Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access to iodized salt in Zambia. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... It was carried out in 2011 and entailed determining the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among 1, 283 school children from 30 selected schools and the amount ...
This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...
... DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage. Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ...
No significant gender difference in prevalence between boys. (67.8%) ... species were identified in DRSTP school children, of which 9 species were pathogenic and the remaining 3 were ... with lower scores on tests of mental performance and.
Background: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: This was a cross sectional ...
Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Methods: In April 2003, fresh stool samples were collected from 259 students enrolled in two primary schools located in southeast of Lake Langano.
Rivers Patrick A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.
Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 922 school children, consisting of 463 (50.2%) males and 459 (49.8%) females were studied. The response rate was 82.2%. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 23.2%. Enuresis was notably more common in boys (male: female ratio ...
Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.
The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind...... the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital...
Crowding in the upper (11.1%) and lower anterior segment (12%) were ... normal occlusion in less than a third of. Nigerian children ... missing permanent teeth, impacted / ... DISTRIBUTION OF ANTERO POSTERIOR MOLAR RELATIONSHIP.
Kathariya, Mitesh D; Nikam, Atul Pralhad; Chopra, Kirti; Patil, Namrata N; Raheja, Hitesh; Kathariya, Renuka
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies according to gender among children. This cross-sectional study was conducted a group of 600 children, of them 293 (48.8%) were males and 275 (45.8%) females which were taken with proper sampling technique. Type III clinical examination was done to know the prevalence of dental anomalies. The Statistical software namely SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Chi-square test was used at p value of 0.05 or less. Impactions (39.2%) were the most common anomaly in this study and most of the impacted teeth were related to maxilla. A significant difference was seen in case of hypodontia, microdontia and talons cusp according to gender in which first two anomalies were more among females and last one among males. Children with one dental anomaly were 25.8%, and 13.4% were having more than one. The percentage of dental anomalies were high specially impaction and rotated teeth. So these anomalies should be treated earlier to avoid further complications. How to cite this article: Kathariya MD, Nikam AP, Chopra K, Patil NN, Raheja H, Kathariya R. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies among School Going Children in India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):10-4.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima
To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.
Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...
Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad
Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a universal health problem with involving the people globally of all regions and society. The agonising fact is that despite several efforts towards total eradication, dental caries is still prevalent. As the prevalence of dental caries is very high among school children and there is a paucity of such data in Coimbatore and the literature review does not reveal many such studies from this area, the study was conducted in the school going children in Sulur. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. A health screening camp was conducted for the students in private school, Sulur, February 20-25, 2017, by a team of doctors from PSG UHTC. A total of 1945 students were screened. The students health details have been entered in their health card and those requiring further evaluation have been counseled and the nursing staff at school has been requested to facilitate and guide for followup. All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. All the students who were present in school during 20th to 25th were screened and considered as the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were the absentees during this period. The students were made to sit in an ordinary chair in broad daylight facing away from the sunlight and examined in their school. Data were compiled in an excel worksheet and the percentage calculated. RESULTS A total of 1945 students were screened, of which, 541 students were found to have dental problems that is about 28% of the total screening done. The percentage of dental caries were found to be higher compared to other dental diseases like deep caries, malalignment, malocclusion and calculus. The percentage of dental caries was found to be higher in the females about 78% than the male for whom it was about 72%. The percentage of deep
Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural
Yousef H. Aldebasi
Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected RE in children is relatively high and represents an important public health problem in school-aged children in Qassim province. Performance of routine periodical vision screening throughout childhood may reverse this situation.
A study of geohelminthes infections among primary school children aged 8 to 13 years was conducted in four selected primary schools in Panda Development Area, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of four hundred and eighty (480) soil samples collected from the four schools, 314 (82.63) were found to be positive ...
Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.
M OMRANI FARD
Full Text Available Introduction. Bifid uvulae is a silent abnormality in children which can almost exist without clinical problems but in some instances it is accompanied with either sub mucosal cleft and hypernasality.
Methods. In a cross sectional study, the examiners carried out oral examination of 3000 children and the structure of the uvulae was evaluated as normal or bifid.
Results. The prevalence of bifid uvula was 0.8 percent (25 children. Positive family history, familial marriage and positive teratogen exposure history were detected in four, twenty and eight percent of bifid uvalae cases, respectively.
Discussion. Bifid uvulue prevalence in European and American children was reported more than our findings. This gap may be due to different cultural habits as well as environmental factors.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of acute malnutrition in pre-school children in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Four kindergartens in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Subjects: Pre-school children attending kindergartens in Karma Albald village (n ...
Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...
Basañez, Irving; Nakku, Doreen; Stangl, Susan; Wanna, George B
Hearing loss in children is a common entity worldwide. We examined the prevalence and etiology of hearing loss among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. Cross-sectional study in primary school children aged 5-14 was performed to determine the prevalence of hearing loss. Ugandan primary school children were screened for disabling hearing loss (threshold >30dB) and confirmatory audiometry was performed on those who failed the screening. There were 639 children screened. Thirty-five (5.5%) of children screened failed and were referred for further testing. Two children were lost to follow-up. The percentage of children with true hearing loss was 3.1%. The incidence of failed hearing screening and hearing loss in Mbarara, Uganda is similar to other populations. Hearing loss is a significant problem in Uganda and efforts should be made for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.
Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.
Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p<0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156
Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.
Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda
Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.
Nesamony Maneksh Kumar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is defined as having excess body fat due to ‘calorie imbalance’ -too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on health and well-being. This study is aimed to highlight the burden of obesity among school children. The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of obesity among school children aged 11-15 years and to compare prevalence of obesity among school children of government and private schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS School-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2 private and 2 government schools of a rural area in Trivandrum district. Total 800 students (200 from each school aged 11-15 years in 6 th to 10 th standards were selected by systematic random sampling and consent were obtained. Height (cm and weight (kg were measured using stadiometer and standardised weighing machine, respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated and categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. The prevalence is expressed in percentages. RESULTS In this study, the total prevalence of overweight and obesity among the total 800 school children is found to be 4% and 1%, respectively. An alarming incidental finding is that the underweight prevalence is 61%, which is significantly high and should be addressed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity is 4.25% and 1.75%, respectively in private schools, whereas it is 3.5% and 1%, respectively, in government schools. There is not a significant difference between private and government school children. This may be due to the awareness about problems of obesity and its effects among school children and also timely health checkups in the schools. CONCLUSION This study done in a rural area found that there is a significant prevalence of obesity and overweight as well as a very high prevalence of underweight. It indicates that childhood obesity is an emerging health problem in rural areas
Pham, Hoai Danh; Nguyen, Huu Bao Han; Tran, Diep Tuan
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children. It affects not only the subjects but also their families and society. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in South Vietnam, especially Vinh Long province. Children were chosen randomly from primary schools in Vinh Long from February to March in 2009 in a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of ADHD using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV for parents/caregivers and teachers. ADHD Rating Scale-IV was based on DSM-IV for diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 600 children were chosen and 1200 reports were collected from parents/caregivers and teachers. The prevalence rate of ADHD was 7.7%. The rates of the predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive type and combined type were 1.7%, 5% and 1%, respectively. The difference in sex was not significant across all subtypes. The prevalence of ADHD in urban children was 2.2-fold that in rural children. The prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Vinh Long, southern Vietnam, is in the same range as other regions in the world. Therefore, awareness of ADHD needs to be raised, to ensure suitable psychiatric care for children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Ahmad, T.; Bilal, R.; Khanum, A.
Most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected individuals remain asymptomatic, but the presence of H. pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite the fact of high prevalence of H. pylori infection around the world, data about its prevalence in children in Pakistan is scanty. Our study was the first epidemiologic study in Pakistan designed to assess H. pylori prevalence in a school based population of children without gastrointestinal symptoms. The children were enrolled from three schools in the suburbs of Islamabad and their anthropometric data were noted. The non-invasive urea breath test was applied to find the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Overall, 72.3% of apparently healthy children were harboring the H. pylori bacterium and the prevalence was 69% in 3-6 years, 71% in 7-8 years, 79% in 9-10 years, 76% in 11-12 years and 55% in 13-16 years of age. The prevalence decreased in the higher age group significantly, while gender was not a risk factor for acquiring this infection as the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in males and females (74.0% vs. 70.3%, p=0.41). The lower prevalence in higher age group might be explained by change in degree of contact, Increasing antibody production with increasing age or improvement in sanitary habits of children as compared to younger children. (author)
Carr, Tara F; Beamer, Paloma I; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A; Gerald, Lynn B; Rosales, Cecilia B; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Pivniouk, Oksana N; Vercelli, Donata; Halonen, Marilyn; Gameros, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando D; Wright, Anne L
Mexican-born children living in the United States have a lower prevalence of asthma than other US children. Although children of Mexican descent near the Arizona (AZ)-Sonora border are genetically similar, differences in environmental exposures might result in differences in asthma prevalence across this region. The objective of this study was to determine if the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in these children varies across the AZ-Sonora border. The International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children written and video questionnaires were administered to 1753 adolescents from 5 middle schools: Tucson (school A), Nogales, AZ (schools B, C), and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico (schools D, E). The prevalence of asthma and symptoms was compared, with analyses in the AZ schools limited to self-identified Mexican American students. Compared with the Sonoran reference school E, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma was significantly higher in US schools A (OR 4.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.72-8.80), B (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.88-6.42), and C (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.78-9.60). The adjusted OR for wheeze in the past year was significantly higher in schools A (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.20-4.01) and B (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.42-5.01) on the written questionnaire and significantly higher in A (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.22-3.75), B (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.07-3.53), and Sonoran school D (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.28-4.30) on the video questionnaire compared with school E. Asthma and wheeze prevalence differed significantly between schools and was higher in the United States. Environmental factors that may account for these differences could provide insight into mechanisms of protection from asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools. All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a no violence, (b victimization only, or (c perpetration (with or without victimization. Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration.49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting
Corboz, Julienne; Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel
Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting and
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda
Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.
Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.
Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (<-2 SD of height-for-age Z-score) were defined by using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.
Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children.
Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul
Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into focus of the mankind. To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 year old government and private school children of Bharatpur city. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on total 1400 school children, of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental caries according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Significant Caries Index was also used to assess the prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among government school children, that is, 53%, when compared to private school children, that is, 47% and this difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth were found to be higher in government school children (7.61 ± 2.86) as compared to private school children (4.76 ± 2.42). Dental caries was found to be the major public health problems among both the government and private school children of Bharatpur city, which need immediate attention. Regular dental checkups and practice of routine oral hygiene procedures will enable them to lead a healthier life.
Satyajit Bagudai; Pranati Nanda; Satyanath Reddy Kodidala
Background: In the prevailing era of adult hypertension, limited data are available regarding the profile of childhood obesity & hypertension from India. We examined & studied the prevalence of childhood obesity & hypertension in a representative sample of school children from Berhampur, Odisha & tried to find out if any relationship is there or not between obesity & hypertension in those study population. Methods: In a cross sectional study we select the children from different schools o...
Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mutiso, Victoria; Musyimi, Christine; Mokaya, Aggrey G; Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame; Musau, Abednego
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among upper primary school children in grades five through seven in Kenya. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use in Kenyan schools and administered to 2267 school children in grades five through seven from 23 randomly selected schools. We estimated the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders, and used logistic regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder among Kenyan school children was 37.7 % (95 % CI = 35.7-39.7 %). Somatic complaints were the most prevalent (29.6 %, 95 % CI = 27.8-31.5 %), followed by affective disorders (14.1 %, 95 % CI = 12.7-15.6 %) and conduct disorder (12.5 %, 95 % CI = 11.2-13.9). The presence of one or more comorbid mental disorder was seen among 18.2 % (95 % CI = 16.6-19.8 %) of children. Male sex, living in a peri-urban vs. rural area, being held back in school, having divorced or separated parents, and having an employed mother were associated with an increased likelihood of having most of the mental disorders examined, whereas increasing age was associated with a reduced likelihood. We observed a high prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kenya. If not detected early, these disorders may interfere with children's psychological, social, and educational development. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing screening measures in schools that can detect single and multiple disorders in order to improve the mental health and well-being of the next generation.
Shrestha, A; Narayan, K C; Sharma, R
This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-going children of the Baglung municipality from December 2010 to January 2011. To find out prevalence of parasitosis among school aged children and to make necessary recommendations for preventive measures. A total of 260 stool samples were collected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on predisposing factors. Nails were observed without prior information to the subjects so as to find their hygienic practice. The stool samples were examined by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration technique. The total prevalence of the intestinal parasitosis was found to be 21.05%. The prevalence for individual parasites was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (9.23%), Giardia lamblia (5.76%), Trichuris trichuria (5%), Ancylostoma duodenale (2.65%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.3%). Nail hygiene and level of education were significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. The gender and age of the children, sanitary habits including toilet use, hand washing practice, and the use of the antihelminthic drug (albendazole) were not significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. Higher prevalence was seen in boys, children belonging to age group 10-14 years, lower secondary students, among those who reported gastrointestinal problems within last six months, children from agriculture-based families and children with untrimmed nail. Major contributors for the prevalence of parasites were found to be poor personal hygiene and educational level of the children. Health education and mass treatment are recommended as a preventive measures.
Gupta, Madhu; Gupta, Bhupinder P; Chauhan, Anil; Bhardwaj, Ashok
Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India's blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Cross-sectional. Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%), refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%), squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%), color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%), vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%), conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%). Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P< 0.5) more in government schools. A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders.
Full Text Available Background: Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India′s blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Settings: Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Design: Cross-sectional Materials and Methods: Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. Statistical analysis: The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%, refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%, squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%, color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%, vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%, conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%. Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P< 0.5 more in government schools. Conclusion: A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders.
Aldebasi, Yousef H
The worldwide prevalence of refractive errors (RE), which is a common cause of treatable visual impairment among children, varies widely. We assessed the prevalence of correctable visual impairment (uncorrected RE) in primary school children in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 21 primary schools. A total of 5176 children (mean age 9.5±1.8 years), 2573 boys (49.7%) and 2603 girls (50.3%), underwent a comprehensive eye examination. The examinations consisted of visual acuity, autorefraction, cover test, ocular motility, pupillary evaluation, anterior segment examination, cycloplegic auto-refraction and dilated fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscopy. The children were divided into groups based on their age and gender. The overall prevalence of RE in the better eye was 18.6% (n=963), and the prevalence of uncorrected RE 16.3% (n=846), with only 2.3% (n=127) of children wearing spectacles during examination. The prevalence of uncorrected myopia (5.8%) and myopic astigmatism (5.4%) was higher compared to that of hyperopic astigmatism (2.7%), mixed astigmatism (1.7%) and hyperopia (0.7%). The anisometropia prevalence was 3.6%. Risks for astigmatism, myopia and anisometropia were positively associated with age. In addition, myopia and anisometropia risks were also associated with female gender, while risk of astigmatism was correlated with male gender. Few children with vision reducing RE wore spectacles; an additional 16.3% of children could benefit from spectacle prescription. The prevalence of uncorrected RE in children is relatively high and represents an important public health problem in school-aged children in Qassim province. Performance of routine periodical vision screening throughout childhood may reverse this situation. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Farsi, Deema J; Elkhodary, Heba M; Merdad, Leena A; Farsi, Najat M A; Alaki, Sumer M; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Bakhaidar, Haneen A; Alolayyan, Mohammed A
To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child's caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results: Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p less than 0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p less than 0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC.
Ishikuro, Mami; Matsubara, Hiroko; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi
To investigate the relationship between personal experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake and various disease types among nursery school children. We conducted a nationwide survey of nursery school children born between 2 April 2006 and 1 April 2007. Nursery school teachers completed questionnaires if they agreed to join the study. Questionnaire items for children consisted of their birth year and month, sex, any history of moving into or out of the current nursery school, presence of diseases diagnosed by a physician at the age of 66-78 months and type of disaster experience. The survey was conducted from September 2012 to December 2012. Japan, nationwide. A total of 60 270 nursery school children were included in the analysis, 840 of whom experienced the disaster on 11 March 2011. The health status of children 1.5 years after the disaster based on nursery school records. Experiencing the disaster significantly affected the prevalence of overall and individual diseases. Furthermore, there was a difference in disease prevalence between boys and girls. In boys, experiencing the tsunami (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.24) and living in an evacuation centre (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.83) were remarkably associated with a higher prevalence of atopic dermatitis, but these trends were not observed among girls. Instead, the home being destroyed (OR 3.50, 95% CI 2.02 to 6.07) and moving house (OR 4.19, 95% CI 2.01 to 8.71) were positively associated with a higher prevalence of asthma among girls. Our study indicates that experiencing the disaster may have affected the health status of nursery school children at least up to 1.5 years after the disaster. Continuous monitoring of the health status of children is necessary to develop strategic plans for child health.
Calderara, P C; Gerthoux, P M; Mocarelli, P; Lukinmaa, P L; Tramacere, P L; Alaluusua, S
This epidemiological study in a group of Italian children was undertaken in order to increase our knowledge of the prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in different European countries. A population of school children aged 7.3 - 8.3 years, living in Lissone, Northern Italy, was examined for the presence and severity of MIH. Of a total of 227 children (113 females), 31 (13.7%) had MIH, the tooth prevalence in the permanent first molars being 5.8%. Fifteen children (6.6%) had demarcated opacities in the incisors with a tooth prevalence of 2.1%. The defects in the molars were mild with the exception of one child who had severe defects. MIH was quite common in this Italian town, and the prevalence figures were near those reported in Scandinavian countries but clearly higher than those from Dresden, Germany.
Full Text Available Background Obesity has a permanent effect on childrens’ health and acts as a major risk factor for chronic diseases. Therefore considering children BMI is a vital parameter at each visit. Objectives This study was performed to assess the prevalence of obesity and its determinants in school children of Zahedan in Iran. Zahedan is the capital of Sistan-and-Balouchestan province known to have the highest prevalence of underweight in Iranian children. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 3582 school children, among which 1786 were girls and 1796 boys in 2012. The students aged 6 to 13 years old and selected based on a stratified random method. The body mass index (BMI was measured for each student and being overweight/obesity was determined based on CDC 2000 definitions. Prevalence proportions were estimated by weighing the sample. The study was performed at primary and guidance schools of Zahedan. Samples were stratified from two geographic regions of Zahedan (Zone 1 and 2. Results In the sample, 78.9% were under 85th percentile, 11.8% were overweight (85th - 95th percentile and 9.3% were obese (> 95th percentile. Weighted estimate for the prevalence of obesity/overweight in girls, boys and all 6 - 13 years old students were 16.2%, 18.4% and 17.4%, respectively. Presence of overweight/obesity was related to school type (private to public schools OR = 2.13, 1.80 - 2.52 and increasing age (OR = 1.12, 1.04 - 1.20. Conclusions A high prevalence of obesity was found in Zahedan students. Concurrent high prevalence of obesity/overweight and underweight demonstrates amplitude of weight problems in school children. There is an urgent need for special health programs to conduct proper diagnosis and management of obesity in Zahedan.
Abou Ella, Mahmoud; Saleh, Marwa; Habil, Ihab; El Sawy, Mohammed; El Assal, Lamia
To determine the prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo. A cross-sectional design was employed. Using a multi-stage random sample from 10 schools in Cairo, a total of 8765 primary school students were enrolled in the study. The teacher referring method was initially used to detect stuttering students, which was then confirmed by a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Personal data were collected for all students and separate questionnaires were administered to the parents of each stuttering child, inquiring about consanguinity, family history, presence of other disorders and family attitudes towards the child. Prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo was 1.03%. The prevalence of stuttering showed a declining trend in the older age group. Stuttering was 7-fold more prevalent among left-handed students. Males had a higher prevalence of stuttering, but didn't reach statistical significance. Anxiety was expressed in 25% of the families of affected children. Positive family history was found in 28% of cases, mainly among first-degree relatives. The current study showed a prevalence of stuttering comparable to other areas of the world with some evidence of hereditary background, although lower than that reported by other studies.
Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T
Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel
Background Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children’s physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children’s peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children’s peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. Methods A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls’ and four boys’ schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. Results 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed
Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan
To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; POverweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, Poverweight and obesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.
Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A
Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, Phistory compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research Question: What influence does diet and physical activity have on the occurence of overweight and obesity in school aged children? Objectives: To study the diet and physical activity factors influencing overweight and obesity in school aged children. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Settings: Field Practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut. Participants: 400 children between 5-14 years age group Statistical Analysis: Chi Square Test Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children was 9.8% and 3.7% respectively. Among dietary factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with consumption of >3 meals per day(P<0.001, habit of eating in between meals(P<0.05 and in having dinner as the heaviest meal of the day (P<0.02. Among physical activity factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with the habit of not playing outdoor games (P<0.001, not participating in household activities(P<0.001, using some vehicular transport to go to school (P<0.001 and watching T.V. for more than 3hrs/day(P<0.001.Conclusion:Diet and Physical activity have an influence on occurrence of overweight and obesity in school aged children. Dietary and lifestyle modification must be advised to children to prevent occurrence of overweight and obesity in them.
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural. Refractive error (17.36% was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%, blepharitis (2.11%, Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%, allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%, bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%, amblyopia (0.41%, stye (0.31% and squint (0.27%. There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05% in the rural (3.03% as compared to the urban sector (1.15%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35% of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load.
Singh, Veer; Malik, K P S; Malik, V K; Jain, Kirti
Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females) were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural). Refractive error (17.36%) was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%), blepharitis (2.11%), Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%), allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%), bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%), amblyopia (0.41%), stye (0.31%) and squint (0.27%). There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05%) in the rural (3.03%) as compared to the urban sector (1.15%). The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35%) of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load. PMID:28643716
Savitha Deepthi Yannam
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.
Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.
Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079
DePaolis, Kathryn; Williford, Anne
Background: Despite growing concern about the impact of cyberbullying on youth, few studies to date have investigated this phenomenon among elementary school samples. Consequently, little is known about cyber victimization exposure among younger children. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and nature of cyber…
Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of MS in elementary school children in our region, screening for obesity is recommended to prevent adulthood complications. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are the most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence and features of ocular allergy (OA and comorbidities among school children in Shanghai, China. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Each participant completed an ISAAC-based questionnaire. The prevalence of OA symptoms, allergic rhinitis (AR asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD, and sensitization to mites, pollen, and food was analyzed. Results. A total of 724 and 942 completed questionnaires from the 7–9-year-old (young group and the 12–14-year-old (teen group groups were analyzed, respectively. The overall prevalence of OA symptoms was 28%. However, more young students (10.6% reported mild to severe daily life interference caused by OA than the teens (5.7%. The young group had higher prevalence of diagnosed allergic conjunctivitis (10.2%. The overall prevalence of AR symptom, diagnosed asthma, and diagnosed AD was 40.4%, 11.6%, and 16.7%, respectively. Young children had higher prevalence of diagnosed AR and AD than the teens. There were gender associated differences in the prevalence of AR and asthma among young children, but not among the teens. The comorbidities associated with OA was also analyzed. Sensitization to mites, food, and pollen was associated with higher prevalence of allergic conditions. Conclusions. OA together with other allergic conditions affected a significant number of children in Shanghai.
Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M
To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007. Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P overweight and obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda
Background Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Conclusions Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease. PMID:25330010
Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal
To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.
Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M
Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.
Rashid, H.; Javaid, A.; Mehmood, M.; Anwar, A.; Anwar, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Joiya, H.U.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity among the school- going children (6 and 7 grade) of Lahore and ascertain the associated factors. Method: A descriptive study with sample size of 293 children conducted over a period of four months in two private sector schools of Lahore. Information was gathered by the help of a pre designed questionnaire after getting formal consent from parents. Children included in the study were healthy with no reported chronic illness. Body weight was measured in minimal clothing using a weight scale; body height was measured in erect posture without shoes using a stadiometer. Obesity, underweight and overweight were defined by plotting BMI against age (in months and years) on WHO BMI-for-age (5-19 years [percentiles]) charts. Results: Out of 293 children 11.9% were obese (more than 97 percentile) while 21.8% were overweight (85 97 percentile). Among obese children 74.3% were found to watch TV for 1-2 hours daily while 25.7% watch TV for 3-4 hours. 48.6% of obese children did not participate in any field sports while 34.3% have less than 3 hours participation in field sports. Among parents of obese children, 60% were found to have little or no influence on their children's food intake at school whereas 22.9% parents of obese children never advise them against eating junk food. Parents think that ban on advertisements promoting unhealthy foods (75.1%) and use of popular media characters in promoting healthy foods (83.6%) and exercise can help in preventing obesity in children. Conclusion: This study shows that high prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in private schools has direct relationship with decreased physical activity and other factors like watching TV, role of media and lack of diet control by parents. (author)
Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J
The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F
The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.
Nqcobo, C B; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Thekiso, M; Joosab, Z
Anecdotal evidence from clinical data in Johannesburg suggests that there is a high burden of dental caries among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Johannesburg. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and Unmet Treatment Needs in children with cerebral palsy, hearing, learning and mental disabilities attending special needs schools in Johannesburg and to compare these with data from the National Children's Oral Health Survey (NCOHS) METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 882 children attending five special needs schools in Johannesburg. Stratified randomised sampling of the participating schools was done and the schools were stratified by disability. Caries status was recorded via the dmft/DMFT index using WHO criteria and guidelines. The mean age of the participants was 10.5 years; with a caries prevalence of 27.55% and 33.56% in the primary and permanent dentition respectively. The highest unmet treatment need of 100% was found in the permanent dentition of the hearing impaired group followed by 90.77% in the primary dentition of the cerebral palsy group. In general no significant difference was found when the dmft/DMFT for CSHCN and NCOHS were compared except in the hearing impaired age groups four to five and six (both primary dentition) where significantly higher dmft scores (3.58 vs. 2.4; 3.85 vs. 2.9; p special health care needs had lower caries prevalence compared with the general population and higher unmet treatment needs regardless of the type of disability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD and obesity (> + 2SD were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P Results Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8 children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7 were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028, however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P Conclusion Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in urban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also examined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in winter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in rural areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeconomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effective management strategies should target this group in the province.
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Caglar, E; Sandalli, N; Panagiotou, N; Tonguc, K; Kuscu, O O
To evaluate the prevalence and aetiology of dental erosion in Greek minority school children living in Istanbul (Turkey). The present study was initiated in four Greek minority elementary schools in Istanbul where a total of 83 children (46 girls, 37 boys) between ages 7-14 years old were examined. Children were categorised into 7-11 and 12-14 ages groups. Data were obtained by clinical examination, questionnaire and standard data records. All tooth surfaces were examined, dental erosion was recorded per tooth and classified according to the index of Lussi et al.  In the 7-11 yrs old group, 47.4% (n:18) of the children exhibited dental erosion while in 12-14 yrs old group, 52.6% (n:20) of the children exhibited dental erosion. There were no statitistical differences between age, gender groups and findings of dental erosion (p>0.05). However prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 yrs old was twice that of the 7-11 years old children. In general, an unusual drinking pattern of slow swallowing of beverages significantly affected the prevalence of dental erosion (p=0.03). Multiple regression analysis revealed no relationship between dental erosion and related erosive sources such as medical conditions, brushing habits, swimming, and the consumption of acidic fruit juices and beverages (p>0.05). However it should be noted that the sample size in the current study was small.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rumination syndrome (RS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. The epidemiology of this condition in school aged children is poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of rumination and other related associations in a cohort of Sri Lankan children. Methods Children aged 10-16 years were randomly selected from 8 schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. RS was diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire distributed in an examination setting. It was translated into Sinhala, the native language and pretested before distribution. Results A total of 2163 children were included in the study (55% boys, mean age 13.4 years, SD 1.8 years. Prevalence of RS was 5.1% (n = 110; boys 5.1% and girls 5.0%. When symptoms were analyzed, 73.6% reported re-swallowing of regurgitated food, while the rest spat it out. In 94.5% regurgitation occurred during the first hour after the meal. Only 8.2% had daily symptoms while 62.7% had symptoms weekly. Abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss were the commonest symptoms associated with RS (19.1%, 17.3% and 11.8% respectively. No significant association was observed between exposure to stressful events and rumination (p > 0.05. Twenty (18.2% with RS fulfilled Rome III criteria for at least one other FGD. School absenteeism was seen in 11.8% of affected children. Conclusion RS was reasonably common in this cohort of school-aged children and adolescents in Sri Lanka. However, symptoms were severe enough to affect schooling only in 12% of affected children. Around one fifth with RS had at least one other overlapping FGD.
Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Unfortunately there are not exact epidemiologic data concerning the prevalence of this disorder in Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma or respiratory symptoms in Isfahan Junior high school children. Methods. From 1998 Oct. to 1999 May. 3986 children from urban junior high schools children were selected by a proportional random cluster sampling. A self administered questionnaire prepared by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC modified by several supplementary questions was distributed among the selected children. The response rate was 98.5 percent (N=3924. Of these children, 2588 pupils who had at least one positive answer referring to respiratory symptoms were invited to AL-Zahra medical center for further evaluation, but 1710 pupils (66 percent of the invited attended the clinic and underwent complete medical interview, physical examination and post-exercise pulmonary function testing. Those children who failed to attend the clinic were examined at their schools (774 cases and 104 absent pupils were not examined. Our criterion for the diagnosis of asthma was the positive history of wheezing and dyspnea. Results. The overall prevalence of asthma was 19.6 percent with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 (P<0.0001. The frequencies of wheezing ever in life and sleep disturbed by wheeze were 31.7 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively. Wheeze and rhoncus on chest auscultation while the children were examined in clinic or school was recorded in 4.2 percent and 3.5 percent of the population, respectively. Pulmonary function tests revealed FEV1:5,80 percent of predicted value (prd in 5.9 percent, FEF 25-75£70 Percent prd in 9.6 percent and FEF75£70 percent prd in 20.5 percent of tested children. The three later findings correlated to history of wheezing and dyspnea (P < 0.0001. Discussion. The prevalence of
Moto, Jedidah Ndunge; Maingi, John Muthini; Nyamache, Anthony Kebira
Tinea capitis is a common infection especially in poor resource settings. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence Tinea capitis in children from selected schools from an urban slum in Nairobi city of Kenya. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 school going children during the period between May and September 2013. A questionnaire was administered and cultures of scalps, skin scrapping/hair stubs samples were performed and the etiological agents identified and confirmed. In a total of one hundred and fifty (150) children recruited 89 (59.3%) were males and 61 (40.7%) females aged between 3 and 14 years. The overall prevalence rates in dermatophytes infection was 81.3% (122/150) with etiological agents consisting Trichophyton spp. (61.3%), Microsporum spp. (13.3%) and Epidermophyton spp. (7.3%) infections with infections occurring either singly (56%), duo (38%) or tipple co-infections (6%). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Tinea infections with Trichophyton tonsurans as the predominant etiological agent in school going children of the urban slums of Nairobi.
Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush
Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3-5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5-16 -year-olds attending grade 1-5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Caries prevalence for 5-6 -year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5-6 -year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year
Prabakar, Jayashri; John, Joseph; Srisakthi, D
Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood that interferes with normal nutrition intake, speech, and daily routine activities. Dental caries is a lifetime disease, and the highest priority risk group is school children. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh. A cross-sectional study was done among school going children of Chandigarh in the age group of 3-17 years. The subjects were selected from four randomly selected schools. All the children from the selected schools were examined. A total of 4493 subjects formed the sample size. Dentition status was assessed using dft index by Gruebbel for primary dentition and DMFT index by Klein, Palmer, Knutson for permanent dentition, respectively. Chi-square test was used to find an association between the study variables. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the mean difference. Among the 4493 study subjects, caries prevalence was found to be 47.3%. Mean dft and DMFT score of the population was 1.06 ± 1.995 and 0.41 ± 1.022, respectively. When analyzing the treatment needs among various age groups 42.6% of the study subjects required oral prophylaxis and 45% required restorative procedures. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.
Few zinc-rich sources appeared in the diet that was predominantly plant-based. Mean dietary zinc intake was 4.6±2.2 mg/day. The mean value of serum zinc was 66.4±21.5 μg/dL, with 46% of the children having values less than the 70 μg/dL cutoff. The findings indicate a high risk of zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc ...
Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie; Obu, Herbert A; Odetunde, Odutola I; Chinawa, Awoere T
Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition where the weight for age, height for age and weight for height indices are below -2 Z-score of the NCHS reference. It has posed a great economic burden to the developing world. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in Abakiliki in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional studies that assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 1-5 years attending nursery and primary schools. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. A total of 616 children aged one to 5 years were enrolled into this study. Three hundred and sixty-seven (59.6%) were males while 249 (40.4%) were females. Sixty of the 616 children (9.7%) had acute malnutrition based on WHZ-score. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was present in 33 children (5.3%) while 27 (4.4%) had severe acute malnutrition. The prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition using z-score is 9.7% and 4.4% respectively while that of stunting is 9.9% with a male preponderance.
Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.
Jansen Pauline W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald
This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.
Haile Fentahun Darge
Full Text Available Background. Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems in developing countries where there is no enough health-care service. Objective. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment among school children. Materials and Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 June 2015 and 30 November 2015 at Arada subcity primary schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two schools were selected randomly, and 378 students were screened from grades 1 to 8 using systematic random sampling method. Snellen chart was used for visual acuity test. Students who had visual acuity of ≤6/12 were further examined by an ophthalmologist to diagnose the reason for low vision. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 378 students were screened, and 192 (50.8% were females and the remaining 186 (49.2% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VA of ≤6/12 on either eye was 5.8%, VA < 6/18 on either eye was 1.1%, and VA < 6/18 on the better eye was 0.53%. In this study, color blindness [OR: 19.65, 95% CI (6.01–64.33] was significantly associated with visual acuity impairment. Conclusion. The prevalence of visual impairment among school children in the study area was 5.8% and school screening is recommended.
Darge, Haile Fentahun; Shibru, Getahun; Mulugeta, Abiy; Dagnachew, Yinebeb Mezgebu
Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems in developing countries where there is no enough health-care service. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment among school children. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 June 2015 and 30 November 2015 at Arada subcity primary schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two schools were selected randomly, and 378 students were screened from grades 1 to 8 using systematic random sampling method. Snellen chart was used for visual acuity test. Students who had visual acuity of ≤6/12 were further examined by an ophthalmologist to diagnose the reason for low vision. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. A total of 378 students were screened, and 192 (50.8%) were females and the remaining 186 (49.2%) were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VA) of ≤6/12 on either eye was 5.8%, VA visual acuity impairment. The prevalence of visual impairment among school children in the study area was 5.8% and school screening is recommended.
Njokama Fidelis O
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%, selling in kiosks and shops (25.4% and farming (23.6%. No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048: this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004. Most of the children (82.2% involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively. Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002. A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.
Bhaya, Maneesha; Panwar, Sadik; Beniwal, Rajesh; Panwar, Raja Babu
It is fairly easy to detect advanced valve lesions of established rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography in the clinically identified cases of rheumatic heart disease. However, to diagnose a subclinical case of rheumatic heart disease, no uniform set of echocardiographic criteria exist. Moderate thickening of valve leaflets is considered an indicator of established rheumatic heart disease. World Health Organization criteria for diagnosing probable rheumatic heart disease are more sensitive and are based on the detection of significant regurgitation of mitral and/or aortic valves by color Doppler. We attempted diagnosing RHD in school children in Bikaner city by cardiac ultrasound. The stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to identify 31 random clusters in the coeducational schools of Bikaner city. We selected 1059 school children aged 6-15 years from these schools. An experienced operator did careful cardiac auscultation and echocardiographic study. A second expert confirmed the echocardiographic findings. The prevalence of lesions suggestive of rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography was 51 per 1,000 (denominator = 1059; 95% CI: 38-64 per 1,000). We were able to clinically diagnose RHD in one child. None of these children or their parents having echocardiographic evidence of RHD could provide a positive history of acute rheumatic fever. By echocardiographic screening, we found a high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in the surveyed population. Clinical auscultation had much lower diagnostic efficacy.
Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar
Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.
Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani
This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali
Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.
Muhihi, Alfa J; Njelekela, Marina A; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Bikolimana G; Anaeli, Amani; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Lujani, Benjamin; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis
Whilst the burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in developing countries, little data is available on blood pressure among Tanzanian children. This study aimed at determining the blood pressure profiles and risk factors associated with elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among 446 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. We measured blood pressure using a standardized digital blood pressure measuring machine (Omron Digital HEM-907, Tokyo, Japan). We used an average of the three blood pressure readings for analysis. Elevated blood pressure was defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile for age, gender and height. The proportion of children with elevated blood pressure was 15.2% (pre-hypertension 4.4% and hypertension 10.8%). No significant gender differences were observed in the prevalence of elevated BP. Increasing age and overweight/obese children were significantly associated with elevated BP (p = 0.0029 and p < 0.0001) respectively. Similar associations were observed for age and overweight/obesity with hypertension. (p = 0.0506 and p < 0.0001) respectively. In multivariate analysis, age above 10 years (adjusted RR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.03-7.82) was significantly and independently associated with elevated BP in this population of school age children. We observed a higher proportion of elevated BP in this population of school age children. Older age and overweight/obesity were associated with elevated BP. Assessment of BP and BMI should be incorporated in school health program in Tanzania to identify those at risk so that appropriate interventions can be instituted before development of associated complications.
Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.
Khader, Yousef; Irshaidat, Omama; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Amarin, Zouhair; Alomari, Mousa; Batieha, Anwar
To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine their associated factors among school children aged 6-12 years in the north of Jordan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children in the north of Jordan in the period between March 2006 and May 2006. A total of 2,131 children (1,052 boys and 1,079 girls) were selected at random using multistage cluster sampling method. The first part of the questionnaire was completed by pupils in schools and the second part was completed by their parents at home. The researchers measured height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and mid upper arm circumference of each student in the class. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the international cut-off points of body mass index for boys and girls between 2 and 18 years of age. Of the total 2,131 children, 19.4% were overweight (18.8% of boys and 19.9% of girls) and 5.6% were obese (5.6% of boys and 5.5% of girls). Watching television >2 h/day, daily pocket money >20 piasters (1 piaster = 1.42 cents), having overweight or obese mother/father were significantly associated with increased odds of both overweight and obesity. Age > or = 10 years, female gender, and family size of 300 Jordanian Dinars (JDs), (1 JD = $1.42) was associated with obesity. While the prevalence of overweight was high among Jordanian children compared with that in the neighboring countries, the prevalence of obesity was lower.
Sultana, Niru; Afroz, Sadya; Tomalika, Nehlin; Momtaz, Hasina; Kabir, Md Humayun
SummaryDespite the ongoing problems of undernutrition and infectious disease, obesity and overweight have become a major problem in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among school children aged 6-12 years in Bangladesh. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 and the study sample comprised 1768 children (980 boys; 788 girls) from eight purposively selected schools in different areas of Dhaka city. Students were interviewed about their diet and physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were made, including height, weight, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI). Undernutrition, overweight and obesity were defined using internationally accepted BMI cut-off points. Mean height, weight, BMI, MUAC, waist circumference and hip circumference values were found to be higher in boys than in girls, except at age 12 when these were found to be significantly higher in girls than in boys (p<0.05). The mean prevalence of overweight was 10.0% (boys 10.2%; girls 9.8%), and that of obesity 5.0% (boys 4.3%; girls 5.8%). The prevalence of underweight was 16.3% in boys and 12.7% in girls. The prevalence of underweight was significantly higher in poor than in rich children (22.1% vs 11.2%) and that of obesity was higher in rich than in poor children (9.9% vs 1.3%; p<0.001). A family history of obesity and hypertension emerged as a significant predictor of developing overweight and obesity (p<0.001). The data suggest that underweight and obesity co-exist in urban areas of Bangladesh, posing a challenge for the nutritional health of Bangladeshi children.
Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.
Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.
Full Text Available Hearing impairment substantially affects child’s ability to normally acquire the spoken language. Such negative effects create problems for the child not only in terms of communication but also in terms of achievement in school as well as social and emotional growth. The aim of this research is to study the prevalence of hearing disorders and its relationship to age and gender among primary school students of Zahedan, Iran. In this cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study, 1500 students from elementary schools were screened for hearing loss. The selection of samples was performed using multistage sampling method. Primary information was obtained through direct observation, otoscopy, and audiometric and tympanometric screenings. Data was obtained and analyzed via ANOVA test. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the age and the prevalence of middle ear abnormal function. Conductive hearing loss in males and females was 8.8% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, 1% and 0.7% of male and female students, respectively, suffered from sensorineural hearing loss. Results indicated that 20.2% of students of elementary schools in Zahedan needed medical treatment for their problems. Therefore, it is recommended that the hearing screening of school-age children should be included in annual school health programs in this region.
Ez-Elarab, Hanan S; Sabbour, Sahar M; Gadallah, Mohsen A; Asaad, Tarek A
School violence is a growing problem that has received widespread attention. Violent behavior for elementary school children is primarily expressed as physical or verbal aggression. Various factors contribute to violent and aggression by children at homes, schools or individual risk factors. The aim of the present study is to measure the prevalence of violence, risk factors, and different forms among elementary school children, to identify consequence of violent exposure and children with abnormal behavior score. A cross-sectional study was done enrolling a total of 500 elementary students from two mixed schools (private and public) 250 from each in North Cairo Educational Zone. Data collected from students, parents and teachers were: violence behavior, home and family atmosphere, peer relation, exposure to violence at school; being victimized, witness, or initiator, and other risk factors. Standardized questionnaires were used as Achenback Child Behavior checklist, parent and teacher forms of Strength and Difficulty questionnaires (SDQ), and developmental history of child. Monthly grades of students, IQ assessment, physical examination of students were recorded. Prevalence of different forms of violence was higher in public school than private; physical violence 76%, 62% respectively. All forms of violence were higher among boys. Living with a single parent (OR = 2.3), absence of an attachment figure (OR = 13.6), instrumental delivery or cesarean section (OR = 1.9), corporal punishment (OR = 3), violent video games preference (OR = 2.5), exposure to verbal aggression (OR = 3), relations with aggressive peers (OR = 3) were risk factors for violence. Teacher's report of SDQ revealed abnormal score of student's behavior in (32.4%) and (22%) students of public and private schools respectively. The most frequent problems revealed by SDQ among victimized students of both schools was conduct problems (64.7%) in teacher's report and peer relation problems 93.6% in parent
Full Text Available Objective: To obtain information on caries prevalence and treatment needs of children aged 5-10 years to plan appropriate dental care services in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Children studying in all the primary schools (six schools in the field practice area of the Rural Health Centre of the Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Each child was clinically examined in the schools by calibrated examiners. Dental caries was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO (1997. The chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and eight 5-10 year-old school children (247 boys and 261 girls were surveyed. Caries prevalence was 71.7 and 26.5% in primary and permanent dentition, respectively. The mean dmft and decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT scores were 3.00 and 0.42 respectively. The mean dmft decreased with age ( P < 0.01 whereas the mean DMFT increased with age ( P < 0.001. Although the mean dmft scores were not statistically significant different for the two sexes, the mean DMFT score was found to be higher among girls than among boys ( P < 0.02. The entire dmft/DMFT value represented the ′decay′ component only. There was a strong need for single surface restorations (60.6%. In the WHO index age (5-6 years, the caries prevalence was 70.2% (29.8% caries-free with a mean dmft value of 3.54 ± 3.71. Conclusion: Dental caries is a significant public health problem in this population. An extensive system to provide primary oral health care has to be developed in the rural areas of India.
Sowmini P Kamath
Full Text Available Background: Asthma in childhood is a major public health issue. Objective: To estimate prevalence and associated housing environment factors of asthma among school children. Material & Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study among school children aged six to fifteen years. Standard ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Core Questionnaire for Asthma was used for determining the prevalence of wheezing and asthma. Demographic, housing and indoor pollution factors were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15. Results: Prevalence of ‘wheeze ever’ and ‘current wheezers’ was 10% and 9% respectively. Physician diagnosed asthma was seen in 6.3 %. Severe asthma was noted in 28.6% of current wheezerswith 84.6% and 8.8% having one to two and four to 12 wheezing attacks per year respectively. Wheezing was present post exercise in 5.4%, nocturnal cough in 6.1%, sleep disturbance less than one night/week (40.7%, one or more nights/week (3.3% and wheezing limiting speech to few words between breaths (20.9%. Prevalence was greater among boys (9.8% than girls (7.5% and maximal in age group eight to nine years. On multiple logistic regression presence of overcrowding and absence of smoke outlet were significantly associated with current wheeze. Socio-economic status, beedi rolling practices and absence of separate kitchen was statistically significant with severe asthma. Conclusions: Current wheezer prevalence was9% and more in boys. Adoption of improved housing conditions and avoiding environmental tobacco exposure may aid in reducing childhood asthma attacks in this developing city.
Full Text Available School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1 Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result in toothache, permanent cavitations and children with active disease become adult with tooth decay. Also poor dentition and malocclusion decreases the masticatory performance effecting oral health and quality of life. Fortunately dental caries is both preventable and treatable with effective home care and regular access to preventive dental services. The present study was carried out in the rural area of Konkan region to assess the awareness regarding oral hygiene, prevalence of dental caries, to assess the masticatory performance.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. Once considered a high income country problem, overweight and obesity are now raising in low income and middle income countries especially in urban settings . OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity in school children and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study has been undertaken at one of the school of Vidyagiri, Bagalkot. The duration of study was during March to August 2014 for a period of two months. A total of 750 students from standard V to X, aged between 10 - 15 year s had been enrolled in the study. It is a Cross - sectional descriptive study Obesity was assessed by BMI for age. Body mass index (BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms/height in meter square. The children were categorized into obese and non - obese by using K.N. Agarwal percentiles, children with 95th Percentile of BMI is taken as cut - off point. Children with BMI more than this cut - off point with respect to age and sex is considered as obese. The association of each of the variables with obesity was assessed with the Chi - square test. RESULTS: 22.53% of the children had family history of obesity. The total prevalence of obesity was 2.80%. The Prevalence of obesity among male was 2.01% and in female it was 0.79%. The association between obesity in chil dren and family H/O obesity, Diabetes, frequency of outdoor games, number of high energy food intake and education of mother is found to be statistically significant
Koirala, M; Khatri, R B; Khanal, V; Amatya, A
Childhood overweight/obesity is a global health problem because of adverse health and nutrition consequences worldwide. Currently, there is a paucity of information on childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-December, 2013. We collected data using the structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years in grades 1-6 studying at private schools of the Lalitpur district of Nepal. Height and weight measurements of 986 children were taken, and the corresponding body mass index (BMI)-for-age was calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity was reported in proportion. Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity were examined using the Chi-square tests followed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 986 children, 144 (14.6%) were overweight and 111 (11.3%) were obese. Overall, 255 (25.9%) children were found to be overweight/obese. Children from families, having ≤2 siblings (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.958, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163-3.296), upper class family (aOR=3.672; 95% CI: 1.154-11.690), and advantaged ethnic group (aOR=1.561; 95% CI: 1.00-2.437) and children who were of larger birth weight (>4.0kg) had a greater likelihood of being (aOR=2.557, 95% CI: 1.222-5.349) overweight/obese. A quarter of children were found to be overweight/obese in private primary schools. Preventive interventions should focus on the advantaged ethnic groups, families with fewer siblings, and upper class families. A greater emphasis ought to be placed on formulation and implementation of policies aimed at addressing the newly emerging problems of childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. New school health programs are to be launched and strengthened including avoidance of high energy junk food, and promoting outdoor
Full Text Available Aim: The goal of the study was to determine external genital anomaly types in children attending primary school (6-15 years old in Sakarya. Material and Method: 1573, 6-15 years old student randomly selected from 8 schools inside the province. The students were examined in an appropriate room in the school, and external genital anomalies were identified and noted. Results: In this study, a total of 106 (6,7 % anomalies were identified in 1573 students. The most common anomalies were phimosis 3,6 % (56 and undescended testis 2,6 % (41. Discussion: This study shows that the ratio of the external genital anomaly that needs to be cured before primary school is high. Socioeconomic differences and environmental factors can affect anomaly prevalence. Health care workers all over the country should be trained regarding the issue. In addition to these, to identify genital anomalies before children start primary school, specific training programs should be prepared for parents.
Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak; Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana
Obesity and underweight are both a public health concern worldwide. Being overweight, and obesity are primary risk factors for the development of chronic conditions including hypertension. Data on obesity and the underweight as well as their association with hypertension in Thai children, specifically, are scant. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between obesity or underweight status and hypertension in Thai school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 3991 students (mean age of 9.5 yr) in Ongkharak district, central Thailand. The sex as well as the age-specific BMI criteria of the WHO were used to define what is overweight, obesity, underweight and severe underweight status of children. In order to calculate the odds ratio and the association between one's nutritional status and hypertension logistic regression was used. Obese and overweight children have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with children with an average weight (49.5% and 26.5% versus 16.2%, respectively). The risks of developing hypertension is also high in obese children (OR 5.15; 95%CI: 4.27, 6.22), overweight children (1.87; 95% CI: 1.50, 2.32) and overweight/obese children (OR 3.30; 95% CI: 2.82, 3.86. Additionally, underweight children were not associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.04; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.42). Rates of hypertension in overweight and obese children are high in central Thailand and, as a result, this increased body weight is a risk factor for hypertension. Larger, multi-centric studies are required to evaluate the correlation between hypertension and obesity amongst children at the national level.
Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera
Soil transmitted helminths are wide spread in developing countries and in Ethiopia the prevalence of STHs varies in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 29 and April 9, 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among elementary school children. The study participants were randomly selected from class enrollment list after proportional allocation of the total sample size to each grade. Data about the background characteristics were collected using structured questionnaire. The stool samples were examined by McMaster method for the egg count which was used to determine intensity of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and p-value less than 5% was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 715 stool specimens examined, 346 were positive for at least one intestinal parasite making the prevalence 48.4%. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 169 (23.6%) and Trichuris trichiura 165 (23.1%). The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth in this study was 45.6% (326/715). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Trichuriasis between those who use latrine always and who use sometimes (p = 0.010). Females are two times more likely to be positive for Ascaris than males (p = 0.039). Majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths and none of them had heavy intensity of infection of Trichuriasis and hookworms. Nearly half of the school children were infected with at least one STHs and majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths. Students who did not wash their hands after defecation were three times more likely to be positive for Ascaris infection than those who washed their hands
Stojković Branislava B.
Full Text Available Introduction. The data on the health-condition of the first permanent molars among children in our region is scarce. Therefore, the need for more thorough analysis of the state of health of these teeth in the children from our region imposes itself, along with the need to determine the most critical period in which a significant increase in caries prevalence of these teeth takes place. Aim. The aim of the research was to perform a comparative analysis of the prevalence, average rate and structure of decay, missed and filled first permanent molars in the children of the younger school age in relation to those of the older school age. Material and methods. The research included 1.119 examinees, aged from 7 to 14 years. Examinees were divided into two groups according to their age: examinees of the younger school age and older school age. Dental check-up of the students was performed by means of a dental probe and mirror and the health condition of the examined teeth was registered by means of Klein-Palmer's DMF system. Results. The research determined high values of the examined parameters of the first permanent molars caries prevalence which increases with the age of the examinees. In the examinees of the age of 8, 9, and 10, statistically more significant values of the examined teeth caries prevalence parameters were registered, in relation to the examinees of seven years of age. In the examinees of the older school age, statistically significantly higher values were registered only for TCI and ACI and only in the examinees aged 14 in relation to the examinees aged 11. With the age, the percent of decay is decreases, while the percent of filled and extracted first permanent molars increases. Conclusion. Results show that the period between 7 and 10 years of age is the most critical and the most important period for the implementation of preventive-prophylactic measures aimed to preserve the health of the first permanent molars.
Full Text Available Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children.This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years children (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p 2 hours in a day.Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.
Saxena, Rohit; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Pandey, R M; Bhardawaj, Amit; Menon, Vimala; Mani, Kalaivani
Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children. This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years) children (phistory (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p video/mobile games (p 2 hours in a day. Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.
Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.
The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…
Mohamed, Inaam N; Elseed, Maha A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; El-Sadig, Sarah M; Omer, Ilham M; Osman, Abdelgadir H; Ahmed, Ammar E; Karrar, Zein A; Salih, Mustafa A
Data on childhood epilepsy in Sudan are scarce and the only published study on its prevalence was published in 1983. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of epilepsy in school children in Khartoum State. This is an analytical population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study included students in the basic (primary) schools aged 6-14 years. Simple random sampling was used to draw a cluster of four of the seven localities comprising Khartoum State. The sample frame consisted of 1609 public schools (808,624 pupils) and 787 private schools (194,613 pupils), a total of 2396 schools (1,003,237 pupils). A sample size of 75 940 pupils was estimated and 250 schools were drawn from a sample frame of 2396 schools using a stratified random sampling technique. Consent was obtained from the headmaster/head teacher of the selected schools who arranged a meeting with the tutor/teacher responsible for each class. The study team asked whether any of the pupils was ever noticed or known to have had any kind of seizures, and a confidential letter was sent to the parents of each identified pupil. The letter included an explanation of the aims of the study, information on the research group and the kind of help the research group could offer; contact numbers and email addresses were made available if they wished to participate in this study. Those who consented to participate were then given an appointment at the Epilepsy Outpatient Department, Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital, Khartoum where they were evaluated by the paediatric neurologist. Altogether, 74,949 pupils were enrolled for the study, 398 of whom were identified initially as having seizures and 332 of whom (83.4%) were identified by a paediatric neurologist. Of the 332, 303 (91.3%) proved to have epileptic seizures, 250 (82.5%) were known to have epilepsy, and 53 (17.5%) were newly diagnosed during the survey. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The total prevalence of
Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S
This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.
Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.
Akil, Ipek Ozunan; Ozmen, Dilek; Cetinkaya, Aynur Cakmakci
To investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) in elementary school aged children in Manisa. Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System (DVIS) which was developed in Turkey is used. A total of 416 children, 216 (51.9%) male and 200 (48.1%) female were recruited in this study. Mean age of children was 10.35 ± 2.44 years (median10 years). Daytime UI frequency was 6.7% (28 child), nocturnal incontinence 16.6% (69 child) and combined daytime and nocturnal incontinence 4.1% (17 child). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of nocturnal and or daytime UI between male and female gender. Mean DVIS score was 2.65 ± 3.95 and gender did not affect total DVIS points. The mean ages of achieving daytime bowel and bladder control were all significantly correlated with DVIS points. DVIS points were positively correlated with the history of UI of the family. Total points were increased when the father was unemployed. UI negatively influences health related quality of life of the family and child, so it is important that awareness of the UI and symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction.
Wah, Saw Thu; Yi, Yoon Shwe; Khin, Aye Aye; Plabplueng, Chotiros; Nuchnoi, Pornlada
The prevalence of anemia is high in the population of Myanmar and hypochromic microcytic anemia (HMA) is predominant. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and causes of HMA among school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 children from Thanlyin and Insein Townships, Yangon Region, Myanmar. Complete blood count (CBC) and blood film morphology was examined on venous blood samples. Hypochromic microcytic anemia cases were subsequently analyzed for serum ferritin and cellulose acetate hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. The prevalence of anemia was 46.4%; 27.6% had mild, while 18.8% had moderate anemia, and no case of severe anemia was detected. The mean Hb concentration was 11.7 ± 0.9 g/dL. The younger age group (8-11 years) had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia than the older age group (12-15 years) (p = 0.029). Blood film morphology revealed a 50.6% red blood cell (RBC) disorder; HMA was the most common type (70.2%). Out of 85 children with HMA, three children (3.5%) had iron deficiency and all had comorbidity with Hb AE (β A /β E ) (Hb E trait). Hemoglobin electrophoresis illustrated that Hb AA (β A /β A ) (31, 36.5%) and Hb AE (β A /β E ) trait (31, 36.5%) were the most common types followed by β-thalassemia (β-thal) trait (19, 22.3%) and Hb EE (β E /β E ) (homozygous Hb E; HBB: c.79G>A) (three, 3.5%). Hematocrit [or packed cell volume (PCV)], mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), showed a significant difference between Hb AE, Hb EE and β-thal trait (p = 0.029, 0.023, 0.015 and 0.01, respectively). Our findings will provide valuable information for the management of anemia in the Myanmar school-age population.
Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette
To assess the trend of sex disparity in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010. Data were collected from 360 866 children aged 7, 9, 12, 14, and 17 years during 4 cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of the Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Shifts in hemoglobin concentration distributions were compared by sex. Average shifts and sex differences were calculated with quantile regression models. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio of sex for prevalence of anemia in different surveys. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children between 1995 and 2010, from 132.7 to 138.3 g/L in boys, and from 127.7 to 132.3 g/L in girls. The prevalence of anemia decreased from 18.8% in 1995 to 9.9% in 2010. It was higher in rural than urban children among all age groups. The prevalence odds ratios of girls versus boys for anemia increased in both urban and rural areas over time. Hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia improved among Chinese school-aged children over time. Hemoglobin concentration improved faster in boys than girls and as a result the relative prevalence of anemia in girls compared with boys increased. Sex-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood anemia are needed in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Mishra, Prashant; Debnath, Nitai; Vasthare, Ramprasad
This cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion and to determine the potential risk factors for dental erosion among 11- to 14-year-old school children in South India. The total sample size for the study was 605, of which 303 school children were from private schools and 302 from public schools. A questionnaire was designed to record information about socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and risk factors for dental erosion. Chi square test, bivariate analysis and Logistic regression analysis were performed to analyse the data. The children who consumed lemon several times a day (OR = 13.41, P dental erosion. The overall prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low (8.9%). Erosion was found to be greater in posterior teeth (65.6%) than anterior teeth (34.4%). Loss of enamel only with loss of surface contour was observed in most (94.8%) of the cases. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low in school children. Private school children were affected more by dental erosion. Frequency of lemon consumption and consumption of carbonated drinks were identified as risk factors.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88% children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6% than in girls (61.5%. The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended.
Barja Yáñez, Salesa; Arnaiz Gómez, Pilar; Villarroel Del Pino, Luis; Domínguez de Landa, Angélica; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Farías Jofré, Marcelo; Mardones Santander, Francisco
Dyslipidemias are a key cardiovascular risk factor, and are increased since early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, characteristics of dyslipidemias and associated factors in a population of Chilean children. Cross-sectional study done in school-age children from Santiago, Chile (2009-2011). Parents answered questions about family medical history and children answered questions about physical activity. Anthropometry was performed and in a blood sample (12 hours fast) lipid profile, glycemia and insulinemia were measured. We recruited 2900 euglycemic children, 11.4 ± 0.97 years old, 52% girls. According to BMI, 22.5% were overweight and 15,3% had obesity. Considering recommended cut-off points for lipids, 69.3% were in acceptable range, 19.2% at risk and 11.5% at high cardiovascular risk. In total, 32% of the population had any clinical form of dyslipidemia: Isolated hypertriglyceridemia (9.4%), low HDL-C (7.6%), isolated hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), atherogenic dyslipidemia (6.24%) and mixed dyslipidemia (3.9%). Except for isolated hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemias were more frequent in girls (globally 36.2% vs. 27.4%, pdyslipidemia, and the principal determinant was weight excess. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang
This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weusmann, Jens; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Azaripour, Adriano; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Walter, Christian; Willershausen, Brita
The annual examination of first graders' oral health as stipulated by law aimed to reach every child in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) in their first year of school. We intended to evaluate the first graders' oral health based on the examination data for 2013/2014. Instructed examiners measured the d3mft(deciduous)/D3MFT(permanent) index according to World Health Organization criteria in 25,020 predominantly 6-7 year-old first-grade school children. Only caries affecting dentin was diagnosed; no radiography or fiber-transillumination was used. Out of the d3mft value, the "Significant Caries Index" (SiC) was calculated. This index identifies the dmft score of the third of the population with the highest caries experience. Descriptive analysis was performed. Out of the the examined children, 60.9% were caries free. Mean d3mft score was 1.28 ± 2.27 while the mean SiC was 3.73 ± 2.51. A distinctly higher d3mft was found in the decidous molars compared to the front teeth. Boys were significantly more caries-experienced than girls (p < 0.001). The results of this study confirm the lasting trend towards decreasing caries prevalence in children starting school found in previous cross-sectional studies. This trend was observed in the high-risk group (obtained by SiC) as well as in the entire study population. Particular attention in caries prophylaxis should be paid to the primary molars.
Full Text Available Background and Design: Melanocytic nevi (MN count is known as the strongest risk factor for melanoma development. So it is important to know the MN count in public. We aimed to determine the MN prevalence in schoolchildren and also clarify the possible relation between MN counts, constitutional variables and sun exposure. Material and Method: In this randomized, cross-sectional study, a questionnaire asking skin phenotypes and sun exposure in previous summer was prepared for primary-school children. Nine hundred and sixty questionnaires distributed to the parents. Children who were given permission by parents for examination were examined for whole body MN. Results: Questionnaires were answered by parents of 939 children and 622 children (316 boys and 306 girls were examined. Mean age of children was 8.8±1.5 (6-12. Mean MN count was 19.6±16.6 and this count was increasing with age (p<0.001. MN count was significantly related with sex, skin phototype and skin colour. More MN were found in boys (p<0.001, children with sun sensitive phototypes (p=0.03 and light skin colour (p<0.001. Time spent outside on midday in previous summer was not related with the MN count (p=0.35. Sunburns experienced in previous summer were not related with MN count (p=0.11. MN were most densely located on the face, and then on upper extremity, trunk and lower extremity in decreasing order. There were more MN on the more sun exposed sites of the arms, hands and feet. Conclusion: It was found that previous summer sun exposure had no effect on MN count in schoolchildren. However, relation between MN count and skin phenotype and distribution of the MN on the body suggest that sun exposure could affect MN count and this effect could be seen in a long period of time.
Bibiseyedeh Rezaeian; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Rahmatollah Hafezi; Seyed-Jalil Mirmohammadi; Hamed Akbari
Objective Malnutrition, overweight and obesity are major health concerns in modern societies and especially among children. Overweight and obesity affect children's current and future health. It is known that the prevalence of overweight differs by race, sex, and geographic location. Methods In a cross-sectional study 30092 Iranian children aged 7-18 years in six ethnic groups were selected by a cluster sampling. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and distribution of body mass index (BMI) b...
Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca-Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara; Moreno-Gónzalez, Paula; Malumbres-Chacón, María
To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). Primary Health Care. A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable). HypovitaminosisD is defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria: deficiency (calcidiol <20ng/mL), insufficiency (calcidiol: 20-29ng/mL), and sufficiency (calcidiol ≥30ng/mL). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded (independent variables), and their association with hypovitaminosisD was analysed by multiple regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosisD was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated to hypovitaminosisD were being female (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3), pubertal age (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), autumn (OR: 9.5; 95%CI: 4.8-18.7), winter (OR: 8.8; 95%CI: 4.5-17.5) and spring time (OR: 13.2; 95%CI: 6.4-27.5), living in urban areas (OR:1.6; CI95%: 1.1-2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3). There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosisD in juvenile populations. being female, pubertal age, autumn, winter and spring seasons, severe obesity, and living in urban areas are factors associated to hypovitaminosisD. Consideration should be given to the administration of vitamin supplements and/or the increase in the ingestion of natural vitaminD dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rasha Aziz Salama
Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Anemia has been recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries. The magnitude of anemia among school children has received less attention compared with that in preschoolers and pregnant women. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia and to assess its associated factors among informal school children in rural Upper Egypt.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a randomly selected Girls Education initiative schools in three Egyptian governorates for duration of 11 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data from 2826 children aged 6-19 years. Hemoglobin concentration and anthropometric indicators were assessed using the World Health Organization guidelines. Stool samples were examined for parasitic infestations, using the Kato Katz technique. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants’ guardian and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality.Results: the prevalence of anemia among these children was 59.3%, out of which, 82.5% had mild anemia and 17.4% of them had moderate anemia. It was significantly higher among 64% of children in age group 6-9years and 61.3% of females. The majority of underweight children (75.8% and 66.4% of children with parasitic infestation were anemic.Conclusions: Anemia remains a common problem among GEI School particularly the young children and girls of low income household. School children should be screened periodically and appropriate measures should be taken in order to promote health and guide effective education sector reform initiatives. Keywords: Anemia, GEI schools, Rural Upper Egypt
Hilal Ahmad Malla
Full Text Available Screening for kidney diseases by urinalysis in school children is being conducted in many parts of the world with inexpensive tools such as urinary dipsticks. We conducted this study to know the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley as no previous study is available. After applying exclusion criteria, 2068 children were screened for proteinuria by dipstick method. Another test was performed in the children with abnormal findings in the first sample with dipstick of the same brand, after a period of one-month. These children were also assessed by timed urine collection (i.e., 24 h urinary protein. In the first dipstick test, the prevalence of proteinuria in the studied population was 6.2% which persisted in 2.17% after second dipstick examination. No child in the studied group was found to have glycosuria. In our study, no statistically significant association was found between proteinuria and gender, body mass index, or hypertension. In our study, the prevalence of persistent proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley was almost similar to the studies conducted in different parts of the world.
Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep
To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of the sensitization to house dust mites and epithelial in children with asthma, stimulates to implement methods of environmental control for contributing a better control of the disease.
Truin, G.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Mulder, J.; Kootwijk, A.J.; Jong, E. de
In 2005 a dental survey of the prevalence of caries among 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in The Hague was carried out. In the case of the 12-year-olds, the prevalence of dental erosion was also studied. The sample consisted of 814 students in twelve primary schools in The Hague. The results
Sebbani, M; Elbouchti, I; Adarmouch, L; Amine, M
Childhood obesity is a phenomenon of growing concern today because of its rapid growth worldwide. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school age children in Marrakech. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1418 schoolchildren aged 8-15 years in the public sector in Marrakech in May 2011. Trained physicians measured the weight and size of respondents. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each child. Overweight was assessed by comparing BMI with World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) references. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 and using a macro of WHO Anthro for SPSS. The mean age was 10.8 ± 1.6 years. The sex ratio (girl/boy) was 1. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 8 % (95 % CI [6.7, 9.6]) and 3 % (95 % CI [2.2, 4.1] based on WHO reference. This prevalence were respectively 12.2 % (95 % IC [10.5; 14.0]) and 5.4 % (95 % IC [4.3; 6.7]) using the IOTF reference. In the absence of national data, our results reflect the importance of the phenomenon in our context, hence the importance of monitoring the nutritional status on both individual and collective levels and the need to develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis and early treatment before the problem becomes more widespread. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.
Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F
The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.
Rudra, Alokananda; Belmonte, Matthew K; Soni, Parmeet Kaur; Banerjee, Saoni; Mukerji, Shaneel; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev
Despite housing ∼18% of the world's population, India does not yet have an estimate of prevalence of autism. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of autism in a selected population of school-children in India. N = 11,849 children (mean age = 5.9 [SD = 1.3], 39.5% females) were selected from various school types from three boroughs in Kolkata, India. Parents/caregivers and teachers filled in the social and communication disorders checklist (SCDC). Children meeting cutoff on parent-reported SCDC were followed up with the social communication questionnaire (SCQ). SCQ-positive children were administered the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS). Teacher report on SCDC was available on all 11,849 children. Parent-report SCDC scores were obtained for 5,947 children. Mean scores on teacher SCDC were significantly lower than parent SCDC. Out of 1,247 SCDC-positive children, 882 answered the SCQ, of whom 124 met the cutoff score of 15. Six of these children met criteria for autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or broader autism spectrum on the ADOS. The weighted estimate of supra-threshold SCQ scores was 3.54% (CI: 2.88-4.3%). The weighted prevalence estimate of positive scores (for broader autism spectrum + ASD + autism) was 0.23% (0.07-0.46%). As ∼20% children in this state are known to be out of the school system, and ASD prevalence is likely to be higher in this group, this estimate is likely to represent the lower-bound of the true prevalence. This study provides preliminary data on the prevalence of broader-spectrum autism and supra-threshold autistic traits in a population sample of school children in Eastern India. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1597-1605. ©2017 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.
Charchuk, Rhianna; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T
Emerging as a sovereign state from decades of civil war, the Republic of South Sudan now faces poverty, a lack of health care infrastructure, a high burden of infectious diseases and a widespread food insecurity. School-aged children and youth, in particular, represent a high-risk demographic for malnutrition and infectious diseases. We screened 109 school-aged children and youth for nutritional status and malaria antigenaemia in Akuak Rak, South Sudan, and found a large proportion of underweight (77/109 = 73%) and prevalent malaria (44/109 = 40%). There was no significant association between malnutrition and malaria. This study represents one of the few published reports on child and youth nutritional status and malaria prevalence in South Sudan since its independence. The implementation of nutrition and malaria screening combined with evidence-based interventions in schools could help target this high burden vulnerable group.
Krishnan, R; Ramesh, M; Chalakkal, P
This was to study the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among school children residing in a fluorosis endemic area in Tamilnadu (Salem, India). A target sample of 5000 children of age ranging between 9 and 14 years, comprising 250 children from each of 20 blocks of Salem, participated in this study. The examination was completed in their respective schools by a calibrated examiner using EAPD criteria. Of 4989 children examined, 384 children had MIH. A prevalence of 7.3 %. The MIH found in girls was 8.9 % compared with 6.1 % in boys. Single-tooth involvement of MIH was seen predominantly in incisors (2.24 %), whereas with molars usually three teeth were involved (1.1 %). MIH with caries involvement was found in 51 % of the teeth. The prevalence of MIH in the endemic fluorosis district was found to be 7.3 %. A gradual increase in MIH was seen with age due to post enamel breakdown. Caries involvement was also seen in more than 50 % of the MIH-involved teeth. This prevalence study for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is rare in the literature, especially in a fluorosis endemic district in Tamilnadu.
Adam van Dijk
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant progress in the epidemiology of chronic pain in adults, major gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of chronic pain in children. In particular, the incidence, prevalence and sensory characteristics of many types of pain in Canadian children are unknown.
Full Text Available The most important consequence of sleep disorders in children is cognitive dysfunction that leads to study, family and social disturbances. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in Khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 364 students were selected randomly in both sexes male and female with equal numbers. Data were collected using TUCASA questionnaire. Results: Results showed the revalence of sleep disorders as follows: mouth breathing 35/7%, sleep talking 24/7%, habitual snoring 20/3%, nightmare 19/8%, sleep teeth grinding 15/9%, secondary enuresis 8/2%, primary nocturnal enuresis 7/1%, sleep apnea 6/6%, sleep walking 6/6% and excessive daytime sleepiness 10%. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant relation between primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis and male sex, and both disorders were more in boys (p-value=0. 004. Between other disorders, and sex and age there was not significant relation. In this study between teeth grinding and snoring, sleep apnea and snoring, open mouth breathing and snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, sleep duration and time of sleep of parents, there was significant relation (p-value<0. 001. Conclusion: According to findings, mouth breathing was the most common sleep disorder in our subjects and had a significant relation with sleep snoring. So due to treating ability of nonmedical therapy in sleep disorders, it is recommended to increase parents information about necessity of medication and its effect on children cognition.
Hamed, Ahmed; Yousf, Fouad; Hussein, Mohamed M
To determine the prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and its risk factors among school-age children in our community. A cross-sectional study included school-age children from two governorates in south of Egypt. A questionnaire was presented to randomly selected students. It consisted of 3 domains: Domain 1 included questions about MNE, domain 2 was about risk factors for MNE, and domain 3 was about management of MNE. The study included 4652 students (9 ± 2 years) from 12 primary schools (51 % males and 49 % females). Of 4652 students, 834 (18 %) had NE, with no significant difference between rural and urban areas (17.5 vs. 18.4 %, p = 0.4). Younger age categories showed higher prevalence of MNE than in older children. MNE caused moderate-to-severe bother for 44.5 and 87.8 % of students and parents, respectively. Urinary tract infection, pinworm infestation, constipation, and caffeine over-consumption significantly associated with MNE. Family history of MNE was positive in 84.7 %. Daytime incontinence coexisted in 16 % of cases. Children with ≥4 siblings and birth order ≥3 had more prevalent MNE. Deep sleepers and exposure to problems/violence correlated positively with occurrence of MNE. Father's level of education and work status, mother education, number of children per room, and socioeconomic status significantly associated with occurrence of MNE. There was no significant correlation between gender and prevalence of MNE. No treatment was used in 53.2 % of cases. In the Egyptian community, pinworm infestation, UTI, constipation, and overconsumption of caffeine-containing beverages are potential reversible risk factors for MNE in school-age children.
Harsha Munot; Alok Avinash; Nilotpol Kashyap; Rashmi Baranwal; Brij Kumar; Maylavarapu Krishna Sagar
Background: Studies on dental trauma of the normal population have been carried out in the past; however, limited data are available on dental trauma of the handicapped population, especially visually impaired children in Chhattisgarh, India. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in visually impaired children in relation to age, cause, and place of injury. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out among 400 children fr...
Goldfeld, Sharon; O'Connor, Meredith; Sayers, Mary; Moore, Tim; Oberklaid, Frank
Children with special health care needs are an important population for educational and health service providers. Accurate information about the prevalence and characteristics of these children and their families is needed to inform the planning and development of systems of care, yet data in Australia are currently lacking. This study utilizes population-level data from the Australian Early Development Index, a teacher-rated checklist, to provide estimates of the prevalence and developmental and demographic characteristics of Australian children with special health care needs on entrance to school. Four percent of children were reported with established special health care needs, and a further 18% were identified by teachers as "of concern." These children showed higher rates of vulnerability across all domains of development. Although children with established special health care needs were represented across demographic profiles, proportions were greater among boys, those from lower socioeconomic status communities, and Indigenous and older children. In contrast, those living in more remote settings were as likely to be identified as "of concern" as their peers but were less likely to have established special health care needs. These findings have important implications for service provision and policy development. There are substantial opportunities to reorient schooling and early childhood systems to better detect and accommodate the needs of these children.
Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata
Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.
Abossie, Ashenafi; Seid, Mohammed
Parasitic infection is the most prevalent among rural communities in warm and humid regions and where water, hygiene and sanitation facilities are inadequate. Such infection occurs in rural areas where water supplies are not enough to drink and use, and in the absence of environmental sanitation, when the rubbish and other wastes increased, and sewage and waste water are not properly treated. Hence the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors. This cross sectional study was conducted on children of the selected primary schools in Chencha town from March to May, 2012. Children were selected within age group 5-15 years. The socio-demographic, environmental and behavioral variables data were collected using structured questionnaire from the guardians of children and school teachers to assess the risk factors. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was determined using direct method and formol-ether concentration method. Participants' data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Of 422 selected school children, 400 participated in the study with full information for analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was high (81.0%). Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infections (63.0%) were more prevalent than protozoa infections (23.5%). The predominant parasites were A. lumbricoides (60.5%), E. histolytica/dispar (16.25%), Giardia lamblia (11.7%) and T. trichuria (9.7%). The presence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) have statistically significant association with the educational status of the household heads, absence of washing facility, home cleanness condition and type of latrine used with (p intestinal parasitic infections, especially soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is very high in the school children. The high prevalence of parasitic infections in these children indicates that the protozoa and helminths concerned are very common in the environment of these villages and the results of the
Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B
Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.
Telmesani, Abdulwahab MA
The published data on Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) prevalence and its relationship with abdominal pain in Saudi Arabia is scarce. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of H. pylori and its relationship with chronic recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among school students in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and fourteen school students, 103 at the intermediate level (grades 7-9) aged 12-15 years and 211 at the secondary level (grades 10-12) aged 15-18 years were tested for H. pylori. Urea breath test (UBT) was used for this purpose. Children with chronic RAP were identified as per the Apley criteria. Overall, the UBT was positive in 86/314 (27.4%) students. It was positive in 45/103 (43.7%) intermediate school students and 41/211 (19.4%) secondary students. Out of the 55 students with chronic RAP, 40 (73%) were positive for H. pylori . Further, 62.9% and 82.1% were positive among the intermediate and secondary school students with RAP, respectively. The overall and specific odds ratios of RAP were 12.35 [95% confidence interval (C.I.) 6.30-24.22] and 10.40 (95% C.I. 1.75-11.73) for the intermediate school students and 22.69 (95% C.I. 7.99-64.44) for the secondary school students. The prevalence of H. pylori among the school children in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, is relatively low compared with developing countries. The prevalence was found to be higher among the younger age group. Further, there was a significant relation between H. pylori infection and RAP among the school students. (author)
Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan
Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.
Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.
Barfod, Mette Nelun; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante Henrik Agardh
-section had a higher mean value in comparison with those delivered vaginally (dmfs 6.8 vs 3.2), but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a significant relationship between caries prevalence and low family income in the total study group (OR = 5.8, p Within...... study group with complete information consisted of 594 children, 443 delivered vaginally and 151 by C-section. RESULTS: The total caries prevalence was 8% and no significant difference was displayed between the groups. When only the children with caries (dmfs > 0) were compared, those delivered by C...... the limitations of this observational cohort study, caries prevalence in 3-year-old children was not related to the mode of delivery. However, the tendency of more severe caries in the C-section group justifies further studies, preferably with a prospective design....
Saif H. Alrasheed
Full Text Available Background: Global estimates suggest there are almost 19 million visually impaired children worldwide, the major cause being uncorrected refractive error (RE. Aim: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment (VI and RE among Sudanese school-aged children. Setting: Eight randomly selected primary schools from 21 districts in South Darfur State of Sudan were involved. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study of RE and VI in primary schoolchildren from grades 1 to 8 (children aged 6–15 years was investigated. A Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC protocol was implemented to determine the prevalence of RE and VI in these schoolaged children. Participants were enrolled through stratified multistage cluster sampling of four all-male and four all-female primary schools from South Darfur State of Sudan. Examination procedures followed the RESC protocol, which included visual acuity (VA measurements, binocular vision assessments, retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia, as well as examination of the external eye, anterior-segment, media and fundus. Results: A total of 1775 children were invited to participate in the study and 1678 were examined resulting in a participation rate of 94.5%. The findings indicated that the prevalence of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected VA of 6/12 or worse was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–7.9, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.9–5.9 and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.3–2.7 respectively. RE was the cause of VI in 57% of participants, retinal disorders in 13.1%, amblyopia in 5.6%, corneal opacity in 0.9%, cataract in 3.7%, with the causes of reduced vision undetermined in 10.3% and various other causes contributed 9.3%. External and anterior-segment abnormalities were observed in 10.2% of children. This was mainly allergic conjunctivitis (5.3% followed by bacterial and viral conjunctivitis (4.2%. The prevalence of myopia (≥|-0.50 D| in one or both eyes was 6.8% (95% CI, 5.3–8.3, hypermetropia (≥ 2 D was
Full Text Available Context: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health. The primary requisite before actively dealing with such problems is to describe the extent, distribution, and associated variables with the specific condition. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of traumatic dental injuries (TDI to anterior teeth among 3 to 13 years old Chidambaram school children. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was collected through a survey form and clinical examination. Materials and Methods: A total of 3200 school children in the age group of 3-13 years were selected from 10 schools of Chidambaram, Tamilnadu. Information concerning sex, age, cause of trauma, number of injured teeth, type of the teeth, lip competence, terminal plane relationship and the molar relationship were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical software EPIINFO (Version 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. In the present study, P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The trauma prevalence in the present study was 10.13%. Children with class I type 2 and mesial step molar relationship exhibited more number of dental injuries. Enamel fracture was the most common injury recorded. Only 3.37% of the children had undergone treatment. Conclusion: The high level of dental trauma and low percentage of children with trauma seeking treatment stresses the need for increased awareness in Chidambaram population.
Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C
Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.
Sarabjeet Singh; Abhishek Sharma; Navreet Sandhu; Kavita Mehta
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 13–18-year-old schoolchildren of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic component (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised 2000 school children (1125 females and 875 males) who had no...
Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.
Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the
Mucumbitsi, J; Bulwer, B; Mutesa, L; Ndahindwa, MD, MSc; Semakula, M; Rusingiza, E; Arya, P; Breakey, S; Patton-Bolman, C; Kaplan, E L
Summary Background: Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) remain important medical, surgical and public health concerns in many parts of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are no published data from Rwanda. We performed a RHD prevalence study in a randomly selected sample of Rwandan school children using the 2012 World Heart Federation (WHF) criteria. Methods: Echocardiographic assessment of 2 501 Rwandan school children from 10 schools in the Gasabo district near Kigali was carried out. Resulting data were evaluated by four experienced echocardiographers. Statistical analyses were carried out by statisticians. Results: RHD prevalence was 6.8/1 000 children examined (95% CI: 4.2/1 000–10.9/1 000). Seventeen met WHF criteria for RHD, 13 fulfilled criteria for ‘borderline’ RHD and four were ‘definite’ RHD. None of these 17 had been previously identified. Conclusion: These data indicate a significant burden of RHD in Rwanda and support a need for defined public health RF control programmes in children there. PMID:28252675
Kedir, Jafer; Girma, Abonesh
Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of rural community. This community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2009 in rural villages of Goro district of Gurage Zone, found south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A multistage cluster sampling method was used with simple random selection of representative villages in the district. Chi-Square and t-tests were used in the data analysis. A total of 570 school-age children (age 7-15) were evaluated, 54% boys and 46% girls. The prevalence of refractive error was 3.5% (myopia 2.6% and hyperopia 0.9%). Refractive error was the major cause of visual impairment accounting for 54% of all causes in the study group. No child was found wearing corrective spectacles during the study period. Refractive error was the commonest cause of visual impairment in children of the district, but no measures were taken to reduce the burden in the community. So, large scale community level screening for refractive error should be conducted and integrated with regular school eye screening programs. Effective strategies need to be devised to provide low cost corrective spectacles in the rural community.
Asawari Modak; Maruti Desai
School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1) Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result...
Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD create major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. Panchmahal district is known for endemic iodine deficiency. The present study was conducted to (1 estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children, (2 determine median urinary iodine concentration, (3 assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop level, and (4 profile of salt sold at retail shops in Panchmahal district, Gujarat. Methods: A total of 70 students including five boys and five girls from 1st to 7th standard who were present on the day of the first visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each standard in each cluster. From the community, at least 28 students, including two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group, were examined, and salt samples were tested from their households. A total of 2100 students were examined in schools and 928 students were examined in the selected villages. From each village, one retail shop was visited, and salts purchased from those shops were immediately tested for iodine with spot kits.Results: Among young primary school children, goiter prevalence was 23.35% (grade 1—18.35%, grade 2—5.0%. As the ages increase, goiter prevalence also increases except for 9-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 µg/L. An iodine level >15 ppm was found in 78.3% of the salt samples tested at household level. Conclusion: The present study showed considerable goiter prevalence in primary school children in Panchmahal district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at the household level.
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.
Ram, E; Marcus, O; Joubran, S; Abdo, B; Asal, N R
Lack of published data. Absence of Ethnic specific data. Lack of focus on obesity prevention in Arab schools. First set of data on obesity for Arab children. Data will be used as reference data. Alert health/school official for intervention. Objective The objective is to produce the first set of obesity prevalence data and use the data as reference values of body mass index (BMI) trends for Arab children in Israel and compare with Jewish and international data. Methods A prevalence study was carried out in 2009 in which 4130 children aged 6-12, were selected from eight Arab sector schools representing the Nazareth Municipality. Height, weight and BMI measurements were obtained and presented by age, mean age, size, weight, gender and percentile. Appropriate epidemiological and statistical methods used for comparison. Results The obesity and overweight prevalence rates in Arab children by age ranges from 0% to 2.6% and 0% to 11.2%, respectively. Comparison with international and Jewish data revealed differences in almost all age groups but higher rates in Arabs, especially boys. Discussion The higher rates/trends in Arab children may be explained by more Arab women entering the workforce, increase in single-parent families and changes in food and physical activity environments. Conclusion Based on our data, we recommend either an ethnic-specific BMI reference curves and/or inclusion of Arab data in the Israeli data system. Research need to focus on reasons for the increase and interventions to reverse/slow the trend. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Rashmi, M R; Shweta, B M; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Agrawal, Twinkle; Shah, Moulik; Sequeira, Randell
Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd's ratio, Chi square for trend. A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315) and females were 46% (267). One hundred and fifty-nine (27%) of the children had pallor, 81 (20%) had under nutrition, 38 (7%) had stunting, 197 (34%) had thinness and 5 (1%) were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.
One hundred and fifty two children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected from10 out of 33 public primary schools in a Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, to assess their plasma Vitamin A levels. Bessey's spectrophotometric method of ultraviolet destruction of vitamin A was used for determination of their ...
S. Syed Shaheed Ahamed
Full Text Available Introduction : The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. Aim : The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. Settings and Design : A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. Materials and Methods : An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Statistical Analysis Used : Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS for Windows (version 10.0. Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P 0.05. The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%, and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%. It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study
Ahamed, S Syed Shaheed; Reddy, Venugopal N; Krishnakumar, R; Mohan, Muthu G; Sugumaran, Durai K; Rao, Arun P
The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls) between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP) data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows (version 10.0). Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P loss of primary teeth, but no differences were observed between genders (P > 0.05). The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%), and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%). It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study.
Full Text Available Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7% was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4% (P=0.009. There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P=0.023, respiratory infections (P=0.036, deep sleep (P=0.007, corporal punishment at school (P=0.036, anal itching (P=0.043, and history of seizures (P=0.043. Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.
Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza
Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.
Alcalá-Padilla, Guadalupe; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Kestler-Gramajo, Amanda; Valdez-López, Francisco
Allergic sensitization is dependent on the geographical and climatic conditions in each region; therefore, identify agents most commonly sensitized children with asthma is important for planning prevention measures. To determine the prevalence of the sensitization to allergens in children with asthma. This cross-sectional and prolective study includes children from ages 6 to 14, who have asthma, attended for the first time in an allergy service. The patients were recruited consecutively between the months of January 1st 2014 to December 31st 2014. The frequency of the allergen sensitization was estimated. This study included 186 children, the median age was 7 years olds, the male group was 104/186 (55.9%) The median of the positive results was 5 and monosensitized were 47/186 (2.2%). The most common category of allergens was the indoor (90.3%), then trees (71.0%), and finally the fungi (9.7%). Individually, the house dust mites were more common in between the interior allergens, followed by the epithelial; in the tree pollen were oaks (31.7%) and ashes (28.0%), in weeds was mugwort (21.5%), in grasses was Zea mays (18.3%) and in the fungi was Cladosporium spp. (6.5%). The high prevalence of the sensitization to house dust mites and epithelial in children with asthma, stimulates to implement methods of environmental control for contributing a better control of the disease.
Hashim, Syaratul-Emma; Tan, Hui-Ken; Wan-Hazabbah, W H; Ibrahim, Mohtar
Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide, and the prevalence of refractive error varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of refractive error and study the possible associated factors inducing refractive error among primary school children of Malay ethnicity in the suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to July 2006 by random selection on Standard 1 to Standard 6 students of 10 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district. Visual acuity assessment was measured using logMAR ETDRS chart. Positive predictive value of uncorrected visual acuity equal or worse than 20/40, was used as a cut-off point for further evaluation by automated refraction and retinoscopic refraction. A total of 840 students were enumerated but only 705 were examined. The prevalence of uncorrected visual impairment was seen in 54 (7.7%) children. The main cause of the uncorrected visual impairment was refractive error which contributed to 90.7% of the total, and with 7.0% prevalence for the studied population. Myopia is the most common type of refractive error among children aged 6 to 12 years with prevalence of 5.4%, followed by hyperopia at 1.0% and astigmatism at 0.6%. A significant positive correlation was noted between myopia development with increasing age (P <0.005), more hours spent on reading books (P <0.005) and background history of siblings with glasses (P <0.005) and whose parents are of higher educational level (P <0.005). Malays in suburban Kelantan (5.4%) have the lowest prevalence of myopia compared with Malays in the metropolitan cities of Kuala Lumpur (9.2%) and Singapore (22.1%). The ethnicity-specific prevalence rate of myopia was the lowest among Malays in Kota Bharu, followed by Kuala Lumpur, and is the highest among Singaporean Malays. Better socio-economic factors could have contributed to higher myopia rates in the
Villamor, Eduardo; Finan, Caitlin C; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Roman, Ana Victoria
To ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults and school-aged children from Mesoamerica. Cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. In adults, metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. In children, we calculated a continuous sex- and age-standardized metabolic risk score using variables corresponding to adult ATP III criteria. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in adults and risk score distribution in children were compared across levels of sociodemographic characteristics with use of Poisson and linear regression, respectively. Capital cities of Guatemala, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica, the Mexican State of Chiapas (Tuxtla Gutiérrez city) and Belize. Families (n 267), comprising one child aged 7-12 years and their biological parents. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37·9 % among women and 35·3 % among men. The most common component was low HDL cholesterol, 83·3 % in women and 78·9 % in men. Prevalence was positively associated with age. In women, metabolic syndrome was inversely related to education level whereas in men it was positively associated with household food security and height, after adjustment. The metabolic risk score in children was inversely related to parental height, and positively associated with height-for-age and with having parents with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in Mesoamerica. The burden of metabolic risk factors disproportionately affects women and children of lower socio-economic status and men of higher socio-economic status.
Ozge, Aynur; Buğdayci, Resul; Saşmaz, Tayyar; Kaleağasi, Hakan; Kurt, Oner; Karakelle, Ali; Siva, Aksel
The objectives of this study were to determine the age and sex dependent linear trend of recurrent headache prevalence in schoolchildren in Mersin. A stratified sample composed of 5562 children; detailed characteristics were previously published. In this study the prevalence distribution of headache by age and sex showed a peak in the female population at the age of 11 (27.2%) with a plateau in the following years. The great stratified random sample results suggested that, in addition to socio-demographic features, detailed linear trend analysis showed headache features of children with headache have some specific characteristics dependent on age, gender and headache type. This study results can constitute a basis for the future epidemiological based studies.
Remvig, Lars; Kümmel, Christina; Halkjær-Kristensen, Jens
were invited to be clinically examined and tested for motor competence, and to answer a questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain, injuries, and physical activity. Results: The final cohort comprised 315 Caucasian children, 50.5% girls and 54% boys. GJH prevalence was 35.6, 16.8, or 11.1%, depending...... the questionnaire, 56.5% girls and 43.5% boys. Nineteen fulfilled the criterion for BJHS, without difference in frequency of musculoskeletal pain and injuries, motor competence tests or physical activity compared with non-BJHS. Conclusion: GJH prevalence in this cohort is comparable to previous results. Increased......Objectives: Diverging results exist for children regarding the relation between generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and musculoskeletal complaints, as well as relations between GJH and insufficient motor development, and/or reduced physical activity level. The main purposes were to (1) survey...
Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Background: Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods: As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childho...... demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities....
Full Text Available Aims: A cross-sectional study was carried out with the objective of identifying nutrition habits and housing conditions as risk factors for respiratory problems in schoolchildren in Lisbon. Material and methods: Between October and December 2008, parents of 900 students of the elementary schools of Lisbon were invited to answer a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program (ISAAC. The response rate was 40 %. Logistic regression was used in the analysis of results. Results: The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and wheeze was 5.6 %, 43.0 % and 43.3 %, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with asthma were wheezing attacks, and dry cough at night not related to common cold in the last 12 months. Wheezing crises were found to affect children daily activities. Risk factors for wheeze were hay fever and the presence of a pet at home. A risk factor for rhinitis was cough at night. The frequent consumption of egg was also associated with increased risk of rhinitis. Conclusion: Contrarily to asthma, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and wheeze increased in comparison with previous ISAAC studies. Wheezing attacks were associated with asthma and hay fever was identified as a risk factor of manifesting wheezing symptoms. Having pets at home was pointed out as a significant risk factor for rhinitis, but not smoking exposure, mould, plush toys, diet (except egg consumption, breastfeeding or other conditions. Resumo: Objectivos: Com o objectivo de identificar hábitos alimentares e características habitacionais como factores de risco para a prevalência de problemas respiratórios na população escolar do 1.° ciclo da cidade de Lisboa foi realizado um estudo transversal. Material e métodos: De Outubro a Dezembro de 2008, os pais de 900 alunos das escolas do 1° ciclo de Lisboa foram convidados a responder a um questionário similar ao do Programa Internacional de Estudo de Asma e Alergias na
Anna Longdoh Njunda
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity as well as the factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis (US in Barrage, a rural community around the Mape΄ dam, in the West region of Cameroon not previously documented for transmission. Methods In this cross sectional parasitological survey, 382 children were enrolled from three primary schools in the study area between March and May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, clinical and predisposing factors. The syringe filtration technique was used to analyse urine samples. Samples with visible or gross haematuria were recorded prior to filtration. The Pearson chi-square, the student T-test and logistic regression were all performed as part of the statistical analyses. Results The overall prevalence of US was 41.1% (95% CI: 36.1–46.2. Infection was more common in children below 10 years (p = 0.009, in males (p = 0.029, and in children who frequently come into contact with water from the dam (p < 0.001. Furthermore, US was more common in children attending Ecole Public (EP Manbonko Bord (81.1%, p < 0.001 which is very close to the dam and in children from a fishing background (80.9%, p < 0.001. On the contrary, knowledge about schistosomiasis was not observed to be associated with prevalence. In this study, the intensity of infection was observed to be higher in children below 10 years (p < 0.001, in males (p = 0.001, and in children attending EP Manbonko Bord (p < 0.001. The intensity of infection was also highest in children presenting with haematuria (p < 0.001. Frequent contact with water from the dam and having parents whose occupation was fishing were identified as the associated factors for US. Conclusion A high prevalence of US was observed in school-aged children in the study area especially in those attending EP Manbonko Bord. Limiting contact with water from the dam
Minghelli, Beatriz; Cardoso, Iara; Porfírio, Melani; Gonçalves, Roberta; Cascalheiro, Sabina; Barreto, Vera; Soeiro, Andreia; Almeida, Leandro
Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2%) students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%), have headaches (36.8%), and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%). The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001); moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001). Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001) of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD. PMID:24741551
Kucur, Cüneyt; Şimşek, Eda; Kuduban, Ozan; Özbay, İsa
A total of 1,021 children attending 2 primary schools in districts in Erzurum were enrolled in a study evaluating the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) and its relationship with various risk factors. The prevalence of OME in this study was 6.8% (69/1021). The difference in OME prevalence between age groups (9 years) was statistically significant (p0.05), consanguineous marriage (p>0.05) and history of hearing loss in the parents (p>0.05) were not statistically significant. Parents need to be informed about the symptoms of and risk factors for OME to avoid delayed diagnosis, which can lead to permanent hearing loss.
Sharath Babu K
Full Text Available Background : Otitis Media with Effusion(OME also known as Secretory Otitis Media, has been identified as the commonest middle ear condition causing deafness in children in developed countries. Neither the indication for surgical treatment nor the types and number of procedures used are uniform. Possible treatment includes myringotomy with or without insertion of ventilation tube either alone or with adenoidectomy and occasionally tonsillectomy. Aims and Objectives : To assess the prevalence and the different modes of presentation of Otitis Media with Effusion among the rural school children of Puducherry and to assess the improvement in hearing after 6 months of surgical intervention done on patients with Otitis Media with Effusion. Materials and Methods: A school screening camp was conducted on 600 children in the age group of 5-12 years in a government middle school near our medical college hospital for identifying children with Otitis Media with Effusion. Students with Otitis Media with Effusion were further classified into 4 groups for various interventional procedures namely adenotonsillectomy with bilateral grommet insertion (Group A, adenoidectomy with bilateral grommet insertion (Group B, bilateral grommet insertion (Group C, bilateral myringotomy with wide field incision in the antero-inferior quadrant (Group D. Result : The prevalence was almost in equal proportions in the age group between 5-12 years and the overall prevalence of Otitis Media with Effusion among the study population was 13.3%. The adenotonsillectomy with bilateral grommet insertion procedure had shown a significant improvement in hearing, which was measured by using pure tone audiometry by assessing the mean air-bone gap, which was 9.81, 8.27 and 6.73 at the end of 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months respectively, when compared to the other procedures. Conclusion : Adenotonsillectomy with bilateral grommet insertion should be considered in a child with Otitis
Ain, Tasneem S; Lingesha Telgi, Ravishankar; Sultan, Saima; Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar Telgi, Chaitra; Tirth, Amit; Kumar Pal, Sumit; Gowhar, Owais; Tandon, Vaibhav
Traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth are a significant public health problem, not only because their prevalence is relatively high, but also because they have considerable impact on children's daily lives. Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) cause physical and psychological discomfort, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling, which can affect social relationships. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Kashmir, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in private and government schools of India among 1600 schoolchildren aged 12 years. In addition to recording of the type of trauma (using Ellis and Davey classification of fractures, 1970), over jet, Angle's molar relation and lip competence were also recorded. The socioeconomic status and academic performance of the study subjects were registered. The data obtained were compiled systematically and then statistically analyzed. The statistical significance for the association between the traumatic injury and the variables was analyzed using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk predictors of TDIs. The overall prevalence of TDI to anterior teeth was found to be 9.3%. The TDI to anterior teeth in male was more than female, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P Academic performance was found to be significantly associated to TDI to anterior teeth, when analyzed in a multiple regression model. It was concluded that the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 9.3%. Traumatic dental injuries among children exhibit complex interaction between the victims' oral conditions and their behavior. Therefore, prevention should consider a number of characteristics such as oral predisposing factors, environmental determinants and human behavior. It is recommended that specific and proper public places for leisure and sports activities, with
Umer, Muhammad Farooq; Farooq, Umer; Shabbir, Arham; Zofeen, Shumaila; Mujtaba, Hasan; Tahir, Muhammad
According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5%, 14.3%, and 45.9% respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p calculus (p calculus (p dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p calculus, and dental caries in primary (p dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p < 0.01) in children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores.
Shahbaz, U.; Hosein, T.; Fauzia, Q.
Objective: To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. Methodology: School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95 percent CI. Results: The Results showed a high frequency of (46 percent) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in children with more acidic diet. Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of dietary habits on the prevalence of dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion. (author)
Arshalooz Jamila Rahman
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.
Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Vitthaldas N; Saboo, Banshi D; Phatak, Sanjiv R; Shah, Navneet N; Gohel, Mukesh C; Raval, Prashad B; Patel, Snehal S
Obesity and overweight have become a worldwide epidemic, and there is an urgent need to examine childhood obesity and overweight across countries using a standardized international standard. In the present study we have investigated the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk factors like diet, physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon, eating habits like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend, family history of diabetes and obesity. The study was carried out in 5664 school children of 12-18 years of age and having different SES. The obesity and overweight were considered using an updated body mass index reference. SES and life style factors were determined using pre-tested questionnaire. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was found to be 14.3% among boys and 9.2% among girls where as the prevalence of obesity was 2.9% in boys and 1.5% in girls. The prevalence of overweight among children was higher in middle SES as compared to high SES group in both boys and girls whereas the prevalence of obesity was higher in high SES group as compared to middle SES group. The prevalence of obesity as well as overweight in low SES group was the lowest as compared to other group. Eating habit like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend and physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon having remarkable effect on prevalence on overweight and obesity among middle to high SES group. Family history of diabetes and obesity were also found to be positively associated. Our data suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity varies remarkably with different socioeconomic development levels.
Umer, M.F.; Mujtaba, H.; Tahir, M.
Background: According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. Results: The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5 percentage, 14.3 percentage, and 45.9 percentage respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p<0.001), gingivitis (p<0.01), and calculus (p<0.05) with the increase in age of children. More children living in urban area were detected with gingivitis (p<0.01), calculus (p<0.01), and dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p<0.05), calculus, and dental caries in primary (p<0.001) and permanent teeth were found higher in those children who were not brushing their teeth. Experience of dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p<0.01) in children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. Conclusions: The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores. (author)
Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning
Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods
P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school
Sanhouri, N M; Ziada, H M; Ahmed, G I; Kamis, A H
Investigate Tooth Surface Loss TSL, among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan; evaluate pattern, severity and determine relationship between TSL, dietary habits and socio-economical status. Cross sectional survey among primary public and private schools. Cluster sample of 1,138 12 to 14-year old students from both public and private school. Mild and moderate TSL was measured on buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines and occlusal, buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. Surfaces scored according to criterion described by the National Survey of Child Dental Health. The prevalence of TSL was found to be 74%. Mild and moderate TSL was detected on palatal surfaces of maxillary central incisors followed by occlusal surfaces of mandibular molars. TSL into the pulp was not detected. A high prevalence of 74% was found with mild and moderate TSL with no pulpal involvement. There was an association between consumption of erosive foods and the prevalence of TSL. Socio-economic status and gender did not present significant differences.
Sejdini, Milaim; Çerkezi, Sabetim
This study aimed to find the prevalence of Hypodontia and Hyperdontia in different ethnicities in patients from 7 to 14 years old. A group of 520 children were included aged 7 to 14 years, only the children who went to primary schools. Controls were performed by professional people to preserve the criteria of orthodontic abnormalities evaluation. The data were recorded in the individual card specially formulated for this research and all the patients suspected for hypodontia and hyperdontia the orthopantomography for confirmation was made. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis using χ 2 test for the significant difference for p ˂ 0.05 and Fisher test for p counting the patients with missing third molars was found in 18 patients researched or 3.46%. The most commonly missing teeth were the second lower premolars, the second upper premolars, second upper lateral incisors followed by the lower incisors. Hyperdontia not including the third molars was found in 4 cases of the participants or 0.76% from which the most frequent atypical tooth mesiodens and one case of bilateral hypodontia of a lateral upper incisor with typical shape and size. But there were no significant differences when tested between genders and jaws. The prevalence we found is similar to the prevalence in the region. Our findings indicate that there is a difference between the genders in the prevalence of hypodontia, but without statistical significance, while for hyperdontia we can't see such a difference between the sexes.
Turki H. Albatti
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to 1 determine the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD among both governmental and private primary Saudi school children, 2 measure the gender difference of ADHD prevalence, and 3 determine any association between the socio-demographic characteristic of the parents of children with ADHD. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study of 1000 primary school children belonging to 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade. The selected students were screened by the ADHD rating scale using multistage sampling technique. The first stage was selection of 20 schools from all Riyadh regions by simple randomization. The second stage was choosing children whom serial numbers were multiples of five in each class. The ADHD rating scale was filled by both parents and teachers along with a socio-demographic questionnaire for the parents. Results: The estimated prevalence of ADHD was 3.4%. ADHD manifestations affect boys more than girls. In addition, ADHD was more frequent among children of illiterate mothers. Finally, ADHD was significantly more prevalent among first grade children. Conclusion: This epidemiological study filled the data gap of ADHD prevalence in Riyadh. The study's findings go in line with many nearby and global studies. Keywords: ADHD, Prevalence, Socio-demographics, Children, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Introduction: Skin lesions may be of dermatological importance, affect appearance, and cause problems communicating with peers and may be especially more significant in childhood. Aim :Information on the prevalence of pediatric dermatoses in Western Turkey. This study was aimed to define the existing data. Material and methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted in Canakkale, Turkey, in September-December 2013. It involved 1,957 students from five randomly selected primary and secondary schools. Each student was interviewed for age, gender, and family history, and a dermatologic examination was performed by a dermatologist. Data were coded and analyzed. Results :Of the students, 79.9% revealed at least one dermatosis. The most common disease was benign neoplasms (76%, followed by pigmentary disorders (26.8%, and xerosis (5.8%. In primary schools, the acquired melanocytic nevus, hypopigmented macule, and xerosis; in secondary school the acne was statistically significantly more common. Acne and xerosis was more common in girls, and pityriasis alba was statistically more common in boys. Students who had at least one dermatosis were positively correlated with monthly income. Conclusions :In Turkish school age children, the prevalence of dermatosis is 79.9%. It may be due to not using preventive means for adequate protection from the sun and other environmental factors. Infectious dermatosis and atopic dermatitis are rare and it may depend on the adequacy of public health work.
Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba
To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Getaneh, Zegeye; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Engidaye, Getabalew; Seyoum, Masresha; Berhane, Muruts; Abebe, Zegeye; Asrie, Fikir; Melku, Mulugeta
Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4%) were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR)) age was 12 (10-13) years, and 332 (63.5%) of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7%) of them were anemic: 56 (69.1%) and 25 (38.9%) of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78), stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80), severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13), and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16.86) were
Full Text Available Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4% were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR age was 12 (10-13 years, and 332 (63.5% of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7% of them were anemic: 56 (69.1% and 25 (38.9% of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78, stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80, severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13, and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and overweight are one of the health problems in developed and developing countries that are increasing every day. The purpose of this study was to asses the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their risk factors among preschool children in Yazd . .Methods: In a descriptive cross sectional study 400 preschool aged 6 years, including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected via random sampling method from among health assessment clinics and evaluated for obesity and overweight and their risk factors in 2005-2006. BMI for age and sex was based on standardized percentile curves for BMI ( NHNESIII accepted by WHO . Obesity was defined as BMI >95th and overweigh as BMI in 85-95th percentile. The data of the research was collected through complied questionnaire by interviewing parents and then analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Frequency of obesity and overweight was approximately 5.5% and 5% in boys and 2%, 3.5% in girls, respectively. Obesity and overweight had a significant statistical relationship with physical activity, amount of television viewing and consumption of fast food and soda, but no statistically significant relationships were seen with sex, birth order and parental educational levels. Conclusion: In this study, prevalence of obesity and overweight was lower than other similar studies, but obesity risk factors should be considered during decision making on preventive measures.
Youssef, R M; Attia, M S; Kamel, M I
This study was undertaken to reveal the prevalence and determinants of corporal punishment in preparatory (middle) and secondary (high) schools in Alexandria. A cross sectional survey targeting preparatory and secondary school students enrolled in main stream public schools was conducted. The multistage random sample technique was adopted to select a priori estimated sample of this population. They were requested to fill a self administered questionnaire to collect relevant information. Data were analyzed using the univariate and multivariate analyses. A substantial proportion of boys (79.96%) and girls (61.53%) incurred physical punishment at the hand of their teachers. Teachers were using their hands, sticks, straps, shoes, and kicks to inflict such punishment without sparing a part of their students' body. Physical injuries were reported by a significantly higher percentage of boys (chi 2(1) = 12.26, p = .00046) the most common being bumps and contusions followed by wounds and fractures. Moreover, it was only among boys that serious injuries such as loss of consciousness and concussion were encountered. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that corporal punishment was more likely to be used in preparatory schools and on boys. Such means of punishment were also predicted by students' undesirable behavior as well as their poor achievement in academic tasks. This study indicates that corporal punishment in school is used extensively to discipline students whose behavior doesn't conform with the desired standard of educational institutions. However, since it is no longer perceived as a method of discipline, other alternatives can be used providing that teachers are equipped with the necessary skills for its application.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity represent a rapidly growing threat to the health of population in an increasing number of countries. Indeed, these are now so common that they are replacing more traditional problems such as under nutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant causes of ill health. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was undertaken in 5 schools catering Warangal city. The age groups included in the study were between 5- 15 years of age. Out of 3352 children included in the study, 2188 (65.27% were males and 1164 (34.73% were females. RESULTS 14.4% of the children were obese, and in that, females (17% were slightly more in number than males (13%. Obese children had significantly higher caloric intake than non-obese children. There was a significant relationship between birth weight of the child and development of obesity in the later age. Significant relationship was found between obesity in children and their parental BMI. There was no significant difference in physical activity between obese, overweight and non-obese group. Sedentary behaviour had a significant association with the obese group when compared to the non-obese group. There was a significant relationship between sedentary behaviour with overweight and obesity. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were found to be significantly higher in the obese group when compared to the non-obese group, and in the obese group, this was more predominant in the age group of 11-15 than the 5-10 years age group. CONCLUSION Timely intervention will result in decreased adulthood morbidity and mortality due to obesity in these children
Jin, Zhijuan; Yang, You; Liu, Shijian; Huang, Hong; Jin, Xingming
We estimated the prevalence of ASD in a population-based sample comprising children aged 3-12 years (N = 74,252) in Shanghai. This included a high-risk group sampled from special education schools and a low-risk group randomly sampled from general schools. First, we asked parents and then teachers to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire for participating children. Children who screened positive based on both parental and teachers' reports were comprehensively assessed. ASD was identified based on DSM-5 criteria. We identified 711 children as being at-risk for ASD, of which 203 were identified as ASD cases. The prevalence of ASD was 8.3 per 10,000, which is likely an underestimate, given that 81.6% of the children diagnosed with ASD had IQs below 40. This is the first report on the prevalence of ASD according to DSM-5 in China.
Full Text Available Aim : The paper aims to present a study conducted in Dera Bassi, Mohali, India. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI in children of age group 7-12 years in private schools in Gulabgarh village. Material & Method : Age & sex distribution, etiological factors, risk factors and cause of injury were the parameters taken into consideration. The data collected was processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software program. Results : The overall prevalence of dental trauma was 14.5%, amongst the 880 subjects examined, out of which, 63.2% males and 36.4% females were found to be affected. The maxillary central incisor was found to be most commonly affected tooth (43.8%. The most common cause of injury reported was fall during playing (37.5%. Conclusion : Enamel fracture was most prevalent (50%. No risk factor was significantly higher than others; however children with Angle′s class II div 1 malocclusion exhibited greater risk factor for traumatic injuries.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is one of the leading causes of preventable disabling hearing impairment (DHI in developing countries. Early detection and management complements advances made in other survival programs, improves work capacity, and enhances learning opportunities for school children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CSOM and associated DHI among school children aged six to 16 years in Socotra Island, Yemen. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional community-based survey, from 20 April 2011 to 20 June 2011. The study procedures involved completing a questionnaire, an otoscopic ear examination, an audiometric test of hearing, and tuning fork tests for the type of DHI. Results: A total of 686 children were interviewed and examined for CSOM and associated DHI of CSOM cases. The prevalence of CSOM was 7.4%, (95% CI 5.5–9.4. CSOM status was significantly associated with DHI (p=0.001, but no significant associations were found between demographic characteristics and CSOM status. Logistic regression identified four significant independent contributing factors: history of ear discharge in the last 12 months (odds ratio (OR 7.8, 95% CI 3.9–15.6; swimming in local pools (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.4–25.4; recurrent respiratory tract infection more than three times per year (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.5–11.0; and overcrowding with more than three families per house (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.7–11.5. . Conclusion: The burden of CSOM in the children studied indicates a high level of DHI in these communities within Yemen. A history of ear discharge, swimming in local pools, recurrent respiratory infections, and overcrowded housing were the strongest predictors for CSOM. There is a need for better ear care and screening programs for early detection and management of this disease.
Schnohr, C; Pedersen, J M; Alcón, M C G
. CONCLUSION: Most of the observed trends are positive, with regard to intake of vegetables and sweets and consumption of soft drinks. The fact that a high proportion of schoolchildren consider themselves to be obese must be assumed to have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of this population......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the trends in the dietary patterns of selected food items and in the prevalence of self-perceived obesity in a population of Greenlandic schoolchildren. STUDY DESIGN: The study is based on three school surveys among Greenlandic schoolchildren, class 6......,057 and 2,010 pupils, respectively. RESULTS: The intake of vegetables has increased significantly since 1994, and the intake of fruits, sweets and soft drink has decreased significantly at a 5% level. An unchanged high proportion of schoolchildren report to be on a diet or consider themselves obese...
Bomba, J; Jaklewicz, H
Depression in children has an unfavourable influence on the psychosocial development of the individual, therefore it requires suitable therapeutic and prophylactic approach. The dependencies between school-age immaturity and the prevalence of depression in children were evaluated in the prospective study. The school maturity, and one year later the prevalence of depression were studied in a representative sample of 502 "0"-grade children from the large urban population. The school immaturity was found in 10.56% of probands. More common symptoms were: withdrawal and antisocial behaviour. Depression was found in 32.79% of first-grade students, more frequent children with adaptation difficulties, especially among school-immature boys. The premature biological development, the symptoms of organic brain damage, and low I.Q. do not explain sufficiently neither the school-immaturity nor the prevalence of depression in children. It was found that emotional and social immaturity to the school duties facilitates the onset of depression among I grade students, while the role of the family and school in the genesis of both phenomena studied requires further investigations.
Fernando Luiz Cardoso
Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to verify possible gender-based differences in the subtypes of ADHD. It was a descriptive-exploratory and non-probabilistic study. Eighty-four children aged between 6 and 16years were indicated for participation by their teachers, and the DSM-IV and EDAH scale assessments were then applied. Seventy-one participants were identifi ed as positive by at least one of these scales, as a result of which 51 boys and 20 girls were enrolled on the study, at an average of 3.5 boys for each girl. This study upholds the results of the literature review in terms of ADHD prevalence among boys. This difference is probably the result of the prevalence among girls being underestimated due tomore inattention symptoms than hyperactivity behavior. RESUMO Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo verifi car possíveis diferenças de sexo nos subtipos do TDAH. Está caracterizada como descritiva-exploratória, não probabilística. Foram indicadas pelos professores 84 crianças, com idade entre 6 e 16 anos, nas quais foram aplicadas as escalas de avaliação DSM-IV e EDAH. Destas, 71 obtiveram indicativos positivos do transtorno através de pelo menos um dos instrumentos, sendo 51 meninos e 20 meninas, ou seja, na média de 3,5 meninos para cada menina. A amostra obteve um resultado dentro do esperado quanto à prevalência do TDAH no sexo masculino. Diferença que talvez ocorra porque as meninas são subdiagnosticadas por possuírem mais sintomas de desatenção que hiperatividade.
Batson, Yvonne Ann; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Maharaj, Rohan G; Cockburn, Brian N
Our previous work has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a problem in the school-aged population of Trinidad, West Indies. The current study evaluated the prevalence in this population of selected risk factors for diabetes, viz: obesity, family history of diabetes and acanthosis nigricans. To assess the prevalence of the following risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in school children in Trinidad: obesity, family history of diabetes in first- or second-degree relatives and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). A cross-sectional survey was performed among school children aged 7-18 years from September 2009 to June 2010. A convenience sample was selected from a random sample of 32 schools drawn from all educational districts. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to record family history, gender and ethnicity. AN was assessed and scored clinically at the neck and obesity was measured by anthropometry and bio-impedance. There were 2130 participants in the study. Fifteen per cent were obese and 17% were overweight. Primary school children had a higher prevalence of obesity (22·9% vs 11·0%) and overweight (20·0% vs 15·6%) than secondary school children (Pobesity as measured by BMI for age (35·8 vs 29·4%, P18% of all school children have a degree of AN greater than grade 2, which clinically is readily recognisable. Females displayed this physical sign more commonly than males (Pdiabetes in first- and second-degrees relatives were 11·0% and 1·1%, respectively. Forty-three per cent had one risk factor for diabetes, 23·1% had two and 2·9% had three. Risk factors for T2DM are very common among school children in Trinidad. More than 40% had at least one risk factor. Strategies aimed at reducing risk factors for T2DM, especially obesity, among Trinidadian school children are urgently warranted.
Full Text Available Background and objectivesIodine deficiency was a public health problem in Iran before the start of iodine supplementation program in 1989. This study has been conducted in the framework of the national monitoring survey in 2001 to find the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine levels in order to evaluate the effect of national supplementation program on the iodine status of school-aged children in the city of Qom. MethodsIn a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Qom, and the grade of goiter was determined in 600 boys and 600 girls according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren.ResultsGoiter was observed in 26% of children (24.3% of girls and 27.7% of boys. The average urinary iodine level was 15.2 µg/dl. Urinary iodine levels higher than 10 μg/dl was measured in 71.7% and less than 5 µg/dl in 8.1% of children. Urinary iodine levels less than 2 μg/dl has not been observed in any of the cases. No significant difference was observed in prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine level between males and females, and students in living in urban or rural areas.ConclusionComparison of these results with those of the year 1996 shows that prevalence of goiter has significantly decreased in these students. Also, it shows that in the city of Qom, the urinary iodine levels of schoolchildren fall in the standard range determined by WHO. This indicates that the iodine intake is adequate in the province of Qom. Therefore, this province can be considered as an “iodine deficiency-free” zone.Keywords: Goiter; Goiter Endemic; Iodine.
Ajami, Behgat-al-molok; Shabzendedar, Mahboobeh; Mehrjerdian, Maryam
Hypodontia is defined as the congenital absence of one or a few teeth, and is also the most common anomaly in dental development. This condition occurs either individually or as part of the symptoms of a syndrome, and it is more common in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, reporting a prevalence of between 1.6 and 9.6%. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hypodontia for permanent teeth in nine- to 14-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry in 2007. We conducted this descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, to determine the mentioned aims. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, panoramic radiographs belonging to 600 children (351 girls and 249 boys), aged nine to 14 years, were available for examination. All related findings were recorded in the respective forms. The data were processed using Exact and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of hypodontia in the girls was 9.2%, in the boys 8.8%, and in both sexes combined 9%. The most and the least frequent cases of absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars and the maxillary central incisor (only one child), respectively. The most commonly absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars, the maxillary lateral incisors, the mandibular central incisor, and the maxillary second premolars, in that order. This study showed a high frequency of hypodontia among the understudied population. Thus, due to the complicated treatment, accurate examination of children for on-time diagnosis of this developmental anomaly is crucial.
Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar
Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.
Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors
Banavaram Anniappan Arvind
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.
Solis Soto, María Teresa; Patiño, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja
Asthma and allergies are world-wide common chronic diseases among children and young people. Little information is available about the prevalence of these diseases in rural areas of Latin America. This study assesses the prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies among children in urban and rural areas at Oropeza Province in Bolivia. The Spanish version of the ISAAC standardized questionnaire and the ISAAC video questionnaire were implemented to 2584 children attending the fifth elementary grade in 36 schools in Oropeza province (response 91%). Lifetime, 12 months and severity prevalence were determined for asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for age using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Median age of children was 11 years, 74.8% attended public schools, and 52.1% were female. While children attending urban schools had lower prevalence of self-reported wheeze in the written questionnaire (adjusted OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.9), they were more likely than children attending rural schools to report wheeze in the video questionnaire (aOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-2.6). They also reported more frequently severe rhinoconjunctivitis (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.6) and severe eczema symptoms (aOR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-11.0). Overall in accordance with the hygiene hypothesis, children living in urban areas of Bolivia seem to have a higher prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies compared to children living in the country side. In order to develop primary prevention strategies, environmental factors need to be identified in future studies.
Ratna Ayu Alia Zulkarnain
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to describe the caries prevalence and caries index of children in primary school with UKGS (SD Kartini I and without UKGS (SD 009 Bulang in Kota Batam. Total samples of this research were 193 persons, it is consist of 107 persons from SD Kartini I and 86 persons from SD 009 Bulang. The Chi-Square Test and U Mann-Whitney Test were conducted in this research. The statistical analysis was significant for caries prevalence between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS with χ2table = 2.71 and χ2calculate = 3.73, whereas def-t index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS was significant with - Ztable = - 1.96 and Zcalculate = - 2.91 with α = 0.05. The DMF-T index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS was significant with Ztable = 1.96 and Zcalculate = 6.32 with α = 0,05. The conclusions of this study indicate that there were differences of caries prevalence and caries index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical parasitic diseases caused by Schistosoma mansoni. Currently, the control measures for the disease are mainly based on mass drug administration (MDA with praziquantel (PZQ targeting the school-age children. In Ethiopia, the potential foci for schistosomiasis and therapeutic efficacy of PZQ among school-age children remain poorly explored. Therefore, we determined both the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection and the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ among school children in the Manna District (new foci for S. mansoni, Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among the school children aged between 6 and 18 years in three primary schools in Manna district from March to April 2014. For diagnosis of S. mansoni, a single stool sample was obtained from each child and processed using single Kato Katz and examined under light microscopy. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information of the school children participated in the study. School children excreting eggs of S. mansoni were administered with 40 mg/kg of PZQ and re-examined after three weeks post-treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of PZQ against S. mansoni was evaluated by means of cure rate and egg reduction rate. Results The overall prevalence of S. mansoni among the school children in the three primary schools in Manna District was 24.0 %. Higher prevalence was recorded for males 25.6 % (61/238 than for females 22.5 % (59/262. Majority (27.5 % of infection intensity was light with mean faecal egg count (FEC of 202 eggs per gram (EPG. The therapeutic efficacy of PZQ at a dose of 40 mg/kg was highly efficient (cure rate of 99.1 % and egg reduction rate of 99.9 % among the school children in the three primary schools in Manna District. Conclusions The school children in the three primary schools of Manna District, Jimma Zone were at moderate risk of the
Jejaw, Ayalew; Zemene, Endalew; Alemu, Yayehirad; Mengistie, Zemenu
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method. Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7% (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8% of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.
Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang
Objective To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. Methods A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. Thes...
Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Singh, Sarabjeet; Sharma, Abhishek; Sandhu, Navreet; Mehta, Kavita
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 13-18-year-old schoolchildren of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic component (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. The sample comprised 2000 school children (1125 females and 875 males) who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. No radiographs, study casts, were used; IOTN was calculated from clinical examination. DHC results showed that little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 31.6% and moderate need in 30.85%. A great need was estimated at 37.55%. Severe contact point displacement of more than 4 mm was the most common occlusal feature in the definite treatment need group, followed by increased overjet, impeded eruption of teeth, and anterior or posterior cross bite. AC results showed that little need for orthodontic treatment was in 86.15%, moderate need in 8.90%, and great need in 4.95%. Index does not consider midline discrepancy, soft tissue abnormalities, and AC does not include Class III and Class II div 2 malocclusion photographs. There seems a discrepancy in the proportion of children needing orthodontic treatment on esthetic and dental health grounds. This study provides baseline data on the need and demand for orthodontic treatment among the sample which is important for planning public orthodontic and dental services.
Rimal, H; Pokharel, A
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is
Josiane Marques Felcar
Full Text Available Pretende-se identificar a prevalência de respiradores bucais em crianças de uma escola do ensino fundamental. Foram aplicados 496 questionários aos pais ou responsáveis das crianças de 1ª à 4ª série de uma escola fundamental, para identificar respiradores bucais. O questionário incluía questões sobre hábitos, sono, comportamento, alimentação, cuidados pessoais e respiração. Para comparar as variáveis entre respiradores bucais e nasais, foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney e qui-quadrado. Para medir o efeito da exposição das variáveis explicativas sobre o desfecho primário, foi utilizada regressão logística e sua magnitude foi calculada por meio do odds ratio. A significância estatística foi estipulada em 5%. A taxa de devolução dos questionários foi de 84,5%. A prevalência de respiração bucal nessa população foi 56,8%. A mediana de idade foi sete anos (6-9. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os gêneros, 49,1% masculino e 50,9% feminino. O modelo final de regressão logística identificou as variáveis baba, dorme bem (associação negativa e ronca como fatores que predizem a ocorrência da respiração bucal. A prevalência de respiradores bucais foi semelhante à encontrada na literatura pesquisada. As variáveis babar, roncar e dormir bem (associação negativa podem predizer a ocorrência da respiração bucal.The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouse breathing, the test of logistic regression was
Hashem, Mahmoodzadeh; Morteza, Amestejani; Mohammad, Karamyar; Ahmad-Ali, Nikibakhsh
Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.
Warkad, Vivekanand U; Panda, Lapam; Behera, Pradeep; Das, Taraprasad; Mohanta, Bikash C; Khanna, Rohit
To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and other ocular comorbidities among tribal children in an urban school population in eastern India. In this cross-sectional study, vision screening tests were administered to tribal school children. Demographic data, including name, age, sex, home district, height, and weight of each child, and examination data, including unaided and pinhole visual acuity, external eye examination with a flashlight, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and undilated fundus photography, were collected. Children with visual acuity of less than 20/20, abnormal anterior or posterior segment findings, and IOP of >21 mm Hg were referred for further evaluation. Of 10,038 children (5,840 males [58.2%]) screened, 335 (median age, 9 years; range, 6-17 years) were referred. Refractive error was the most common cause of visual impairment (59.52%; 95% CI, 51.97-66.65) followed by amblyopia (17.2%; 95% CI, 12.3-23.6) and posterior segment anomaly (14.88%; 95% CI, 10.2-21.0). The prevalence of best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 was 0.13%. The prevalence of blindness was 0.03%. Visual impairment among tribal children in this residential school is an uncommon but important disability. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khor, Geok L; Chee, Winnie S S; Shariff, Zalilah M; Poh, Bee K; Arumugam, Mohan; Rahman, Jamalludin A; Theobald, Hannah E
Deficiencies of micronutrients can affect the growth and development of children. There is increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency world-wide resulting in nutritional rickets in children and osteoporosis in adulthood. Data on the micronutrient status of children in Malaysia is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and micronutrient status of primary school children in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. A cross sectional study of primary aged school children was undertaken in 2008. A total of 402 boys and girls aged 7-12 years, attending primary schools in Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess vitamin D [as 25(OH)D], vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. Height-for-age and body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) of the children were computed. Most of the children had normal height-for-age (96.5%) while slightly over half (58.0%) had normal BMI-for-age. A total of 17.9% were overweight and 16.4% obese. Prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among the boys (25%) than in the girls (9.5%) (χ2 = 22.949; P 37.5-≤ 50 nmol/L). Among the boys, a significant inverse association was found between serum vitamin D status and BMI-for-age (χ2 = 5.958; P = .016). This study highlights the presence of a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status among urban primary school children in a tropical country. In light of the growing problem of obesity in Malaysian children, these findings emphasize the important need for appropriate interventions to address both problems of obesity and poor vitamin D status in children.
Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Puig-Barbera, Joan; Artero-Civera, Adrián; Campos-Cruañes, Joan Baptista; Pac-Sa, M Rosario; Villamarín-Vázquez, Jose Luis; Felis-Dauder, Carlos
Water hardness has been associated with atopic eczema (AE) prevalence in two epidemiologic studies carried out on schoolchildren in England and Japan. To estimate the association between the prevalence of AE and domestic water hardness. The prevalence of AE was obtained from The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, carried out in six towns in the province of Castellón on schoolchildren 6-7 and 13-14 years of age, using a standard questionnaire in 2002. Three zones were defined according to domestic water hardness of the six study localities: 300 mg/l. A logistic regression analysis was performed. The lifetime prevalence of AE in schoolchildren 6-7 years of age was higher with the increment of water hardness, 28.6, 30.5 and 36.5% respectively for each zone; between zone 1 and zone 3, the adjusted odds ratios (ORa) were 1.58 (95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.04-2.39) (adjusted tendency test p=0.034). Prevalence of symptoms of AE within the past year were 4.7, 4.5, and 10.4%, respectively by zone; between zone 1 and zone 3, the ORa was 2.29 (95% CI 1.19-4.42) (adjusted tendency test p=0,163). For 13-14 year-old schoolchildren, tendencies to lifetime prevalence of AE at any time or in the past year were not significant. This study suggests that in 6-7 year-old schoolchildren, water hardness in the area where they live has some relevance to the development of the disease.
Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Beuker, R.J.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Objectives: To provide national figures on the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity (S-FH), and the association with socio-demographic variables and some health indicators in schoolchildren in The Netherlands. Design: As part of the Child Health Monitoring System, data were collected
Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Indra Tri Mahayana
Full Text Available Uncorrected refractive error (URE is a major health problem among school children. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and patterns of URE across 4 gradients of residential densities (urban, exurban, suburban and rural. This was a cross-sectional study of school children from 3 districts in Yogyakarta and 1 district near Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The information regarding age, sex, school and school grader were recorded. The Snellen’s chart was used to measure the visual acuity and to perform the subjective refraction. The district was then divided into urban, suburban, exurban and rural area based on their location and population. In total, 410 school children were included in the analyses (urban=79, exurban=73, suburban=160 and rural=98 school children. Urban school children revealed the worst visual acuity (P<0.001 and it was significant when compared with exurban and rural. The proportion of URE among urban, suburban, exurban and rural area were 10.1%, 12.3%, 3.8%, and 1%, respectively, and it was significant when compared to the proportion of ametropia and corrected refractive error across residential densities (P=0.003. The risk of URE development in urban, suburban, exurban, and rural were 2.218 (95%CI: 0.914-5.385, 3.019 (95%CI: 1.266-7.197, 0.502 (95%CI: 0.195-1.293, and 0.130 (95%CI:0.017-0.972, respectively. Urban school children showed the worst visual acuity. The school children in urban and suburban residential area had 2 and 3 times higher risk of developing the URE.
He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng
To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was
Djordjic, Visnja; Radisavljevic, Snezana; Milanovic, Ivana; Bozic, Predrag; Grbic, Miljana; Jorga, Jagoda; Ostojic, Sergej M
The World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) is a public health program established in order to understand the progress of the obesity epidemic in young populations and gain inter-country comparisons within the European region, yet the data from a number of East European countries, including Serbia, were not available then. Therefore, the main aim of this cross-sectional study was to collect data about the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-9-year-old school children in Serbia according to the standardized protocol during the Fourth COSI Implementation Round. From September 2015 to November 2015, 5102 first- and second-grade primary-school children (age 7.7±0.6 years) were assessed for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) in 14 Serbian school districts. The prevalence rates of obesity, as calculated using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off points, vary across different age groups, with the lowest obesity rates reported in 7-year-old boys (6.2%), while the highest obesity prevalence rates were observed in 6-year-old boys (9.7%). In addition, being overweight was strongly associated with poor local community development and lower level of urbanization. The overall prevalence of overweight (23.1%, including obesity) and obesity (6.9%) in Serbian primary-school children seem to be comparable to rather high rates previously reported in other countries participating in the COSI program, indicating an obesity epidemic in Serbian children. This surveillance system should be regularly implemented throughout Europe, providing comparable data on rates of overweight/obesity in primary schools that might drive prudent actions to reverse the pandemic trend of childhood obesity.
Jan 1, 2014 ... families (families with four or more children) and 40 were from 'poor' families; 21 fathers ... World-wide, malnutrition is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality ... population of the northern region of Sudan is 750,000, with the ...
Jaswal, Shivani; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.; Gupta, Seema; Kaur, Harjeet
Objective: Pediatrician is the first contact in the Pathway to Care in children with Mental retardation (MR). Following the recent advancements in the area of molecular genetics, understanding of specific conditions of MR or Developmental Delay (DD) is expanding. Hypothyroidism is a treatable metabolic/endocrinological cause of MR. The aim of this…
Kratěnová, J.; Žejglicová, K.; Malý, Marek; Filipová, V.
Roč. 77, č. 3 (2007), s. 131-137 ISSN 0022-4391 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : posture * pain * BMI * children Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.956, year: 2007
Rabie, Faten M.; Al Asmari, Aishah H.; Al-Barak, Sara A.; Al-Rashed, Fatima M.; Mare, Najla
Epilepsy is a heterogeneous collection of neurological conditions and syndromes characterized by recurrent, unprovoked, paroxysmal seizure activity. It is estimated that 10.5 million children under 15 years have active epilepsy, representing about 25% of the global epilepsy population. Of the 3.5 million people who develop epilepsy annually, 40%…
Full Text Available Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05. A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05.Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest.
Aysun Sikar Akturk
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the presented study was determine the prevalence of Pediculosis capitis and factors related to the treatment success in a public primary school situated in an area having a low socio-economic status in the city of Kocaeli. Materials and Methods: A total of 414 students attending at the first grade of a public primary school in Kocaeli and 267 family members of the students with head lice and/or nits were screened. Students and their family members were examined by visual inspection and dermoscopic examination whether they had head lice and/or nits. The data were collected about some socio demographic characteristics of children’ and those of their family members with active Pediculosis capitis and shampoos with 1% permethrin was used to get rid of Pediculosis capitis. After two weeks, people who had received treatment were re-examined and factors related to the successful treatment were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 14.3% in school children and 13% in their family members. The prevalence was statistically significant with education levels of the mothers and fathers, social security of family and by gender. The treatment was successful in 38 of school children (66%, and in 10 of their family members (29% with pediculosis capitis. The success of the treatment was no statistically significant in gender, education level of the mothers and fathers, having social security and income. It was noticed that successful treatment was correlated with proper use of the shampoo and proper mechanical cleaning. Conclusions: Head lice is a public health problem that concerns both the school children and their family members. School children who were infested with Pediculosis capitis and their families should be periodically screened and should be immediately and simultaneously treated to preventing reinfestation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 181-190
Syed MS Andrabi
Full Text Available Aim: Obesity is the most common cause of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS. These are the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD. No evidence exists regarding the prevalence of the MS in children in sSrinagar city of Kashmir India. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MS in 8-18-year-old school-going children of Kashmir, India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 758 respondents in 8-18 years of age were randomly selected using a simple random sampling method. The self-designed questionnaire was individually completed after receiving a written informed consent. The weight, height, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure were measured using standard tools. Ten milliliters of blood was taken for measuring lipid profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS of the school children. We determined MS according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria. Results: The prevalence of the MS was 3.8% (boys: 3.9%, girls: 3.8% and the prevalence of obesity was 9.9% (boys: 9.9%, girls: 10.6% among the studied children. Obese subjects had the highest proportion of MS compared with those at risk for overweight and those with normal weight (30.7% vs. 2.5% and 0.5%, respectively; P = 0.000. Conclusion: The MS is prevalent even in young children, so we suggest screening programs for children aged 8-18 years to control obesity and MS in the developing world.
Amor, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Esperanza; Saugar, José M; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Yizengaw, Endalew; Zewdie, Derejew; Ayehubizu, Zimman; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Echazú, Adriana; Krolewieki, Alejandro J; Aparicio, Pilar; Herrador, Zaida; Anegagrie, Melaku; Benito, Agustín
Soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) are extremely prevalent in school-aged children living in poor sanitary conditions. Recent epidemiological data suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis is highly unreported. However, accurate data are essential for conducting interventions aimed at introducing control and elimination programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 396 randomly selected school-aged children in Amhara region in rural area in north-western Ethiopia, to assess the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal helminths. We examined stools using three techniques: conventional stool concentration; and two S. stercoralis-specific methods, i.e. the Baermann technique and polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic accuracy of these three methods was then compared. There was an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.5%, with distribution differing according to school setting. Soil-transmitted helminths were recorded in 69.2%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 20.7 and 54.5%, respectively, and co-infection was detected in 16.3% of cases. Schistosoma mansoni had a prevalence of 15.7%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis was shown 3.5% by the conventional method, 12.1% by the Baermann method, and 13.4% by PCR, which thus proved to be the most sensitive. Our results suggest that S. stercoralis could be overlooked and neglected in Ethiopia, if studies of soil-transmitted helminths rely on conventional diagnostic techniques alone. A combination of molecular and stool microscopy techniques yields a significantly higher prevalence. In view of the fact that current control policies for triggering drug administration are based on parasite prevalence levels, a comprehensive diagnostic approach should instead be applied to ensure comprehensive control of helminth infections.
Salvi S. Shah
Full Text Available Purpose: The association of obesity with hypertension has been recognized for the decades which are the important risk factors for the cardiovascular disease. So the purpose of the present study was to determine association of obesity with hypertension in school going children of Surat. Methodology: School going children aged between 12-18 years, of five schools in Surat were selected for the study. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure measurements were taken as per recommendation of American heart society and family history of hypertension has also been assessed. Hypertension was considered if blood pressure is more than 95th percentile according to the update of task force report and Obesity was diagnosed by BMI for age. Results: Of 682 children, 8.94% were obese and 20.09% were hypertensive. Conclusion: Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension in children and both together may risk factors for later coronary disease.
Blumberg, Stephen J.; Bramlett, Matthew D.; Kogan, Michael D.; Schieve, Laura A.; Jones, Jessica R.; Lu, Michael C.
Objectives: This report presents data on the prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as reported by parents of school-aged children (ages 6-17 years) in 2011-2012. Prevalence changes from 2007 to 2011-2012 were evaluated using cohort analyses that examine the consistency in the 2007 and 2011-2012 estimates for children whose…
Conclusion: In 2016, the prevalence of obesity among Chinese school children was about 12%, and about 37% of them did not meet screen-time viewing recommendations. The prevalence of obesity and sedentary behavior was generally higher among boys than among girls, and it was higher for children living in urban areas than for those living in rural areas.
Shahbaz, Uzma; Quadir, Fauzia; Hosein, Tasleem
To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95% CI. The results showed a high frequency of (46%) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion.
Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele
In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding
Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bammann, Karin; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Eiben, Gabriele; Konstabel, Kenn; Michels, Nathalie; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Pigeot, Iris; Reisch, Lucia; Siani, Alfonso; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan
Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children's health. As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4-11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project ('Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS'). The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from urban areas as well as of underweight or malnutrition from rural areas. With changing lifestyles everywhere, a need was felt to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural children also. METHODOLOGY: Present cross-sectional study was planned involving 210 school children (103 boys and 107 girls of age 6-9 years from various private schools of district Una, Himachal Pradesh, India. IOTF (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for BMI were used. Information about lifestyle, eating habits, physical activity and socio-economic status was collected through well designed questionnaire, which was filled by the parents of the children. The population studied mostly belonged to lower and upper middle class. SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Overweight and obesity among children was found to be 14.8%. Time spent in physical activity has reduced greatly; also there was increased sedentary lifestyle among rural children. 93.5% of overweight and obese children were considered fine (according to their weight by their parents. The children, who did not have their food timely, ate less frequently and ate junk food more than 3-times a week, were found to be more overweight and obese. CONCLUSION: Percentage of overweight and obese children (14.8% seen in the study has provided evidence that it is not only the urban population or the higher socioeconomic class groups that are affected with the lifestyle related problems but changing lifestyle has affected rural children also.
Kwena, Arthur M.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Hawley, William A.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.
We determined the nutritional status of children less than five years of age in an area in rural western Kenya with intense malaria transmission, a high prevalence of severe anemia and human immunodeficiency virus, and high infant and under-five mortality (176/1,000 and 259/1,000). No information is
Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn
The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.
Forson, Akua Obeng; Arthur, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in school children are a public health problem in most developing countries. A cross sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2016 with school children living in overcrowded urban slums in Accra, Ghana. A simple random sample of 300 children aged 2-9 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire and stool tests to obtain information on epidemiological, sanitation habits, employment and education status of parents and children. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic tools of analyses. The mean age of participants was 6.9 years and 49% were males and 51.3% were females. Giardia lamblia was found in males (10.95%) and females (7.79%). Very low prevalences for Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia species, and Entamoeba coli were detected. Whilst children from mothers (62.2%) and fathers (55.6%) with no education were often infected, a few children from fathers (22.2%) and mothers (6.7%) with no jobs were infected. Most of the infected children's (93.7%) parents did not have any knowledge of IPIs. The educational and employment status of the mothers [p = 1.0 and p = 0.422] was not significant, however, the family size was a predisposing factor (p = 0.031) for parasitic infections. Intestinal parasites were prevalent in children from overcrowded families and with no knowledge of IPIs. Educative programmes on IPIs, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programmes to elevate socioeconomic conditions may help reduce the burden of intestinal parasite carriage in children.
Dawani, Narendar; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Nazeer; Syed, Shahbano; Tanweer, Navara
Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value dental plaque (p-value dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.
Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Ahrens, Wolfgang
The prevalence of childhood stress and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms (PES) has increased in parallel, indicating that adverse, stressful circumstances and PES in children might be associated. This study describes the prevalence of PES in European children, aged 4–11 years old, and examines...... quantitatively (i.e. the number of adversities) and qualitatively (i.e. the type of adversity). This study demonstrates the importance and the impact of the child’s family and social context on the occurrence of PES in children younger than 12 years old....... the relationship among PES, negative life events (NLE) and familial or social adversities in the child’s life. Parent-reported data on childhood adversities and PES was collected for 4,066 children from 8 European countries, who participated in the follow-up survey of IDEFICS (2009–2010), by means of the ‘IDEFICS......-demographics, family lifestyle and health of the child. Chi-square analyses were performed to investigate the prevalence of PES among survey centres, age groups and sex of the child. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the childhood adversity exposure between PES groups and logistic regression analyses were...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies of micronutrients can affect the growth and development of children. There is increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency world-wide resulting in nutritional rickets in children and osteoporosis in adulthood. Data on the micronutrient status of children in Malaysia is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and micronutrient status of primary school children in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. Methods A cross sectional study of primary aged school children was undertaken in 2008. A total of 402 boys and girls aged 7-12 years, attending primary schools in Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess vitamin D [as 25(OHD], vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. Height-for-age and body mass index for age (BMI-for-age of the children were computed. Results Most of the children had normal height-for-age (96.5% while slightly over half (58.0% had normal BMI-for-age. A total of 17.9% were overweight and 16.4% obese. Prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among the boys (25% than in the girls (9.5% (χ2 = 22.949; P 12. In contrast, 35.3% of the children had serum 25(OHD concentrations indicative of vitamin D deficiency(≤37.5 nmol/L and a further 37.1% had insufficiency concentrations (> 37.5-≤50 nmol/L. Among the boys, a significant inverse association was found between serum vitamin D status and BMI-for-age (χ2 = 5.958; P = .016. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status among urban primary school children in a tropical country. In light of the growing problem of obesity in Malaysian children, these findings emphasize the important need for appropriate interventions to address both problems of obesity and poor vitamin D status in children.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered as a major health problem of children and adolescents. The present meta-analysis was conducted by extensive search of studies on the prevalence of obesity among school-aged children and youth aged 6-18 years in Iran. METHODS: All conducted cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of obesity in Iranian students in all grades were extracted, without applying any restriction on time in national and international databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Statistical software Stata 12 was used to analyze the data and to obtain the prevalence of obesity among Iranian students. The heterogeneity between the results was determined using statistical test I2. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, 51 papers met our inclusion criteria and were therefore considered for the analysis. The prevalence of obesity was equal to 5.82% [95% confidence interval (CI: 5-6.66] in Iranian students. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than in girls (6.85% compared to 5.13% (P = 0.300. The highest prevalence of obesity was related to students living in the North and Northwest areas with 7.07% (95% CI: 4.35-9.78. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity among Iranian students is not high when compared to Western countries. However, due to lifestyle changes in recent years, it is necessary to plan intervention programs within families and schools to improve dietary patterns and physical activity of this age group. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA
Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer
Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg-400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects.
Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley
Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary scho...
Choudhary, Rahul; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhat, Manohar; Satish V; Khairwa, Abhishek; Solanki, Jitender
Dental caries and obesity are both multifactorial disease with a complex etiology and both are associated with dietary habits. Prevalence of dental caries and an association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among school children The present was done on 1500 school going children to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 12-15 year old overweight children. Weight and height were measured in light clothing and without shoes using an electronic weighing scale. Subjects’ heights were measured using a stadiometre. Subjects were examined on an upright chair in adequate natural daylight and dental caries was measured by using DMF index. Chi-square test was used to analyze and compare qualitative data whereas unpaired ‘t’ test was used to analyze and compare quantative data Amongst 1500 children, 156 were found to be overweight, 443 were normal weight. When mean BMI between overweight and normal weight were compared a highly significant difference was observed. When DMFT of overweight and normal weight were compared no significant difference was observed Dental caries was observed more in females as compared to males and no significant difference was observed between dental caries and weight gain
Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata
The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.
Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu
Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (Prural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State's ongoing efforts.
Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Amsalu, Eden
Intestinal parasitic infections are posing significant morbidity worldwide. In Ethiopia, due to poor socio-economic status, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among Yadot primary school children which is found in South-Eastern part of Ethiopia, in the district called Delo-Mena. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed from March to April 2013. In this study, a total of 340 students were selected using simple random sampling, and data on socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as stool samples were collected and processed accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16, and binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to measure the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 26.2%. Poly-parasitism was detected in 6.2% of the students. Consistently, students who were infected with single, double, triple and quadruple parasites were 20%, 4.7%, 1.2% and 0.3% respectively. In line with this, the most prevalent parasites were Schistosoma mansoni 12.6%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 4.7%, and Hymenolepis nana 4.4%. Regarding the risk factors for the infections, not knowing why they wash their hands before meal [(AOR=0.20, 95% CI=0.10-0.40), pintestinal parasitic infections. Intestinal parasitic infections were found to be highly prevalent among Yadot primary school children. Hence, health education, improving sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, increasing latrine use, snail control and deworming to the students are crucial.
Gashaw, Fikru; Aemero, Mulugeta; Legesse, Mengistu; Petros, Beyene; Teklehaimanot, Tilahun; Medhin, Girmay; Berhe, Nega; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Erko, Berhanu
Schistosomiasis is endemic in Ethiopia and previously unknown transmission foci have been reported from time to time in different parts of the country. Further surveys are required in areas where endemicity of the disease is not known to cover them with control program if transmission is taking place. This study, therefore, aims to assess the magnitude of schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Maksegnit and Enfranz Towns, northwestern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted in three schools found in Maksegnit and Enfranz Towns. Stool specimens were collected from 550 randomly selected school children (age range 5 to 17 years) and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz method (single smear per stool sample). Malacological survey was conducted in Gumara and Garno Rivers found in the study areas. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails collected from the two rivers were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercarial shedding. Laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice were exposed to the cercariae and definite identification of the schistosome species was made based on morphology. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was found to be 49%; however, it varied by schools, with Selam having 60.7%, and Maksegnit Number 1 and 2 having 45.8 and 39.6%, respectively. The respective mean intensity of S. mansoni infection among school children in Selam, Maksegnit Number 1 and Maksegnit Number 2 Schools were 243, 194 and 183 eggs per gram of stool (epg). In all the study areas there was no difference in prevalence of S. mansoni infection in relation to age, however, the prevalence varied by sex, with males having highest prevalence (54.5% vs 44.1%) (p = 0.012). Adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6(th) week post-exposure. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides single infection was 16.5% while its co-infection with S
Márcia B. Silva
Full Text Available In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Risk factors for Toxocara spp. seroprevalence and its association with atopy and asthma phenotypes in school-age children in a small town and semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil” (M.B. Silva, A.L. Amor, L.N. Santos, A.A. Galvão, A.V. Oviedo Vera, E.S. Silva et al., 2016 .
Pienaar, Anita E
Widespread trends of increasing child obesity are reported in developing countries. This longitudinal NW-CHILD study investigated changes in overweight and obesity over a three year period among 574 children between the ages 6 and 9 (282 boys, 292 girls; 407 black, 143 white) in South Africa (SA), taking into consideration sex, race and school type. Stratified random sampling was used to identify 20 schools, across 5 school SES levels (quintiles), in 4 educational districts of the North West Province of SA. Standard anthropometric techniques and international age adjusted BMI cut-off points for children were used to determine overweight and obesity, 3-years apart. Mixed models were used to analyse the effects of sex, race and socio-economic status (SES) of the school. Overall obesity increased over 3-years by 4% from 12.5% at baseline to 16.7% during follow-up. Obesity increased significantly in both white (4.2%) and black (2.0%) children, although overall prevalence in the final year was double (27.3%) in white children compared to black children (13.3%). Prevalence in obesity increased more in boys (3.2%) compared to girls (2.4%), although girls showed a higher overall prevalence (18.5%). SES effects were significant where children in schools associated with higher SES, had the highest rate of increase and the highest prevalence of obesity. A significant change towards an unhealthy BMI was found in 9.2% of the group over the 3-year period, although a small percentage (3.0%) also transitioned towards a healthier BMI. Overall obesity prevalence rose significantly from 6-9-years. Obesity, compared to overweight, increased more during this period. Prevalence and rate of increase differed markedly in different sexes, race and SES, masking the extent of the problem. Shifting towards an unhealthy BMI was more common than obtaining a healthier BMI over the 3-year period. It also demonstrated the difficulty of breaking the cycle of obesity, once it had started. Early
Haresh Rameshkumar Chandwani
Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 - 17.4% and grade 2 - 5.8%. As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.
Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...
Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. Methods: The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratifi ed cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and fi lled teeth index and decayed, missed and fi lled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. Results: A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically signifi cant (p < 0.001. The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be signifi cant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically signifi cant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. Conclusions: The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level. Keywords: Children, dental caries, DMF index.
Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS
Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4
Bedolla-Barajas, M; Morales-Romero, J; Bedolla-Pulido, T I; Bedolla-Pulido, T R; Meza-López, C; Pulido-Guillén, N A
The association regarding the exposure to pets, especially cats and dogs, and the prevalence of allergic diseases is inconsistent. We analyzed the role played by early exposure to dogs or cats in the prevalence of allergic diseases amongst school-aged children. Through a cross-sectional study, we examined 756 children, aged 6-7; these candidates were selected through cluster sampling. We inquired about the exposure that these children had had to dogs and cats, and whether these pets spent most of their time indoors or outdoors during the first year of the child's life. In order to identify the prevalence of allergic diseases and their symptoms, each child's parent completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Exposure to outdoor dogs was associated to nocturnal coughing, odds ratio (OR) 0.64, with a confidence interval of 95% (95% CI) 0.43-0.95 and with atopic dermatitis (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20-0.76). Interestingly, exposure to outdoor cats was associated to nocturnal coughing (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32-0.83) and current rhinitis symptoms (OR: 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.97). After carrying out the multivariate analyses, only exposure to dogs, both indoor and outdoor, was significantly associated to a decrease in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis OR 0.40 (95% CI: 0.20-0.79) and OR 0.38 (95% CI: 0.18-0.83), respectively. Our findings suggest that exposure to dogs, whether they be indoor or outdoor pets, is associated to a decreased prevalence in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Roberta Paranhos Fragoso
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.
Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Kouawa, Michèle K; Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-Cécile
The dire lack of information concerning the epidemiology of human scabies in Cameroon, especially in school milieus brought us to undertake the present study which aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of scabies in Cameroonian boarding schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2015 in four boarding schools in Yaoundé and Buea (Cameroon). Participants were students currently residing in one of the study sites, volunteering to participate in the study and whose parents or guardians had given their consent in this respect. The diagnosis was based on clinical assessment independently performed by two dermatologists. A total of 1,902 students were recruited (50.5 % boys), with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.5 years. Overall, 338 participants (17.8 %) were diagnosed with scabies. Age ≤ 15 years, male sex, number of students in the school > 500, no access to the school infirmary, sleeping with others, sharing beddings, clothes or toilet stuffs, pruritus in the close entourage and complaining of pruritus were significantly associated with the presence of mites in univariable logistic regression analyses. On the other hand, at least two baths per day, usage of soap for baths and finger nails always cut short appeared as protective factors. After multivariable analysis, male sex (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.06, 95 % CI: 1.40-3.01, P < 0.0001), first cycle level of education (aOR 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.71, P = 0.040), number of students per dormitory ≤ 10 (aOR 6.99, 95 % CI: 3.34-14.71, P < 0.0001), no access to the school infirmary (aOR 1.62, 95 % CI: 1.12-2.32, P = 0.009) and complaining of pruritus (aOR 93.37, 95 % CI: 60.04-145.19, P < 0.0001) were the independent factors associated with scabies. The prevalence of scabies was 17.8 %. The male sex, first cycle level of education, a number of students per dormitory ≤ 10, no access to the school infirmary and complaining of pruritus were
Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jéssica Raguza Pazin
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of preschool and school children from private schools served by a specialized infant feeding company. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study with children aged 2 to 8 years, which attended 3 different private schools. All schools have a specialized company that offers food for the students. Weight and height were measured and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Data were analyzed by the WHO’s Child Growth Standards (2007, using the indices weight/height (WHZ, height/age (HAZ, weight/age (WAZ and BMI/age (BAZ. Results: 571 children were evaluated, from both genders, in which 396 children were aged between 2 and 4 years, with an average age of 4.1 years (±1.35. We have demonstrated that, although most (99.3% have presented appropriate height for age, the WHZ and BAZ ratios showed 32.1 and 29.4%, respectively, of children with an overweight risk. Conclusion: The results show the absence of nutritional deficiencies in the sample studied, but it’s possible to note that the overweight is present. So, it’s very important to implement actions of nutritional education in both home and school, aiming to prevent health problems in adulthood.Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional de pré-escolares e escolares de escolas particulares atendidas por uma empresa especializada em alimentação infantil. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal, com crianças de 2 a 8 anos de idade, matriculadas em três escolas particulares, atendidas por uma empresa especializada em alimentação infantil. Foram aferidos peso e altura e a partir disso, foi calculado o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. Os dados foram analisados por meio das Curvas de Crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde (2007, utilizando os indicadores Peso/Estatura (P/E, Altura/Idade (A/I, Peso/Idade (P/I e IMC/Idade (IMC/I. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 571 crianças de ambos os sexos, sendo que a faixa etária entre 2 a 4 anos foi composta por
Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M
admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...
Full Text Available Background: New information and communication technologies have become an important part of adolescents' everyday lives. However, the sedentary behaviour of young people in Central Europe has become more similar to that found in Western European countries. This study can provide baseline data for a future comparison and investigation of lifestyle and health behaviours in this region in the future. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of sedentary behaviour activities and family-related factors among school-aged children. Methods: Using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was performed in 2013, collecting data from 11- and 15-year-old Slovak (n = 488 and Czech (n = 418 children. The data was explored using c2 tests to determine statistical significance. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents watch television or use a computer for at least two hours a day. The older children (older vs. younger: 73.6% vs. 53.9%, c2 = 35.6, p < .001 spent excessive amounts of time watching television. More than half of the children have a television (51.9% or a computer (73.0% in their bedroom. More than half of their parents rarely or never apply rules about how long they can watch TV (63.9% or time spent on the computer (55.5%. The Slovak children reported watching television together with their parents every day significantly more frequently than their Czech peers (Slovak vs. Czech children 31.0% vs. 18.7%, c2 = 17.9, p < .001. Conclusions: The prevalence of screen-based behaviour is relatively high, as is screen time spent together with parents, especially among the Slovak children. Moreover, many children reported that their parents rarely or never applied rules about the length and content of their television watching or time spent on the computer.
Loureiro Sônia R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few cohort studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries to investigate non-communicable diseases among school-aged children. This article aims to describe the methodology of two birth cohorts, started in 1994 in Ribeirão Preto (RP, a more developed city, and in 1997/98 in São Luís (SL, a less developed town. Methods Prevalences of some non-communicable diseases during the first follow-up of these cohorts were estimated and compared. Data on singleton live births were obtained at birth (2858 in RP and 2443 in SL. The follow-up at school age was conducted in RP in 2004/05, when the children were 9-11 years old and in SL in 2005/06, when the children were 7-9 years old. Follow-up rates were 68.7% in RP (790 included and 72.7% in SL (673 participants. The groups of low ( Results In the more developed city there was a higher percentage of non-nutritive sucking habits (69.1% vs 47.9%, lifetime bottle use (89.6% vs 68.3%, higher prevalence of primary headache in the last 15 days (27.9% vs 13.0%, higher positive skin tests for allergens (44.3% vs 25.3% and higher prevalence of overweight (18.2% vs 3.6%, obesity (9.5% vs 1.8% and hypertension (10.9% vs 4.6%. In the less developed city there was a larger percentage of children with below average cognitive function (28.9% vs 12.2%, mental health problems (47.4% vs 38.4%, depression (21.6% vs 6.0% and underweight (5.8% vs 3.6%. There was no difference in the prevalence of bruxism, recurrent abdominal pain, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between cities. Conclusions Some non-communicable diseases were highly prevalent, especially in the more developed city. Some high rates suggest that the burden of non-communicable diseases will be high in the future, especially mental health problems.
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...
О. Р. Pakholchuk
Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food
Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel
Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (aged 8-14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study with data collected in 2005-2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted kappa (κw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems, and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (κw = .87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (κw = .69) and for CDC and WHO (κw = .73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inês C Camelo-Nunes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de eczema atópico e de sintomas relacionados entre estudantes da região centro-sul da cidade de São Paulo, em 1996 e 1999. MÉTODOS: Em 1996 e 1999, o questionário escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC foi aplicado aos pais de crianças com 6-7 anos (3.005 em 1996 e 3.033 em 1999 e a adolescentes de 13-14 anos (3.008 em 1996 e 3.487 em 1999. Para o ISAAC: a o relato de eczema alguma vez indica que, pelo menos uma vez na vida, foi fornecido por um médico o diagnóstico de eczema atópico, sendo utilizado para definir "diagnóstico médico" b o relato concomitante de lesões no último ano evidenciadas em locais característicos constitui o "critério combinado" para o diagnóstico de eczema atópico e foi, também, utilizado por nós. Os dados obtidos foram transcritos no banco de dados Epi-Info 6.0 e analisados. RESULTADOS: No grupo dos 6-7 anos houve redução significante do "diagnóstico médico" de eczema atópico em 1999 (11,4% em comparação a 1996 (13,2%. O aumento da prevalência de "diagnóstico médico" observado em 1999, entre os adolescentes, não foi significante (14% x 15%. Considerando-se o "critério combinado", não houve diferenças significantes, entre 1996 e 1999, em ambos os grupos (6,6% x 6,8% para crianças de 6-7 anos e 3,7% x 4,4% para adolescentes. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do aumento da prevalência das doenças atópicas em várias partes do mundo, documentamos redução na prevalência de "diagnóstico médico" de eczema atópico entre crianças de 6 a 7 anos. Contudo, o eczema atópico é doença relevante na população pediátrica.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and associated symptoms in schoolchildren from the city of São Paulo in 1996 and 1999. METHODS: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC written questionnaire was applied to the parents of 6 to 7-year-old children in 1996 and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental erosion has been investigated in developed and developing countries and the prevalence varies considerably in different countries, geographic locations, and age groups. With the lifestyle of the Chinese people changing significantly over the decades, dental erosion has begun to receive more attention. However, the information about dental erosion in China is scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of dental erosion and associated risk factors in 12-13-year-old school children in Guangzhou, Southern China. Methods This cross-sectional survey was performed by two trained, calibrated examiners. A stratified random sample of 12-13-year-old children (774 boys and 725 girls from 10 schools was examined for dental erosion using the diagnostic criteria of Eccles and the index of O'Sullivan was applied to record the distribution, severity, and amount of the lesions. Data on the socio-economic status, health behaviours, and general health involved in the etiology of dental erosion were obtained from a self-completed questionnaire. The analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results At least one tooth surface with signs of erosion was found in 416 children (27.3%. The most frequently affected teeth were the central incisors (upper central incisors, 16.3% and 15.9%; lower central incisors, 17.4% and 14.8%. The most frequently affected surface was the incisal or occlusal edge (43.2%. The loss of enamel contour was present in 54.6% of the tooth surfaces with erosion. Of the affected tooth surfaces, 69.3% had greater than one-half of the tooth surface was affected. The results from logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the children who were female, consumed carbonated drinks once a week or more, and those whose mothers were educated to the primary level tended to have more dental erosion. Conclusions Dental erosion in 12-13-year-old Chinese school children is becoming a significant problem. A
Wang, Ping; Lin, Huan Cai; Chen, Jian Hong; Liang, Huan You
Dental erosion has been investigated in developed and developing countries and the prevalence varies considerably in different countries, geographic locations, and age groups. With the lifestyle of the Chinese people changing significantly over the decades, dental erosion has begun to receive more attention. However, the information about dental erosion in China is scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of dental erosion and associated risk factors in 12-13-year-old school children in Guangzhou, Southern China. This cross-sectional survey was performed by two trained, calibrated examiners. A stratified random sample of 12-13-year-old children (774 boys and 725 girls) from 10 schools was examined for dental erosion using the diagnostic criteria of Eccles and the index of O'Sullivan was applied to record the distribution, severity, and amount of the lesions. Data on the socio-economic status, health behaviours, and general health involved in the etiology of dental erosion were obtained from a self-completed questionnaire. The analyses were performed using SPSS software. At least one tooth surface with signs of erosion was found in 416 children (27.3%). The most frequently affected teeth were the central incisors (upper central incisors, 16.3% and 15.9%; lower central incisors, 17.4% and 14.8%). The most frequently affected surface was the incisal or occlusal edge (43.2%). The loss of enamel contour was present in 54.6% of the tooth surfaces with erosion. Of the affected tooth surfaces, 69.3% had greater than one-half of the tooth surface was affected. The results from logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the children who were female, consumed carbonated drinks once a week or more, and those whose mothers were educated to the primary level tended to have more dental erosion. Dental erosion in 12-13-year-old Chinese school children is becoming a significant problem. A strategy of offering preventive care, including more campaigns
Nov 3, 2011 ... Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Power to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among school children. This study is conducted as sub-study to the main study; the objective of which was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis, and related factors such as risk ...
Enteroparasites prevalence among daycare and elementary school children of municipal schools, Rolândia, PR, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em crianças de creches e alunos da rede municipal de ensino de Rolândia, Paraná
Full Text Available Coproparasitological analyses were performed on 191 daycare children and 434 elementary school children from urban and rural areas in Rolândia, Parana State, Brazil. The overall prevalence of enteroparasites was 15.2 % for daycare children and 52.5% for elementary school children. Risk factors are discussed.Exames coproparasitológicos realizados em 191 crianças de creches e em 434 alunos da primeira à quarta série das áreas urbana e rural da rede municipal de Rolândia, PR, evidenciaram enteroparasitas em prevalência de 15,2% nas creches e de 52,5% entre os escolares. Fatores de risco são discutidos.
Kola S Reddy
Full Text Available Introduction: Telangana state in southern India has many areas which have high–low fluoride levels in drinking water, and Mahabubnagar district is one among them, where people are affected with dental and skeletal fluorosis, with the majority belonging to low socio-economic status. Aims: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Mahabubnagar district and also to assess fluoride levels in drinking water from different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 children in the age group 6–12 years in different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Dental fluorosis status was assessed by using Modified Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Alizarin visual method was used to estimate fluoride levels in water. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Dental fluorosis in primary and permanent dentition was 15 and 70.3%, respectively. In the northern part of Mahabubnagar district, primary dentition was more affected by fluorosis whereas in southern part, the permanent dentition was more affected. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was more in 6–7-year-old children (35.5%, and in permanent dentition, it was more in 9–10-year-old children (70%. The fluoride level in drinking water was more in Kosghi, Kalwakurthy (2.0 ppm. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was more in 10-year-old and less in 6-year-old children. It was more in eastern and northern zones of Mahabubnagar district and less in local villages of Mahabubnagar.
Barreto, Rafael E; Narváez, Javier; Sepúlveda, Natalia A; Velásquez, Fabián C; Díaz, Sandra C; López, Myriam Consuelo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia I
Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia. We used both, a frequentist approach, and Bayesian latent class models to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of five tests for hookworm detection, and to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection in absence of a Gold Standard. The Kato-Katz and agar plate methods had an overall agreement of 95% and kappa coefficient of 0.76. Different models estimated a sensitivity between 76% and 92% for the agar plate technique, and 52% to 87% for the Kato-Katz technique. The other tests had lower sensitivity. All tests had specificity between 95% and 98%. The prevalence estimated by the Kato-Katz and Agar plate methods for different subpopulations varied between 10% and 14%, and was consistent with the prevalence estimated from the combination of all tests. The Harada-Mori, Ritchie-Frick and direct examination techniques resulted in lower and disparate prevalence estimates. Bayesian approaches assuming imperfect specificity resulted in lower prevalence estimates than the frequentist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong
Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.
Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.
Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric obesity is a complex and growing global problem which is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries like India and considered an important predecessor to NCD multi-morbidity due to changing life style as a result of rapid urbanisation and mechanisation. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 10-16 years in private schools of Shimla city. MATERIALS AND METHODS At total of 2100 adolescents attending school (aged 10-16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the anthropometric, clinical and biochemical assessment was done after proper consent. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed by using IOTF guidelines and the metabolic syndrome was determined by the Paediatric International Diabetic Federation definition modified for age group. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight, obesity and paediatric metabolic syndrome was 14.5%, 4.1% & 4.3% respectively. In the groups with PMS, hypertension, waist circumference, and TG were significantly higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower. Significant difference was observed in gender, physical activity level, metabolic equivalent, consumption of junk food & time spent on TV in the distribution of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the possible role of change in the dietary pattern and physical activity pattern in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in early stage of life. Collective efforts of parents and schools are required to institute early preventive measures to reduce progression towards obesity and its future complications.
Saha, Sabyasachi; GV, Jagannatha; Narang, Ridhi; Biswas, Gautam; Sood, Poonam; Garg, Aarti; Narayan, Manu
Background: Facial aesthetics affects how people are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves. Anterior malocclusion can have an impact on the overall facial appearance. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its psycho-social impact among 12 to 15 yrs old school children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of collection of information for psychosocial assessment using a questionnaire and clinical examination of malocclusion. Data regarding psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was collected using a Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) given by Klages et al., (2006). Results: 15.57% children belonged to the definite malocclusion category and 5.41% to the handicapped malocclusion category. The mean Dental self confidence score differed significantly among both male (p≤0.001) and female children (p≤0.001) across the age groups. The mean Social impact score did not differ significantly among both male (p≤0.31) and female children (p≤0.12) across the age groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that dental aesthetics had a significant impact on the psychosocial aspects of human life irrespective of the gender. PMID:25478444
Kshirsagar, V Y; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bavdekar, Sandeep B
To estimate the prevalence of bullying in school children and to examine its association with common symptoms in childhood. Prospective survey using a pre-tested questionnaire for conducting a semi structured health interview. Randomly selected Public and private schools in a rural area. Children aged 8-12 years studying in three schools and their parents. Bullying was reported by 157 (31.4%) of the 500 children interviewed. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of bullying amongst boys and girls in co-education schools. However, it was significantly low in schools enrolling girls alone. Teasing and keeping names were the commonest forms noticed. Causing physical hurt was reported bv 25 (16%) students. Only 24 (24%) parents were aware that their children were being bullied. Feeling sad, preferring to stay alone and frequent tearing of clothes were almost exclusively noted in bullied children and bullied children were more likely to report symptoms such as school phobia, vomiting and sleep disturbances. Bullying is a common phenomenon amongst school going children. Frequent bullying is associated with certain symptoms and school absenteeism. Healthcare professionals. should be aware of this phenmnenon so that they can diagnose the underlying cause when these symptoms are reported and plan for appropriate interventions.
Full Text Available Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP is a common problem in children and adolescence. The functional abdominal pain is the most common cause of RAP. The conceptual models of RAP are multivariate and acknowledge the contributions of a variety of biological, psychological, and social factors. Among the 6-7 year-old population of Bushehr port, 485 (50.1% male, 49.9%female children starting primary school were randomly selected. Questionnaires were completed by direct interview during the National Program of Health Surveillance of Schoolchildren in 2000. According to Apley's criteria, 49 children had RAP (9.1% male and 11.2% female. Abdominal pain pattern such as frequency, duration, location, radiation, associated symptoms was relatively similar to other investigations. The signs of environmental reinforcement of pain behavior such as specific attention and medication at time of pain were commonly observed (32.6% and 71.4%, respectively. Prolonged duration of involvement (73.5%, more than one year and frequent referral to physician (30.6%, at least three referral were detected. Some psychosocial stress such as father unemployment and history of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in parents were significantly more frequent in RAP group (p values= 0.038 and 0.01, respectively. History of RAP in siblings and appendectomy, peptic disease and migraine were mildly more frequent in RAP group. Separation of one of the parents, change of address, parent education and mother employment, sibling number and order and weight and height had not significant differences between two groups. Among 22 patients, giardia cyst was detected in the stool of 4 patients (18.2 %. In conclusion, RAP is a common problem in Bushehr port and its pattern was relatively similar to other regions. The father unemployment and the history of IBS in parents, two psychosocial stresses, were associated with RAP.
Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang
To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. These factors were investigated in relation to problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time at age 15. The prevalence of online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, academic-purpose computer overuse, and game-purpose computer overuse was 31.6%, 19.2%, 8.5%, and 21.8%, respectively, at age 15. Having older siblings, more weekly pocket money, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and passive coping strategy were associated with reported online sexual harassment. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were associated with reported cyber-bullying victimisation. Female gender was associated with academic-purpose computer overuse, while male gender, lower academic level, increased height, and having older siblings were associated with game-purpose computer-overuse. Different environmental and psychological factors predicted different aspects of problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time. This knowledge is important for framing public health interventions to educate adolescents about, and prevent, internet-derived problems.
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism ...
McKeown, Robert E; Holbrook, Joseph R; Danielson, Melissa L; Cuffe, Steven P; Wolraich, Mark L; Visser, Susanna N
To determine the impact of varying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Parent and teacher reports identified high- and low-screen children with ADHD from elementary schools in 2 states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV), and up to 4 additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. At baseline 1,060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least 1 follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported 6 or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI = 18.1%-23.2%) and 29.8% (CI = 24.5%-35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age 7 years (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI = 14.7%-18.0%) and 17.5% (CI = 13.3%-22.8%); requiring at least 4 teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI = 7.4%-10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased the 8.9% estimate to 11.3% (CI = 9.5%-13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age 7 onset (CI = 5.9%-11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI = 7.6%-21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the overall estimate to 13.1% (CI = 7.7%-21.5%). These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to establish the prevalence rate of hearing disorders in school age children. Method: This study has been performed in a randomized manner among 1000 school-age children (500 girls and 500 boys in the years between1976-1997 in Behbehan. All subjects underwent Audiometric evaluations, Otoscopy, and impedance audiometry. Additionally, parents, children and teachers were interviewed or asked by questionnaires regarding the familial status of parents, familial history of any hearing loss and the awareness of suffering hearing loss. The findings have been prepared in the charts and tables and the relationship between age and gender of the subjects with the incidence of hearing loss has been evaluated via the statistical test X² and hearing loss in left and right ear was compared by T-test. Results: the findings demonstrated that 6.6% of the subjects suffered hearing loss in one ear (2.2% or both ears (4.3%. 4.8% of the patients suffered conductive hearing loss while 1.6% suffered sensory-neural hearing loss. In .2% patients complained different types of hearing loss in the ears. Hearing loss was mostly slight and the relationship between age and gender with the incidence of hearing loss was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the findings we have concluded that in18.4% of the subjects, medical treatment was required and 0.7% of them were in need of rehabilitation. The percentage of the awareness of the hearing disorders among children, parents and teachers was 21.2%, 22.7% and 15.2% respectively.
Hilda Patricia Núñez-Rivas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Given that excessive body weight during childhood influences the development of several chronic diseases in adulthood, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban and rural Costa Rican elementary school children. METHODS: The study was carried out from July 2000 to April 2001. A total of 1718 students ages 7-12 were selected from 34 schools in the capital city of San José and in other nearby urban and rural areas. Both younger children (ones aged 7 through 9 years and older children (ones aged 10 through 12 years with a body mass index (BMI at or above the sex-specific 85th percentile were considered overweight. The younger children were classified as being obese if their triceps skinfold was greater than or equal to the 85th percentile for age and sex using the percentiles by age for children in the United States of America as normative standards. The older children were considered obese if they had a BMI at or above the sex-specific 85th percentile and both the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness at or above the 90th percentile. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 34.5%. Children aged 7-9, boys, children from urban areas, and children of a higher socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of overweight. The prevalence of obesity was 26.2%. A higher prevalence of obesity was found among children aged 7-9, boys, children from urban areas, and children of middle socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of obesity that we found in the Costa Rican children, primary and secondary prevention measures are needed in order to reduce the proportion of deaths due to chronic nontransmissible diseases among Costa Rican adults in the coming decades.OBJETIVO: Dado que el peso corporal excesivo durante la niñez influye en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades crónicas en la adultez, se llevó a cabo este estudio en escolares de nivel primario de áreas urbanas y rurales
CONCLUSION: The prevalence we found is similar to the prevalence in the region. Our findings indicate that there is a difference between the genders in the prevalence of hypodontia, but without statistical significance, while for hyperdontia we can’t see such a difference between the sexes.
Twenty one children fulfilled the criteria for autism giving a prevalence of 2.9%. There is a ... schools each in urban and semi-urban areas of the states. The schools were .... cognitive ability” than boys who have the disorder, “On the other end ...
Bilińska, Inez; Kryst, Łukasz
The epidemic of obesity, which is one of the most important public health problems, appeared paradoxically as a result of improving living conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects on overweight/obesity prevalence of the primary-school-based intervention program. The group of 5,293 children (7-11 year-olds) from Poznań (Poland) was divided into two subgroups: experimental and control one. The research group was participating in extra physical activities. Measurements (height and weight) were taken twice: at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The estimations of the prevalence of overweight/obesity were based on the cut-off points of the IOTF values. To estimate the risk the odds ratio (OR) were calculated. There were no differences in BMI for both boys and girls. Also there were no significant differences in prevalence of overweight and obesity, for both sexes. The risk of being overweight/obese was not reduced in children in the experimental group - OR for boys was 0.93 (0.80, 1.08), and for girls OR = 0.88 (0.76, 1.03). In conclusion, the risk of overweight/obesity has not changed after one year of extra physical activities and engagement in health-oriented education program. This study shows that in case of such programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions, probably also during longer period of time. It is possible that other adverse factors have a stronger influence on the body mass, which would suggest that the theoretical part of intervention concerning pro-health-related behaviors was not implemented in practice.
Haritash, A. K.; Aggarwal, Ankur; Soni, Jigyasa; Sharma, Khyati; Sapra, Mohnish; Singh, Bhupinder
Considering the health effects of fluoride, the present study was undertaken to assess the concentration of fluoride in groundwater, and urine of school children in Bass region of Haryana state. Fluoride in groundwater was observed to vary from 0.5 to 2.4 mg/l with an average concentration of 0.46 mg/l. On the other hand, F- in urine ranged from below the detection limit to 1.8 mg/l among girls and 0.17-1.2 mg/l among the boys. Higher average concentration of fluoride in urine (0.65 mg/l for boys and 0.34 mg/l for girls) may be ascribed to exposure to bioavailable fluoride through food, milk, tea, toothpaste, etc., in addition to intake through groundwater. Relatively more intake of water and food by the boys might be the reason for more cases of severe dental fluorosis (44%) among boys compared to girls (29% cases of moderate to severe dental fluorosis). The groundwater quality for drinking was compromised with respect to dissolved solids, hardness, magnesium ions, and dissolved iron. Hydro-geochemical investigation revealed that rock-water interaction, in terms of direct cation exchange, dominantly regulates groundwater chemistry, and groundwater is of Ca-Na-HCO3 type.
Dental health awareness, attitude, and dental health-care seeking practices as risk indicators for the prevalence of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old school children in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India.
Das, Uma Mohan; Vadakkekuttical, Rosamma Joseph; Kanakkath, Harikumar; Shankunni, Smitha Pathiyari
Periodontal disease prevalence in children is an indicator of future disease burden in the adult population. Knowledge about the prevalence and risk status of periodontal disease in children can prove instrumental in the initiation of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures. This school-based cross-sectional survey estimated the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old children in Kozhikode district and assessed the risk factors. Multistage stratified random sampling and randomized cluster sampling were used in the selection of schools and study participants, respectively, in three educational districts of Kozhikode. Periodontal disease was assessed among 2000 school children aged 15-17 years, by community periodontal index. A content validated questionnaire was used to evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors. The prevalence of periodontal disease was estimated as 75% (72% gingivitis and 3% mild periodontitis). The prevalence was higher in urban population ( P = 0.049) and males had significantly ( P = 0.001) higher prevalence. Lower socioeconomic strata experienced slightly more periodontal disease burden. Satisfactory oral hygiene practices (material and frequency) were observed, but oral hygiene techniques were erroneous. Unhealthy dental treatment-seeking practices and unfavorable attitude toward dental treatment (ATDT) significantly influenced periodontal health status. Overall awareness about dental treatment was poor in this study population. The prevalence of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old school children in Kozhikode district is 75% and is influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Other risk factors identified were unhealthy dental treatment-seeking practices and unfavorable ATDT. Implementation of well-formulated oral health education programs is thus mandatory.
de Alegría, María Luisa Aznar Ruiz; Colmenares, Karen; Espasa, Mateu; Amor, Arancha; Lopez, Isabel; Nindia, Arlette; Kanjala, Joaquina; Guilherme, Domingas; Sulleiro, Elena; Barriga, Begoña; Gil, Eva; Salvador, Fernando; Bocanegra, Cristina; López, Teresa; Moreno, Milagros; Molina, Israel
Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed. Of 230 SAC, 56.1% were female and the mean age was 9.3 years (SD 2.45). Severe malnutrition, according to body mass index (BMI)-for-age, was observed in 20.4% of the SAC, and anemia was found in 59.6%. Strongyloides stercoralis was observed in 28 of the 230 (12.8%) SAC. Eggs of other helminths were observed in 51 (22.2%) students: Hymenolepis spp. in 27 students (11.7%), hookworm in 14 (6.1%), Schistosoma haematobium in four (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis in four (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in three (1.3%), Taenia spp. in two (0.9%), and Fasciola hepatica in one (0.4%). Protozoa were observed in 17 (7.4%) students. Detection of S. stercoralis was higher using the Baermann technique versus using formol-ether (11.3 vs. 3%). Overall prevalence of S. stercoralis in the school population of 16 studied schools in the municipal area of Cubal was greater than 10%. This fact must be considered when designing deworming mass campaigns. The use of specific tests in larvae detection is needed to avoid overlooking this parasite.
Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E
To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.
Conclusion: Overall, the average MVPA minutes per day among Chinese school-aged children is low, and less than one-third of them meet MVPA recommendations. These results were most evident among junior middle and junior high school children and those living rural areas.
Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R
There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.
Navarrete, N; Torres, P
During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.
Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes...... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P
Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Wegmueller, R.; Tschannen, A.B.; Hurrell, R.F.
There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2)
Bastos, José Alexandre; Cecato, Angela Maria Traldi; Martins, Marielza Regina Ismael; Grecca, Kelly Regina Risso; Pierini, Rafael
The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8%) children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD), 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.
José Alexandre Bastos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8% children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD, 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.
Truin, G.J.; Rijkom, H.M. van; Mulder, J.; Hof, M.A. van 't
In 2002 a dental survey amongst 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in The Hague had been carried out. The 2002 survey suggested that in the period 1996-2002 the caries prevalence (% of cariesfree children) and the caries experience (mean dmfs/dmft scores) among 6-year-old children did not have
Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...
The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitosis among school children in four woredas of Jimma zone surrounding Gilgel gibe hydraulic dam and serve as a base line data to help evaluate health promoting activities for the future and monitor those already delivered to the ...
Among school children, uncorrected refractive errors have a considerable impact on their participation and learning in class. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of refractive error among students in the Ejisu-Juabeng Municipality of Ghana. A survey with multi-stage sampling was undertaken. We interviewed ...
Conclusion: In the Chinese school-aged population, about 3 in 10 children achieved an “excellent” or “good” fitness standard in 2016, and about 8% of this population did not meet CNSPFS standards. Children living in urban areas were more likely to not meet minimum fitness performance levels, and boys in school were more likely to not meet minimum fitness performance levels than girls.
Eloisa Marcantonio Boeck
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência de maloclusões em escolares na faixa etária de cinco a 12 anos, matriculadas em escolas municipais de Araraquara. MÉTODO: com base no número total de crianças (7235 realizou-se o cálculo da amostragem, envolvendo sete escolas, num total de 3380 crianças. Um estudo piloto e a calibração dos examinadores precederam o início da pesquisa. Foram excluídas 1934 crianças da amostra por não atenderem aos critérios de inclusão. Na avaliação clínica, foram analisados, as relações inter-arcos nos sentidos transversal, vertical e sagital, a relação intra-arcos, o perfil e padrão de crescimento, a presença de assimetria, além de hábitos deletérios. RESULTADOS: da amostragem total (1446, 80,29% apresentou maloclusão, sendo mais prevalente no gênero feminino (81,34% e na faixa etária de nove a 12 anos (82,52%. A relação dentária mais prevalente foi a de Classe I (63,27%, o padrão facial mais encontrado foi o Padrão I (92,87%. As alterações oclusais inter-arcos mais encontradas foram a mordida profunda e a mordida aberta, as alterações intra-arcos predominantes foram os diastemas e as giroversões. De acordo com o Teste Qui-quadrado não houve significância entre maloclusão e as variáveis: presença de hábito, assimetria, diastemas e padrão facial. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante na prevalência das variáveis: mordida aberta, mordida profunda, diastemas e dos hábitos de sucção (dedo, chupeta, mamadeira e onicofagia quando comparada as duas faixas etárias estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: as maloclusões acometem a maior parte das crianças nessa faixa etária, tendo origem predominantemente dentária e com pouco ou nenhum comprometimento facial, evidenciando a necessidade da intervenção precoce.PURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion in school children between 5 and 12 years-old enrolled in public schools in Araraquara_S.P. (Brazil. METHOD: based on the total
Grace Mary George
Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to check the age- and gender-wise prevalence of oral habits in the children of 7–16-year-old Indian children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1029 (661 males and 368 females children of age 7–16 years was done to record the presence or absence of the oral habits with the aid of the anamnestic questionnaire. The recorded oral habits were tongue thrusting, thumb or digit sucking, mouth breathing, bruxism, lip biting or lip sucking, and nail biting. The collected data were subjected to Pearson's Chi-square statistical analysis to know the overall difference in the prevalence rate of different oral habits and to evaluate the gender- and age-wise difference in the prevalence of oral habits. Results: Oral habits were present in 594 participants (57.73%. The highest prevalence rate was registered for tongue thrusting habit (28.8%, which was followed by nail biting (201/19.5% and thumb sucking (128/12.4%, mouth breathing (109/10.6%, lip biting (85/8.3%, and bruxism (29/2.8%. The male participants showed a greater prevalence rate for the oral habits than the female participants (58.55% vs. 56.25%. There was a significant difference in the age-wise prevalence of oral habits with older children showing greater prevalence of oral habits than the younger ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral habits in the current group of children is high. It warrants the need for the community-based educational preventive and interceptive programs to spread the awareness regarding the deleterious effects of these oral habits.
Full Text Available Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n=50 boys and n=50 girls who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P=0.004, whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.
Conclusion: The present study showed a high percent of overweight, obese and skinny subjects among Egyptian children. This abnormal increase or decrease in body weight affects negatively the levels of children’s physical fitness. Thus, overweight and obesity should be more attracted by the Egyptian pediatric population with paying attention to the updated health information.
Conclusions: There seems a discrepancy in the proportion of children needing orthodontic treatment on esthetic and dental health grounds. This study provides baseline data on the need and demand for orthodontic treatment among the sample which is important for planning public orthodontic and dental services.
Using logistic regression, maternal history, sibling history of bedwetting, snoring and heavy supper are strong determinants of bedwetting. Enuresis is a common problem among primary school pupils. Intensive public enlightenment is needed. Key words: Enuresis, risk factors, prevalence, children, social-stigma ...
Aida de Lucio
Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries.We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene.The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393 and 4.6% (18/393, respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%, BIII (28.2%, and BIV (32.0%. Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4% isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A, resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study.Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly
Child-Oral impacts on daily performances: A socio dental approach to assess prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in South Indian school children of Bangalore city: A cross-sectional survey
Full Text Available Background: Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological well-being of children and their families. Oral health and dental treatment may have an impact on eating, speaking and appearance, thereby affecting quality of life. Thus, there has been a greater focus on the measurement of quality of life as a complement to the clinical measures. Objective: The aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in south Indian school children using Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index as a measure of oral health related quality of life. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among the six government, and six private school children aged 11-12 years, of Karnataka, South India randomly selected as cluster, and all their 563 children were invited to participate. A cross culturally adapted and validated oral health-related quality of life measure; Child-OIDP was used to assess oral impacts. Results: The common perceived oral health problems were tooth ache reported by 342 children, a sensitive tooth reported by 230 children, tooth decay - hole in the tooth reported by 226 children. Eating was the most common performance affected (68.3%. The severity of impacts was high for eating and cleaning mouth and low for the study and social contact performances. Conclusion: The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life of school children of Karnataka aged 11-12 years. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating. Toothache, a sensitive tooth, tooth decay and bleeding gums contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.
Full Text Available Background: Teeth, apart from their physiologic function, play an important role in general appearance of indivduals. Therefore any disorder in their growth and evolution, will cause psychologic, social and even economic problems for the person. This observational cross- sectional study aimed to investigate relationship between dental occlusal patterns and obstructive nasal-upper airway- diseases. Methods: This study was perfromed in schools of No.4 Education at district of Isfahan in educational year 1381-82 between 607 students (277 male, 330 female aged 9-12 years old. Results of accurate ENT and dentistry physical examination were registered and analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square and Mantel - Hanzel test. Results: With increasing age, The frequency of abnormal occlusal patterns increases (from 45.5% to 68.2% in males and 25.8% to 48.5% in females, p=0.015. The increasing in degree of palatal tonsilar hypertrophy was related to higher frequency of abnormal occlusal patterns (36.7% in +1 tonsilar hypertrophy, and 70% in +4 tonsilar hypertrophy, p=0.02. Also, history of frequent common colds, and history of previous nasal fractures were related with abnormal patterns [58.9% (p=0.032, and 83.4% (p= 0.043%, respectively].Five other parameters including sinusitis, hypertrophy of nasal turbinates, rhinitis, nasal polyposis and nasal septal deviation were not associated with abnormal occlusal patterns (p>0.1. Conclusion: Some of obstructive upper airwacy diseases are related with abnormal dental occlusal patterns. These parameters can be simply diagnosed, treated or prevented. Key words: dental occlusion, malocclusion, obstructive nasal disorders, nasal turbinates, adenoid, rhinitis, tonsillectomy, open mouth breathing
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia among these rural school children was ... Amblyopia is defined as suboptimal vision in one eye despite best spectacle ..... Data obtained were entered into the computer and analyzed using the Statistical ..... the National Postgraduate Medical College in Ophthalmology;. 1999. 21.
Nayda Nasco Hidalgo
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar la prevalencia de lesiones incipientes de caries dental en los niños de 6-11 años de la escuela primaria "José A Echeverría," municipio Plaza de la Revolución en el período de enero a diciembre del 2006, identificar en el grupo estudiado, la frecuencia de niños según número de lesiones incipientes y la frecuencia de lesiones incipientes por ubicación del diente en la arcada y por superficie dentaria. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, el universo estuvo integrado por todos los niños que estuvieran en esas edades y que cumplieran con los criterios de inclusión, para un total de 236, los cuales fueron examinados al aire libre y con luz natural, utilizando el método visual- táctil suave. Los dientes se limpiaron con algodón y se secaron con peras de aire para detectar la presencia de lesiones incipientes de caries, las cuales fueron señalizadas en un modelo de dentigrama, en el lugar correspondiente a la superficie afectada. RESULTADOS: se halló que el 22,5 % de los escolares examinados presentaba estas lesiones, de ellos el 60,1 % correspondió al sexo femenino; el 19,5 % del total de niños presentó una lesión y sólo el 3% tenia dos lesiones incipientes de caries dental; el 79,2 % de las mismas se encontraron en los dientes posteriores, fueron las superficies lisas las más afectadas con un 45,3 %. CONCLUSIONES: Alrededor de la cuarta parte de los niños estudiados presentaron lesiones incipientes de caries, siendo el sexo femenino el más afectado. Del total de niños que poseían lesiones incipientes, la mayor cifra correspondió a los que presentaban una lesión. Los dientes posteriores fueron los más afectados por lesiones incipientes. Las superficies lisas mostraron más lesiones incipientes que las oclusales y proximalesOBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence of incipient lesions of dental caries in children aged 6-11 of "José A Echeverría" Primary
Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P
To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.
Hasan Mohamed Aljefri
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.
Thayse Natacha Gomes
Full Text Available There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34 for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35 for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34 for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.
Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.
There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated risk factors, characteristics, and pattern of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs in the permanent anterior teeth among school children of North East Delhi area. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done in 3000 school-going children aged 7–14 years. Materials and Methods: A detailed case history and clinical examination were performed on the entire sample population. TDIs were recorded according to Andreasen's epidemiological classification of TDIs including World Health Organization codes. Statistical Analysis Used: For finding the independent association of the significant variables with outcome, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used. Results: A prevalence of 10.7% was observed in the sample being studied. Dental trauma was significantly (P < 0.05 associated with male gender, and high statistical significance (P < 0.001 was noted with age, participation in sports, lip seal, and overjet. Fall of the child while playing by himself/herself was the most common cause; afternoon and schools were the most common time and place of occurrence of TDIs, respectively. Single tooth enamel fractures in the left maxillary central incisors were most commonly seen. Adhesive restorations were the most frequent form of treatment required. Conclusions: Organizing studies addressing the prevention and treatment needs of TDIs and educational programs aimed toward parents and school teachers are of paramount importance. Furthermore, recognizing the tremendous treatment negligence is extremely critical to adequately analyze indifference of the people toward dental trauma and its consequences.
Yeh, Fawn; Rhoades, Everett R; Tarpay, Martha; Eichner, June E
The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among a sample of American Indian youth and to evaluate survey instruments used in determining asthma prevalence and risk factors. Three hundred and fifty-two adolescents aged 9 to 21 years enrolled in an Indian boarding school completed an asthma screening. The survey instruments were a written questionnaire and a video-illustrated questionnaire prepared from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), school health records, and a health questionnaire. Participants also underwent spirometry testing. The prevalence of self-reported asthma varied from 12.7% to 13.4% depending upon the instrument used and the questions asked. A history of hay fever, respiratory infections, and family history of asthma were found to be risk factors for asthma by all instruments. Female gender and living on a reservation were significantly associated with asthma by some, but not all, instruments. Airway obstruction was highly associated with one asthma symptom (wheeze) shown in the video questionnaire. Associations for most risk factors with asthma were strongest for the video questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported asthma among these American Indian youth was similar to rates reported for other ethnic groups. The video-based questionnaire may be the most sensitive tool for identifying individuals at risk for asthma.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...
Neter, Judith E; Schokker, Dieuwke F; de Jong, Elske; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jacob C; Visscher, Tommy L S
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity and nutrition and physical activity behavior between primary school children with and without disabilities. STUDY DESIGN: Body weight and height were measured in 4072 children from regular primary schools in the city of Zwolle, the
Ashraf H. Mohammed
Feb 24, 2014 ... Objectives: The overall objective was health promotion of school children, and the specific .... A Chinese study reported that the prevalence .... The attitudes of ... Pelvic floor exercises should be done and the child had to be.
Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R
Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.
Full Text Available Introduction: The epidemiological investigation was carried out among 228 children selected from two schools of similar socioeconomic strata in and around Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 128 visually impaired and 100 normal school going children in the age group of 6-15 years. The examination procedure and criteria were those recommended by W.H.O. in 1997. Results: The mean DMFT/deft was 1.1 and 0.17,0.87 and 0.47 in visually impaired and normal children, respectively. Oral hygiene levels in both groups were: mean value in good category was 0.19 and 0.67, in fair category was 0.22 and 0.1, and in poor category 0.40 and 0.23 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Trauma experienced children were 0.29 and 0.13 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Conclusion: The conclusions drawn from this study were that there was a greater prevalence of dental caries, poorer oral hygiene, and higher incidence of trauma in visually impaired children.
Rajendra Singh Thangjam
Full Text Available BACKGROUND CHD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, while reports from India looking into the burden of the disease have been variable depending on the age group of subjects studied and the methodology involved. We were interested to find the prevalence and pattern of the disease in this north eastern Indian state of Manipur, which has a unique geographical and racial composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a community based, prospective, cross sectional study where each and every child aged 5-15 years from randomly selected schools of Manipur were examined by 2D colour Doppler Echocardiography and physically as well, where the examiners were blinded, and the findings were noted independent of each other. The anthropometric parameters, clinical details and echocardiography findings were all recorded. RESULTS Of the 3600 children examined, 47 cases of CHD were detected, giving echocardiographic prevalence of 13 per 1000 where BAV (44% was found as the commonest lesion followed by VSD (17% and ASD (14%. Clinically detectable lesion was found in 21 subjects (VSD -8, ASD-7, PS-3, PDA -1, AVSD-1, BAV-1 with AR. Of the clinically detectable CHD, VSD was the commonest followed by ASD. In the subclinical CHD category, 20 cases of BAV, 4 cases of mild MVP without MR, 1 case of apical LV discompacta, 1 case of IASA were detected. CONCLUSION The echocardiography prevalence of congenital heart disease in school going children of Manipur is 13/1000. This highest ever reported prevalence of CHD in children is most probably related to the use of the highly sensitive investigative tool of Echocardiography in each subject of our study resulting in detection of clinically silent lesions.
Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la Republica (Uruguay).
Biondi, Ana M; López Jordi, María del C; Cortese, Silvina G; Alvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M
The objectives of this study are to compare the prevalence of MIH in children seeking dental care spontaneously at the Department of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and Department of Pediatric Dentistry of the University of La República (UdelaR) and to analyze the distribution according to year of birth, sex, age, number of affected teeth and maximum degree of severity in molars and incisors. During 2010, nine pediatric dentists from both schools (Kappa = 0.94) assessed all children born between 1993 and 2003 whose 4 first molars and 8 permanent incisors had erupted. Specially designed charts were used to record sex, year of birth, institution, presence of MIH, number of affected incisors and molars and maximum degree of severity for each tooth. Two groups were formed: UBA: A (n = 512) and UdelaR: B (n = 463). 975 children (11.6 +/- 2.67 years) were evaluated. The prevalence of MIH in the total sample was 6.56%, without significant differences between A and B (p = 0.76). There was no significant difference between groups regarding age (p = 0. 95) or sex (p = 0.30). A significant increase was found in both institutions according to year of birth during the study period. (A: p = 0.0017) B: p = 0. 0058). The results of this study show a similar prevalence of MIH among patients seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la República (Uruguay). No significant difference was found comparing the distribution by sex, affected teeth or severity of each tooth. A highly significant positive correlation was found regarding the year of birth. The relevance of MIH as an emerging pathology requires studies on larger samples covering the entire countries.
Purpose: The prevalence, risk factors and effects of work on school performance and health consequences of child labour among school children in a rapidly urbanising community in south west Nigeria was assessed. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 386 Junior Secondary School students was conducted.
Novel association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children with high prevalence of obesity.
Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Galindo-Gómez, Carlos; Juárez-Martínez, Liliana; Gómez, F Enrique; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Ávila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Ávila-Curiel, Abelardo
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder that includes a cluster of several risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene has been associated with low HDL-cholesterol in several studies, but its association with MetS in children remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the R230C variant with MetS and other metabolic traits in school-aged Mexican children. The study was performed in seven urban primary schools in the State of Mexico. Four hundred thirty-two Mexican school-age children 6-13 years old were recruited. MetS was identified using the International Diabetes Federation definition. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene was genotyped to seek associations with MetS and other metabolic traits. The prevalence of MetS was 29% in children aged 10-13 years. The R230C variant was not associated with MetS (OR = 1.65; p = 0.139). Furthermore, in the whole population, the R230C variant was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (β coefficient = -3.28, p <0.001). Interestingly, in the total population we found a novel association of this variant with high triglyceride levels (β coefficient = 14.34; p = 0.027). We found a new association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels. Our findings also replicate the association of this variant with low HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Garcia, Omar; Torres, Roxana; Palacios, Cristina
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health problem worldwide. The objectives of the study were: 1) to establish the BMI prevalence in 12-year olds residing in Puerto Rico, and 2) to determine BMI differences by sex, public-private school type, and geographic regions. Data was obtained from an island-wide probabilistic stratified sample of 1,582 twelve-year-olds (53% girls and 47% boys). The BMI was determined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey procedures. Children were categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's age and gender specific growth charts. A logistic regression model was used to estimate BMI category prevalence. Odds ratios were calculated using a multinomial regression. In this study, 18.8% of the children were overweight and 24.3% were obese. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in boys as compared to girls, 28.2% vs. 20.2%, respectively. The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from public schools was lower than for those from private schools. After adjusting for type of school and region, boys had a significantly higher risk of being obese (64%) as compared to girls. In public schools, boys had a lower prevalence of being overweight while girls had a higher prevalence compared to children attending private schools. Girls attending private schools had a higher obesity prevalence (27.8%) compared to girls from public schools (19.8%). The prevalence of underweight (2.7%) is slightly lower than in the United States. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of 12-year-olds residing in PR was 18.8% and 24.3%, respectively; higher than in the U.S. (by groups). Boys were at higher risk of obesity than girls. There is an urgent need to implement public health policies/programs to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in PR.
Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher
Background Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. Method We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Results Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. Conclusions The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety. PMID:25436183
CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)
Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic
García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos
The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and...
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.
Mansoureh Momen Heravi
Results: out of the 430 students, 49.7% were male and the rest were female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 33.5%. The frequency of pathogenic intestinal parasite was 15.4%. The rate of intestinal parasite infections were: Entamoeba coli 16.5%, Giardia lamblia 8.8%,Blastocystis hominis 7%, Endolimax nana 3.4%, Iodamoeba buchlelli 3.4%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.62%, Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar 1.2%,Hymenolepis nana 1.8% , and Ascaris lumbricoides0.2%.Entrobius vermicularis was found in 13.5% of the students using scotch tape test.There was a significant statistical association between duration of living in Afghanistan and intestinal parasitic infections.(p≤0.03 Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the prevalence of parasitic infections in the Afghan children was rather high. Examination and treatment of the students, education of the children and their parents and teachers in the field of personal hygine and environmental sanitation are necessary for prevention of parasite transmission.
Grigorakis, Dimitris A; Georgoulis, Michael; Psarra, Glykeria; Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sidossis, Labros S
Central obesity is a strong risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiometabolic diseases in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of central obesity and to determine its cross-sectional association with lifestyle habits in a sample of school-aged children in Greece. The study sample consisted of 124,113 children (9.9 ± 1.1 years old, 51 % boys) attending the third and fifth grade of primary school. Anthropometric measurements were performed by trained physical education teachers, and central obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5. Children's lifestyle habits were assessed through 7-day recall questionnaires. Of the participating children, 33.4 % were classified as centrally obese. Central obesity was significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (36.0 vs. 30.7 %, P obese children, as well as in a significant percentage of overweight (69.5 %) and normal-weight ones (12.0 %). Children with central obesity, compared to their non-centrally obese counterparts, reported poorer dietary habits and were less physically active. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, frequent breakfast (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.69-0.75) and snack consumption (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.67-0.74), as well as frequent participation in sedentary activities (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07-1.14), were the strongest lifestyle determinants of central obesity. Strategies for the prevention of central obesity and associated comorbidities are urgently needed, for both obese and non-obese children. Our results suggest the need for a shift towards a healthier environment for our children, with emphasis on specific lifestyle habits, such as regular meal consumption and low sedentariness.
Lin Zhao; Bai-Chao Ren; Yu-Hong Cheng; Qiang Ma; Jun Jia; Yuan He; Li-Ling Zhang
AIM: To survey the prevalence of trachoma in children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province and provide the basis for the prevention and treatment.METHODS: An epidemiological survey was carried out in Nanzheng County in 2013. Children aged 3～7 years were selected by a cluster sampling. Fifty elementary school children and 1 533 preschool children were selected for rapid assessment and extend screening of trachoma. All children were examined under magnifying glass by oculist. A simplified tra...
Assessment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths prevalence in school-aged children and opportunities for integration of control in local health services in Kwilu Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Inocencio da Luz, R; Linsuke, S; Lutumba, P; Hasker, E; Boelaert, M
To determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to assess the capacity of the local health centres for diagnosis and treatment. Cross-sectional school-based survey in two health districts in the Province of Kwilu. We collected a stool and a urine sample for parasitological examination. Urine filtration and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were used for the diagnosis of SCH. Health centres were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. In total, 526 children participated in the study and the overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 8.9% (95% CI: 3.5-13.2) in both districts. The prevalence was higher in Mosango (11.7%; 95% CI: 8.9-14.8) than Yasa Bonga district (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.1-11.4). Urine filtration showed that Schistosoma haematobium infection was not present. The combined STH infection prevalence was 58.1% in both districts; hookworm infection was the most common STH found in 52.9% (95% CI: 29.3-62.4) of subjects, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 9.3% (95% CI: 5.8-15.5) and Trichuris trichiura 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9-4.9). Mixed STH infections were observed as well as SCH-STH coinfection. Further mapping of both SCH and STH burden is needed, and coverage of preventive chemotherapy in school-aged children should be increased. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to get the description on TMJ dysfunction as well as its symptoms including clicking, crepitation, jaw opening restriction and muscle pain in children. Thus the result can be used as an input to the program of TMJ dysfunction prevention and treatment for the children in SDN Sirnasari Village, Ciptasari Pamulihan Subdistrict, Sumedang District. This study is descriptive study using survey technique. The samples for the study are 79 children in elementary school taken by random sampling technique with stratification. TMJ dysfunctions with clicking and crepitation symptoms were detected by palpating and using a stethoscope. Deviation, deflection, and jaw opening restriction symptoms were found out by visual examination. Whereas pain in TMJ supporting muscles was also detected by palpating. The result of the study shows that the number of children developing TMJ dysfunction with symptom of clicking is 34 children (43.03%, crepitation are 4 children (5.06%, deviation are 13 children (16.45%, deflection are 17 children (21.51%, jaw opening restriction are 49 children (62.02%, and pain in TMJ supporting muscles are 69 children (87.34%. From the study, it can be concluded that the highest frequency of TMJ dysfunction symptom in SDN Sirnasari children is a pain in TMJ supporting muscles. It is followed by jaw opening restriction, clicking, deflection, deviation, and the last is crepitation.
Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H
An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.
Full Text Available Objectives: One of the issues that have consistently been the concern for the health affair specialists and cure and massive social governors in health fields is the rate of disorders prevalence, diseases and the related subjects to epidemiology. Purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mathematic disability amongst primary schools of Karaj. Methods: Totally 432 students were selected with multi-stage sampling method. Participants completed Raven test, Frostig Visual-Perception test and Wepman Auditory discrimination test, Rutter behavioral questionnaire and Iran Key-math test. In order to diagnosis mathematic disability, inter criterion was normal quotient intelligence and out criteria were to have one of visual perception, auditory and behavioral problems. The participants whose total standard scores in Iran Key-math test were one standard deviation below the mean were selected as a mathematical disability (MD. Results: The mathematic disability prevalence in primary students was estimated 0.46%. In addition, proportion of mathematic disability prevalence was not function of gender or grade. Discussion: The findings demonstrated that the prevalence of mathematic disability is much less than the previous researches. A possible explanation was that inappropriate screening co morbid disorders with the mathematic disability. The theoretical implications of findings are discussed in detail.
Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...
M C Patel
Full Text Available Background and objective: dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after occurrence is characterized by life-long debilitating effects. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of anterior teeth fracture and their association with predisposing factors such as lip coverage, molar relationship, overjet, and variables such as age, sex, cause, and place of trauma. Materials and Methods: an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 3708 school children aged 8-13 years in the Vadodara city. All children completed a questionnaire related to history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for lip competence, Angle′s molar relationship amount of overjet and nature of trauma sustained. The results were statistically analyzed using the prevalence test, Chi-square test, and Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio. Results: the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.79% and the ratio of boys: girl′s was 1.28:1. Inadequate lip coverage group sustained about five times more injuries than the adequate lip coverage group (P = 0.000, OR= 5.407. The maximum traumatic injuries were seen in children having Angle Class II Div 1 molar relationship and/or overjet greater than 5.5 mm and was statistically significant (P<0.05. Maximum number of injuries occurred at 9 years of age. The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, the most common place for occurrence was home and fall against object, the most frequent cause. Conclusion: the prevalence of dental injuries in the Vadodara city is high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.
Gershoff, Elizabeth T
School corporal punishment continues to be a legal means of disciplining children in a third of the world's countries. Although much is known about parents' use of corporal punishment, there is less research about school corporal punishment. This article summarizes what is known about the legality and prevalence of school corporal punishment, about the outcomes linked to it, and about interventions to reduce and eliminate school corporal punishment around the world.
Full Text Available Introduction: Children learn to communicate by hearing sounds. If there is hearing loss, the cognitive and speaking abilities and language learning will deteriorate. Early detection and intervention are important factors in the successful treatment of hearing loss in children. Hearing loss (HL is divided into two main groups: conductive hearing loss (CHL and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL, the prevalence of the former being higher in children, many whose causes are easy to detect and treat. Material and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 785 children, aged 6-7 years, entering elementary school Grade 1 in the school year 2010/2011, were randomly selected from 10% of Ahwaz Hearing Loss Screening Centers, and their audiograms were studied. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Out of the 785 preschool children examined in this study, 77 children (9.8% suffered from HL (42.9% female and 57.1% male, 59.7% from CHL, and 40.3% from SNHL. Twenty-six percent suffered from bilateral HL and 74% from unilateral HL. Thirty-eight point ninety-six percent had abnormal tympanometry, 61% of whom were Type B. Most of the children (53% had mild HL. Thirty-one point two percent of parents were aware of their children's HL. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of HL, especially SNHL, in this study, which is usually permanent but detectable at the neonatal ages, raising public awareness and early screening of ear diseases, which can lead to the detection and treatment in most cases, seem to be vital.
Lívia Augusta dos Santos Braga
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a prevalência do frênulo lingual alterado e suas implicações na fala de escolares. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por três fonoaudiólogas os frênulos de língua de 260 crianças com idades variando entre 6 e 12 anos. Os frênulos foram classificados por meio de inspeção visual, medidas empregando-se paquímetro e avaliação da tensão, mobilidade e posicionamento da língua. Foram consideradas crianças com alteração de frênulo aquelas que apresentaram alteração em todas etapas da avaliação. Nos casos de classificação de frênulo alterado, a fala foi avaliada. RESULTADOS: os dados encontrados revelaram que das 260 crianças avaliadas 47 (18%, apresentaram alteração de frênulo, sendo 28 (60%, classificados como curtos; 12 (25% como anteriorizados e 7 (15% como curtos e anteriorizados. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. Dos indivíduos com frênulo alterado, 34 (72 % apresentaram alteração de fala. A prevalência de alteração na fala foi maior no frênulo curto e anteriorizado (85%, seguido pelo curto (75% e pelo anteriorizado (58%. As implicações de fala mais encontradas foram distorção e articulação trancada. CONCLUSÃO: foi verificada uma prevalência de 18% de alteração no frênulo lingual dentre os escolares avaliados, sem diferença entre os sexos. O frênulo curto predomina sobre os demais tipos, porém o curto e anteriorizado apresenta maiores implicações na fala. As características de fala mais comuns nestes casos são distorção e articulação trancada.PURPOSE: to check the prevalence of altered tongue frenum and its implications on the scholar's speech. METHODS: tongue frenum of 260 children between 6 and 12 years old was evaluated by three speech therapists using visual inspection and caliper measurements. The children that showed changes in all stages of the evaluation were those considered to be with frenum alteration. The speech was evaluated in those children with altered
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased significantly over the last 30 years. Genetic factors cannot explain this prevalence and a number of studies have been performed to determine the Environmental factors especially dietary factors which are effective in the incidence of these diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the food consumption and the subsequent development of asthma and other allergic disorder symptoms in 2003 of children in yazd. Methods: We performed a Descriptive cross-sectional study of selected children in primary and secondary schools in Yazd. Standardized questionnaire(ISAAC that was developed based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were distributed to parents of 2768 children aged 6-7 years and 3201 children aged 13-14 years which randomly selected. The data was analyzed by Epi6.04 and SPSS softwares. Results: The prevalence of asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema symptoms in children 6-7 years old was 10.9%, 15.5% and 7.3% and in children 13-14 years old was 20.3 %, 42.7% and 14.8% respectively. High intake of butter-fat, chocolate, sweet and Sausage were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in children 6-7 years old. High intake of chocolate, Chips, egg were associated with an increased risk of wheeze and in children 13-14 years old. Conclusion: Dietary factors are associated with asthma and allergies symptoms. Fast foods, chocolates, junk foods & sausage may increase wheezing and allergic rhinitis & eczema symptoms in childhood
Jirasatmathakul, P; Poovorawan, Y
The present study was performed in order to determine prevalence and favored types of video games among altogether 679 primary and secondary school children in Thailand. To that end, the authors distributed questionnaires comprising detailed questions as to demographic data, playing frequency, available location and preferred type of video games among the parents of the children and adolescents to be investigated. Consistent with the literature, our results showed an early onset of video game playing (7.6 years), a higher prevalence among boys compared with girls, and a predilection for games invoking some aggressive behavior. In conclusion, although health hazards created by video game playing have remained beyond proof we still recommend parents and teachers to play a more active part as to the choice of games and the time spent playing.
Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Doustmohammadian, Aazam; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Abtahi, Mitra
Full text: Background and Objective: Malnutrition can potentially prone a disabled child to further morbidities thus imposing further suffering to the affected child and his/her family. There for, periodically assess the nutritional status of children with disabilities to perform the appropriate nutritional care needs of this vulnerable group. This is the first report on the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional status of physically disabled children from Iran. Present study investigates prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional status in Iranian children with physical disabled. Materials and Methods: A total of 290 physically disabled children aged 6- 12 years old, of both sexes, and from all specialized schools in Tehran (Iran’s capital), Meshed and Rasht (two major cities in North and East of Iran) were enrolled in a descriptive cross sectional study. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all subjects. In those disabled children whose heights could not be measured directly, height was estimated using Arm Length (AL) and Tibia Length (TL). Percent of low weight, thinness and short stature was determined in disabled children using CDC standards and Z- score. Dietary assessment was performed using 24hr and food-frequency questionnaires. Results: The result based on Z score of weight showed that 49.5% and 40.1% of disabled girls and boys were underweight respectively. Only 11.2% of disabled girls’ weights were between 3 and 95 percentiles and none of them were above percentile 95. However 2% of disabled boys’ weights were above 95 percentile. Comparison with anthropometric data from other studies showed that low weight was more prevalent in disabled than in non- disabled children (p<0.001). Moreover, both disabled boys and girls had significantly shorter statures than their non disabled counterparts. In disabled children, while the mean energy intake was more than 90% of the amount required, mean calcium and iron
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.
Background: Impacted wax has been classified as an ear disease. It can cause pain, itching, tinnitus hearing loss or otitis externa. The prevalence of cerumen impaction varies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association ...
Addo, K.K.; van den Hof, S.; Mensah, G.I.; Hesse, A.; Bonsu, C.; Koram, K.A.; Afutu, F.K.; Bonsu, F.A.
Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Enuresis, which is frequently diagnosed amongst schoolchildren, is an important psychosocial problem for both parents and children. In the present study we aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of enuresis in Turkish children and to identify common methods for its management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional epidemiological study was performed among primary school children living in Ankara, Turkey. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared for this study and distributed to the parents of 1,500 schoolchildren whom aged 6-12 years. RESULTS: Of the 1,500 questionnaires distributed, 1,339 (89% were completed. The overall prevalence of nocturnal and diurnal enuresis were 17.5% (n = 234 and 1.9% (n = 25, respectively. Although male gender, low age, history of enuresis among parents, low educational level of the parents, deep sleep, increased number of siblings, increased number of people sleeping in the child's room, history of enuresis among siblings, poor school performance and history of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI were significantly associated with enuresis, but not with severe enuresis. The percentage of children with enuresis seen by physician for treatment was 17.2%. The most preferred treatment option for enuresis was medications (59.5%, whereas alarm treatment was the least preferred (2.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiologic studies from various countries. Furthermore we demonstrated that families in Turkey do not pay sufficient attention to enuresis and most of enuretic children do not receive professional treatment.
Zhang, Juan; Zhai, Yi; Feng, Xiao Qi; Li, Wei Rong; Lyu, Yue Bin; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Zhao, Peng Yu; Shi, Xiao Ming
To in vestigate potential gender differences in the odds of overweight/obese, weight-related perceptions, and behaviors among Chinese school children. Height, weight, and a survey of weight-related perceptions and behaviors were measured in a nationally representative survey of 12,811 children in primary schools in China. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess gender differences, adjusting for confounders. Boys had higher odds of being overweight/obese compared to girls within both urban [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.65] and rural areas (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.20). Girls reported healthier diets (e.g., daily vegetables OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.85) whereas boys consumed fried food (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.38) and sugar-sweetened drinks more often (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.65). Gender differences included higher odds of boys perceiving themselves as overweight if they had more highly educated mothers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68), less educated fathers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99), and if they frequently consumed carbonated drinks (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.05). Childhood obesity prevention in China should be gender-focused, particularly for boys who reported an unhealthier diet but were less likely to see they were fat, even though more boys were overweight or obese than girls. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Sanigorski, A M; Bell, A C; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A
In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (Pjunk food'). Fruit intake in primary schools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.
María Soledad Carrillo Gallego
Full Text Available We present a sequential procedure aimed at detecting reading acquisition difficulties. Data were collected from a representative sample (N=2012 of 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders from all state schools (n=14 and private schools (N=5 in a single district. In the first step, a silent reading test (Test de Eficiencia Lectora TECLE was collectively conducted. It identified 273 children who presented reading difficulties that could not be explained by other causes (cognitive, sensory, behavioural, linguistic, and social. In the second step, the selected sample were administered a reading test (words and pseudo-words, and an orthographic test (words presenting inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme items to identify more basic phonological and orthographical deficits which might explain the reading difficulties detected using the Test de Eficiencia Lectora TECLE. The results showed a greater incidence of reading problems in 2nd-grade students (15.2% than in 4th-grade (9.3% and 6th-grade (10.9% students. This difference could be explained by the presence of 2nd graders with reading difficulties who can overcome their difficulties without any special intervention. We also show that a large part of the global reading delay observed can be explained by difficulties in basic decoding and orthographic abilities.
Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken
When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…
Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and
Prevalência de erros refrativos em escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental da região Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul Prevalence of refractive errors in first grade school children of elementary schools of Northeast region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil
, to which those students with abnormal test results were referred. RESULTS: 172 (10.88% of the sampled individuals showed poor visual acuity or some symptoms of visual disorders, and were then referred for specialized ophthalmic examination. However, only 88 (51.16% of the referred patients turned up for the examination. The mean age was 7.10 years (DP= 1,38. Among all evaluated, 70,46% of them had some refractive disorder, of wich hyperopia and astigmatism were the most frequent ones, having been reported in 45.45% and 10.23% of the children, respectively. The myopia were the less frequent refractive disorder, reported in 10,23% of the school children who turned up for examination. CONCLUSION: The study showed a prevalence of 3,92% of refractive errors in the population studied, although the high abstention can be underestimating this percentage. We can realize, from that on, the need of the creation of programs focused in a bigger adhesion of the students to the reference to a specialized service, in the attempt of avoiding the lack of diagnosis of easily treatable disorders in childhood.
Conclusion: The oral hygiene of school children was poor with high plaque prevalence demonstrating a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to ...
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...
Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world and is associated with precarious living conditions in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of trachoma in three municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. In 2008, 2,054 schoolchildren from the public primary school system of the urban area of the region and their communicants were clinically examined; in 2016, 1,502 schoolchildren were examined. The positive cases seen during the clinical evaluation were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF laboratory tests. The presence of antibodies against the genus Chlamydia was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, and the serotypes were determined by microimmunofluorescence (MIF. In 2008, the prevalence of trachoma among schoolchildren was 3.4% (69 cases and it was more frequent in children between six and nine years of age and in females; among the communicants, a prevalence of 16.5% was observed. In 2016, three cases of trachoma were diagnosed (prevalence of 0.2%, found only in the municipality of Soure. The results of the present study showed that in 2008, trachoma had a low prevalence (3.4% among schoolchildren in the urban area of Marajó Archipelago; eight years after the first evaluation and the introduction of control and prevention measures (SAFE strategy, there was a drastic reduction in the number of cases (0.2%, demonstrating the need for constant monitoring and effective measures for the elimination of trachoma.
Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine
Aim: Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. Method: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9y…
Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra
Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...
Bess, F H; Dodd-Murphy, J; Parker, R A
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of minimal sensorineural hearing loss (MSHL) in school-age children and to assess the relationship of MSHL to educational performance and functional status. To determine prevalence, a single-staged sampling frame of all schools in the district was created for 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades. Schools were selected with probability proportional to size in each grade group. The final study sample was 1218 children. To assess the association of MSHL with educational performance, children identified with MSHL were assigned as cases into a subsequent case-control study. Scores of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (4th Edition) (CTBS/4) then were compared between children with MSHL and children with normal hearing. School teachers completed the Screening Instrument for Targeting Education Risk (SIFTER) and the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist for a subsample of children with MSHL and their normally hearing counterparts. Finally, data on grade retention for a sample of children with MSHL were obtained from school records and compared with school district norm data. To assess the relationship between MSHL and functional status, test scores of all children with MSHL and all children with normal hearing in grades 6 and 9 were compared on the COOP Adolescent Chart Method (COOP), a screening tool for functional status. MSHL was exhibited by 5.4% of the study sample. The prevalence of all types of hearing impairment was 11.3%. Third grade children with MSHL exhibited significantly lower scores than normally hearing controls on a series of subtests of the CTBS/4; however, no differences were noted at the 6th and 9th grade levels. The SIFTER results revealed that children with MSHL scored poorer on the communication subtest than normal-hearing controls. Thirty-seven percent of the children with MSHL failed at least one grade. Finally, children with MSHL exhibited significantly greater dysfunction than children with normal hearing
Ng, Jing Jing; Eu, Oy Chu; Nair, Rahul; Hong, Catherine Hsu Ling
There is a lack of data on molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Asia, but this is not an indication that MIH is rare in the Asian population. Early identification of MIH is important as affected teeth frequently display post-eruptive enamel loss which would result in rapid caries progression. This objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of MIH in Singaporean children. Patients were recruited from 30 schools across Singapore. All children were examined by a single dentist, and the judgement criteria used were based on the 2003 European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria. A total of 1083 children; average age of 7.7 ± 0.3 years were examined. One hundred and thirty-five children (12.5%) had MIH. A significantly higher proportion of children of the Malay ethnicity had MIH, compared to Chinese children (P = 0.02). Post-eruptive enamel breakdown and the presence of atypical restorations were correlated with increasing number of MIH teeth/child (Rho= 0.599, P MIH occurrence and that MIH severity may be influenced by the number of MIH teeth/child and the cumulative enamel opacity colour score. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available We present a review of literature devoted to epidemiology, and the nosological and syndromal structure of back pain in children. The data of our own study of school-aged children with back pain are presented. The structure of back pain syndromes in 105 children has been analyzed using the medical aid appealability data. The results of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental study demonstrated that the children mostly had lumbosacral pain (52.4% of cases; neck pain was observed in 29.5% of cases; while thoracic pain syndromes were observed in 18.1% of cases. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was diagnosed in 16.19% of children; congenital abnormalities of the spine, in 15.2%; scoliosis (idiopathic and secondary, in 8.6%; and Scheuermann-Mau's disease, in 5.71%. The conclusion has been made about the high prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren. Muscular tonic syndromes were prevailing in the clinical structure in children; radicular syndromes were less frequent. Musculoskeletal disorders were the main causes of back pain. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was often observed, which was revealed as functional instability of the vertebral motor segment, spondylolisthesis due to weak ligaments, and disc protrusions. Congenital abnormalities of the spine, scoliosis, and Scheuermann-Mau' disease were observed less often.
Maria Rosita Cecilia
Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.
White, Martha V; Silvia, Suyapa; Muniz, Rafael; Herrem, Christopher; Hogue, Susan L
Prevention and management of anaphylaxis in schools is an area of active interest as allergy and asthma rates in children continue to increase. A greater understanding of the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis can help guide preventive and management strategies both within and outside of the school setting, with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to elucidate the epidemiology of and management strategies for anaphylaxis in the school setting. A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to schools that participated in an initiative that provides stock epinephrine autoinjectors (EAIs) to qualifying U.S. schools. Representatives from participating schools completed a questionnaire regarding anaphylactic reactions that occurred during the 2014-2015 school year. Weighted analyses were performed to account for differential responses between schools that completed the survey and those that did not. A total of 12,275 of the 45,819 invited schools responded to the survey. The occurrence of one or more anaphylactic events was reported by 1358 schools. Most events (89.8% [1803/2008]) occurred in students. High school students accounted for the largest proportion of anaphylactic reactions among students (40.1% [723/1802]). Food was the most commonly identified anaphylaxis trigger across grade levels, seasons, and geographic regions. The trigger was unknown to the individual who experienced anaphylaxis in 21.8% of the events (436/1998). No known history of allergy or asthma was present in 24.5% (491/2001) and 51.3% (1026/2000) of affected individuals, respectively. Transportation to the hospital or clinic for further treatment and/or management was reported for 72.6% of the individuals with anaphylactic events (1450/1997). Results from the weighted analyses were similar to those of the unweighted analyses. Anaphylaxis occurred across grade levels and in individuals with or without known risk factors, which reinforced the
Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky
This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…
Rivers, Charisse L.
Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…
Prevalência das ametropias e oftalmopatias em crianças pré-escolares e escolares em favelas do Alto da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Prevalence of the ametropias and eye diseases in preschool and school children of Alto da Boa Vista favelas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Abelardo de Souza Couto Júnior
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a prevalência das ametropias e oftalmopatias, no ano de 2001, em população pré-escolar e escolar de favelas do Alto da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional do tipo transversal, durante campanha de saúde ocular na rede pública de ensino. Crianças com acuidade visual inferior a 0,8 ou com anormalidades foram triadas por voluntários treinados para serem avaliadas por oftalmologistas no Instituto Benjamin Constant. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 1800 crianças no total. Destas, 306 (17,00 % do total foram encaminhadas ao IBC. Houve 183 (10,17% do total e 59,80% das triadas que receberam alta por apresentarem visão melhor que 0,8. A prevalência dos erros refrativos foi de 3,50% (ametropias positivas , 1,78%; ametropias negativas, 1,06% e astigmatismos mistos, 0,67%. A prevalência das oftalmopatias foi de 4,83%. (ambliopia teve prevalência de 2,00%, manifestações do estrabismo, 1,72% e outras causas 1,11%. CONCLUSÃO: Demonstrou-se a prevalência dos principais distúrbios oftalmológicos infantis nas favelas do Alto da Boa Vista e ressaltou-se a necessidade de campanhas para bom êxito no desenvolvimento da acuidade visual das crianças.PURPOSE: To estabilish the prevalence of the ametropias and eye diseases, in the year 2001, within a preschool and school population in Alto da Boa Vista favelas (slum, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Transversal observational study during an ocular health campaign in public education schools. The children that have shown visual acuity fewer than 0.8 or abnormally were referred by trained volunteers to avaliation by ophthalmologists from the Benjamin Constant Institute. RESULTS: From the 1800 children who were examined, 306 (17.00% were referred to the ophthalmologic examination. There were 183 children (10.17% from total and 59.80% from referred that were dismissed for presenting visual acuity better than 0.8. The refractive errors
Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Paccaud, Fred
We compared the prevalence of body weight categories between public and private schools in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. In 2004-2006, weight and height were measured and self-reported information on physical activity collected in children of three selected grades in all schools in the country. Overweight, obesity and thinness were defined according to standard criteria. Based on 8 462 students (377 in private schools), the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was markedly higher in private than public schools (boys: 37% [95% CI: 31-44] vs. 15% [14-16]; girls: 33% [26-41] vs. 20% [19-22]). The prevalence of thinness grade 1 was lower in private than public schools (boys: 9% [5-13] vs. 20% [19-21]; girls: 13% [8-18] vs. 19% [18-20]). Students in private schools reported more physical activity at leisure time while students in public schools reported larger weekly walking time. Our findings suggest that school type may be a useful indicator for assessing the association between socio-economic status and overweight in children, and that overweight affects wealthy children more often than others in developing countries.
Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsak; Santikul, Kanitta
Dyslexia is the most common subtype of learning disabilities with a prevalence ranging from 5-10 per cent. The central difficulty in dyslexia is the phonological awareness deficit. The authors have developed a screening test to assess the reading ability of Thai primary school students. 1. To study the prevalence of dyslexia in first to sixth grade students at Wat Samiannaree School. 2. To study the clinical characteristics such as sex, neurological signs, verbal intelligence and comorbid attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) of the dyslexia group. A total of 486 first to sixth grade students were administered "Raven's progressive matrices test" for estimation of intellectual functioning. Those who scored below the fifth percentile were labeled as mental retardation and excluded from the study. The students' reading ability was evaluated by 3 steps; first by classroom teachers using some items of the screening test, second by the researchers examining some more items individually, and third by the special educator assessing more details in reading and phonology. The students who had a reading ability two-grade levels below their actual grades and impairment in phonology were diagnosed with dyslexia. The prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia were found to be 6.3 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively. The male to female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The dyslexia group had significantly lower Thai language scores than those of the normal group (p dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination but 90 per cent showed positive soft neurological signs. Mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised was 76 +/- 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7 per cent in the dyslexia group. Dyslexia was a common problem among primary school students in this study. Further studies in a larger population and different socioeconomic statuses are required to determine the prevalence
da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es
AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...
Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan
Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.
Habib, Mariam; Hottel, Timothy L; Hong, Liang
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dental erosion in children aged 2-4 years old and 12 years old. 243 subjects were recruited from daycare centers, preschools, and grade schools; they received dental examinations assessing their condition of dental erosion, including both depth and area of tooth surface loss on four maxillary incisors. Questionnaires were given to the subjects to obtain socio-demographic, oral health behaviors at home, and access to dental care. Dental erosion was analyzed and risk factors were assessed using Chi-Square and logistic regression analysis. The subjects were 60% Caucasians, 31% Black, 7% Hispanic and others were 2%. 34% of children could not get the dental care they needed within the past 12 months and 61% of all children brushed their teeth twice or more daily. Overall, 12% of study children had dental erosion with 13% for 2-4 years old and 10% for 12 years old, with the majority of erosive lesions within enamel. Family income (OR 3.98, p = 0.021) and acidic fruit juice consumption (OR 2.38, p = 0.038) were significant risk factors for dental erosion, even after controlling for other factors, such as source of drinking water and oral hygiene using logistic regression analysis. Dental erosion is a relatively common problem among the children in this study and it is seen as a multi-factorial process.
Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg
Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: to establish the prevalence institutional alterations in hearing and languaje in children aged 4 and 5 years, attending the Growth and Development program at the Social Institution of Popayan in 2012. Methodology: We performed a cross-sectional study in sample of 96 children who attended four points ESE Care Popayan, during the months of december 2011 and January 2012. Were evaluated by Fonoaudiología, who applied the Reynell test to assess languaje and tone audiometry and otoacoustic emissions to assess hearing. Results: the mean age of the population was 59.34 months, while 50% was made up of men. The 78.1% had alterations in expressive language and 41.7% in language understanding, 29.2% showed changes of left ear as otoacoustic emissions and according to tone audiometry, high frequency of right are the most affected. Conclusions: the high prevalence of alterations in speech and hearing in children found to initiate processes that are more complex as the acquisition of reading and writing, could trigger negative consequences such as poor school performance and even dropouts.
Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...
Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...
Edwards, Oliver W.
Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…
Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to investigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphygmomanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was higher in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in females. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold values for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to combine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.
Diouf, M; Cisse, D; Faye, A; Niang, P; Seck, I; Faye, D; Lo, C M M
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is the most common clinical syndrome preceding noma. It is found in developing countries and in malnourished children and especially in deprived groups such as children at Koranic boarding schools. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and factors associated with its occurrence in a boarding school population. This was a cross-sectional study of children in Koranic boarding schools in the city of Touba, Senegal. A multistage sampling strategy was used and 8 out of 17 schools were selected. The variables collected were gender, age, oral hygiene habits, duration of residence, presence of ulcerative gingivitis and plaque, and gingival bleeding index. A logistic regression analysis with R software using the manual procedure down was used to identify factors associated with the dependent variables. There were 501 participants and boys made up 92% of the study group. The mean age was 9.3 (sd 4.0) years. The mean of duration residence was 3.4 (sd 1.5) years. The prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was 37% and 81% of children did not use a toothbrush or a chewing-stick. The length of residence, school size, hygiene habits and plaque and bleeding indices were significantly associated with necrotizing gingivitis after adjustment for other variables. It is necessary to develop oral hygiene programs, to establish policies to manage the oral health of children and to improve health and nutrition at Koranic boarding-schools.
... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...
Ha, Yeongmi; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Choi, Eunsook
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and examine relationships between weight status of children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), mothers' perceived weight status of children, and socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional study of 206 mothers of children with IDs in six special schools in Seoul, South…
Tandukar, Sarmila; Ansari, Shamshul; Adhikari, Nabaraj; Shrestha, Anisha; Gautam, Jyotshana; Sharma, Binita; Rajbhandari, Deepak; Gautam, Shikshya; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Sherchand, Jeevan B
Enteric parasites are the most common cause of parasitic diseases and cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries like Nepal. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among school going children of Lalitpur district of Nepal. A total of 1392 stool samples were collected from school children of two government, two private and two community schools of the same district. The stool samples were examined for evidence of parasitic infections by direct microscopy and confirmed by concentration methods (formal ether sedimentation technique or floatation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution). Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed for the detection of coccidian parasites. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 16.7%. The highest prevalence rate was seen with Giardia lamblia (7.4%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica (3.4%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (1.6%). Children aged 11-15 years and the ones belonging to family of agriculture workers were most commonly affected. Hand washing practice and type of drinking water also showed significant difference. The burden of parasitic infections among the school children, coupled with the poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be regarded as an issue of public health priority and demands for effective school health programs involving periodic health education and screening.
Full Text Available A cross â€" sectional study among 512 children in age group 0-15 years was carried out in an urban slum of Pune during Aug.84 to Feb. 85. The prevalence rate of Pediculus humanus capitis among the study population was found to be 35.15 percent. The prevalence was found to increase with age. Girls were affected more than boys. Living in nuclear families, schooling and possession of long hair were found to have significant association with the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The quality of personal hygiene per se did not alter the prevalence of head louse infestation.
María Nieves García-Casal
Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.
Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in children has increased. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between obesity and overweight and risk factors such as dietary pattern and physical inactivity.
Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Butler, Michelle; Bell, Andrew Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Campbell, Elizabeth; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
School-based vegetable and fruit programs can increase student consumption of vegetables and fruit and have been recommended for adoption by Australian schools since 2005. An understanding of the prevalence and predictors of and the barriers to the adoption of school-based vegetable and fruit programs is necessary to maximize their adoption by schools and ensure that the health benefits of such programs to children are realized. The aim of this study was to determine Australian primary school Principals' attitudes and barriers to the implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks; the prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools and the implementation strategies used and associated with their recommended adoption (daily in at least 80% of classes). A random sample of 384 school Principals completed a 20-min telephone interview. While Principals were highly supportive of vegetable and fruit breaks, only 44% were implementing these to a recommended level. When controlling for all school characteristics, recommended vegetable and fruit break adoption was 1.9 and 2.2 times greater, respectively, in schools that had parent communication strategies and teachers trained. A substantial opportunity exists to enhance the health of children through the adoption of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools.
Prevalência de desvio fonológico em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil de Canoas RS Prevalence of phonological deviations in children - 4 to 6 year old - from a kindergarten school in Canoas - RS
Camila dos Santos Indrusiak
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência de desvio fonológico e processos fonológicos quanto ao sexo e a idade. MÉTODO: análise estatística e descritiva da Avaliação Fonológica Infantil de Yavas, Hernadorema e Lamprecht (2002, realizada com 60 pré-escolares de 4 a 6 anos de idade, de Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil de Canoas-RS. A amostra foi composta por crianças cujos pais não relataram no questionário alterações auditivas, neurológicas, síndromes ou que estivessem realizando ou já tivessem realizado tratamento fonoaudiológico e/ou apresentassem alterações de origem fonética. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de desvio fonológico foi de 55%, sendo maior para o sexo masculino. A maior prevalência de desvio fonológico foi notada com crianças de 5 anos de idade. Os processos fonológicos mais encontrados foram de redução de encontro consonantal (46, 7%, apagamento de líquida final (40% e substituição de líquida (30%. A relação da prevalência de processo fonológico com o sexo se mostrou de forma semelhante para ambos os sexos, com exceção do apagamento de sílaba átona que foi significante para o sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: a alta prevalência de desvio fonológico aponta a necessidade de inserção de programas públicos de promoção e prevenção à saúde da comunicação humana na atenção primária.PURPOSE: to check the prevalence of phonological deviations and processes according to gender and age. METHOD: statistic and descriptive analysis of phonological evaluation of Yavas, Hernandorema and Lamprecht (2002. This was carried through in 60 kindergarden schools from 4 to 6 year old in municipal schools in Canoas - RS. The sample consisted of children whose parents did not report any auditory and neurological alterations and syndromes in the questionnaire. They did not specify if these children had already taken phonological treatment or phonetic deviations. RESULTS: the prevalence of phonological
Garvey, Katherine A; Dobson, Velma; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M
Although the prevalence of strabismus is 2% to 5% in European-based and African-American populations, little is known about the prevalence of strabismus in Native-American populations. We report the prevalence of strabismus in children who are members of a Native-American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Subjects were 594 children enrolled in Head Start and 315 children enrolled in kindergarten or first grade (K/1) in schools on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Distance and near cover tests were performed on each child by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, and cycloplegic refraction was obtained. Strabismus was detected in 9 Head Start children (1.5%) and 3 K/1 children (1.0%). Ratio of esotropia to exotropia was 1:3 in Head Start and 1:2 in K/1. Anisometropia >or=1.00 diopter (D) spherical equivalent was present in 2 children with strabismus, and anisometropia >or=1.00 D cylinder was present in 4 with strabismus. The prevalence of strabismus in Tohono O'odham children is at the low end of the prevalence range reported in studies of European-based and African-American populations. Copyright 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Dommelen, P. van; Schönbeck, Y.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.; Wouwen, J.P. van; Buitendijk, S.E.
Prevalence of overweight in children is increasing, causing various health problems. This study aims to establish growth references for weight and to assess the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in a nationwide sample of Dutch children with Down syndrome (DS), taking into account the
RESULTS. Demographic characteristics revealed that the prevalence of rhinovirus infection in children showed 38% positivity of which 20 (10.0%) were males while 17 (8.5%) were females. Children between the ages ofO-24 months have the highest prevalence of 45.9% while those older than 96 months have the least.
Background. The prevalence of malnutrition, an important contributor to childhood mortality, is poorly described in hospitalised South African (SA) children, many of whom are HIV-exposed or HIV-infected. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition in infants and children <14 years of age admitted to a general ...
Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma was higher than in other Latin American regions, with the most cases in participants of African descent, and those with a family history of asthma. The results will provide important data on asthma in Honduras and will contribute to the identification of risk groups.
Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg
The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…
Heneghan, A M; Malakoff, M E
A survey to assess availability of school health services was distributed to 221 directors of Schools of the 21st Century, an educational model that provides integrated services to children and families. Of this distribution, 126 (57%) surveys were returned; 88% of respondents reported they provided some type of school health services for their students; 75% of schools had access to school nursing services, yet only 33% had a school nurse on-site; 50% had less than daily access to a school nurse. Despite a high reported prevalence of physical and mental health problems, other services such as acute care, nutrition counseling, dental screenings, or mental health services were provided less frequently. Barriers perceived as problematic for schools providing health services included inadequate funding, limited parental awareness, and opposition by school or community members. Respondents believed transportation, limited financial resources, and inadequate health insurance were barriers to care for children and families. Among this sample of schools, school health services varied in availability and comprehensiveness. Educators, health providers, and parents must work together to provide improved school health services for children.
McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David
Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with
Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M
To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the distribution of anemia in children, based on information from Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 and Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99, and examine the association of anemia with potentially explanatory variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adjusted prevalence and means as well as associations with potentially explanatory variables were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regression models for complex samples. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2006, the prevalence of anemia decreased 13.8 percentage points (pp in toddlers and 7.8 pp in children 24-35 months of age; it also decreased 0.7 pp/year in urban and rural populations, 1.8 pp/year in indigenous and 0.61 pp/year in non-indigenous toddlers, 1.5 pp/year in children 5-8 years of age and 0.78 pp/year in children 9-11 years of age. In toddlers served by Oportunidades, Hb was inversely associated with indigenous ethnicity (p=0.1 and they had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.002. In school-age children, age (OR=0.98, affiliation to Liconsa (OR=0.42 and living in the central region (OR=0.56 were protective factors for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of anemia in Mexico has decreased in the past seven years, especially in toddlers. Being a beneficiary of Liconsa or Oportunidades was protective for anemia.OBJETIVO: Comparar la distribución de la anemia en niños con base en la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 y la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN99. Asimismo, examinar la asociación de la anemia con variables potencialmente explicativas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se calcularon las prevalencias y las medias ajustadas, así como las asociaciones mediante modelos de regresión múltiple lineal y logística para muestras complejas. RESULTADOS: Entre 1999 y 2006 la anemia disminuyó 13.8 puntos porcentuales (pp en lactantes de 12-23 meses de edad y 7.8 pp en los de 24-35; 0.7 pp/año en prescolares
Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie
Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…
Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...
Abstract. Background: School children sometimes exhibit a range of deviant behaviour which could serve as a source of stress to the families and society. Objective: To determine the ... Result: The prevalence of deviant behaviour was 16.3% on the Teachers' scale and and 13.9% on the Parents' scale. The difference was ...
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...
Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of hypertension in school children aged 10 years and above? Objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of hypertension. 2. To generate a profile of hypertensive cases. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected primary schools run by Surat Manipal Corporation. Participants: School children aged 10 years and above. Sample size: 2250 children (1092 boys, 158girls Study variables: Age, sex, body weight, body mass index Outcome variables: Prevalence of hypertension. Statistical analysis: X2 test Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in children was 2.3 percent, separately in girls and 0.9 percent in boys. Body weight above 40kgms and body mass index (BMI above 20 were differentiating points as children weighing more than 40kgms and/or with BMI more than 20 significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Most of the cases were asymptomatic and also had no suggestive symptoms in the past.
Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth Ac; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine
AIM Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. METHOD A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included
McPhillips, M.; Sheehy, N.
It has been shown that some children with reading difficulties have underlying developmental delay and that this may be related to the persistence of primary reflexes. This study investigated the prevalence of persistent primary reflexes in the ordinary primary school population and how this related to other cognitive and social factors. Three…
Hazza, I.; Tarwneh, H.
We attempted in this study, to estimate the prevalence of primarynocturnal enuresis (PNE) in children of Jordan and to examine factorsassociated with PNE. We sent questionnaires to 950 parents of children aged6-8 years, randomly selected from three primary schools in Jordan. Thequestionnaire was designed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associatedwith PNE. The response rate was 71.6%. The overall prevalence of PNE was23.8%. This prevalence declined with age from 48.9% at 7 years and 8.4% at 8years. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of PNE in Jordan is higherthan the reported from other Asian or European countries, while theassociated factors are similar. (author)
Carriere, Caroline; Langevin, Coralie; Déti, Eduoard Kossi; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Maurice, Sylvie; Thibault, Hélène
The objective of the present study was to describe changes in overweight and obesity prevalence and eating habits among 7.5-10.5-year-old children in Aquitaine (France) between 2004 and 2008, and to assess how the programme 'Nutrition, Prevention and Health of children and teenagers in Aquitaine' implemented in 2004 may have impacted these changes. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two samples of children: the 'before programme' sample during the school year 2004/2005 and the 'after programme' sample during the school year 2008/2009. Settings Data were collected on gender, age, weight, height, area of residence (rural/urban) and socio-economic status of the school (non-low socio-economic/low socio-economic). Multivariate analyses were used to assess the effect of the regional programme intervention on the evolution of overweight and obesity prevalence and eating habits independently. The 'before programme' sample included 1836 children from 163 schools during the school year 2004/2005 and the 'after programme' sample included 3483 children from 210 schools during the school year 2008/2009. After adjustment of the model for age, residential area and socio-economic status of the area of residence, the prevalence of overweight including obesity (OR = 1.05; 95% CI 0.89, 1.23, P = 0.56) and of obesity (OR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.71, 1.39, P = 0.96) was found to have stabilized and eating habits had improved: intake of light afternoon meals had increased (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.13, 1.69, P = 0.002) while snacking in the morning (OR = 0.50; 95 % CI 0.45, 0.57, P eating habits in order to stabilize or decrease the prevalence of overweight.
Effective management of blindness due to refractive errors is readily available in developed countries. 1 ... Key words: Refractive errors, Children, Prevalence, Kenya. 165 .... financial support towards the funding of this study. REFERENCES. 1.
Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence. Surveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed. This study drew on the following data sources: A pupil survey on bullying behaviours A survey of teachers on school policies and processes Analysis of data on school processes from school inspection reports Analysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics. Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data. Results show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying. The study provides support for the importance of schools' embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Conclusion: In present study the frequency of gingivitis was found to be higher. According to the high prevalence of gingivitis the most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children, parents, and teachers ...
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.
Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik
In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a
Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam
Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.
Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…
Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa
Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…
Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana
Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…
Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...
Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.
Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities...... in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class comm...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of low vision which hampers performance at school, reduces productivity and impairs quality of life. It is considered to be one of the most important priorities in the global initiation for the elimination of avoidable blindness. The refractive errors are especially common among children as they do not complain and adjust with circumstances. School children constitute an ideal group for study of refractive errors because most of them go to school, easily accessible and offer excellent opportunity for services and health education. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted among 2,568 children attending various government schools in the rural areas of Chittoor district. The study was carried out during January to June 2015. A preliminary examination of visual acuity was determined by Snellen’s chart and those with defective vision were subjected to detailed eye examination by a specialist. The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epiinfo 7 software version using percentages and Chi - square test. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of refractive errors among children was found to be 11.3%. (Astigmatism - 5.8%; myopia - 4.2%; hypermetropia - 1.4%. The prevalence of refractive errors increased steadily from 5.7% in 5 - 7 years age group to 14.7% in 14 - 16 years group. The prevalence was found to be similar in male and female children. The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was found to increase steadily with age while hypermetropia showed an inverse trend CONCLUSIONS: Examination of school children for refractive errors is a useful strategy for early diagnosis and intervention.
Williams, Jacqueline; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J
Motor skill impairment is a common negative outcome in children born preterm who do not develop cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of current data to provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of non-CP motor impairment in preterm children at school age. We searched the Medline, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases and relevant journals to identify all studies published post-1990 that reported the prevalence of motor impairment in school-aged children born preterm (children was 40.5/100. and for moderate motor impairment the estimate was 19.0/100. There was also a trend for lower motor impairment levels in samples born before 1990 compared with those born after 1990. Children born preterm are at increased risk of motor impairment, with prevalence three to four times greater than in the general population. This highlights the need for improved surveillance and intervention strategies in this group of children.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal children were selected by cluster sampling from elementary, guidance and high schools of Ardabil city and 423 couples parenting disabled children were selected non-randomly among which 130 had deaf children. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriage and chi-square test to compare prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of normal and deaf children.Results: Descriptive analyses showed that 80 out of 130 (61.54% parents who had deaf children have had consanguineous marriage. Furthermore data analysis demonstrated that prevalence of consanguineous marriage was significantly higher among parents of deaf children (p<0.001.Conclusion: Consanguineous marriage plays a major role in expression of recessive genes and could lead to development of various handicaps including deafness. Increasing couples' awareness about consequences of consanguineous marriage and conducting genetic counseling are indispensable.
Wirix, Aleid J G; Nauta, Jeroen; Groothoff, Jaap W; Rabelink, Ton J; HiraSing, Remy A; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E
The aim of this study is to explore different methods for screening and diagnosing hypertension-which definitions and criteria to use-in children and in addition to determine the prevalence of hypertension in Dutch overweight children. A cross-sectional study performed in the Dutch Child Health Care setting. Four Child Health Care centres in different cities in the Netherlands. 969 overweight (including obese) and 438 non-overweight children, median age 11.7 years (range 4.1-17.10), 49% boys. The main outcome was blood pressure, and the difference in prevalence of hypertension using different criteria for blood pressure interpretation: using the first blood pressure measurement, the mean of two measurements and the lowest of three measurements on two different occasions. Looking at the first measurement alone, 33% of overweight and 21% of non-overweight children had hypertension. By comparing the mean of the first two measurements with reference values, 28% of overweight children and 16% of non-overweight children had hypertension. Based on the lowest of three consecutive measurements, the prevalence decreased to 12% among overweight children and 5% among non-overweight children at visit one and at visit two 4% of overweight children still had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is highly dependent on the definitions and criteria used. We found a prevalence of 4% in overweight children, which is considerably lower than suggested by recent literature (4%-33%). This discrepancy can be explained by our more strict definition of hypertension. However, to draw any conclusions on the prevalence, normal values using the same definition of hypertension should be established. Despite the low prevalence, we recommend measuring blood pressure in all overweight children in view of later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rosiane da Silva Fontana
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH em crianças de quatro escolas públicas brasileiras. MÉTODO: Estudo de prevalência. A população consistiu em todos os alunos de 1ª à 4ª séries do ensino fundamental com idades entre 6 e 12 anos de quatro escolas públicas (CIEPs. Na primeira etapa do estudo, os professores efetuaram triagem para TDAH utilizando os critérios diagnósticos do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais - IV Edição (DSM-IV. A triagem resultou em dois grupos de crianças: suspeitos e não suspeitos. Na segunda etapa, os pais das crianças suspeitas foram convidados a comparecerem à escola para entrevista com os pesquisadores e preenchimento dos critérios diagnósticos de TDAH, anamnese e exame físico pediátrico e neurológico. Ao final desta etapa, as crianças foram classificadas em "casos" de TDAH e crianças "indeterminadas" (crianças que preenchiam parcialmente os critérios diagnósticos. RESULTADOS: De uma população de 602 alunos, 461 fizeram parte do estudo. A prevalência de TDAH considerando o conjunto das 4 escolas foi 13%. A proporção masculino: feminino foi 2:1. O subtipo de TDAH mais freqüente foi o misto com 61,7% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de TDAH nestes escolares brasileiros (13% é mais elevada que a prevalência tradicionalmente mencionada (3-5%. O sexo masculino foi mais acometido que o feminino e o subtipo de TDAH mais prevalente foi o misto, ambos de acordo com estudos anteriores.OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children from four Brazilian public elementary schools. METHOD: Study population consisted of all students from the first through fourth grades, age range 6-12 years, who attended four public elementary schools (CIEPs. This prevalence study comprised two steps. During the first step, school teachers screened their own pupils for ADHD using
Mallol, Javier; Aguirre, Viviana; Aguilar, Pedro; Calvo, Mario; Amarales, Lidia; Arellano, Pamela; Palma, Rodrigo
In developed countries, the prevalence of asthma in children has significantly increased in the last decades. However, there is no information about the trends of asthma in Latin America. To determine changes in asthma prevalence between 1994 and 2002 in Chilean schoolchildren. The prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren aged 7 (n =18.697) and 13 years (n =18.939), from South Santiago, Valdivia and Punta Arenas, obtained during phases I and III of the ISAAC, carried out in 1994 and 2002, was compared. From 1994 to 2002, the mean national prevalence of "wheezing in the last 12 months" in the group aged 6-7 years, changed from 18.2% to 17.9% (p =NS); "asthma ever" from 12.5% to 10.7% (p =NS), and "severe episode" from 3.2% to 2.8% (p =NS). There was a significant increase of the prevalence of "wheezing in the last 12 months", in children aged 13-14 years, from 9.8% to 15.5% (p =0.01); in "asthma ever" from 10.2% to 14.9% (p =0.01), and for "severe episode" from 2.8% to 3.8% (p =0.01). There was a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms related to asthma in children aged 13-14 years that was consistent in all the 3 participating centres of the ISAAC. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children aged 6-7 years remained without significant changes between 1994 and 2002.
Bansal, Ankita; Diwan, Shraddha; Diwan, Jasmin; Vyas, Neeta
Introduction: Obesity are epidemic among children and adolescents. There is worldwide tendency of increasing prevalence of obesity in children. Cerebral palsy (CP) is leading cause of childhood disability.studies have proposed mechanism of children with disability leading towards obesity and related health risks. So this study is aimed at determining whether such trend of obesity exists in children with CP in terms of BMI and WHR.
El-Mouzan, Mohammad I; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A; Al-Herbish, Abdullah S; Qurachi, Mansour M; Al-Omar, Ahmad A
To explore the effect of the educational level of the head of household on the prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi children. The study was conducted over 2 years in 2004 and 2005 in all regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The design consisted of a stratified multistage probability random sampling of the population of the KSA. The educational level of the heads of the household, and measurements of weight and height of the children were obtained during house visits. Nutritional indicators in the form of weight for age, height for age, and weight for height for children below 5 years of age were determined, and the prevalence of each indicator below -2 standard deviations (SD) was calculated for each level of education. The sample size was 7390 in the weight for age, 7275 height for age, and 7335 for weight for height. The prevalence of underweight (weight for age below -2 SD) increased from 7.4% for the university level to 15.2% in the children of illiterate heads of household. Similar patterns were found for the prevalence of stunting (height for age below -2 SD) and wasting (weight for height below -2 SD). This study demonstrates that the higher the education level of the heads of the household, the lower the prevalence of malnutrition in their children, suggesting that completing at least 9-12 years of education (intermediate and secondary school) is needed for better improvement in the nutritional status of the children.
Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren
Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...
Full Text Available Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.
Gaete, Beatriz; Mellado, Cecilia; Hernández, Marta
Neurological disturbances are common problems in children with Down Syndrome (DS). To determine the prevalence of neurological disorders affecting children with Down Syndrome. Review of medical records of 253 children aged from 1 day to 23 years affected with DS, attended at a public hospital and a University clinic. The overall prevalence of neurological disorders was 38.7%. The most common problems were ocular motor disorders in 26% of cases and epilepsy in 12%. Neurological disorders are more common in children with DS than in the general population. Motor ocular disorders and epilepsy are the predominant disturbances detected.
Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Font, Sarah A
School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.
Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...
Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em escolares da região de Parelheiros do município de São Paulo Prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children of Parelheiros region in São Paulo city, Brazil
Anna Luiza N. Fagundes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar, em uma amostra de escolares de uma região de baixo nível socioeconômico, a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 218 crianças selecionadas de modo aleatório, a partir de um universo estimado de 1.500 crianças e adolescentes, com idade entre seis e 14 anos, provenientes de três escolas de ensino fundamental de Parelheiros, São Paulo, sem distinção de sexo ou etnia. Foram excluídas aquelas portadoras de qualquer doença metabólica ou endócrina diagnosticada ou em tratamento. Os indivíduos foram submetidos à avaliação antropométrica, com medida do peso corporal e altura para cálculo do índice de massa corpórea e relação peso/altura. Todas as crianças responderam a um questionário aplicado pelos pesquisadores sobre hábitos alimentares. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de obesos e de portadores de sobrepeso foi respectivamente 14,7 e 16,5%. Entre os alunos obesos e com sobrepeso, o baixo consumo de frutas (10,8 e 10,8%, de verduras e legumes (16,4 e 9,1% e o alto consumo de doces (72,2 e 78,1% foram associados ao excesso de peso. A prática esportiva esteve ausente ou escassa nos obesos (81,3% e portadores de sobrepeso (77,8%. CONCLUSÕES: Os alunos avaliados, embora provenientes de uma região pobre de São Paulo, apresentaram um perfil de transição nutricional, com altas taxas de obesidade e sobrepeso.OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children from low socioeconomical status. METHODS: This cross sectional study randomly enrolled 218 eighteen students out of 1.500 students with six to 14 years old from three schools located in Parelheiros, São Paulo, Brazil. Children with a diagnosis and or treatment of metabolic or endocrine diseases were excluded. The studied children had an anthropometric evaluation of weight and height, and body mass index was calculated. All children answered a questionnaire about daily food
Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...
to reduced mental and physical development of children, hence delayed ... of health and neurocognitive performance of school-age children . ..... Patrick H and TA Nicklas A review of family and social determinants of ... Physiology and.
Cerrillo-Urbina, Alberto José; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Ruiz-Hermosa, Abel; Sánchez-López, Mairena
The aims of our study were to: (i) determine the prevalence of children aged 4 to 6 years with probable Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Spanish population; and (ii) analyse the association of probable ADHD symptoms with sex, age, type of school, origin (native or foreign) and socio-economic status in these children. This cross-sectional study included 1189 children (4 to 6 years-old) from 21 primary schools in 19 towns from the Ciudad Real and Cuenca provinces, Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain. The ADHD Rating Scales IV for parents and teachers was administered to determine the probability of ADHD. The 90th percentile cut-off was used to establish the prevalence of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and combined subtype. The prevalence of children with probable ADHD symptoms was 5.4% (2.6% inattention subtype symptoms, 1.5% hyperactivity/impulsivity subtype symptoms, and 1.3% combined subtype symptoms). Children aged 4 to 5 years showed a higher prevalence of probable ADHD in the inattention subtype symptoms and in total of all subtypes than children aged 6 years, and children with low socio-economic status reported a higher prevalence of probable ADHD symptoms (each subtype and total of all of them) than those with medium and high socio-economic status. Early diagnosis and an understanding of the predictors of being probable ADHD are needed to direct appropriate identification and intervention efforts. These screening efforts should be especially addressed to vulnerable groups, particularly low socio-economic status families and younger children.
Tourino, Luciana Fonseca Pádua; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vale, Miriam Pimenta Parreira do
This study sought to determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) among preschool children and investigate associations with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors and weight status. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 118 children aged 3 to 5 years. Data were collected via clinical examinations and a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents. The diagnosis of DDE was performed using the modified DDE Index. Information on socioeconomic indicators (mother's schooling, monthly income per capita), child's sex and age, and age of mother at the birth of the child were obtained by questionnaire. The children's weight status was determined based on weight-for-age at the time of the exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-squared test and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of DDE was 50.0%. DDE were more frequent in males (p = 0.025) and children whose families were classified as being at poverty line (p = 0.040). In the Poisson model controlled for child's sex and mother's schooling, children whose families were classified as being at the poverty line had a greater prevalence rate of DDE. In conclusion, the prevalence of DDE was high in the present sample and associated with lower household income. Weight status was not associated with DDE.
the study area. Keywords: Prevalence, Schistosomiasis, Boarding students, Potiskum, North-Eastern Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Schistosomiasis is the most common parasite transmitted through contact with fresh water. It is endemic in more than 70 low income countries where it occurs in rural areas and the fringes of cities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.
Mudrick, Nancy R
Every examination of disability among children must first grapple with definition of disability. The challenges to identifying disability among children involve not only determining the appropriate paradigm for defining disability, but also applying that paradigm to children in a meaningful way. This discussion of the prevalence of disability among children starts by examining the various paradigms utilized to identify disability and how they are interpreted when applied to children. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood disability, under different definitions of disability are presented. The goal of the discussion is to illustrate the sensitivity of the estimates of disability prevalence to the particular definition and data set used. Finally, the potential influence of the choice of paradigm on further measurement and service delivery is outlined.
Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin
The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in children is subject to discussions in the literature.OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children.METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children.RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB.CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, fur