Brember, Ivy

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of gender, attendance period, and age on 820 children's adjustment to nursery classes. Found that boys and afternoon attenders appeared to be less well adjusted to school than girls and morning attenders, and older children appeared better adjusted than the younger children. Results suggest strategies to help children adjust…

  8. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future...

  9. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Petzold, M.; Schnohr, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported...... in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk...

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Hermansen, Mette N; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    to a standardized submaximal exercise test on the treadmill were measured in 111 school children with asthma. EIB could be excluded with a probability of 90% in asthmatic children with FeNO levels ... reducing the need for exercise testing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the value of FeNO as a predictor of EIB in asthmatic children. METHODS: Stable outpatient asthmatic school children performed standard exercise challenge tests and measurement of FeNO. RESULTS: FeNO and response...

  11. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  12. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  13. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

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    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  14. Safety on Judo Children: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Sacripanti, Attilio; De Blasis, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Many doctors although they have not firsthand experience of judo, describe it as a sport unsuitable for children. Theoretically speaking falls derived by Judo throwing techniques,could be potentially dangerous,especially for kids,if poorly managed.A lot of researches were focalized on trauma or injuries taking place in judo, both during training and competition The goal of this Research is to define and apply a scientific methodology to evaluate the hazard in falls by judo throws for children...

  15. HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES IN DOIWALA BLOCK, DEHRADUN

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    Rakesh Kakkar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background -The introduction of school health services in India dates back to 1909, when school children in the city of Baroda were given the first medical examination. School Health programme ,promoting basic check up of school children for a variety of health related problems, is a systematic effort in raising awareness about health issues among school children and their families. Good health increases enrollment and reduces absenteeism. It also ensures attendance of the poorest and most disadvantaged children to school, many of whom are girls. Aim- To study the morbidity status of the school children & elicit relationship of healthy habits with morbidity pattern. Study Type- Observational study Methodology- A cross sectional survey to find out the morbidity pattern was conducted on 757 school children (340 boys and 417girls, aged 5-16 years studying in class I-VIII in five different schools of Doiwala, Dehradun under Rural Health training centre, Rajeev Nagar. Results- Overall students attendance was 78.2%. Clinical anaemia was higher in Girls (46.7% as compared to Boys (34.1%. Worm infestation was higher in boys (65.1% as compared to Girls(57.3%. Over all abnormal Visual acquity(8.5% or eye abnormality (14% was noticed among study subjects. Dental Caries (53.1% and dermatitis (16.3% were more in boys. Healthy habits like daily bathing (82.6%, daily teeth brushing (61.1%, mouth rinsing after meal (53% and hair clean/combed (80.2% were more in girls as compared to boys while trimmed nail was equally (55% noticed among both the groups. Conclusion- Morbidities found amongst students are basically due to low awareness & negligent behaviour about personal hygiene are the key areas of concern and by active involvement of school teachers improvement in personal hygiene of school children and reduction in related morbidities can be achieved.

  16. [Differences in subjective health, mental health, and health behavior among 11- to 17-year-olds at secondary schools in Germany : Results of the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauer, Julia; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2018-02-22

    Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012). Data of 11- to 17-year-old girls and boys (n = 4665) who attend different types of secondary schools in Germany were analyzed. The dependent variables were self-rated health, findings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of psychological abnormalities, as well as self-reported information regarding leisure sport, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) based on logistic regressions are shown. For the majority of the examined indicators, it can be shown that adolescents in lower secondary schools are more likely to report worse self-rated health and mental problems and engage in unhealthy behavior than peers in grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The differences decrease after controlling for family's SEP but mostly remain statistically significant. Adolescents who don't attend grammar schools are most strongly disadvantaged in terms of inattention/hyperactivity for both gender (OR: 2.29 [1.70-3.08]), smoking among girls (2.91 [1.85-4.57]) and physical inactivity (no leisure sport) among boys (OR: 2.71 [1.85-3.95]). Unequal health opportunities should be viewed in relation to people's living conditions. For adolescents, school constitutes an important setting for learning, experience, and health. The results indicate divergent needs of school-based health promotion and prevention regarding differences among gender and type of school.

  17. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    -school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  18. Ocular Morbidity among Children Attending Government and Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley

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    R K Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students

  19. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Firehiwot; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was children (5-11 yrs) and anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044-1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044-1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022-1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children.

  20. Frequent Visitors: Somatization in School-Age Children and Implications for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robin Adair; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Matthews, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap in the nursing literature regarding children who frequently visit school nurses' offices with recurrent unexplained physical symptoms. A review of the scientific health literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation, associated variables, and implications for school nurses regarding children who are frequent school…

  1. A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unutkan, Ozgul Polat

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as…

  2. Schools and Emotional and Behavioral Problems: A Comparison of School-Going and Homeschooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Oz; Neuman, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on the deepening crisis in the education system. Researchers have attributed these problems to the school environment. One method for examining this claim is to compare specific emotional and behavior problems among children who attend schools and children who do not. This study examined three aspects of…

  3. Development of executive functioning in school-age Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaj, Tarek; Salhi, Imen; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding executive functioning (EF) in children rarely focuses on populations in African or Middle-Eastern Arabic-speaking countries. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine the developmental trajectories of school-age Tunisian children in three domains of executive control (inhibition of prepotent responses, cognitive flexibility, and working memory) as well as their mutual interactions and the effects of gender and parents' education level. Inhibitory processes, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were assessed using the Stroop test, a version of the Hayling test adapted for children, simple and alternating tasks of verbal fluency, and verbal and visuospatial span tasks (forward and backward spans). The study population included 120 7- to 12-year-old Tunisian children (60 girls, 60 boys) who were grouped and matched for age, gender, and parents' education level. The results revealed an overall effect of age on executive performance, whereas gender and parents' education level showed non-significant effects. In addition, executive indices were significantly associated with fluid intelligence level. Partial correlation analyses (controlled for age) found significant links between indices that assessed the same executive process, except for inhibitory processes; the temporal indices for inhibitory processes showed relative independence. The correlations between indices that assessed distinct executive processes were weaker (but significant). Overall, the results suggest that executive components in school-age Tunisian children operate according to relatively homogeneous developmental trajectories, marked by peaks of maturity that differ according to the assessed index. A transcultural approach to EF is discussed in terms of the unity and diversity of its components.

  4. School and community physical activity characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Chinese school-aged children: A multilevel path model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: School support for PA and community PA resources are associated with MVPA among Chinese school children. School PA facilities appear underutilized among urban schools as evidenced by low levels of MVPA among school children.

  5. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  6. How Children Perceive the Acoustic Environment of Their School

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    Karl Jonas Brännström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children’s own ratings and opinions on their schools sound environments add important information on noise sources. They can also provide information on how to further improve and optimize children’s learning situation in their classrooms. This study reports on the Swedish translation and application of an evidence-based questionnaire that measures how children perceive the acoustic environment of their school. Study Design: The Swedish version was made using a back-to-back translation. Responses on the questionnaire along with demographic data were collected for 149 children aged 9–13 years of age. Results: The Swedish translation of the questionnaire can be reduced from 93 to 27 items. The 27 items were distributed over five separate factors measuring different underlying constructs with high internal consistency and high inter-item correlations. The responses demonstrated that the dining hall/canteen and the corridors are the school spaces with the poorest listening conditions. The highest annoyance was reported for tests and reading; next, student-generated sounds occur more frequently within the classroom than any sudden unexpected sounds, and finally, road traffic noise and teachers in adjoining classrooms are the most frequently occurring sounds from outside the classroom. Several demographic characteristics could be used to predict the outcome on these factors. Conclusion: The findings suggest that crowded spaces are most challenging; the children themselves generate most of the noise inside the classroom, but it is also common to hear road traffic noise and teachers in adjoining classrooms. The extent of annoyance that noise causes depends on the task but seems most detrimental in tasks, wherein the demands of verbal processing are higher. Finally, children with special support seem to report that they are more susceptible to noise than the typical child.

  7. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children, and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular interest. Overall, parents gave their children higher school friendship ratings than the children gave themselves, and hearing children and their parents were more positive about children's friendships than were deaf children and their parents. Both children and parents also saw deaf children as less successful in reading than hearing children. However, deaf children's having deaf parents, attending a school for the deaf, and using sign language at home all were associated with more positive perceptions of social success. Use of cochlear implants was not associated with perceptions of greater academic or social success. These and related findings are discussed in the context of parent and child perspectives on social and academic functioning and particular challenges confronted by deaf children in regular school settings.

  8. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

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    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  9. THEORETICAL BASSES OF SPEECH ACTIVITY OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Boryak

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming and correction of speech activity of mentally retarded children of primary school age. The author is presented an integrated system of correction of speech development on the basis of the results of the study of speech development level of mentally retarded children of primary school within the modern educational space. The present system has a block structure with comprises: 1. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the technology of formi...

  10. The Impact of Extracurricular Activities on Children's School Performance and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Amber L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between the amount of extracurricular activities and the school performance and mental health of children and adolescents was examined. One hundred thirty-three parents completed measures on extracurricular activity participation, academic performance, and mental health for their children in Grades 3-12. Results indicated one significant linear and one significant curvilinear relationship between extracurricular activity participation and school performance of adolescents. As...

  11. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  12. Access to Information Technologies among School-Age Children: Implications for a Democratic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses access to information technology among school-age children based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and suggests implications of the results for a democratic society. Highlights include computer literacy; access to computers outside of school, specifically in the home; and racial/ethnic differences. (Contains 10…

  13. Mother's Schooling, Fertility, and Children's Education: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 16856

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Victor; Zablotsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of mothers' education on their fertility and their children's schooling. We base our evidence on a natural experiment that sharply reduced the cost of attending school and, as a consequence, significantly increased the education of affected cohorts. This natural experiment was the result of the de facto revocation in…

  14. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  15. The influence of low level pre- and perinatal exposure to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and lead on attention performance and attention-related behavior among German school-aged children: results from the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Julia; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Schöneck, Nina; Schölmerich, Axel; Wilhelm, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead are thought to be risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whereas the prenatal influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) on attention performance has been less studied. Within the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study, we investigated low-level exposure to these compounds in relation to children's attention. We measured blood levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and lead from pregnant mothers (32(nd) week of pregnancy) and PCDD/Fs and PCBs in breast milk (2 weeks after delivery). The attention of school-aged children (N=117) was investigated with a computer-based test battery of attention performance (KITAP) and a parent rating questionnaire of behaviors related to ADHD (FBB-ADHS). Influences of the exposure on attention were analyzed by multiple regression analyses. Increasing prenatal PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were significantly (plead concentrations had few significant associations with attention performance (e.g., a 23% higher number of omission errors in the subtest Distractibility; 95%-CI: 1.00-1.51), whereas ADHD-related behavior (questionnaire based) was increased with increasing lead exposure (Overall-ADHD: 9%; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.17). ADHD-related behavior was negatively associated with prenatal PCDD/F or PCB exposures (e.g., for PCB exposure: -10%; 95%-CI: 0.82-0.99). Pre- and perinatal PCDD/F and PCB exposure may have subtle influences on attention performance in healthy children at low environmental levels, while behavior changes are negatively associated. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for the impact of prenatal lead exposure on attention deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Harassment among school children and new ways of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Pautasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to collect some results of the several studies that have been made concerning Bullying and Harassment among boys and girls who attend basic education institutions in the central part of Santa Cruz province, in Argentina. It encloses theoretical framework about the problem of bullying and violence among children at school. It presents information about the region, some common aggressive behaviors as well as different ways and places in which those violent habits might be produced, according to children. Describes school populations suffering from such practices and analyzes some differences from school years, gender and zonal characteristics. It also shows samples of Victimization Rate and General Aggression Rate got in the area. Open to further discussion, this work provides certain description about some bullying phenomenon in the area, such as the case of the “Round-up Effect”, produced by the lack of anonymity in barely populated places. This article presents new emerging issues in the research field, like the appearance of new ways of violence, related to digital communication technologies such as instant messaging, e-mail, chat, blog, photoblog and social networks. To conclude, it offers some ideas about the construction of Early Warning Devices and Early Intervention Devices.

  17. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

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    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  18. Hookah use among high school children in an Indian city

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    Nayak Prathibha Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of hookah is on the rise among youngsters. A growing body of evidence suggests that these children are experimenting with this form of tobacco. Aims: The study was carried out to know prevalence estimates of hookah use and factors associated with it among high school students.Settings and Design: This study adds to the current literature by providing prevalence estimates and factors associated with hookah use among high school students of Indore - a city in central India.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1000 students from high schools was conducted to find hookah users and factors associated with its use. Results: Hookah users in this study population were 7.6%. Most of them first learned about hookah from friends (63.2%. They usually smoked in hookah lounges (85.5%. These children believed that hookah was safer and more socially acceptable than cigarettes.Conclusions: Misperceptions of safety and popularity of hookah among the younger generation are cause for concern. Presence of hookah lounges should be a target for further regulation. Prevention activities are necessary to prevent this rising public health concern.

  19. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Maria da Gl?ria; Beja, Maria J.; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the...

  20. EXAMINATION RESULTS OF CHILDREN WITH CERVICAL SYNDROME

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    N. H. Bakhteeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By the example of examination of 80 children aged from 4 to 18 with cervical syndrome it is indicated, that the diagnosed abnormalities of hemodynamics in vertebrobasilar basin in patients of all age groups are connected both with bone and vascular pathology of the cervical part of the spine. The pathology has functional or congenital character. Early detection of discicirculatory vascular injuries in the cervical part of the spine in children with cervical syndrome will allow to define the therapeutic management of patients and to prolong juvenile osteochondrosis clinical behaviour.

  1. Kids, Schools, & Health--Where Do We Stand? Results of the New Mexico 1991 Youth Risk Behavior and 1992 School Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report describes the results of two statewide surveys: (1) The 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey; and (2) The 1992 New Mexico School Health Education Survey. These findings are intended to be used by educators across New Mexico to help focus the development of effective school-based comprehensive health education programs. Childrens' health…

  2. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between DXA (n=875) and other adiposity measures including body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, circumferences, and bioimpedance. We also computed correlations between lean body mass measures. Results 50.0% of the children were female and 36.5% were non-white. Mean (SD) BMI was 17.2 (3.1) and total fat mass by DXA was 7.5 (3.9) kg. DXA total fat mass was highly correlated with BMI (rs=0.83), bioimpedance total fat (rs=0.87), and sum of skinfolds (rs=0.90), and DXA trunk fat was highly correlated with waist circumference (rs=0.79). Correlations of BMI with other adiposity indices were high, e.g., with waist circumference (rs=0.86) and sum of subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (rs=0.79). DXA fat-free mass and bioimpedance fat-free mass were highly correlated (rs=0.94). Conclusions In school-aged children, BMI, sum of skinfolds, and other adiposity measures were strongly correlated with DXA fat mass. Although these measurement methods have limitations, BMI and skinfolds are adequate surrogate measures of relative adiposity in children when DXA is not practical. PMID:23799991

  3. Immediate Effects of a School Readiness Intervention for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Kim, Hyoun K; Bruce, Jacqueline; Healey, Cynthia V; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-08-01

    School readiness is a strong predictor of adjustment in elementary school and beyond. Children in foster care are at particular risk for academic and social difficulties in school. Limitations in self-regulatory skills and caregiver involvement among these children might contribute to a lack of school readiness. This study presents the immediate effects on school readiness of a targeted, short-term intervention designed to improve children's early literacy, prosocial, and self-regulatory skills during the summer before kindergarten entry: Kids in Transition to School (KITS). Using a randomized controlled trial design, 192 children in foster care were assigned to either an intervention or services as usual comparison condition. Multimethod, multiagent assessments were conducted immediately prior to and following the completion of the intervention. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that the intervention had significant, positive effects on early literacy and self-regulatory skills. An efficacious, short-term, readily scalable, theoretically-based intervention targeted at specific vulnerabilities for children in foster care may help to improve their school readiness and eventual school adjustment.

  4. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  5. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  6. Extracurricular Activity and Parental Involvement Predict Positive Outcomes in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Case, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore if parental involvement and extracurricular activity participation could predict well-being and academic competence in elementary school children. Seventy-two children (mean age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.85) and their parents participated. Results revealed that parental pressure and support, when paired with…

  7. Pilot survey on dental health in 5-12-year-old school children in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, S.; Ngonephady, S.; van Wijk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The burden of dental caries in young Lao children is high. As a result, these children suffer from toothache, and school absenteeism is high. There is a need for the Lao Government to develop a strategy to prevent dental disease, such as caries. The aim of this study was to collect data on the

  8. Expectations for the Transition from Kindergarten to Primary School amongst Teachers, Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ling

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study concerning the expectations for the transition from kindergarten to primary school amongst teachers, parents and children in Hong Kong. It probes the expectations that teachers and parents have about children's competence in five specific areas of child development thought to be essential for a smooth such…

  9. [Carriers of Neisseria meningitidis among children from a primary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; López, Omar; Sotolongo, Franklin; Mirabal, Mayelin; Bencomo, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted among 318 children from the "Mártires del Corynthia" Primary School under the authorization of the Municipal Division of Education and the informed consent of their parents aimed at knowing the prevalence of meningoccoco carriers in school children, determining the epidemiological markers of the isolated strains and establishing the possible relation existing between the carrier and variables, such as age, sex, acute respiratory infection history, hacinamiento, amigdalectomy, inhibitory effect of of the accompanying flora and the secretory state of ABH antigens in saliva. All of them underwent nasopharyngeal exudate and a saliva sample was taken. In adition, the paents were surveyed about the risks factors to be investigated. 6.9 % of meningoccoco carriers were found and the NA:NT:P1:NST:L3,7,9 strains predominated. The risk factors with statistically significant results regarding the condition of carrier Neisseria meningitidis carrier were age, acute respiratory infection history, and the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria lactamica of the accompanying bacterial flora in the nasopharynx of the children under study.

  10. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  11. Families, Schools, and Children's School Achievement: A Study Based on Rural Regions in China Gansu Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijun, Sun; Zeyun, Liu; Baicai, Sun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of school factors on student achievement due to differences in family backgrounds. Based on the principle of diminishing effects of school investment in children's achievement, this study built a model that includes individual characteristics, family characteristics, and school characteristics. Family and school…

  12. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  13. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, A. J.; Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population…

  14. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  15. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  16. School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue Tetsuya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults. Methods This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory health education activities and led school children to disseminate messages related to malaria control to their communities. Three schools and their respective communities were chosen for the study and assigned to an intervention group (one school and a control group (two schools. Questionnaire-based interviews and parasitological surveys were conducted before and after the intervention, with the intervention group (105 children, 250 community adults and the control group (81 children, 133 community adults. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyse differences in knowledge, practices, and parasite prevalence between pre- and post-intervention. Results After the intervention, the misperception that malaria has multiple causes was significantly improved, both among children and community adults. Moreover, the community adults who treated a bed net with insecticide in the past six months, increased from 21.5% to 50.0% (p p = 0.003. These positive changes were observed only in the intervention group. Conclusions This study suggests that the participatory health education intervention contributed to the decreased malaria prevalence among children. It had a positive impact not only on school children, but also on community adults, through the improvement of knowledge and practices. This strategy can be applied as a complementary approach to existing malaria control strategies in West African countries where school health management systems have been strengthened.

  17. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dental Caries Prevalence among 6-12 Years Old School Children in Ardabil City, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Asdagh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dental caries is one of the most chronic diseases in children. Various factors were effective in incidence andprevalence of dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries prevalence among 6-12 yearsold school children in Ardabil city.   Methods : In this descriptive–cross sectional study a total of 847 school children (444 girls and 403 boys were randomly selected from public and private schools in all over of Ardabil city.Clinical examination of children have been done for dental caries according to world health organization (WHO criteria including determination of DMFT, dmft, DMFS and dental caries prevalence. Data were analysedin SPSS.16 by statistical methods.   Results: Total prevalence of dental caries was 79.7% in children with 71.1 % in permanent and 88.3 % in primary dentition. The mean of dmft, DMFT, DMFS indexes were 2.74± 0.09, 1.6±0.1, and 3.5± 0.1, repectively.Results showed that there was a significant relation between DMFT, dmft and DMFS and age group.   Conclusion : Results showed that the dental caries prevalence among 6-12 years-old school children in Ardabil city was higher than the world standard. Therefore, improving the existing dental services, programing and performing education, prevention and treatment programs for oral health between school children seems tobe necessary in the future.

  19. How do children travel to school in urban India? A cross-sectional study of 5,842 children in Hyderabad

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    Shailaja Tetali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of children travel to school every day in India, yet little is known about this journey. We examined the distribution and determinants of school travel in Hyderabad, India. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. School travel questionnaires were used to collect data from children aged 11–14 years, attending private, semi-private and government funded schools in Hyderabad. We used Google Earth to estimate the distance from home to school for each child and modelled the relationship between distance to school and mode of travel, adjusting for confounders. Results Forty five of the 48 eligible schools that were selected agreed to participate, providing a total sample of 5842 children. The response rate was 99 %. Most children walked (57 % or cycled (6 % to school but 36 % used motorised transport (mostly bus. The proportion using motorised transport was higher in children attending private schools (41 % than in those attending government schools (24 %. Most (90 % children lived within 5km of school and 36 % lived within 1km. Greater distance to school was strongly associated with the use of motorised transport. Children living close to school were much more likely to walk or cycle. Conclusions Most children in Hyderabad walk (57 % or cycle (6 % to school. If these levels are to be maintained, there is an urgent need to ensure that walking and cycling are safe and pleasant. Social policies that decrease distances to school could have a large impact on road traffic injuries, air pollution, and physical activity levels.

  20. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  1. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  2. School-readiness profiles of children with language impairment: linkages to home and classroom experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimonti, Jill M; Justice, Laura M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2014-01-01

    This study represents an effort to advance our understanding of the nature of school readiness among children with language impairment (LI), a population of children acknowledged to be at risk of poor academic achievement. The academic, social-emotional, and behavioural competencies with which children arrive at kindergarten affect the nature of their future educational experiences, and their overall academic achievement. To examine whether there are reliable profiles that characterize children with LI just prior to kindergarten entrance, and the extent to which profile membership is associated with characteristics of children's homes and preschool experiences. Questions addressed were twofold: (1) To what extent are there reliable profiles of children with LI with respect to their school readiness? (2) To what extent is children's profile membership associated with characteristics of their homes and preschool classrooms? Participants were 136 children with LI from early childhood special education classrooms. We utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to classify individuals into profiles based on individual responses on school readiness measures. We then used multilevel hierarchical generalized linear models to examine the relations between profile membership and children's home/classroom experiences. LCA analyses revealed that a four-profile solution was the most appropriate fit for the data and that classroom experiences were predictive of these profiles, such that children in classrooms with more instructional/emotional support were more likely to be placed in profiles characterized by higher school readiness skills. These results suggest that the school readiness profiles of young children with LI are associated with the quality of children's classroom experiences, and that high-quality classroom experiences can be influential for ensuring that young children with LI arrive in kindergarten ready to learn. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  3. School functioning of children in residential care: the contributions of multilevel correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2009-07-01

    This study, using an ecological approach, examines the relationships between problems in school functioning (including academic and behavior problems) of children in residential care with a number of variables describing the child and the care setting. The study reports on 4,061 children and youth (ages 6-20) in 54 Israeli residential care facilities supervised by the Ministry of Welfare. It is based on data derived from an ongoing system of monitoring care based on annual reports by social workers on children in care settings. Additionally, data on the characteristics of the settings were collected through a structured questionnaire completed by the supervisors at the Ministry of Welfare. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was utilized to examine how characteristics of the individual children and the care settings were related to problems in school functioning among the children. Most of the children (about 62%) had at least one problem in school functioning. The most vulnerable children were boys, children who were taken from parental homes by court decree, children with problems in quality of contact with their biological parents, and children who stayed in the care setting for shorter periods. The settings' characteristics most associated with poor performance at school are group structure (vs. mixed and family home structures), higher levels of peer violence, fewer after-school activities, and settings in which children tend to stay for shorter periods of times. The findings demonstrate the need for an ecological perspective in addressing children's problems in school functioning within the care system. The results help to identify the types of placements that should benefit from additional resources in order to promote adaptive performance in school among the children. Social workers in residential care should give high priority to children's positive academic involvement. The study demonstrates the need for identifying the intersection of the individual

  4. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  5. No More Bullying: An Analysis of Primary School Children's Drawings of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…

  6. The relationship of placement experience to school absenteeism and changing schools in young, school-aged children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorc, Catherine S; O'Reilly, Amanda Lr; Matone, Meredith; Long, Jin; Watts, Caroline L; Rubin, David

    2013-05-01

    Chronic school absenteeism and frequent school changes, particularly among younger children, may be antecedents for the high rates of school failure and subsequent dropout among youth in foster care. However, the relationship of foster care experience to absenteeism and school change has not been well studied. This study examined the association of placement experience with absenteeism and changing schools among 209 urban children in foster care enrolled in public elementary schools. A cohort of children aged 5 to 8 years who entered non-relative or kinship foster care from 2006-2008 were followed longitudinally for 2 years from entry into foster care. Children residing in foster care were categorized at the end of the study as early stable, late stable, or unstable, if they achieved a permanent placement prior to 45 days, between 45 days and 9 months, or failed to do so within 9 months, respectively. Children who reunified home were classified as a fourth category. Poisson regression, controlling for baseline factors, was used to compare days absent and number of schools attended across categories of placement experience. Among the 209 children, 51% were male, 79% were African American, and 55% were initially placed with kin. One third of children reunified home; among children who did not reunify, one half was early stable, and a third was unstable. Adjusted rates of school absenteeism increased in stepwise fashion as children's placements became more unstable; children with unstable placements were 37% more likely to be absent than those with early placement stability (p=0.029). Children who reunified during the study demonstrated the highest rates of absenteeism; however, there was no significant difference in absenteeism before or after reunification. Number of schools attended increased as stability worsened, with the standardized rate of schools attended reaching 3.6 schools (95% CI 3.1-4.1) over a two year period among children in unstable placements. The

  7. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  8. Socioeconomic disparities in elementary school practices and children's physical activity during school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Mignano, Alexandra M; Norman, Gregory J; McKenzie, Thomas L; Kerr, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Cain, Kelli L; Elder, John P; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    To examine school socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to school physical activity-related practices and children's physical activity. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. The study was set in 97 elementary schools (63% response rate) in two U.S. regions. Of the children taking part in this study, 172 were aged 10.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 1.5) years; 51.7% were girls, and 69.2% were White non-Hispanic. School physical education (PE) teachers or principals responded to 15 yes/no questions on school physical activity-supportive practices. School SES (low, moderate, high) was derived from the percent of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. Children's moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school was measured with accelerometers. School level analyses involved linear and logistic regression; children's MVPA analyses used mixed effects regression. Low-SES schools were less likely to have a PE teacher and had fewer physical activity-supportive PE practices than did high-SES schools (p active travel to school were more favorable at low-SES schools (p schools had 4.4 minutes per day more of MVPA during school than did those at low-SES schools, but this finding was not statistically significant (p = .124). These findings suggest that more low- and moderate-SES elementary schools need PE teachers in order to reduce disparities in school physical activity opportunities and that PE time needs to be supplemented by classroom teachers or other staff to meet guidelines.

  9. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN BLIND CHILDREN: ISFAHAN ABABASIR BOARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAJAI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate dietary intake causes malnutrition associated with poor physical and mental development, specially in children. This study evaluated the nutritional status in blind children in Ababasir Boarding Center (a boarding school in Isfahan city. Methods: A 72 hours food regimen survey was measured in 50 subjects (boys and girls by weighting method. The anthropometric data was collected to compare with NCHS normal data. Results: Energy intake was less than 75 percent RDA in all the subjects and the amounts of animal protein intake was also little. Chronic malnutrition was more prevalent. Discussion: Althought the energy intake was lower than RDA, but it did not cause under weight among them probably because of reduced physical activity due to their disability and inadequate high quality protein and other nutrients probably could be the major cause in chronic malnutrition.

  10. Perceptions of animal welfare by children in primary school

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    António Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify children’s perceptions of the welfare of animals. The study sample consisted of 123 children aged 8 to 10, attending primary schools, who were interviewed. The questions were designed so as to generate both anthropocentric (centred on the interests of the human being and/or biocentric (centred on the interests of other beings arguments. Results showed a high incidence of biocentric arguments, associated with a contact with animals in places where nature is managed (zoos and other thematic places with animals, thus contradicting the idea that children have an exclusive utilitarian view of animals. Some of them even seem to understand the ecological role of animals, and produce reasons of an ecocentric character.

  11. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  12. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... normally.5 Furthermore, research has shown that dietary habits in childhood impact ... implemented globally, focusing mainly on obesity, the importance of ... the same group of 10 randomly selected primary school children.

  13. Physical growth and nutritional status assessment of school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical growth and nutritional status assessment of school children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Background: Physical growth of a child is a reflection of its state of nutrition. ... have normal growth with the remainder in both extremes of malnutrition.

  14. Daytime sleepiness and associated factors in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alexandru; Sekine, Michikazu; Hamanishi, Shimako; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Hongbing; Yamagami, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2007-11-01

    To examine daytime sleepiness and sleepiness interrelationship with sleep-wake patterns, eating habits, physical activity, and TV/video game time. A cross-sectional survey with 9,261 school children (mean age of 12.8 years) from 93 junior high schools in Toyama prefecture, Japan. The main outcome measures were daytime sleepiness during schooldays and sleepiness interrelationship with sleep-wake patterns, eating habits, physical activity, and visual media use. A total of 2,328 children (25.2%) reported sleepiness almost always and 4,401 (47.6%) sleepiness often. Regarding sex difference, a higher proportion of girls reported sleepiness in comparison to boys (79% vs 66%, P media use time. Sleep insufficiency represents a main cause for daytime sleepiness in Japanese junior high school children. Proper sleep habits, high physical activity level, and limited TV viewing time should be promoted among school children.

  15. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  16. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  17. Dental Occlusion among School Going Children of Maharashtra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Mukesh; Banerjee, Prasenjit; Gondhalekar, Rajesh; Gondhalekar, Rajeshri; Lall, Rajeev; Parwani, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    A dental survey was conducted among the school going children of age group 6-13 yrs, focused to find out incidence of malocclusion so as to predict the probable time at which preventive measures can be taken...

  18. Real Life Results? Multisystem Support for Dysphasic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroma, Marjatta; And Others

    The study assessed the use of Blissymbols in the spoken and signed language development of 10 school-aged (mean age 11.5 years) children with developmental dysphasia of whom four also were mildly retarded. The students' expressive abilities in signed and spoken words were initially assessed before the Bliss teaching began, and then again after 1…

  19. Relationship of Teacher Training and School Characteristics to Middle School State Assessment Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tina J.; Hicklin, Lori K.; French, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined. Method: Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and…

  20. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  1. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P school level factors. The greatest differences occurred after-school (MPA = 5.5 minutes, VPA = 3.8 minutes, P active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial. PMID:22672654

  2. Long Term Impact Of The Non Formal Pre School Education Component Of Icds On The Mental Status Of School Going Children

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    Sachar R K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the long term impact of non formal pre-school education component of ICDS on the mental status of school children? Objective: To assess and compare the long-term impact of the preschool education component of ICDS on the mental development in rural and urban children in the school going age group (6-12 yrs. Study design: With and without non-formal education exposure. Setting: Two ICDS blocks one urban and one rural in Ludhiana district. Participants: School going children in age group 6-12 yrs. Sample Size: 360 children, (180 each from urban and rural school going children from 30 schools. Study Variables: Age, Sex. Place of residence, previous ICDS attendance. Outcome Variable: present mental status by Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard Error of difference between means. Results: The children exposed to non-formal pre-school education through ICDS in younger life had better mental status than those who did not receive such stimulation. Urban children of higher age groups i.e, 8-10yrs, had better mental status than similar group of rural children. No sex difference was noted in between similar groups. Recommendation: Non-formal pre-school education component of ICDS is highly cost-effective measure in promoting mental development and serves very useful purpose in our present situation.

  3. Middle school children's game playing preferences: Case studies of children's experiences playing and critiquing science-related educational games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran

    The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.

  4. Work specifics with children at the hospital school

    OpenAIRE

    Čonková, Klára

    2008-01-01

    This graduation theses consider a children theme, whose health requires hospitalization and solving their education problem. The hospital school taking care of education and training process assurance, but work with children individualize certain specifics, which is target the graduation theses. Differentness of education coming out from psychology of sick child, family members and the hospital environment. This graduation theses presents operation basic school in the hospital and introduce e...

  5. Evaluation of speech in noise abilities in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nádia Giulian; Novelli, Carolina Verônica Lino; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the perception of speech in noise in children with poor school performance and to compare them with children with good school performance, considering gender, age and ear side as variables. The intelligibility of speech was evaluated in school children utilizing the Brazilian Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in the situations of quiet (Q), Left ear competitive noise (NL), Right Ear Competitive Noise (NR), as well as the global average of other hearing situations, denominated Noise Composite (NC). Ninety seven school children between the ages of 8 and 10 were recruited in five schools of São Paulo-Brazil; the control group (CG) consisted of 54 students (23 male/ 31 female) without language and/or speech difficulties and good school performance, and the study group (SG) consisted of 43 students (28 male/ 15 female) identified by their teachers as having poor school performance. The variables gender and ear side did not interfere in speech perception. The age variable influenced only the CG. The SG had worse performance than the CG in the Q, NF and NC conditions. NF was the most difficult for both groups. The perception of speech in noise was the worst in children with poor school performance. The variables gender and ear side did not interfere in speech perception. The age group variable influenced the performance of the group of children with good school performance, demonstrating a better ability in older children. The speech perception in noise ability is more difficult for both groups when the noise affects both ears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5s, but also to children of school age group. Programmes at reducing vitamin A deficiency in this country should therefore incorporate children in this age group. Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency, School aged children, Prevalence ...

  7. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  8. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SULUR - COIMBATORE

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    Abhirami Kannan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a universal health problem with involving the people globally of all regions and society. The agonising fact is that despite several efforts towards total eradication, dental caries is still prevalent. As the prevalence of dental caries is very high among school children and there is a paucity of such data in Coimbatore and the literature review does not reveal many such studies from this area, the study was conducted in the school going children in Sulur. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. A health screening camp was conducted for the students in private school, Sulur, February 20-25, 2017, by a team of doctors from PSG UHTC. A total of 1945 students were screened. The students health details have been entered in their health card and those requiring further evaluation have been counseled and the nursing staff at school has been requested to facilitate and guide for followup. All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. All the students who were present in school during 20th to 25th were screened and considered as the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were the absentees during this period. The students were made to sit in an ordinary chair in broad daylight facing away from the sunlight and examined in their school. Data were compiled in an excel worksheet and the percentage calculated. RESULTS A total of 1945 students were screened, of which, 541 students were found to have dental problems that is about 28% of the total screening done. The percentage of dental caries were found to be higher compared to other dental diseases like deep caries, malalignment, malocclusion and calculus. The percentage of dental caries was found to be higher in the females about 78% than the male for whom it was about 72%. The percentage of deep

  10. Family Characteristics of Anxious ADHD Children: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Hayden O.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Method: Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. Results: ADHD families are uniformly less…

  11. School readiness among children insured by Medicaid, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, William B; Hulsey, Thomas C; Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a schedule of age-specific well-child visits through age 21 years. For children insured by Medicaid, these visits are called Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT). These visits are designed to promote physical, emotional, and cognitive health. Six visits are recommended for the first year of life, 3 for the second year. We hypothesized that children with the recommended visits in the first 2 years of life would be more likely than others to be ready for school when they finish kindergarten. We studied children insured by Medicaid in South Carolina, born during 2000 through 2002 (n = 21,998). Measures included the number of EPSDT visits in the first 2 years of life and an assessment of school readiness conducted at the end of kindergarten. We used logistic regression to examine the adjusted association between having the recommended visits and school readiness, controlling for characteristics of mothers, infants, prenatal care and delivery, and residence area. Children with the recommended visits had 23% higher adjusted odds of being ready for school than those with fewer visits. EPSDT may contribute to school readiness for children insured by Medicaid. Children having fewer than the recommended EPSDT visits may benefit from school readiness programs.

  12. Symptomatic vergence disorders in junior high school children in Ghana

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    Charles Darko-Takyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optometrists in Ghana are hampered in performing comprehensive binocular vision assessments, because of the lack of appropriate instruments leading to a paucity of data on vergence disorders and their association with asthenopia among Ghanaian school children.Aim: To establish the prevalence of symptomatic vergence disorders among junior high school (JHS children in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana, in their habitual (vision states and investigate if there were any associations between these disorders and specific asthenopic symptoms.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from JHSs in Cape Coast Metropolis. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive binocular vision assessment in their habitual vision state.Results: The prevalence of symptomatic vergence disorders among JHS children in Cape Coast Metropolis was 14.8%. For specific symptomatic vergence disorders, the prevalence was: 1.4% basic esophoria, 1.4% basic exophoria, 8.6% convergence insufficiency, 1.8% convergence excess, 0.8% fusional vergence dysfunctions and 0.8% divergence excess. No participant had symptomatic divergence insufficiency. The study revealed significant associations between some specific symptomatic vergence disorders and specific asthenopic symptoms even though all of these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other vergence disorders.Conclusion: Presenting complaints of specific asthenopic symptoms does not differentiate between specific types of vergence disorders. A comprehensive binocular vision assessment is vital in the diagnosis and management of these disorders to relieve asthenopia.

  13. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-05-04

    In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer

  14. A STUDY OF VISION SCREENING IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF 7-15 YEARS

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    Lakshmoji Naidu Kotipalli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Good vision is key to a child’s physical development, success in school and overall well-being. It is essential to check children’s vision when they are first born and again during infancy, preschool and school years. AIM The aim of the study is to screen the vision in school going children to detect any refractive errors and to prevent permanent blindness in East Godavari district, AP. MATERIALS & METHODS This is a cross sectional study of 2887 school children among Government and Private Schools in the area of Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, over a period of 2 years. RESULTS The observations from the study were analysed and compared with the existing literature and the factors influencing the prevalence of refractive errors were studied. CONCLUSION The incidence of Refractive Errors in this study was found to be 7.34%. The present study also indicates that the school age represents high risk group for refractive errors.

  15. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children

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    Hans-Peter Hutter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5 were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]. Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM. Results: Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl-phosphate (TCEP in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. Conclusions: POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  16. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

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    Filiz ARSLAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401

  17. Gender Differences In Pretend Play Amongst School Children In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thus explores gender differences in pretend play in children between the ages of 3 and 5 years, in the pre-school section of a local primary school in Durban, KwazuluNatal, regarding gender influences on pretend play. The paper further examines the implications of the findings for child-care and gender role socialization

  18. A Neighborhood Watch Program for Inner-City School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Ramon M.; Ornelas, Vincent; Garcia, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a multimethod study of a neighborhood watch program designed to protect inner city school children from violence while traveling from home and school. Analysis indicated that in addition to contributing to perceptions of enhanced safety, the program also served to improve the quality of neighborhood interaction. Discusses implications…

  19. Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study led…

  20. Student/Patient: The School Perceptions of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Jessika C.; Winsor, Denise L.; Mandrell, Belinda; Gattuso, Jami; West, Nancy; Leigh, Laurie; Grissom, Shawna M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer incidence is rising, affecting a growing proportion of elementary school students. For most of these children, school attendance can be limited by hospitalisations, treatments and side effects. However, little is yet known about the educational needs and experiences of this population. This phenomenological study explored the…