WorldWideScience

Sample records for school children measured

  1. Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.; Berg, D.

    1992-12-01

    On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.) [de

  2. Kinematic Measures of Imitation Fidelity in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Casey, Jackie M.; Braadbaart, Lieke; Culmer, Peter R.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We sought to develop a method for measuring imitation accuracy objectively in primary school children. Children imitated a model drawing shapes on the same computer-tablet interface they saw used in video clips, allowing kinematics of model and observers' actions to be directly compared. Imitation accuracy was reported as a correlation reflecting…

  3. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN KARACHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmala Khan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children were major part of our society and their health issues were too much, so it’s necessary that child should b healthy so their health assessment is important worldwide the acceptable method for assessment of health status is anthropometry (weight & height. This study was done to assess the anthropometric measurement of primary school going children of Karachi, sindh Pakistan, and evaluate how much students were underweight. Methods: The study was done in different primary school of Karachi including private semiprivate and government. The study design was cross sectional study. The sample size of our study was 240, including both genders male& female with range between 7-12 years. Result: The result shows that 34.9% were underweight (below 5th percentile, 63.44% were normal weight (between 5-95th percentile and only0.8% overweight (above 95th percentile.The result showed male-female ratio was 51.5% boys and 48.5% were underweight. The prevalence of underweight in private sector was only 9.5% but in government it was 45.5%.The height of student also calculated and 26.3% children were below the 5th percentile of height for the age, 62.8% were between 5th to 95th percentile and 10.9% above 95thpercentile. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight in primary school going children in Karachi shows the dietary requirements of children are not fulfilled properly and this may lead to many sever pathological conditions, so it is necessary to take positive steps regarding awareness of proper diet, hygiene and growth & development of child.

  4. Advances in Children's Rights and Children's Well-Being Measurement: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of…

  5. Does the EDI Measure School Readiness in the Same Way across Different Groups of Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Gadermann, Anne; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the Early Development Instrument (Offord & Janus, 1999) measures school readiness similarly across different groups of children. We employ ordinal logistic regression to investigate differential item functioning, a method of examining measurement bias. For 40,000 children, our analysis compares groups…

  6. Airway resistance measurements in pre-school children with asthmatic symptoms : The interrupter technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Schokker, S; van der Molen, T; Duiverman, EJ

    Measuring airway resistance in pre-school children with the interrupter technique has proven to be feasible and reliable in daily clinical practice and research settings. Whether it contributes to diagnosing asthma in pre-schoot children still remains uncertain. From the results of previous studies

  7. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  8. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  9. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  10. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  11. Systematic review of self-concept measures for primary school aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-10-01

    This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 'How I Feel About My School': The construction and validation of a measure of wellbeing at school for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kate; Marlow, Ruth; Edwards, Vanessa; Parker, Claire; Rodgers, Lauren; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Seem, Edward Chan; Hayes, Rachel; Price, Anna; Ford, Tamsin

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing focus on child wellbeing and happiness in schools, but we lack self-report measures for very young children. Three samples ( N = 2345) were combined to assess the psychometric properties of the How I Feel About My School (HIFAMS) questionnaire, which was designed for children aged 4-8 years. Test-retest reliability was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient = .62). HIFAMS assessed a single concept and had moderate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha values from .62 to .67). There were low correlations between scores on the child-reported HIFAMS and parent and teacher reports. Children at risk of exclusion had significantly lower HIFAMS scores than the community sample (mean difference = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.6, 3.2]; p < .001). Schools contributed only 4.5% of the variability in HIFAMS score, the remaining 95.5% reflecting pupil differences within schools. Girls' scores were 0.37 units (95% CI = [0.16, 0.57]; p < .001) higher than boys, while year group and deprivation did not predict HIFAMS score. HIFAMS is a promising measure that demonstrates moderate reliability and discriminates between groups even among very young children.

  14. NUTRITIONAL ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the adoption of western lifestyle the problem of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in children, while problem of malnutrition is persisting continuously in the country. With this background a school based cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of school going children in a rural area: Chiraigaon block of Varanasi. Study period: July 2010 to September 2010 Methods: A school-based study with cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 1448 school children were examined from 3 middle-schools that were selected by simple random sampling method. Height and weight of the children were measured, and BMI and other parameters were assessed. Results: On applying the BMI-for-age criteria, twelve percent of the children (12.4% boys and 11.1% girls were found underweight while 5.4% were overweight or obese (5.71% of the boys and 4.63% of the girls. But when the previous WHO’s BMI classification was used, 86.5% children had BMI <18.5 (88.4% of total boys and 81.9% of all girls. Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going children based on WHO criteria of BMI for age has been satisfactory. However, this approach needs scientific validation by undertaking a multi-centric study.

  15. Test-retest reproducibility of accommodative facility measures in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul; Scally, Andrew J; Barrett, Brendan T

    2018-05-08

    To determine the test-retest reproducibility of accommodative facility (AF) measures in an unselected sample of UK primary school children. Using ±2.00 DS flippers and a viewing distance of 40 cm, AF was measured in 136 children (range 4-12 years, average 8.1 ± 2.1) by five testers on three occasions (average interval between successive tests: eight days, range 1-21 days). On each occasion, AF was measured monocularly and binocularly, for two minutes. Full datasets were obtained in 111 children (81.6 per cent). Intra-individual variation in AF was large (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8 cycles per minute [cpm]) and there was variation due to the identity of the tester (SD = 1.6 cpm). On average, AF was greater: (i) in monocular compared to binocular testing (by 1.4 cpm, p cpm, p cpm lower than in children ≥ 10 years old, p = 0.009); and (iv) on subsequent testing occasions (for example, visit-2 AF was 2.0 cpm higher than visit-1 AF, p cpm monocularly and ≥ 8 cpm binocularly), but this rose to 83.8 per cent after the third test. Using less stringent pass criteria (≥ 6 cpm monocularly and ≥ 3 cpm binocularly), the equivalent figures were 82.9 and 96.4 per cent, respectively. Reduced AF did not co-exist with abnormal near point of accommodation or reduced visual acuity. The results reveal considerable intra-individual variability in raw AF measures in children. When the results are considered as pass/fail, children who initially exhibit normal AF continued to do so on repeat testing. Conversely, the vast majority of children with initially reduced AF exhibit normal performance on repeat testing. Using established pass/fail criteria, the prevalence of persistently reduced AF in this sample is 3.6 per cent. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  16. Musculoskeletal Fitness Measures Are Not Created Equal: An Assessment of School Children in Corpus Christi, Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Toyin Ajisafe; Theresa Garcia; Hsin-Chen Fanchiang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated current obesity prevalence and associations between musculoskeletal fitness test scores and the odds of being underweight, overweight, or obese compared to having a healthy weight in elementary school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. The sample analyzed consisted of 492 public elementary school children between kindergarten and fifth grade. Their ages ranged from 5 to 11 years. Trunk lift, 90° push-up, curl-up, and back saver sit and reach tests were administered. We...

  17. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... for the breakfast measure: per cent agreement 0.70-0.87, kappa 0.43-0.65. Fair agreement for the lunch measure: per cent agreement 0.53-0.84, kappa 0.26-0.54. High per cent agreement for the evening meal measure (0.83-0.95) but poor kappa agreement (0.14-0.19). Being immigrant predicted disagreement between the two...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  18. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  19. Measurement of genotoxic air pollutant exposures in street vendors and school children in and near Bangkok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Navasumrit, Panida; Settachan, Daam; Tuntaviroon, Jantamas; Buthbumrung, Nantaporn; Sharma, Suman

    2005-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on human health are a great concern, particularly in big cities with severe traffic problems such as Bangkok, Thailand. In this study, exposure to genotoxic compounds in ambient air was studied by analysis of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene through direct measurement of concentrations in air as well as through the use of different biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) for PAHs and urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) for benzene. The study was conducted in various susceptible groups of the population with different occupations in 5 traffic-congested areas of Bangkok, as well as in primary school children. The level of total PAHs on the main roads at various sites ranged from 7.10 to 83.04 ng/m 3 , while benzene levels ranged from 16.35 to 49.25 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels in nearby temples, the control sites, ranged from 1.67 to 3.04 ng/m 3 total PAHs and 10.16 to 16.25 ppb benzene. Street vendors selling clothes were exposed to 16.07 ± 1.64 ng/m 3 total PAHs and 21.97 ± 1.50 ppb benzene, levels higher than in monks and nuns residing in nearby temples (5.34 ± 0.65 ng/m 3 total PAHs and 13.69 ± 0.77 ppb benzene). Grilled-meat vendors in the same area were exposed to both total PAHs and benzene at even higher levels, possibly due to additional formation of PAHs during the grilling of meat (34.27 ± 7.02 ng/m 3 total PAHs; 27.49 ± 2.72 ppb benzene). At the end of the workday, urinary 1-OHP levels in street vendors (0.12 and 0.15 μmol/mol creatinine in clothes and grilled-meat vendors, respectively) were significantly higher than in controls (0.04 μmol/mol creatinine; P 3 and 4.71 ± 0.25 ppb, respectively, higher than those to which children living outside the city were exposed (1.25 ± 0.24 ng/m 3 total PAHs; 2.10 ± 0.16 ppb benzene). At the end of the school day, levels of urinary 1-OHP and t,t-MA were significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) in

  20. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measures of low food variety and poor dietary quality in a cross-sectional study of London school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cel; Hutchinson, J; Christian, M S; Hancock, N; Cade, J E

    2018-02-01

    The use of simple screening tools to measure nutritional adequacy in a public health context in developed countries are currently lacking. We explore the relationship between food variety and nutrient intake of London school children using a simple tool with potential use for screening for inadequate diets. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010. The survey included 2579 children aged 7-10 years in 52 primary schools in East London in the United Kingdom. The analysis included 2392 children (93% of the original sample). Food variety was assessed as the total number of listed foods recorded over 24 h using the validated Child and Diet Assessment Tool (CADET) comprising 115 listed foods divided into 16 food categories. Dietary quality was determined by the proportion of children meeting recommended intakes of individual micronutrients, namely, calcium, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A and vitamin C. The mean number of CADET-listed foods consumed daily by children was 17.1 (95% CI: 16.8, 17.5). Children who consumed fewer than 11 foods on the collection day had particularly low nutrient intakes. Children consuming three different vegetables and two different fruits on average consumed 19-20 listed foods. It was estimated between 4 and 20% of children did not meet the recommended levels for individual micronutrients during the period of data collection. A simple method using food counts to assess daily food variety may help public health nutritionists identify groups of children at risk of inadequate diets.

  2. Assessing Measurement Invariance of the Children's Depression Inventory in Chinese and Italian Primary School Student Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenfeng; Lu, Yongbiao; Tan, Furong; Yao, Shuqiao; Steca, Patrizia; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the measurement invariance of Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and compared its factorial variance/covariance and latent means among Chinese and Italian children. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the original five factors identified by Kovacs revealed that full measurement invariance did not hold. Further analysis…

  3. Test--retest variability of Randot stereoacuity measures gathered in an unselected sample of UK primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul; Scally, Andrew J; Barrett, Brendan T

    2012-05-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of the Randot stereoacuity test when used as part of vision screening in schools. Randot stereoacuity (graded-circles) and logMAR visual acuity measures were gathered in an unselected sample of 139 children (aged 4-12, mean 8.1±2.1 years) in two schools. Randot testing was repeated on two occasions (average interval between successive tests 8 days, range: 1-21 days). Three Randot scores were obtained in 97.8% of children. Randot stereoacuity improved by an average of one plate (ie, one test level) on repeat testing but was little changed when tested on the third occasion. Within-subject variability was up to three test levels on repeat testing. When stereoacuity was categorised as 'fine', 'intermediate' or 'coarse', the greatest variability was found among younger children who exhibited 'intermediate' or 'coarse'/nil stereopsis on initial testing. Whereas 90.8% of children with 'fine' stereopsis (≤50 arc-seconds) on the first test exhibited 'fine' stereopsis on both subsequent tests, only ∼16% of children with 'intermediate' (>50 but ≤140 arc-seconds) or 'coarse'/nil (≥200 arc-seconds) stereoacuity on initial testing exhibited stable test results on repeat testing. Children exhibiting abnormal stereoacuity on initial testing are very likely to exhibit a normal result when retested. The value of a single, abnormal Randot graded-circles stereoacuity measure from school screening is therefore questionable.

  4. Measuring listening-related effort and fatigue in school-aged children using pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrigle, Ronan; Dawes, Piers; Stewart, Andrew J; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-09-01

    Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR). Participants showed increased task-evoked pupil dilation in the typical listening condition compared with the ideal listening condition, consistent with an increase in listening effort. No differences were found between listening conditions in terms of performance accuracy and response time on the behavioral task. Similarly, no differences were found between listening conditions in self-report and pupillometric markers of listening-related fatigue. This is the first study to (a) examine listening-related fatigue in children using pupillometry and (b) demonstrate physiological evidence consistent with increased listening effort while listening to spoken narratives despite ceiling-level task performance accuracy. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underpin listening-related effort and fatigue could inform intervention strategies and ultimately mitigate listening difficulties in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Syväoja

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose

  6. Musculoskeletal Fitness Measures Are Not Created Equal: An Assessment of School Children in Corpus Christi, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajisafe, Toyin; Garcia, Theresa; Fanchiang, Hsin-Chen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated current obesity prevalence and associations between musculoskeletal fitness test scores and the odds of being underweight, overweight, or obese compared to having a healthy weight in elementary school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. The sample analyzed consisted of 492 public elementary school children between kindergarten and fifth grade. Their ages ranged from 5 to 11 years. Trunk lift, 90° push-up, curl-up, and back saver sit and reach tests were administered. Weight status was determined using BMI scores and the CDC growth charts. Obesity prevalence remains high among elementary school-aged children in Corpus Christi, Texas. Higher 90° push-up test scores were most consistently associated with decreased odds of being obese as compared to being overweight and having healthy weight except in kindergarten. Conversely, higher trunk lift test scores were associated with increased odds of being obese in second and fourth grades. When children achieved the minimum score to be classified in the Healthy Fitness Zone, those with healthy weight had similarly low musculoskeletal fitness (i.e., abdominal strength and endurance, hamstring flexibility, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility) as peers with overweight and obesity, especially in the lower grades. It was concluded that increased obesity prevalence in higher grades may be precipitated (at least in part) by low musculoskeletal fitness in the lower grades, especially kindergarten. Given previous associations in the literature, low musculoskeletal fitness may be symptomatic of poor motor skill competence in the current sample. These findings suggest a need for early and focused school-based interventions that leverage both known and novel strategies to combat pediatric obesity in Corpus Christi.

  7. Musculoskeletal Fitness Measures Are Not Created Equal: An Assessment of School Children in Corpus Christi, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Ajisafe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated current obesity prevalence and associations between musculoskeletal fitness test scores and the odds of being underweight, overweight, or obese compared to having a healthy weight in elementary school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. The sample analyzed consisted of 492 public elementary school children between kindergarten and fifth grade. Their ages ranged from 5 to 11 years. Trunk lift, 90° push-up, curl-up, and back saver sit and reach tests were administered. Weight status was determined using BMI scores and the CDC growth charts. Obesity prevalence remains high among elementary school-aged children in Corpus Christi, Texas. Higher 90° push-up test scores were most consistently associated with decreased odds of being obese as compared to being overweight and having healthy weight except in kindergarten. Conversely, higher trunk lift test scores were associated with increased odds of being obese in second and fourth grades. When children achieved the minimum score to be classified in the Healthy Fitness Zone, those with healthy weight had similarly low musculoskeletal fitness (i.e., abdominal strength and endurance, hamstring flexibility, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility as peers with overweight and obesity, especially in the lower grades. It was concluded that increased obesity prevalence in higher grades may be precipitated (at least in part by low musculoskeletal fitness in the lower grades, especially kindergarten. Given previous associations in the literature, low musculoskeletal fitness may be symptomatic of poor motor skill competence in the current sample. These findings suggest a need for early and focused school-based interventions that leverage both known and novel strategies to combat pediatric obesity in Corpus Christi.

  8. On the Validity of Working Memory Measures for Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Sergio; Scopesi, Alda

    The literature on the measurement of working memory is discussed, with emphasis on the validity of such measurement with elementary school students. Approaches by J. Pascual-Leone, R. Case, A. D. Baddeley, and C. Hulme are considered. An experimental study is presented, in which 100 boys and 91 girls (aged from 6 years to 10 years 11 months) were…

  9. [Validation of an instrument to measure food practices in Chilean families of school children aged 4-7 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Lydia; Salinas, Judith; Fretes, Gabriela; Vio, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    It is necessary to assess family food habits in school children to cope with infant obesity. Designing and validation of an instrument to measure food habits and food knowledge in Chilean preschool and school families based on dietary guidelines. A pilot study in 30 preschool and school-age parents was carried-out. A questionnaire to measure food habits and food knowledge in parents was elaborated by researchers considering an expert group opinion. This questionnaire was applied twice with a 15 days interval, evaluating temporal stability, internal consistency and inter-personal agreement. Afterwards, the questionnaire was applied to 59 parents calculating the internal consistency of the instrument. The questionnaire had 55 questions in 4 sections. The instrument had questions about food and nutrition information about the families. A good inter-personal agreement resulted for almost all the questions about food and nutrition information (0.5-1.0). The correlation between the first and second test (test-retest) was high (0.6-1.0), as well as the internal consistency (0.75). In the section about frequency consumption in parents and children food consumption at home and school there was a high internal consistency for the two observers (0.85-0.92 and 0.87-0.90). The instrument is valid and useful to be utilized in preschool and school families intervened with nutrition education, and this methodology can be replied in other studies. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. ["Assessment of indoor school environment and identification of measures to protect the respiratory health of school children and adolescents" in a sample of schools in Milan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, S; Gulino, A; Pulvirenti, S; Vercelli, F; Carrer, P

    2012-01-01

    The management of indoor air quality in schools needs special attention because it has a strong impact on respiratory health of children with effects also on performance and social development. In Italy a prevention program for indoor environments is provided in the "Guidelines for the prevention of indoor risk factors for allergies and asthma in the school", developed by the Ministry of Health (G.U n. 9 del 13.01.11). In this context, the Ministry of Health has promoted the "Indoor school" project (CCM2010). The main objective of the project is the implementation of these guidelines. In this paper we report the results of the first phase of the project which assessed the knowledge of school principals on issues related to IAQ and building characteristics of the school.

  11. Symbolic magnitude processing in elementary school children: A group administered paper-and-pencil measure (SYMP Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-08-01

    The ability to compare symbolic numerical magnitudes correlates with children's concurrent and future mathematics achievement. We developed and evaluated a quick timed paper-and-pencil measure that can easily be used, for example in large-scale research, in which children have to cross out the numerically larger of two Arabic one- and two-digit numbers (SYMP Test). We investigated performance on this test in 1,588 primary school children (Grades 1-6) and examined in each grade its associations with mathematics achievement. The SYMP Test had satisfactory test-retest reliability. The SYMP Test showed significant and stable correlations with mathematics achievement for both one-digit and two-digit comparison, across all grades. This replicates the previously observed association between symbolic numerical magnitude processing and mathematics achievement, but extends it by showing that the association is observed in all grades in primary education and occurs for single- as well as multi-digit processing. Children with mathematical learning difficulties performed significantly lower on one-digit comparison and two-digit comparison in all grades. This all suggests satisfactory construct and criterion-related validity of the SYMP Test, which can be used in research, when performing large-scale (intervention) studies, and by practitioners, as screening measure to identify children at risk for mathematical difficulties or dyscalculia.

  12. Anthropometric measures as fitness indicators in primary school children: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamen, Asgeir; Fredriksen, Per Morten

    2018-05-01

    As children's fitness continues to decline, frequent and systematic monitoring of fitness is important. Easy-to-use and low-cost methods with acceptable accuracy are essential in screening situations. This study aimed to investigate how the measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) relate to selected measurements of fitness in children. A total of 1731 children from grades 1 to 6 were selected who had a complete set of height, body mass, running performance, handgrip strength and muscle mass measurements. A composite fitness score was established from the sum of sex- and age-specific z-scores for the variables running performance, handgrip strength and muscle mass. This fitness z-score was compared to z-scores and quartiles of BMI, WC and WHtR using analysis of variance, linear regression and receiver operator characteristic analysis. The regression analysis showed that z-scores for BMI, WC and WHtR all were linearly related to the composite fitness score, with WHtR having the highest R 2 at 0.80. The correct classification of fit and unfit was relatively high for all three measurements. WHtR had the best prediction of fitness of the three with an area under the curve of 0.92 ( p fit and unfit in this population.

  13. Proposal for a universal measurement system for school chairs and desks for children from 6 to 10 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vitor; Gomes, Ângela; Rangel, Bárbara

    2017-01-01

    In a primary education classroom of any country, children of the same age have very different statures, reaching variations of 200 mm (Gonçalves, 2012). However, the school furniture provided is not suitable or adaptable to these differences. Designing school furniture able to respond to these variations is, therefore, a challenge for ergonomics and design in a global market. It is clearly not viable for industries to adapt productions for each country. When competitiveness and limitation of resources are essential for the viability of any product it becomes essential to find a universal system adapted to the requisites of any country. Taking as prescription measure the popliteal height obtained from the data of different countries, a universal measurement system for the school chair and desk set is proposed, combining the ellipse methodology used by Molenbroek et al. (2003) and the (mis)match equations mentioned by Castellucci et al. (2014b). From the results obtained, it can be concluded that only 5 sizes are needed to implement this new measurement system of evolutionary school furniture for the primary education classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  15. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine; Wood, Carly; Barton, Jo; Pretty, Jules N; Cohen, Daniel; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, pself-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  16. Repeated measurement of nasal lavage fluid chemokines in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Terry L; Tudor, Gail E; Ivins, Sally S; Murphy, Paula C; Peden, David B; Henderson, Frederick W

    2006-02-01

    Inflammatory processes at the mucosal surface may play a role in maintenance of asthma pathophysiology. Cross-sectional studies in asthmatic patients suggest that chemokines such as interleukin 8 (IL-8) are overproduced by respiratory epithelium. To test the hypothesis that chemokine levels are persistently elevated in the respiratory secretions of asthmatic children at a stable baseline. We measured nasal lavage fluid (NLF) levels of chemokines and other mediators at 3- to 4-month intervals in a longitudinal study of asthmatic children, with nonasthmatic siblings as controls. In a linear mixed-model analysis, both family and day of visit had significant effects on nasal mediators. Thus, data for 12 asthmatic-nonasthmatic sibling pairs who had 3 or more same-day visits were analyzed separately. For sibling pairs, median eosinophil cationic protein levels derived from serial measurements in NLF were elevated in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatic patients, with a near-significant tendency for elevation of total protein and eotaxin levels as well. However, no significant differences were found for IL-8 or several other chemokines. Ratios of IL-13 or IL-5 to interferon-gamma released by house dust mite antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tested on a single occasion, were significantly increased for asthmatic patients. Substantial temporal and family-related variability exists in nasal inflammation in asthmatic children. Although higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein are usually present in NLF of patients with stable asthma compared with patients without asthma, chemokines other than eotaxin are not consistently increased. Eosinophil activation at the mucosal surface is a more consistent predictor of asthmatic symptoms than nonspecific elevation of epithelium-derived inflammatory chemokine levels.

  17. NEP (Children@School): An Instrument for Measuring Environmental Attitudes in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanahi, Parisa; Tucker, Richard

    2018-01-01

    While there are many environmental education programs for children, few studies have used an appropriately developed scale for evaluating how such education might have on impact on children's environmental orientations. The research presented in this article adapted the NEP (New Ecological Paradigm) for Children scale to develop a new instrument…

  18. A short German Physical-Self-Concept Questionnaire for elementary school children (PSCQ-C): Factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Research on children's physical self-concept (PSC) is increasingly recognised as an important field of psychology. However, there is a lack of instruments suitable for younger children at elementary school age. In the present study, a short German 21-item Physical Self-Concept-Questionnaire for children (PSCQ-C) was tested measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC (strength, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination, physical appearance, global sport competence). A number of 770 elementary school children aged 8-12 years completed the PSCQ-C. Results showed good psychometric properties and high reliabilities of the seven scales. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the presumed 7-factor model fitted the data best compared to a global 1- and 2-factor model. Also, full measurement invariance was strongly established. Correlations among the seven scales were mainly moderate. Gender differences were suggestive of developmental trends that are consistent with prior studies. These results provide support that the PSCQ-C is a confidential instrument with sound psychometric properties measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC.

  19. Direct and self-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours by weight status in school-aged children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.

  20. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, K.; Wood, C.; Barton, J.; Cohen, D.; Sandercock, G.

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year ...

  1. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  2. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels among Ethnic Minority Children Attending School-Based Afterschool Programs in a High-Poverty Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim, Marc Lochbaum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority children living in high poverty neighborhoods are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity (PA during school days and, thus, the importance of school as a place to facilitate PA in these underserved children has been largely emphasized. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA in minority children, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education (PE and school-based afterschool PA program in promoting moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA during school days. PA data were repeatedly measured using a Polar Active accelerometer across multiple school days (M = 5.3 days per child, from seventy-five ethnic minority children attending a Title I public elementary school in a high-poverty neighborhood in the US. The minutes and percentage of MVPA accumulated during school, PE, and afterschool PA program were compared to the current recommendations (≥30-min of MVPA during school hours; and ≥50% of MVPA during PE or afterschool PA program as well as by the demographic characteristics including sex, grade, ethnicity, and weight status using a general linear mixed model that accounts for repeated observations. On average, children spent 41.6 mins (SE = 1.8 of MVPA during school hours and of those, 14.1 mins (SE = 0.6 were contributed during PE. The average proportion of time spent in MVPA during PE was 31.3% (SE = 1.3, which was significantly lower than the recommendation (≥50% of MVPA, whereas 54.2% (SE = 1.2 of time in afterschool PA program were spent in MVPA. The percentage of monitoring days meeting current recommendations were 69.5% (SE = 0.03, 20.8% (SE = 0.02, and 59.6% (SE = 0.03 for during school, PE, and afterschool PA program, respectively. Our findings highlighted that school-based afterschool PA, in addition to regular PE classes, could be of great benefit to promote PA in minority children during school days. Further research and practice are still needed to

  3. Using Language Sample Analysis in Clinical Practice: Measures of Grammatical Accuracy for Identifying Language Impairment in Preschool and School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of two grammatical accuracy measures for differentiating children with and without language impairment (LI) at preschool and early school age based on language samples. The first measure, the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), is a narrow grammatical measure that computes children's overall accuracy of four verb tense morphemes. The second measure, percent grammatical utterances (PGU), is a broader grammatical measure that computes children's accuracy in producing grammatical utterances. The extant studies show that FVMC demonstrates acceptable (i.e., 80 to 89% accurate) to good (i.e., 90% accurate or higher) diagnostic accuracy for children between 4;0 (years;months) and 6;11 in conversational or narrative samples. In contrast, PGU yields acceptable to good diagnostic accuracy for children between 3;0 and 8;11 regardless of sample types. Given the diagnostic accuracy shown in the literature, we suggest that FVMC and PGU can be used as one piece of evidence for identifying children with LI in assessment when appropriate. However, FVMC or PGU should not be used as therapy goals directly. Instead, when children are low in FVMC or PGU, we suggest that follow-up analyses should be conducted to determine the verb tense morphemes or grammatical structures that children have difficulty with. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Safety and Children: How Schools Can Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkoff, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Explores the role that schools can play in providing direction, guidance, and support to children and adolescents in the face of growing violence in society and in schools. Discusses the development and implementation of preventive measures such as additions to the curriculum, mentoring programs, child abuse and neglect programs, parent education,…

  5. Measuring School Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  6. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo

    2014-01-01

    School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; Psex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; Pschools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  7. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  8. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-10-10

    Background : Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology : 156 pupils 8-11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z -score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results : PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% ( n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions : The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  9. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  10. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Wood

    Full Text Available School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22 = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060 or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140. During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23 = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071. For lunch (F(1,22 = 24,11; P<0.001; np2 = 0.523 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 33.67; P<0.001; np2 = 0.616 there was a significant effect of environment. There was also a significant main effect of sex during lunch (F(1,22 = 11.56; P<0.01; np2 = 0.344 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 12.37; P<0.01; np2 = 0.371. MVPA was higher on the field and boys were more active than girls. Play on the field leads to increases in MVPA, particularly in girls. The promising trend for the effect of the natural environment on MVPA indicates that interventions aimed at increasing MVPA should use the natural environment and that schools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  11. Features of Formation of Personality Traits of School-Age Children in the Use of Measures for Psychohygienic Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Mostova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the formation of personality traits of school-age chidren in the use of diagnostic and preventive programs psychohygienic correction for disorders of psychophysiological and psychological adaptation and changes in the health of 14–17-year-old students. To assess personality characteristics of students we used personality questionnaires of Eysenck, Spielberg and Phillips. The results determine the positive impact of measures for psychohygienic correction on the state of criterion parameters of anxious-neurotic personality traits of students of school age. Implementation of the developed program provide the appearance of the positive changes in the structure of indicators that display characteristics of neuroticism (p < 0.05, situational (p < 0.001 and personal (p < 0.01 anxiety both among girls and boys, and in the structure of indicators of school anxiety, determining the existence of problems in relationships with teachers (p < 0.05 among girls. Changes recorded during the analysis of the other components of school anxiety, i.e. personality traits of anxiety, adverse changes in the structure of which are directly related to the impact of such stressor as a modern school, had to be recognized as less significant, but in this case revealed changes should be interpreted as favorable.

  12. School accidents to children: time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of injuries sustained by children in school accidents and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN: A five month prospective study of children attending an urban accident and emergency (A&E) department. SUBJECTS: 500 children who sustained injuries in school due to a variety of activities. RESULTS: 10 and 12 year old pupils suffered most injuries in school grounds/playgrounds, on concrete, or on grass/soil surfaces due to random activities resulting in striking or being struck by objects/persons, tripping or slipping, and sports (mainly football); 65.5% of these activities were not supervised and 67.4% occurred "out of lessons"; 22% sustained fractures or dislocations, 28.2% needed follow up treatment, and 1.4% were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries to children in school are a cause for concern. Effective preventive measures should concentrate on (a) specific target areas using schemes based on individual school, and (b) establishing a credible system of monitoring of their effectiveness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9248914

  13. Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with physical measurements and dyslipidemia in school-age children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior are common factors influencing cardiovascular health. However, how school and leisure-time activity/sedentary behavior are associated with physical fitness and blood lipid levels in primary school children in consideration of gender disparity remains unclear. Methods Data was obtained from a health and nutrition survey on primary school children from nine areas in China. The association between physical activities/sedentary behaviors (school and leisure-time physical activity levels, screen time, and other sedentary behaviors and anthropometric measurements/prevalence of dyslipidemia were examined by multilevel analysis (the individual level, class level, grade level, and investigation area level adjusted for age, energy intake and family income. Results A total of 770 participants (average age = 9.4 ± 1.7 years were included. Prevalence of dyslipidemia was 10.9%. Prevalence of dyslipidemia was associated with screen time in boys [OR = 3.04, 95% CI (1.24–7.45] and inversely associated with leisure-time physical activity in boys [OR = 2.22, 95% CI (1.08–4.56] and school-time activity in girls [OR = 5.34, 95% CI (1.18–24.16]. Conclusions Physical activity—but not sedentary behavior—was significantly associated with dyslipidemia in both genders. Increasing leisure-time physical activity for boys and school-time physical activity for girls may be critical.

  14. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  15. Associations among measures of energy balance related behaviors and psychosocial determinants in urban upper elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelli, Lorraine N; Gray, Heewon Lee; Paul, Rachel C; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six "do more" (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and "do less" (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories. Correlations among behaviors and hierarchical linear model analyses of the relationship between psychosocial determinants and behaviors were conducted for those with complete data (n = 952). The "do more" and the "do less" behaviors were significantly correlated within categories (p food-related behaviors were correlated with physical activity but so were sports drinks, while the "do less" food-related behaviors tended to be correlated to sedentary behavior (p intention. Interventions can address the healthy and less healthy clusters of behaviors together, focusing on strategies to enhance their self-efficacy and habit strength for the "do more" behaviors and outcome expectations to motivate intention to choose fewer "do less" behaviors, along with enhancing self-efficacy and habit. Research can examine these determinants as potential mediators of change in intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...

  17. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-01-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000...

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Kid-KINDLR Questionnaire for Measuring the Health-related Quality of Life of School-aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Phoebe L.C. Chan; Serena S.W. Ng; Dora Y.L. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Background: The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Kid-KINDLR questionnaire were examined with school-aged children in Hong Kong. Methods: A total of 112 healthy children were selected by convenience sampling from two primary schools and 30 children with global developmental delay were selected from an outpatient occupational therapy department of a convalescent hospital. The Kid-KINDLR questionnaire was translated using independent forward and backward transl...

  19. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  20. How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to?: a cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The school journey may make an important contribution to children’s physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes. Methods Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models. Results GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation. Conclusions GIS modelled routes between home and school were not

  1. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration. PMID:20107622

  2. Chances and Limitations of Implementing Measures of Differentiation for Gifted Children in Primary Schools: The Teachers’ Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Endepohls-Ulpe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study analyzes German primary school teachers’ attitudes towards several measures of internal differentiation with re-spect to the anticipated benefit for gifted pupils and the anticipated work load for teachers. Be-sides, correlations of these attitudes with teach-ers’ statements on the frequency of adopting the measures in their own classes were inspected. One-hundred thirty-seven teachers and teacher students were interviewed with a questionnaire on the assessed consequences and the fre-quency of the usage of several methods of dif-ferentiation. Data analysis was done by anal-yses of variance and calculation of Pearson cor-relation coefficients. Results show that teachers, as well as teacher students, mostly assessed the listed measures of internal differentiation to be appropriate for the promotion of gifted pupils, but for teachers there were significant negative correlations between assessed work load and frequency of usage in their own classes.

  3. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  4. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  5. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  6. Chinese Children's Perceived School Satisfaction: The Role of Contextual and Intrapersonal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of school contextual factors and intrapersonal factors to school satisfaction among a sample of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. A total of 760 children completed the School Satisfaction Subscale of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children along with self-report measures of…

  7. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  8. Measuring perceived mental workload in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Frey, Meredith; Ennis, Aristi; Zamary, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the mental workload, or psychological costs, associated with information processing tasks in children. We adapted the highly regarded NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) multidimensional workload scale (Hart & Staveland, 1988) to test its efficacy for use with elementary school children. We developed 2 types of tasks, each with 2 levels of demand, to draw differentially on resources from the separate subscales of workload. In Experiment 1, our participants were both typical and school-labeled gifted children recruited from 4th and 5th grades. Results revealed that task type elicited different workload profiles, and task demand directly affected the children's experience of workload. In general, gifted children experienced less workload than typical children. Objective response time and accuracy measures provide evidence for the criterion validity of the workload ratings. In Experiment 2, we applied the same method with 1st- and 2nd-grade children. Findings from Experiment 2 paralleled those of Experiment 1 and support the use of NASA-TLX with even the youngest elementary school children. These findings contribute to the fledgling field of educational ergonomics and attest to the innovative application of workload research. Such research may optimize instructional techniques and identify children at risk for experiencing overload.

  9. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  10. Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meaghan S; El Evans, Charlotte; Conner, Mark; Ransley, Joan K; Cade, Janet E

    2012-04-26

    The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children's fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as "Partner Schools" and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as "Associate Schools". Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention "Associate Schools" or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children's knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school's gardening activities. The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children's diets and school based interventions. ISRCTN11396528.

  11. Measuring the impact of a burns school reintegration programme on the time taken to return to school: A multi-disciplinary team intervention for children returning to school after a significant burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Sira N; Gaskell, Sarah L; Baker, Charlotte; Ellis, Nicola; Potts, Jennie; Coucill, Theresa; Ryan, Lynn; Smith, Jan; Nixon, Anna; Greaves, Kate; Monk, Rebecca; Shelmerdine, Teresa; Leach, Alison; Shah, Mamta

    2015-06-01

    Returning to school can be a major step for burn-injured children, their family, and staff and pupils at the receiving school. Previous literature has recognised the difficulties children may face after a significant injury and factors that may influence a successful reintegration. A regional paediatric burns service recognised that some patients were experiencing difficulties in returning to school. A baseline audit confirmed this and suggested factors that hindered or facilitated this process, initiating the development of a school reintegration programme (SRP). Since the programme's development in 2009, it has been audited annually. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of the SRP by presenting data from the 2009 to 2011 audits. For the baseline audit, the burn care team gathered information from clinical records (age, gender, total body surface area burned (TBSA), skin grafting and length of stay) and telephone interviews with parents and teachers of the school returners. For the re-audits, the same information was gathered from clinical records and feedback questionnaires. Since its introduction, the mean length of time from discharge to return to school has dropped annually for those that opted into the programme, when compared to the baseline by 62.3% (53 days to 20 days). Thematic analysis highlights positive responses to the programme from all involved. Increased awareness and feeling supported were amongst the main themes to emerge. Returning to school after a significant burn injury can be challenging for all involved, but we hypothesise that outreach interventions in schools by burns services can have a positive impact on the time it takes children to successfully reintegrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226

  13. School outcomes of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  14. Improper nutrition and diseases in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Taseva, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Dzidrova, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    For healthy generation it is healthy and orderly development from early childhood. It needs proper nutrition, proper care and personal hygiene. Early childhood is the most vulnerable period in the development stage of man. Improper diet and disease in children from pre-school age are a problem for both children and parents. It is therefore important to undertake measures for proper nutrition and prevention of diseases. Described as improper diet affects children from pre-school...

  15. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  16. Radon measurements in 130 schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, R.T.; Schmidt, A.; MacWaters, J.T.; Chmelynski, H.

    1990-01-01

    During the winter of 1989, Rn screening measurements were made in 130 schools distributed across the United States. The primary purpose of the paper is to identify schools suitable for a year-long follow-up study, the results of which will be used to update EPA's guidance for Rn testing in schools. The 130 schools were selected nonrandomly using school characteristics and accessibility in areas where there were known or suspected Rn problems in homes. Levels found in this screening study may indicate the potential for Rn problems in US schools. Over half of the 130 schools tested had at least one radon measurement ≥4 pCi/L, and nearly 20% of the 3028 rooms measured ≥4 pCi/L. The number of rooms ≥4 pCi/L is often three rooms or less. However, schools with more than five rooms ≥4 pCi/L are common in some areas. The data include schools that could be typical of much of the US school population as well as schools which exhibit extreme radon problems, such as those tested in Nashville, TN and Spokane, WA

  17. Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

  18. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  19. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  20. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  1. Primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...

  2. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  3. Lunchbox contents of Australian school children: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanigorski, A M; Bell, A C; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A

    2005-11-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (Pjunk food'). Fruit intake in primary schools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.

  4. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Measures to Foster Communication with Immigrant Families and Heritage Language Teaching for Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    This document talks about immigrant children, who are defined here as either children born in another country (within or outside Europe) or children whose parents or grandparents were born in another country. So the term "immigrant children" used here covers various situations, which can be referred to in other contexts as…

  5. Strengthening School Readiness for Children at Risk: Evaluating Self-Regulation Measures and an Intervention Using Classroom Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, self-regulation has emerged as a foundational skill for academic success and well-being. Unfortunately, many children enter kindergarten without the self-regulation skills necessary to succeed. Children from high-risk backgrounds (e.g., low-income) are particularly vulnerable for difficulties in self-regulation development. Given…

  6. Assessment of Retinal and Choroidal Measurements in Chinese School-Age Children with Cirrus-HD Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate retinal thickness (RT, retinal volume (RV and choroidal thickness (ChT in Chinese children using Cirrus-HD optical coherence tomography (OCT, and assess their associations with spherical equivalent (SE, age and gender.This was a prospective study that recruited 193 healthy Chinese children (193 eyes with no ophthalmic disease history between December 2012 and December 2013. RT and RV were acquired using OCT. Subfoveal ChT (SFCT and ChT1-mm and 2-mm temporal, nasal, superior and inferior to the fovea were measured manually.RT in the inner temporal and nasal regionsdiffered significantly between refraction groups (both P<0.05. Significant differences were also found inSFCT andChT 1- and 2-mm inferior to the fovea (all P<0.05. RT differed significantly between males and females in the outer superior region in the emmetropia group (P<0.05. ChT differed significantly between males and females 2-mm temporal to the fovea in the emmetropia group (P<0.05, and 1-mm temporal to the fovea in the mild myopia group (P<0.05. SE correlated positively with RT in the inner temporal (r = 0.230,nasal (r = 0.252 and inferior (r = 0.149 regions (all P<0.05. Age correlated positively with foveolar (r = 0.169, total macular (r = 0.202, inner temporal (r = 0.237, inner nasal (r = 0.248, inner superior (r = 0.378 and inner inferior (r = 0.345 region thicknesses, and with RV (r = 0.207(all P<0.05. SE correlated positively with SFCT (r = 0.195, and with ChT1-mm temporal (r = 0.167, 1- and 2-mm nasal (r = 0.144 and r = 0.162, 2-mm superior (r = 0.175, and 1- and 2-mm inferior (r = 0.207 and r = 0.238 to the fovea (all P<0.05. Age had no significant association with ChT.SE, age and gender did not influence macular RT and ChT in most regions, and correlations of RT with age and ChT with SE were weak.

  7. Dropout of Children from schools in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Dhirendra

    2012-01-01

    Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...

  8. 9620 DIETARY ADEQUACY OF RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    to reduced mental and physical development of children, hence delayed ... of health and neurocognitive performance of school-age children [2]. ..... Patrick H and TA Nicklas A review of family and social determinants of ... Physiology and.

  9. Measuring emotion socialization in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Christy G; Wallace, Tanner L

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability to school-based health studies. A content analysis of four emotion socialization measures was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: high frequency of use in prior research, established documentation of validity and reliability, and sufficient description of measurement procedures. Four dimensions emerged as particularly salient to a measure's future relevance and applicability to school-based health studies: (1) methods of measurement; (2) mode and agent of socialization; (3) type of emotion; and (4) structure versus function of socializing behavior. Future measurement strategies should address (1) the structures of emotion socializing processes; (2) diverse socializing agents such as teachers, peers, and administrators; (3) the intended functions of such processes; (4) student perceptions of and responses to such processes; and (5) the complex interactions of these factors across contexts. Strategies attending to these components will permit future studies of school-based emotion socializing processes to determine how they enhance health and reduce health risks. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  10. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  11. Measuring Effectiveness of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Tools in Teaching School Children: A Case Study from Chattisgarh State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J. Durga Prasad; Singh, Raksha

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Information Communication and Technology tools viz DLP (Distance Learning Projector) and Computer/Laptop in comparison with selected instructional media for teaching primary and secondary school pupils. It examined the effect of grade on the performance of the pupils taught with four…

  12. Parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation: Associations with abused children's school functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040

  13. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  14. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  15. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children's skin health.

  16. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  17. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  18. Online schools and children with special health and educational needs: comparison with performance in traditional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik

    2012-04-30

    In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a

  19. Children's Mental Health and School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis

    2004-01-01

    An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…

  20. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  1. Tooth cleaning frequency in relation to socio-demographic variables and personal hygiene measures among school children of Udaipur district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Panwar, J; Vyas, A; Sharma, J; Goutham, B; Duraiswamy, P; Kulkarni, S

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if frequency of tooth cleaning varies with social group, family size, bedtime and other personal hygiene habits among school children. Target population comprised schoolchildren aged 8-16 years of Udaipur district attending public schools. A two stage cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample, consequently final sample size accounted to 852 children. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaires which consisted of questions related to oral hygiene habits including a few general hygiene habits, bed time, family size, family income and dental visiting habits. The results show that 30.5% of the total sample cleaned their teeth twice or more daily and there was no significant difference between the genders for tooth cleaning frequency. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older children and those having less than two siblings were more likely to clean their teeth twice a day than the younger ones and children with more than two siblings. Furthermore, frequency of tooth cleaning was significantly lower among children of parents with low level of education and less annual income as compared with those of high education and more annual income. In addition, tooth cleaning habits were more regular in children using tooth paste and regularly visiting to the dentist. This study observed that tooth cleaning is not an isolated behaviour, but is a part of multifarious pattern of various social and behavioural factors. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  2. Using a mixed-methods approach to measure impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention study on fruit and vegetable intake of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Elena; Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Pria, Simona Dalla; Messina, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption to help prevent childhood obesity. The 10-week-long intervention included sessions on nutrition education and media literacy. It also included a health communication media-based campaign workshop during which the children created posters, newsletters and video commercials related to fruits and vegetables targeted to their parents. For evaluation purposes, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach, including a quasi-experimental study (with one intervention group and one control group) and a focus group study. Four different elementary schools in Treviso (Veneto Region of Italy) agreed to participate in the research. The target population for the study included 10-year-old Italian children and their parents. Data indicate that this intervention was effective for children but not for parents. Evaluation results show that the intervention was effective in significantly increasing children's fruit and vegetable intake (Pmedia education intervention to address the children's obesity issue and, in particular, to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake. The study also opens a new perspective on the theoretical constructs investigated, because the development of 'ability of expression' could be considered one of the most important factors to determine the efficacy of the intervention.

  3. School children's reasoning about school rules

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...

  4. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  5. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  6. Do Not Forget About Public Transportation: Analysis of the Association of Active Transportation to School Among Washington, DC Area Children With Parental Perceived Built Environment Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Rodkey, Lindsey; Ray, Rashawn; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-03-23

    Although the active transportation (AT) indicator received an F grade on the 2016 US Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, this AT assessment excluded public transportation. An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play Study was to assess youth AT, including public transportation, among Washington, DC area children in relation to parental perceptions of neighborhood built environment (BE) variables. Questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children aged 7-12 years. AT to school (ATS) was assessed with the question: "In an average school week, how many days does your child use each of the following ways to get to and from school? (a) Walk; (b) Bike; (c) Car; (d) Bus or Metro." Parental perceived BE data were obtained through questionnaire items, and logistic regression was conducted to determine if BE variables were associated with youth ATS. The sample included 144 children (50% female; average age 9.7 years; 56.3% white; 23.7% African American; 10.4% Asian American). Over 30% used ATS-public transportation 5 days per week, and nearly 13% used ATS-walking daily. Parental perceived BE variables significantly predicted youth ATS-walking and ATS-public transportation. ATS-public transportation is common among Washington, DC area youth, and parental perceptions of BE can significantly predict ATS.

  7. Health and school outcomes during children's transition into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2013-02-01

    Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  9. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  10. Homework particularities for small school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  11. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    was to expand normative sRaw values for non-asthmatic children in 5 centers. 105 healthy preschool children were recruited locally for sRaw measurements. Normative data was generated and was without significant difference between centers and independent of height, weight, age and gender. Furthermore......The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research...... and measured by a center specific investigator as well as an investigator visiting each center. We found sRaw measurements at two centers were significantly lower in all children compared to the other 4 centers and one center had significantly higher sRaw values than the other centers. The secondary aim...

  12. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    , there was no effect of the child's history of atopy, parental atopy or smoking. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with previous data from 121 healthy young children; mean sRaw (SD) 1.27 kPa*s (0.25). Conclusion: Control using biological standards revealed errors in factory setting......The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research...... and clinical practise. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. The primary aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in 6 centers. Seven healthy young children were brought to each of the 6 centers for sRaw measurements...

  13. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  14. A Comparative Study of Listening Comprehension Measures in English as an Additional Language and Native English-Speaking Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Mairead Grainne; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of different measures of listening comprehension for Years 2, 3 and 4 children with English as an additional language (EAL). Non-standardised uses of reading comprehension measures are often employed as proxy measures of listening comprehension, i.e. for purposes for which they were not…

  15. [Breastfeeding and its influence into the cognitive process of Spanish school-children (6 years old), measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Miranda León, María Teresa; Peinado Herreros, José María; Iribar Ibabe, María Concepción

    2013-09-01

    Some scientific evidence support that a better cognitive development during the school age is related with breastfeeding. In this study, the potential benefit of breastfeeding duration is evaluated, related to Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing Speed. A total of 103 children, first year of Primary School, six-year-old, (47 boys and 56 girls), were included from different schools in the province of Granada (Spain) at urban, semi-urban and rural areas. The global cognitive capability, as well as some specific intelligence domains which permit a more precise and deeper analysis of the cognitive processes, was evaluated through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--version IV. The results prove an association, statistically signnificative, between the best values of IQ and the other four WISC-IV indexes and a longer breastfeeding. There is a highly significant (p = 0.000) association between the best scores and those children who were breastfed during 6 months, which validates our hypothesis. The advice of breastfeeding during at least the first six months of life should be reinforced to reduce learning difficulties.

  16. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  17. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  18. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets : Children's Perspectives on School Gardening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school

  19. The Socialization of Home-Schooled Children in Rural Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2004-01-01

    Concern over the social development of children who are home schooled has caused parents and educators to question the wisdom of this practice. A review of home-schooling research has not revealed whether a difference exists between the social skills of homeschooled children and children who attend public schools. This study explored the socialization of home-schooled children by comparing Social Skills Rating System scores of home-schooled children with the scores of their mothers and a comp...

  20. Refractive Errors in Primary School Children in Nigeria | Faderin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...

  1. The father and the schooling of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Romanelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been investigating the relationship between families and school. Those studies, especially in the field of Sociology of education seek to describe and analyse family-school relationships to contribute to the improvement of knowledge about the schooling process of children, adolescents and young people. However, survey results about the schooling process and the relationship between family and school, published in books by academics or scientific journals in the fields of education, sociology, anthropology and psychology, show that studies considering the father figure tend to be scarce. This article focuses on the construction of fatherhood, in an attempt to discuss its representations, seeking to contribute and clarify the reasons for the relative scarcity of analyses about the father's role in studies about the family and the children's schooling process.

  2. Bullying experience in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aulia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.

  3. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  4. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  5. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  6. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  7. Measuring social networks in British primary schools through scientific engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, A. J. K.; Eames, K. T. D.; Gage, J. A.; von Kirchbach, J. C.; Ross, J. V.; Saenz, R. A.; Gog, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Primary schools constitute a key risk group for the transmission of infectious diseases, concentrating great numbers of immunologically naive individuals at high densities. Despite this, very little is known about the social patterns of mixing within a school, which are likely to contribute to disease transmission. In this study, we present a novel approach where scientific engagement was used as a tool to access school populations and measure social networks between young (4–11 years) children. By embedding our research project within enrichment activities to older secondary school (13–15) children, we could exploit the existing links between schools to achieve a high response rate for our study population (around 90% in most schools). Social contacts of primary school children were measured through self-reporting based on a questionnaire design, and analysed using the techniques of social network analysis. We find evidence of marked social structure and gender assortativity within and between classrooms in the same school. These patterns have been previously reported in smaller studies, but to our knowledge no study has attempted to exhaustively sample entire school populations. Our innovative approach facilitates access to a vitally important (but difficult to sample) epidemiological sub-group. It provides a model whereby scientific communication can be used to enhance, rather than merely complement, the outcomes of research. PMID:21047859

  8. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of School Gardening Lessons on Elementary School Children's Physical Activity and Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Holloway, Alicia; Knauft, David; Schmidt, Michael D

    2017-12-01

    Recess and physical education time continue to diminish, creating a need for additional physical activity opportunities within the school environment. The use of school gardens as a teaching tool in elementary science and math classes has the potential to increase the proportion of time spent active throughout the school day. Teachers from 4 elementary schools agreed to teach 1 math or science lesson per week in the school garden. Student physical activity time was measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers on 3 garden days and 3 no-garden days at each school. Direct observation was used to quantify the specific garden-related tasks during class. The proportion of time spent active and sedentary was compared on garden and no-garden days. Seventy-four children wore accelerometers, and 75 were observed (86% participation). Children spent a significantly larger proportion of time active on garden days than no-garden days at 3 of the 4 schools. The proportion of time spent sedentary and active differed significantly across the 4 schools. Teaching lessons in the school garden may increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary time throughout the school day and may be a strategy to promote both health and learning.

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  11. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  12. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  13. Measuring parent perceptions of school climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Beth E; Capotosto, Lauren; Bahena, Sofía; McIntyre, Joseph; Gehlbach, Hunter

    2014-03-01

    Parents' attitudes about their children's schools matter. Their views can shape their children's attitudes about school, affect their levels of family-school engagement, and influence their residential and school enrollment decisions. In this article, we describe the development of a survey scale to assess parent perceptions of the climate of their child's school. Our comprehensive scale development process incorporated feedback from academics and potential respondents from the outset of the design process to enhance scale quality. We conducted 3 studies with national samples of parents (n = 385; n = 253; n = 266) to gather evidence of scale score reliability and valid score inferences based on convergent and discriminant validity. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we identified a theoretically grounded factor structure that fit the data well but found no evidence that parental response patterns distinguish between academic and social elements of school climate. Furthermore, we found that parents of younger children, on average, had a more positive perception of the school's climate than did parents of older children. We conclude by discussing how researchers and Pre-K-12 schools and districts can use the scale to aid school improvement efforts. 2014 APA

  14. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  15. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  16. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  17. The pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS): sleep habits and school outcomes in middle-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher; Nickel, Chelsea; Burduvali, Eleni; Roth, Thomas; Jefferson, Catherine; Pietro, Badia

    2003-06-15

    To develop a measure of daytime sleepiness suitable for middle-school children and examine the relationship between daytime sleepiness and school-related outcomes. Self-report questionnaire. Four hundred fifty, 11- to 15-year-old students, from grades 6, 7, and 8 of a public middle school in Dayton, Ohio. A pediatric daytime sleepiness questionnaire was developed using factor analysis of questions regarding sleep-related behaviors. Results of the sleepiness questionnaire were then compared across other variables, including daily sleep patterns, school achievement, mood, and extracurricular activities. Factor analysis on the 13 questions related to daytime sleepiness yielded 1 primary factor ("pediatric daytime sleepiness"; 32% of variance). Only items with factor loadings above .4 were included in the final sleepiness scale. Internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha) for the final 8-item scale was .80. Separate one-way analyses of variance and trend analyses were performed comparing pediatric daytime sleepiness scores at the 5 different levels of total sleep time and academic achievement. Participants who reported low school achievement, high rates of absenteeism, low school enjoyment, low total sleep time, and frequent illness reported significantly higher levels of daytime sleepiness compared to children with better school-related outcomes. The self-report scale developed in the present work is suitable for middle-school-age children and may be useful in future research given its ease of administration and robust psychometric properties. Daytime sleepiness is related to reduced educational achievement and other negative school-related outcomes.

  18. Analysis and Measures to Improve Waste Management in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing waste production in schools highlights the contribution of school children and school staff to the total amount of waste generated in a region, as well as any poor practices of recycling (the so-called separate collection of waste in schools by the students, which could be improved through educational activities. Educating young people regarding the importance of environmental issues is essential, since instilling the right behavior in school children is also beneficial to the behavior of their families. The way waste management was carried out in different schools in Trento (northern Italy was analyzed: a primary school, a secondary school, and three high schools were taken as cases of study. The possible influence of the age of the students and of the various activities carried out within the schools on the different behaviors in separating waste was also evaluated. The results showed that the production of waste did not only depend on the size of the institutes and on the number of occupants, but, especially, on the type of activities carried out in addition to the ordinary classes and on the habits of both pupils and staff. In the light of the results obtained, some corrective measures were proposed to schools, aimed at increasing the awareness of the importance of the right behavior in waste management by students and the application of good practices of recycling.

  19. Psychosocial measures used to assess the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education programs: review and analysis of self-report instruments for children 8 to 12 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Brosh, Joanne; Serrano, Elena L; Cason, Katherine L; Bhattarai, Ranju

    2013-01-01

    To identify the psychometric properties of evaluation instruments that measure mediators of dietary behaviors in school-aged children. Systematic search of scientific databases limited to 1999-2010. Psychometric properties related to development and testing of self-report instruments for children 8-12 years old. Systematic search of 189 articles and review of 15 instruments (20 associated articles) meeting the inclusion criteria. Search terms used included children, school, nutrition, diet, nutrition education, and evaluation. Fourteen studies used a theoretical framework to guide the instrument's development. Knowledge and self-efficacy were the most commonly used psychosocial measures. Twelve instruments focused on specific nutrition-related behaviors. Eight instruments included over 40 items and used age-appropriate response formats. Acceptable reliability properties were most commonly reported for attitude and self-efficacy measures. Although most of the instruments were reviewed by experts (n = 8) and/or pilot-tested (n = 9), only 7 were tested using both rigorous types of validity and with low-income youth. Results from this review suggest that additional research is needed to develop more robust psychosocial measures for dietary behaviors, for low-income youth audiences. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. School Administrators' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Children's Active Travel to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…

  1. Bullying at school: Agreement between caregivers' and children's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Lucas G; Scherñuk Schroh, Jordán C; Panizoni, Estefanía P; Jouglard, Ezequiel F; Serralunga, M Gabriela; Esandi, M Eugenia

    2017-02-01

    Bullying at school is usually kept secret from adults, making them unaware of the situation. To describe caregivers' and children's perception and assess their agreement in terms of bullying situations. Cross-sectional study in children aged 8-12 years old attending public schools and their caregivers. The questionnaire on preconceptions of intimidation and bullying among peers (PRECONCIMEI) (child/caregiver version) was used. Studied outcome measures: Scale of bullying, causes of bullying, child involvement in bullying, communication in bullying situations. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done and agreement was estimated using the Kappa index. A total of 529 child/caregiver dyads participated. Among caregivers, 35% stated that bullying occurred in their children's schools. Among children, 133 (25%) admitted to being involved: 70 (13%) were victims of bullying, 40 (8%) were bullies, and 23 (4%) were bullied and perpetrated bullying. Among the 63 caregivers of children who admitted to be bullies, 78% did not consider their children capable of perpetrating bullying. Among children who were bullied or who both suffered bullying and bullied others, 69.9% (65/93) indicated that "if they were the victims of bullying, they would tell their family." However, 89.2% (83/93) of caregivers considered that their children would tell them if they were ever involved in these situations. Agreement was observed in terms of a positive communication (Kappa = -0.04) between 62.6% (57/91) of the child/caregiver dyads school bullying. Disagreement was observed between children and their caregivers in relation to the frequency and communication of bullying situations. Few caregivers whose children admitted to being involved in these situations believed it was a possibility. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  2. Interrelationships Among Several Variables Reflecting Quantitative Thinking in Elementary School Children with Particular Emphasis upon Those Measures Involving Metric and Decimal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Delon; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The relationships among measures of quantitative thinking in first through fifth grade children assigned either to an experimental math program emphasizing tactile, manipulative, or individual activity in learning metric and decimal concepts, or to a control group, were examined. Tables are presented and conclusions discussed. (Author/JKS)

  3. Screening urinalysis for proteinuria in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partini P. Trihono

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Although asymptomatic proteinuria in children is uncommon, long-term follow-up of children who have persistent proteinuria reveals that they face risks to have significant glomerular changes followed by decreasing kidney function. Since 1970’s urine screening program for asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria in schoolchildren has been conducted regularly in some countries. So far such program has never been implemented in Jakarta. As a part of The Community Health Program of the Medical School, University of Indonesia, this epidemiologic study aimed especially to look at the urine abnormalities among schoolchildren. The target population was children in grades III, IV and V of 4 elementary schools in Eastern Jakarta. Four hundred and forty nine children (217 boys and 232 girls were enrolled in this study, held during school time in August 1999. Their mean age was 9.35 (SD 1.2 years. Data collected were history of illness, physical examination, and complete urinalysis using a dipstick method. Proteinuria was found in 30 (6.8% children, which in repeated urinalyses were determined as orthostatic in 2 (0.4%, transient in 20 (4.5%, and persistent proteinuria in 6 (1.4% children. Three out of 6 children with persistent proteinuria also had hematuria. One child with persistent proteinuria was considered as having urinary tract infection. We conclude that the incidence of asymptomatic proteinuria in schoolchildren is not high, but because of significant risks that they face, a long-term follow up of them is indicated.

  4. Psychomotor assessment of 2nd grade children of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carvalho Silvério

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychomotor is a multidisciplinary science that incorporates motor, affective and cognitive aspects. This study aimed to measure the psychomotor skills to see if the results are within the expected for the age group studied and investigate whether there are differences between the performance of boys and girls. 91 children participated in this research. 59.3% were boys (M = 7.16 years, SD = 0.37 of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais-Brasil. The results of psychomotor tests of Oliveira (2014 indicated that the profile of children was within the expected range, according to the stages of development of psychomotor skills. The only statistically significant difference between the sexes appeared in the psychomotor skills "body schema", with higher average of children. It is suggested that more studies will be developed with children of different types of institutions to confront these findings.

  5. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  6. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R

    2009-10-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms.

  7. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  9. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  10. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  11. child maltreatment among elementary school children in jimma town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tekeste

    Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children. Indryas L. 1. ORIGINAL ... of child maltreatment. KEY WORDS: School children, child maltreatment, child abuse. ..... and teachers in teaching, counseling and prevention of sexual ...

  12. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Petzold, M.; Schnohr, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported...... by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use. Design. The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children...... in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk...

  13. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  15. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  16. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  17. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  18. School Climate Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faster, Darlene; Lopez, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Today, school climate assessment has become an increasingly important and valued aspect of district, state, and federal policy. Recognizing that effective school climate improvement efforts are grounded in valid and reliable data, the Federal Department of Education launched the Safe and Supportive Schools grant in 2010 to provide 11 states with…

  19. Measuring Entrepreneurship in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeldine, Mary; Miles, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    The recent positions of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the European Foundation for Management Developments (EQUIS) on the value of entrepreneurship suggest a more entrepreneurial perspective in a business school's culture and strategic processes for obtaining and sustaining a business school's reputation. The…

  20. Achievement and School Behavior among Children with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the school behavior of 15 epileptic children with that of diabetic and healthy children. The epileptic children were more likely to attribute the success or failure of their school performance to unknown sources of control, and to hold less positive feelings about school and their own self-worth. (Author)

  1. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  2. Children's Need to Know: Curiosity in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Susan Engel argues that curiosity is both intrinsic to children's development and unfolds through social interactions. Thus, it should be cultivated in schools, even though it is often almost completely absent from classrooms. Calling on well-established research and more recent studies, Engel argues that interactions between…

  3. Children's Sleep and School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…

  4. Amblyopia in Rural Nigerian School Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia among these rural school children was ... Amblyopia is defined as suboptimal vision in one eye despite best spectacle ..... Data obtained were entered into the computer and analyzed using the Statistical ..... the National Postgraduate Medical College in Ophthalmology;. 1999. 21.

  5. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  6. Greenhouse Affect: The Relationship between the Sustainable Design of Schools and Children's Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanahi, Parisa; Elkadi, Hisham; Tucker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine if primary school children's environmental attitudes can be predicted by whether their school had been designed or adapted for sustainability. A New Ecological Paradigm ("NEP") scale for children was adopted to measure attitudes, with supplementary questions added to align this scale to the Australian context…

  7. Does school mobility place elementary school children at risk for lower math achievement? The mediating role of cognitive dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele

    2015-12-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children's math achievement in fourth grade and that children's cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children's math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children's early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children's math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children's math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children's cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Influence of children's oral health-related quality of life on school performance and school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the relation of child oral health-related quality of life with school performance and school absenteeism. We followed a cross-sectional design with a multistage random sample of 312 12-year-old schoolchildren living in Brazil. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ(11-14) ) that provides information about psychological factors, while their parents or guardians answered questions on their socioeconomic status measured by parents' education level and household income. A dental examination of each child provided information on the prevalence of caries and dental trauma. Data on school performance, which included the results of baseline Brazilian language (Portuguese) tests, and school absenteeism (school days missed) were obtained from the school register. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate the association among psychological and socioeconomic status and children's school performance. In the multiple model, after adjusting for individual covariates, being a girl was associated with higher school performance (P Children's school performance and absence were influenced by psychological and socioeconomic conditions. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  10. Measurement of Ethnic Background in Cross-national School Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Krølner, Rikke; Páll, Gabrilla

    2011-01-01

    Indicators such as country of birth and language spoken at home have been used as proxy measures for ethnic background, but the validity of these indicators in surveys among school children remains unclear. This study aimed at comparing item response and student-parent agreement on four questions...

  11. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  12. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  13. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent intervention on children nutritional status among primary school children in bangkok, thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)

  14. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  15. MIGRANT CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS, A 1961 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS SERVING CHILDREN OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NANCE, AFTON D.

    ENROLLMENT, ATTENDANCE, CLASS SIZE, NUMBER OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED, ADEQUACY OF FACILITIES, AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE THE CONCERNS OF A 1961 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS SERVING CHILDREN OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO THE SUPERINTENDENTS OF 105 CALIFORNIA DISTRICTS ENROLLING THE MOST MIGRANT…

  16. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Haluza, Daniela; Piegler, Kathrin; Hohenblum, Philipp; Fröhlich, Marina; Scharf, Sigrid; Uhl, Maria; Damberger, Bernhard; Tappler, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Wallner, Peter; Moshammer, Hanns

    2013-08-01

    WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children) indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5) were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]). Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age) were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  17. Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  18. The Effect of School Uniform on Incidental Physical Activity among 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrish, Hannah; Farringdon, Fiona; Bulsara, Max; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The school setting provides a unique opportunity to promote physical activity in children by ensuring adequate time, appropriate facilities and education guidance is offered. However school uniform design could also limit physical activity. A repeated measures crossover design was used to compare school recess and lunchtime physical activity over…

  19. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  20. Punishment in School: The Role of School Security Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Mowen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although investigation of school security measures and their relationships to various outcomes including school crime rates (Gottfredson, 2001, perpetuation of social inequality (Ferguson, 2001; Nolan, 2011; Welch & Payne, 2010, and the impact on childhood experiences has seen significant growth within the last 20 years (Newman, 2004; Kupchik, 2010, few studies have sought to explore the impacts of these measures on suspension rates. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002, I explore the relationship between security measures and in-school, out-of-school, and overall suspension rates. Results indicate schools with a security officer experience higher rates of in-school suspensions but have no difference in rates of out-of-school or overall suspensions compared to schools without a security officer. No other measure of security was related to higher suspension rates. As prior literature suggests, schools with greater proportions of black students experienced significantly higher rates of all suspension types. Finally, different types of parental involvement correlated with both higher and lower suspension rates.

  1. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  2. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  3. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  4. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Migrant Preschool Children's School Readiness and Early Elementary School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassolie, Tanya; López, Claudia; De Feyter, Jessica; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the early educational performance of children in migrant farmworker families. The authors examined the school readiness and early school success of 289 four-year-old preschool children of migrant families attending Redlands Christian Migrant Association centers. Children's school readiness was assessed and public school…

  6. Environmental lead exposure among primary school children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rasoul, G M; Al-Batanony, M A; Mahrous, O A; Abo-Salem, M E; Gabr, H M

    2012-10-01

    Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ), hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL), hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3) in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  7. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  9. Measurements of magnetic field sources in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has initiated several research projects to investigate magnetic field levels, their characteristics, and their sources. This paper describes measurements of magnetic field sources in schools. Magnetic field measurements were made at four schools in the service areas of two utility companies. Magnetic field measurements included profiles of the magnetic field versus distance near power lines, around the perimeter of the school buildings, and at several locations within each school. Twenty-four hour measurements were also made to record the temporal variation of the magnetic field at several locations at each school. The instrumentation, measurement techniques, and magnetic field sources identified are discussed

  10. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens H. J.; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various

  11. Assessment and comparison of nutritional status of government and private secondary school children of Muzaffarnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Jain Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition leads to poor cognitive performance and physical growth in children and is a major component of school health services. Imbalanced nutrition in adolescence can put them at high risk of chronic diseases particularly if combined with adverse lifestyle. Aims & Objectives: This study was designed to assess and compare the nutritional status of government and private school children of Muzaffarnagar city. Material and Methods: School based, comparative Cross-sectional study. One private and one government school was selected using unistage stratified random sampling. A total of 1960 (980 each from private school and government school school children of class 6-12 were studied for socio-epidemiological details, dietary habits, and physical activity. Information on education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents was also collected. Required anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: Of 980 children from private school, 90 (9.18% were underweight,138 (14.08% were overweight, and 137 (13.97% were obese. Majority of children from government school were underweight 215 (21.94% except for 24 (2.45% overweight children. Conclusion: This study shows the dual nature of nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class of govt. school at one side and worrisome epidemic of obesity among the affluent of private school

  12. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  13. From Past to Present: How Memories of School Shape Parental Views of Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, there is growing interest in children's transition to school and their readiness for formal education. Parents' memories of school offer important insights into children's preparation for school and how families view schools; however, few studies consider the influence of educational histories. To address this gap, a sample of 24…

  14. Punishment in School: The Role of School Security Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Although investigation of school security measures and their relationships to various outcomes including school crime rates (Gottfredson, 2001), perpetuation of social inequality (Ferguson, 2001; Nolan, 2011; Welch & Payne, 2010), and the impact on childhood experiences has seen significant growth within the last 20 years (Newman, 2004;…

  15. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Middle School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grills, Amie E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...

  16. Measuring School Climate: An Overview of Measurement Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…

  17. Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Angelika H; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Bloomfield, Jeanette; Giordano, Kathy

    2018-05-01

    Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. Parent-reported data from the 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6-17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed. School measures included type of school, individual education plan (IEP), number of school days missed, school problems, doing well in school, doing homework, and repeating a grade. Children with TS were compared with those who never had TS on school measures accounting for co-occurring conditions. After adjusting for demographics, compared with children without TS, children currently with TS were more likely to have an IEP, have a parent contacted about school problems, and not complete homework. After further adjusting for co-occurring conditions, only IEP status remained statistically significant. Compared with children with mild TS, children with moderate or severe TS were more likely to have an IEP, repeat a grade, encounter school problems, and not care about doing well in school. Tourette syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs. Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both TS and co-occurring conditions would help to best support the child's education.

  18. Helping Mixed Heritage Children Develop "Character and Resilience" in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Recent UK government policy suggests that all schools have a key role to play in building "character and resilience" in children. This article draws on data from a wider research project, exploring the school experiences of mixed White/Black Caribbean and mixed White/Black African children in two London secondary schools. Because data…

  19. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access to iodized salt in Zambia. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... It was carried out in 2011 and entailed determining the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among 1, 283 school children from 30 selected schools and the amount ...

  20. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  1. Vulnerable children speak out: voices from one rural school in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends some strategies by which the Swaziland Ministry of Education and Training, the community, and the school can make collaborative and coordinated efforts aimed at enhancing vulnerable children's quality of schooling experiences. Keywords: Children; Schooling; Rural; Vulnerability; Education; ...

  2. Empathy, Altruism, and Moral Development in Home Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Skylar T.; Medlin, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare empathy, altruism, moral reasoning, and prosocial behavior in home schooled children and children attending public schools, and to assess attitudes toward religion and values in their parents. Homeschooling parents were more concerned with teaching their children their values and religious beliefs,…

  3. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  4. Children as Researchers in Primary Schools: Choice, Voice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, Sue

    2012-01-01

    "Children as Researchers in Primary Schools" is an innovative and unique resource for practitioners supporting children to become "real world" researchers in the primary classroom. It will supply you with the skills and ideas you need to implement a "children as researchers" framework in your school that can be adapted for different ages and…

  5. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  6. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  8. Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne Corboz

    Full Text Available Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools. All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a no violence, (b victimization only, or (c perpetration (with or without victimization. Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration.49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting

  9. Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corboz, Julienne; Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting and

  10. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  11. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed.  Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  12. The preparedness of schools to respond to emergencies in children: a national survey of school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Wan, Eric; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2005-12-01

    emergencies encountered over the past school year, weekly number of visits to school nurses, annual number of "life-threatening" emergencies requiring activation of EMS); and (4) the preparedness of schools to manage life-threatening emergencies (presence of an MERP, presence of emergency care plans for asthmatics, diabetics, and children with special needs, presence of a school nurse during all school hours, CPR training of staff and students, availability of athletic trainers during all athletic events, presence of an MERP for potential mass disasters). The second part included 10 clinical scenarios measuring the availability of emergency equipment and the confidence level of the school nurse to manage potential life-threatening emergencies. Of the 675 questionnaires returned, 573 were eligible for analysis. A majority of responses were from registered nurses who have been practicing for >5 years in a rural or suburban setting. The most common reported school emergencies were extremity sprains and shortness of breath. Sixty-eight percent (391 of 573 [95% confidence interval (CI): 64-72%]) of school nurses have managed a life-threatening emergency requiring EMS activation during the past school year. Eighty-six percent (95% CI: 84-90%) of schools have an MERP, although 35% (95% CI: 31-39%) of schools do not practice the plan. Thirteen percent (95% CI: 10-16%) of schools do not identify authorized personnel to make emergency medical decisions. When stratified by mean student attendance, school setting, and funding classification, schools with and without an MERP did not differ significantly. Of the 205 schools that do not have a school nurse present on campus during all school hours, 17% (95% CI: 12-23%) do not have an MERP, 17% (95% CI: 12-23%) do not identify an authorized person to make medical decisions when faced with a life-threatening emergency, and 72% (95% CI: 65-78%) do not have an effective campus-wide communication system. CPR training is offered to 76% (95% CI

  13. Children's Exposure to Radon in Nursery and Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Pedro T B S; Nunes, Rafael A O; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C M; Martins, Fernando G; Sousa, Sofia I V

    2016-03-30

    The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children's exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings' construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings' construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks.

  14. The Role of School Principals in Shaping Children's Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.

  15. Measuring School Psychology Trainee Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Adam B.; Mcclure, John; Sealander, Karen; Baker, Courtney N.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self-efficacy. However, little research on self-efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of…

  16. Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Angelika H.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Bloomfield, Jeanette; Giordano, Kathy

    2018-01-01

    Objective Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. Methods Parent-reported data from the 2007–2008 and 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6–17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed. School measures included type of school, individual education plan (IEP), number of school days missed, school problems, doing well in school, doing homework, and repeating a grade. Children with TS were compared with those who never had TS on school measures accounting for co-occurring conditions. Results After adjusting for demographics, compared with children without TS, children currently with TS were more likely to have an IEP, have a parent contacted about school problems, and not complete homework. After further adjusting for co-occurring conditions, only IEP status remained statistically significant. Compared with children with mild TS, children with moderate or severe TS were more likely to have an IEP, repeat a grade, encounter school problems, and not care about doing well in school. Conclusion Tourette syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs. Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both TS and co-occurring conditions would help to best support the child’s education. PMID:29432328

  17. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  18. Use of a Novel Visual Metaphor Measure (PRISM) to Evaluate School Children's Perceptions of Natural Hazards, Sources of Hazard Information, Hazard Mitigation Organizations, and the Effectiveness of Future Hazard Education Programs in Dominica, Eastern Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Martin; Day, Simon; Teeuw, Richard; Solana, Carmen; Sensky, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This project aims to study the development of understanding of natural hazards (and of hazard mitigation) from the age of 11 to the age of 15 in secondary school children from 5 geographically and socially different schools on Dominica, through repeated interviews with the students and their teachers. These interviews will be coupled with a structured course of hazard education in the Geography syllabus; the students not taking Geography will form a control group. To avoid distortion of our results arising from the developing verbalization and literacy skills of the students over the 5 years of the project, we have adapted the PRISM tool used in clinical practice to assess patient perceptions of illness and treatment (Buchi & Sensky, 1999). This novel measure is essentially non-verbal, and uses spatial positions of moveable markers ("object" markers) on a board, relative to a fixed marker that represents the subject's "self", as a visual metaphor for the importance of the object to the subject. The subjects also explain their reasons for placing the markers as they have, to provide additional qualitative information. The PRISM method thus produces data on the perceptions measured on the board that can be subjected to statistical analysis, and also succinct qualitative data about each subject. Our study will gather data on participants' perceptions of different natural hazards, different sources of information about these, and organizations or individuals to whom they would go for help in a disaster, and investigate how these vary with geographical and social factors. To illustrate the method, which is generalisable, we present results from our initial interviews of the cohort of 11 year olds whom we will follow through their secondary school education. Büchi, S., & Sensky, T. (1999). PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: a brief nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 314-320.

  19. Recess Physical Activity and Perceived School Environment among Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ishii

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Differences in recess physical activity (PA according to perceived school environment among elementary school children were examined. Participants were 103 children from two schools in Japan. PA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days. Time spent in sedentary or PA (light, moderate, or vigorous during their morning recess (25 min and lunch recess (15 min was determined. The School Physical Activity Environment Scale (three factors: equipment, facility, and safety was used to investigate perceived school environment. Environmental factor scores were assigned to low or high groups for each factor by median. An analysis of covariance, with grade as the covariate, was conducted separately by gender to examine differences in PA between two groups. During lunch recess, boys in the high-equipment group spent significantly more time in moderate PA (high: 1.5; low: 0.8 min whereas girls in this group spent less time in light PA (9.3, 11.0. Boys in the high-facility group spent significantly less time in sedentary (2.3, 3.9 and more time in vigorous PA (2.4, 1.4 during lunch recess, and girls spent more time in moderate (2.1, 1.2 and vigorous PA (1.9, 1.3 during morning recess. Differences were observed in recess PA according to school environment perceptions. The present study may be useful for further intervention studies for the promotion of PA during recess.

  20. Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Dogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. “Personal Information Form” and “Psychological Compliance Measurement” were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 47-52

  1. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  2. Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Dogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. “Personal Information Form” and “Psychological Compliance Measurement” were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 47-52

  3. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  4. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  5. An investigation of school violence through Turkish children's drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or witnessed. Children mostly drew pictures of violent events among children (33 pictures). Also, there were pictures of violent incidents perpetrated by teachers and directors against children. It was observed that violence influenced children. Violence was mostly depicted in school gardens (38 pictures), but there were violent incidents everywhere, such as in classrooms, corridors, and school stores as well. Moreover, it was found that brute force was the most referred way of violence in the children's depictions (38 pictures). In conclusion, children clearly indicated that there was violence in schools and they were affected by it.

  6. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First Grade) in ... The control group consisting of 100 age-matched non-enuretic children ... was insignificantly associated with a positive family history, family size or birth rank.

  7. Understanding individual differences in school achievement : the specific and joint impact of motivation and parenting style independent of children's measured intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence explains some variance in students’ school achievement, but not all. Motivation and parenting have been well-documented as non-cognitive predictors and are crucial to students’ school achievement. Better performance of students under Eastern culture could be attributed to motivation and parenting. The present research is dedicated to exploring the associations among motivation and parenting, as well as their specific and joint predictive power for school achievement, independent ...

  8. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  9. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  10. Quality of life in primary school children: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringdal, Kristen; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Olsen, Helene Kristin; Mamen, Asgeir; Fredriksen, Per Morten

    2018-05-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parents' level of education, measurements of physical attributes, and quality of life in a general sample of primary school children. The children's and the parents' versions of the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (ILC) were used to measure health-related quality of life (QOL) in 2140 school children (response rate 93%) and 1639 parents (response rate 71%) recruited from nine primary schools in Norway. A set of physical characteristics were also measured in the children: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, average daily minutes of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and handgrip strength. The regression analysis showed stronger relationships between the covariates and QOL for the parents' assessments than for the children's. Parents' level of education was significantly related to children's QOL, with the strongest association for parental QOL assessment. Among the physical variables, aerobic fitness ( B = 0.01, p > .001 in both samples), and handgrip strength in the parents' sample ( B = 0.21, p < .05) were significantly related to the children's QOL. The present study replicated the well-known finding that parents' sociodemographic status is important for children's QOL. Our new contribution is to show that the physiological variables aerobic fitness and muscular strength also contributed significantly to explain variance in QOL. This opens up interesting perspectives on how to improve QOL among children through more emphasis on physical activity and physical fitness in schools.

  11. Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing schools with feeding and non-school feeding policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabla, Mavis Pearl; Gyan, Charlotte; Zotor, Francis

    2018-01-12

    Childhood malnutrition still remains a major public health problem impacting negatively on the academic aptitude of school-aged children (SAC) particularly in limited resource countries. The Government of Ghana in collaboration with the Dutch Government introduced the school feeding programme (SFP) to boost the nutritional status of SAC in the country. This study sought to compare the nutritional status of SAC enrolled in schools with the SFP and SAC enrolled in schools without the SFP in place for the purpose of identifying which group has the higher rate of malnutrition. A multi-stage sampling was used to select 359 SAC between 5 and 12 years who are enrolled in primary one to six. Twelve public schools were selected, of which 6 schools benefit from the SFP and the other six do not. Anthropometric measurements were conducted for the subjects and SPSS version 20.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Chi square test was carried out to determine the difference between the two groups of schools. Of the total of 359 subjects, 55.1% were from schools that do not implement the SFP and 44.9% were from schools that implement the SFP. The prevalence of stunting among children in schools on the SFP was 16.2% compared with 17.2% among children in schools that do not implement the SFP. The prevalence of thinness was two times higher (9.3%) among children in schools on the SFP than in children in schools that do not implement the SFP (4.6%) (p = 0.028). The prevalence of overweight among children in schools on the SFP was 1.9% and 0.0% for children in schools that do not implement the SFP. Sub district, sex, age of pupil, area of residence and community type were significantly associated with stunting (p = 0.002), (p = 0.008), (p = 0.008), (p schools on SFP than in children in schools without SFP. An evaluation of the implementation of the school feeding programme is recommended for future studies.

  12. Perceived Water Competencies in Danish School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junggren, Stephan Emil; Koch, Sofie; Jeppesen, Lise Sohl

    a lot in swimming lessons” (right on the scale). Illustration 1 (not shown - see pdf of poster): Example of the Learning indicator in the modified Learning Rating Scale. Statements are translated into English. How do you get into the water? “I jump in straight away”, “I get in quietly”, “I do not want......Perceived water competencies in Danish school children Authors: Junggren, S. (1), Koch S. (1), Jeppesen, LS. (1), Larsen, LR. (1), Marling, T. (2), Skovgaard, T. (3) Affiliates: 1: Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning, University College Lillebælt and University...... of Southern Denmark, 2. Danish Swimming Federation, 3. Danish School Sport. Purpose In the Danish research project Learning to Swim, launched by the Danish foundation TrygFonden and the Danish Swimming Federation, the main purpose of the research project was to develop, implement and evaluate new innovative...

  13. Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6-7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from.......5 (6.0) v 44.8 (5.6) ml/kg/min (+8%); pgirls. The difference in VO2MAX between boys and girls decreased to +2% when expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM). Absolute VO2MAX was related to LBM, body mass, and stature (all pBoys were more physically active than girls (mean counts...... +9.4%, pboys and girls with the same VO2MAX were compared, boys were more active. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared. Conclusions: VO2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when...

  14. Diagnosing ADHD in Danish primary school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmejer, Thyge; Hjörne, Eva; Säljö, Roger

    2018-01-01

    This study of institutional categorization reports an investigation of the practices, procedures and assumptions of psychiatric staff members when diagnosing ADHD. The main data upon which the study is based consist of transcribed audio recordings of meetings in the psychiatric clinic. Here...... children referred from primary schools on the suspicion of ADHD are attended to. The tools and procedures for gathering information are shown to produce decontextualized and individualizing representations of children’s conduct. The evaluation against a number of norms is found to be central. Finally...

  15. Bullying experience in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Aulia

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnai...

  16. "We Are Never Invited": School Children Using Collage to Envision Care and Support in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanare, Fumane P.; de Lange, Naydene

    2017-01-01

    The voices of school children who are orphaned and vulnerable are more often than not missing from conversations about their care and support at school. In a rural ecology this is even more so the case. This article draws on a study with school children in rural KwaZulu-Natal and explores their constructions of care and support in the age of HIV…

  17. A Measure of Spiritual Sensitivity for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Gerard John; Stanford, Bonnie; Caputi, Peter; Keating, Alysha-Leigh; Hyde, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Spirituality is an essential influence in a child's development. However, an age-appropriate measure of child's spiritual sensitivity is not currently available in the literature. This paper describes the development of a measure of children's spiritual sensitivity, the Spiritual Sensitivity Scale for Children (SSSC). Statistical analyses…

  18. Chronic health conditions and school performance among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Rivera, Diana; London, Rebecca; Landau, Melinda; Erlendson, Bill; Rodriguez, Eunice

    2013-04-01

    Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance. This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments. Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes. Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls ( p  = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p  = 0.041; ♂: p  = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p  = 0.000; ♂: p  = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p  = 0.008, ♂: p  = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity ( p  = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys ( p  = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls ( p  = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  20. Seroepidemiology of pertussis among elementary school children in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Chia; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Chiau; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2017-06-01

    Pertussis has been considered a vaccine-preventable "childhood disease", but a shift in age distribution has been reported worldwide. We conducted a seroepidemiological study in 2013 in Taiwan to elucidate the seroprevalence of pertussis among elementary school children. With a multilevel randomized method, which included 14 variables (4 population variables, 4 socio-educational variables, and 6 medical facilities' variables), the 29 executive districts of New Taipei City, Taiwan, were categorized into five strata. From each stratum, the number of school children as well as the number of elementary schools were proportionally selected. Enzyme immunoassay was applied for pertussis immunoglobulin-G measurement. A total of 936 children from 14 schools were recruited. Most participants (98.89%) received at least three doses of acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. The overall seropositive rate for pertussis was 33.97%. The seropositive rate was highest for students in Grade 1 (49.36%) and then declined with time, except for Grade 6 students. Students from Grade 1 to Grade 4 had a significant higher seropositive rate (37.18% vs. 27.56%, p = 0.002) than those from Grade 5 to Grade 6, but a lower geometric mean titer (18.71 NovaTec Unit/mL vs. 20.04 NovaTec Unit/mL, p = 0.20). For the class grades, geometric mean titers were positively correlated with seroprevalence (p Taiwan were seropositive for pertussis, a rate lower than expected. Seroprevalence declined with increasing class grades except for Grade 6. The current national immunization program may not provide adequate protection for children against pertussis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dental erosion among 12-14 year old school children in Khartoum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karim, I A; Sanhouri, N M; Hashim, N T; Ziada, H M

    2007-09-01

    To investigate dental erosion among 12-14 year old Sudanese school children and evaluate the associated risk factors. Cross sectional survey in secondary schools in Khartoum city, Sudan. A sample of 157 school children was obtained from both private and public schools. Erosion on the labial and palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors was measured by criterion based on the Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index. Dietary intake and other related factors were assessed using a questionnaire. The overall erosion prevalence in this group was 66.9%, of which 45.2% was mild and 21.7% was moderate erosion. A strong association was found between erosion and private schooling (higher socioeconomic groups), carbonated drinks, herbal hibiscus drink and traditional acidic food consumption. There was a high prevalence of dental erosion among Sudanese school children which was mild to moderate in severity and was strongly associated with acidic dietary intake

  2. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. School absence and its effect on school performance for children born with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha

    2017-07-17

    School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelan .K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school over the children health.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two sitting postures (crossed leg sitting and bench sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Aim of the Study to observe the influence of bench sitting and crossed-leg sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Methods: 200 school children (105 boys and 95 girls from private schools (those who are bench sitting and 200 school children (109 boys and 91 girls from government schools (those who are crossed leg sitting aged 6-10 years were included in this study. Active Knee Extension (AKE test with the aid of a simple and economically cheap stabilizing apparatus was used to determine hamstring flexibility. Measurements were taken for both right and left knee. Results: The mean Active Knee Extension (AKE score for bench sitting children was 132.4 and for crossed leg sitting children was 130.1. The difference observed in knee extension range of motion between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility was greater in bench sitting children as compared to crossed leg sitting children.

  5. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  6. Does nutrition education in primary schools make a difference to children's fruit and vegetable consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransley, Joan Kathleen; Taylor, Elizabeth Faye; Radwan, Yara; Kitchen, Meaghan Sarah; Greenwood, Darren Charles; Cade, Janet Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    To explore whether initiatives to promote fruit and vegetables in primary schools are associated with changes in children's diet. Cross-sectional dietary survey. Main outcome measures were intakes of fruit, vegetables and key nutrients; and a score for initiatives promoting fruit and vegetables in school. One hundred and twenty-nine English primary schools. Year 2 children (aged 6-7 years, n 2530). In schools running a gardening club, children ate more vegetables, 120 (95 % CI 111, 129) g/d, compared with those that did not, 99·3 (95 % CI 89·9, 109) g/d; and where parents were actively involved in school initiatives to promote fruit and vegetables, children's intake of vegetables was higher, 117 (95 % CI 107, 128) g/d, compared with those where parents were not involved, 105 (95 % CI 96·2, 114) g/d. In schools that achieved a high total score (derived from five key types of initiatives to promote fruit and vegetables in school) children ate more vegetables, 123 (95 % CI 114, 132) g/d, compared with those that did not, 97·7 (95 % CI 88·7, 107) g/d. Gardening, parental involvement and other activities promoting fruit and vegetables to children in school may be associated with increased intake of vegetables but not fruit. These effects were independent of deprivation status and ethnicity.

  7. The School Nurse's Ability to Detect and Support Abused Children: A Trust-Creating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Lisbet Engh; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse has negative health consequences. Early detection and preventive measures lead to avoidance of prolonged and more complex problems. School nurses have a child protection role and should pay attention to vulnerable children. Through health dialogues and other interactions with pupils, school nurses have the opportunity to detect child…

  8. evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study examines anthropometric indices of school-age children in five .... was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using standard medical techniques with a tape ..... Bundy DA, Drake LJ and C Burbano School food, politics and child health.

  9. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x10 13 neutron cm -2 sec - 1 , (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  10. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  11. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  12. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    in the social everyday life children moves across. To understand the way in which children participate within the school start, we need to know about children’s participation possibilities within the social everyday life of the school and further more to be informed of the social life and the children’s former...

  13. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  14. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  15. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  16. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  17. Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Psychological Problems in Junior School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…

  18. A New Challenge for School Counselors: Children Who Are Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawser, Sherri; Markos, Patricia A.; Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Higgins, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the legislative provisions and mandates governing the education of children and youth who are homeless and the barriers to education presented by school requirements. Highlights the effects of homelessness on children and youth and the role the school counselor should play in the provision of services for them. (Contains 55 references.)…

  19. Musculoskeletal pain and backpack usage among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School children travel to and from school on daily basis. Active transportation such as walking, running and cycling contribute significantly to the increase in physical activity, health, and wellbeing in children. However, there has been a growing concern on the effect of carrying heavy backpack on the health of ...

  20. The Effect of Preschool on Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…

  1. A School Reentry Program for Chronically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel-Prevatt, Frances F.; Heffer, Robert W.; Prevatt, Bruce C.; Miner, Jennifer; Young-Saleme, Tammi; Horgan, Daniel; Lopez, Molly A.; Frankel, Lawrence; Rae, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a school reintegration program aimed at overcoming the numerous psychological, physical, environmental, and family-based deterrents to school reentry for chronically ill children. The program uses a systems approach to children's mental health with an emphasis on multiple aspects of the child's environment (i.e., family, medical…

  2. Refractive errors in school children in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refractive errors in school children in Onitsha, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Objectives: To determine the incidence and pattern of ametropia among school children. Materials and ... The cooperation of parents and teachers is vital in identifying and treating this modifiable cause of poor academic performance and learning difficulties.

  3. Frequency of bedwetting among primary school children in Benha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The overall objective was health promotion of school children, and the specific objectives were: to determine the frequency and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis (NE) among school children in Qaluobia governorate Egypt, and to examine its associations with behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects and ...

  4. Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P&lt;0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P&lt;0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

  5. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  6. The Development of a Questionnaire on Academic Hardiness for Late Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to develop a questionnaire to measure dimensions of academic hardiness in late elementary school children. Questionnaires were distributed to 1474 children. After a set of exploratory factor analyses in studies 1 and 2, the confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 9-factor solution which…

  7. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  8. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  9. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p<0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156

  10. Prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faride Malekshahi

    2008-10-01

    problems. Anxiety, withdrawal and social isolation, too much irrelevant peevishing and crying were higher in urban children, and behavioural problems such as, urinary incontinence, night fear, teeth gnashing, hitting the head against the wall, sleep disorders were higher in rural children. Some of the children behavioural problems such as urinary incontinence, stammering, onychophagia and … had a significant relation with sex, as well as between age, job, educational level of the parents, birth rank, and some behavioural problems a significant relation was observed. Conclusion: These findings showed that most of the pre-school children somehow suffer from behavioural problems, they need more attention and support in the area of mental health which require an accurate and comprehensive planning. So study of children mental health level in the stations of measurement and mental health services in the schools, and education to teachers and parents in order to prevent behavioural disorders, and ontime diagnosis and treatment are necessary.

  11. Developing a Measure of Traffic Calming Associated with Elementary School Students’ Active Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Lisa M.; Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J.; Abuzayd, Haytham; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a measure of traffic calming with nationally available GIS data from NAVTEQ and to validate the traffic calming index with the percentage of children reported by school administrators as walking or biking to school, using data from a nationally representative sample of elementary schools in 2006-2010. Specific models, with and without correlated errors, examined associations of objective GIS measures of the built environment, nationally available from...

  12. Lung function and functional capacity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S da Silva Dias de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Six-minute walk test (TC6’ and peak expiratory flow (PEF can be influenced by variables like gender, age and body mass index (BMI. In the school context, these tests can identify losses caused by sedentary habits and/or manifestation of overweight/obesity. Nevertheless, although widely studied in the adult context, they have not been properly clarified in the child public. Objective: To assess the PEF and TC6’ between students in the public and private network and to correlate them with factors like age, gender and BMI. Methods: 39 male and female children between eight and ten years of age were selected for the study. The TC6’ was held at a sports court. The child was instructed to walk at maximum speed for six minutes and the PEF test took place in accordance to the recommendations by Pereira et al (1. Results: No significant correlation was found between the BMI and the PEF and TC6’ scores. No significant correlation was found between sex and PEF, with measures within normal parameters for the entire sample. The EPF measures did not influence the distance walked in the TC6’. A significant correlation was found between sex and distance walked in the TC6’ only among male children attending public schools. Conclusion: Both sex and BMI did not influence the PEF measures which, in turn, does not seem to have influenced the distance the sample walked in the TC6’. Also concerning the TC6’, only the children from public school reached the normal scores proposed in the literature.

  13. High-resolution measurements of face-to-face contact patterns in a primary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Stehlé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little quantitative information is available on the mixing patterns of children in school environments. Describing and understanding contacts between children at school would help quantify the transmission opportunities of respiratory infections and identify situations within schools where the risk of transmission is higher. We report on measurements carried out in a French school (6-12 years children, where we collected data on the time-resolved face-to-face proximity of children and teachers using a proximity-sensing infrastructure based on radio frequency identification devices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on face-to-face interactions were collected on Thursday, October 1(st and Friday, October 2(nd 2009. We recorded 77,602 contact events between 242 individuals (232 children and 10 teachers. In this setting, each child has on average 323 contacts per day with 47 other children, leading to an average daily interaction time of 176 minutes. Most contacts are brief, but long contacts are also observed. Contacts occur mostly within each class, and each child spends on average three times more time in contact with classmates than with children of other classes. We describe the temporal evolution of the contact network and the trajectories followed by the children in the school, which constrain the contact patterns. We determine an exposure matrix aimed at informing mathematical models. This matrix exhibits a class and age structure which is very different from the homogeneous mixing hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: We report on important properties of the contact patterns between school children that are relevant for modeling the propagation of diseases and for evaluating control measures. We discuss public health implications related to the management of schools in case of epidemics and pandemics. Our results can help define a prioritization of control measures based on preventive measures, case isolation, classes and school closures, that

  14. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  15. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Hutter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5 were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]. Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM. Results: Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl-phosphate (TCEP in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. Conclusions: POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  16. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.

  17. Caries Risk Assessment in School Children Using Reduced Cariogram Model

    OpenAIRE

    Taqi, Muhammad; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Ab-Murat, Norintan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the percentage of children with low, moderate and high caries risk; and to determine the predictors of caries risk amongst 11-12 year old Pakistani school children. Methods: Subjects’ caries risk was assessed using the Cariogram programme. The survey was done among school children in Bhakkar district of Punjab, Pakistan. Caries and plaque level were assessed using the DMFT and Sillnes and Loe indices respectively, while diet content and frequency were assessed using a t...

  18. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  19. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  20. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  1. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stacey L.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

  2. Working School Children in a Nigerian Community: Revisiting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence, risk factors and effects of work on school performance and health consequences of child labour among school children in a rapidly urbanising community in south west Nigeria was assessed. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 386 Junior Secondary School students was conducted.

  3. Prevalence of geohelminth in soil and primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of geohelminthes infections among primary school children aged 8 to 13 years was conducted in four selected primary schools in Panda Development Area, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of four hundred and eighty (480) soil samples collected from the four schools, 314 (82.63) were found to be positive ...

  4. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  5. A comparison of school injuries between children with and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Fillmore, Erin; Chen, Alex; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare rates, nature, and mechanisms of school injuries in children with and without disabilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with repeated measures of 269 919 children with and without disabilities who were enrolled in 35 adapted schools from a large urban school district. Reports of injuries sustained from 1994 to 1998 were collected by the district's insurance division, and disability was assessed using special education guidelines determined by the California Department of Education. A generalized estimating equations model was used to estimate rate ratios, accounting for the repeated, nested nature of the data. Children with disabilities had more than double the rate of injury reported than children without disabilities (incidence density ratio [IDR] 2.3, 95% CI, 2.2-2.5). Almost one third of these injuries were due to fights, roughhousing, and assaults. Among all disabled children, those with orthopedic disabilities had the highest risk, with rates over 5 times that of children without disabilities (IDR 5.4, 95% CI, 4.4-6.6). Children with cognitive disabilities had comparatively lower rates of injury than children with physical disabilities. For children with disabilities, physical impairment may play a greater role than cognitive impairment in managing risk for injury at school. Individual education programs (IEP), developed for children in special education, could be tailored to include injury prevention strategies. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A school-based physical activity promotion intervention in children: rationale and study protocol for the PREVIENE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercedor, Pablo; Villa-González, Emilio; Ávila-García, Manuel; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Pérez-López, Isaac José; García-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Mandic, Sandra; Palomares-Cuadros, Juan; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Huertas-Delgado, Francisco Javier

    2017-09-26

    The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions) to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age) from six schools in Granada (Spain) will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school) or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children). Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry), physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery), and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference). Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires), academic achievement (grades from the official school's records), and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires). To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.

  7. Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiras, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

  8. Factors associated with enuresis among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of treatment in 89(41.6%), 42 (19.6%) and 6 (2.8%) children respectively. Conclusion: Arousal difficulty, positive family history of enuresis and family stress were common risk factors for enuresis. Also, enuretic children had higher rates of poor school performance compared with non-enuretic children. The inappropriate ...

  9. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  10. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  11. 'My journey to school': photovoice accounts of rural children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A photographic technique, where children were entrusted with disposable cameras to act as recorders of salient places and spaces of their school journey was employed. Based on children's photographs, individual and focus group interviews were conducted to engage children in dialogue and discussion about the ...

  12. Peer Dynamics among Marquesan School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…

  13. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly.

  14. Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F; Marsh, Herbert W; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  15. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sunyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development.We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories via computerized tests (n = 10,112. Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm] was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor and inside the classroom (indoor simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability, superior working memory (three-back detectability, and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024. Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%. Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely

  16. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely; however

  17. Impact of sleep on executive functioning in school-age children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K

    2018-06-01

    Sleep problems have an impact on executive functioning in the general population. While children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for sleep problems, the impact of these sleep problems on executive functioning in school-age children with DS is less well documented. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports and neuropsychology assessments of executive functioning among school-age children with DS. Thirty school-age children with DS wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Children completed a neuropsychology assessment of their inhibitory control, ability to shift and working memory. Their parents and teachers completed rating scales to assess these same constructs of executive functioning. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), but not actigraph-measured sleep period or efficiency, were predictive of parent reports of concerns with inhibitory control, shifting and working memory, and of teacher reports of inhibitory control. No measure of sleep was predictive of executive functioning as measured by the neuropsychology assessment. The study findings corroborate the preliminary literature that parent-reported sleep problems are related to executive functioning in school-age children with DS, particularly in the area of inhibitory control across home and school. These findings have implications for understanding contributing factors to academic performance and school behaviour in school-age children with DS. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hand sanitiser provision for reducing illness absences in primary school children: a cluster randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Priest

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for transmission of infectious diseases offered by the school environment are likely to be an important contributor to the rates of infectious disease experienced by children. This study aimed to test whether the addition of hand sanitiser in primary school classrooms compared with usual hand hygiene would reduce illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This parallel-group cluster randomised trial took place in 68 primary schools, where schools were allocated using restricted randomisation (1:1 ratio to the intervention or control group. All children (aged 5 to 11 y in attendance at participating schools received an in-class hand hygiene education session. Schools in the intervention group were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitiser dispensers in classrooms for the winter school terms (27 April to 25 September 2009. Control schools received only the hand hygiene education session. The primary outcome was the number of absence episodes due to any illness among 2,443 follow-up children whose caregivers were telephoned after each absence from school. Secondary outcomes measured among follow-up children were the number of absence episodes due to specific illness (respiratory or gastrointestinal, length of illness and illness absence episodes, and number of episodes where at least one other member of the household became ill subsequently (child or adult. We also examined whether provision of sanitiser was associated with experience of a skin reaction. The number of absences for any reason and the length of the absence episode were measured in all primary school children enrolled at the schools. Children, school administrative staff, and the school liaison research assistants were not blind to group allocation. Outcome assessors of follow-up children were blind to group allocation. Of the 1,301 and 1,142 follow-up children in the hand sanitiser and control groups, respectively, the

  19. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  20. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    ) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children.......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint...

  1. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children.\\ud Method. Children (8–11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N ¼ 27) and low (N ¼ 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to\\ud problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs(confidence and perceived ...

  2. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  3. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  4. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN BLIND CHILDREN: ISFAHAN ABABASIR BOARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAJAI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate dietary intake causes malnutrition associated with poor physical and mental development, specially in children. This study evaluated the nutritional status in blind children in Ababasir Boarding Center (a boarding school in Isfahan city. Methods: A 72 hours food regimen survey was measured in 50 subjects (boys and girls by weighting method. The anthropometric data was collected to compare with NCHS normal data. Results: Energy intake was less than 75 percent RDA in all the subjects and the amounts of animal protein intake was also little. Chronic malnutrition was more prevalent. Discussion: Althought the energy intake was lower than RDA, but it did not cause under weight among them probably because of reduced physical activity due to their disability and inadequate high quality protein and other nutrients probably could be the major cause in chronic malnutrition.

  5. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  6. Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance of a School Readiness Screener by Gender and Parent Education Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Matthew; Mayworm, Ashley; Furlong, Michael J.; Grimm, Ryan; Rebelez, Jennica

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP), a brief screening tool designed for use as a universal school readiness assessment. Teachers rated the readiness of 10,031 children during the first month of kindergarten in four ethnically diverse, medium-sized school districts…

  7. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  8. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2014-02-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  9. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  10. Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Background Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children’s physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children’s peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children’s peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. Methods A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls’ and four boys’ schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. Results 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed

  11. Personality traits as predictors of children's social adjustment to school entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous and longitudinal predictive relations between three blocks of predictors and measures of children's social adjustment (social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviour after the school entry were investigated. The first block of predictors captures expressions of child personality dimensions as perceived by pre-school teachers/assistant school teachers, the second block contains parental education and self-evaluations of parenting in mothers and fathers of the target children, and the third block refers to children's pre-school attendance prior to school entry. Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale, school teachers reported on firstgraders' social adjustment. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences was employed to assess personality when the target children were 3, 4, 5, and 6 years old, while at ages 3 and 6 their parents filled-in the Family Environment Questionnaire to provide self-reports on parenting. The blocks of predictors jointly explain a relatively large portion of variance in firstgraders' social adjustment both contemporaneously and longitudinally. Personality characteristics significantly predict all of the criteria measures, while family environment and pre-school attendance explain additional variance in internalizing behaviour (depressive, anxious, isolated, and dependent behaviour, over and above the contribution of personality. Perceptions of children's conscientiousness-openness at the beginning of the school year as well as through early childhood and of their agreeableness in preschool predict teacher ratings of the firstgraders' social competence. Externalizing behaviour (angry, aggressive, egotistical and oppositional behaviour was consistently predicted by low conscientiousness-openness, extraversion-emotional stability, and low agreeableness. Finally, low conscientiousness-openness in school, low extraversion-emotional stability in preschool, maternal inefficient

  12. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. Methods A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects' were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. Results The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M. This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104 and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M. The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability. Conclusion Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc. is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marjory; Haby, Michelle; Galvin, Leah; Swinburn, Boyd; Carter, Robert

    2009-09-14

    To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB) program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects') were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M). This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104) and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M). The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability. Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc.) is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.

  15. An after-school exercise program improves fitness, and body composition in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Logue, Julie; Deininger, Heidi; Clark, R Randall; Curtis, Vanessa; Montague, Paul; Baldwin, Sharon

    2011-07-01

    Reduced cardiovascular fitness (CVF) is a risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. It has previously shown that a school-based fitness curriculum can improve CVF, and other health indicators in middle school aged children. Whether an afterschool program improves CVF and other health markers in elementary-school children is unresolved. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether an on-site afterschool-based fitness program improves body composition, cardiovascular fitness level, in elementary school children. 80 elementary school children were evaluated in a "fitness-oriented" afterschool program managed by the local YMCA. Children underwent evaluation of cardiovascular fitness by maximal VO 2 treadmill testing and body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at baseline (prior to the school-year) and again at end of the school year. Findings revealed that, at baseline, children had a mean age of 8.8 years, BMI of 18.7± 3, with a maximal VO 2 of 40.03 ± 7.6 ml/kg/min, and percent body fat of 28.7 ± 7%. After a 9-month intervention, children maximal VO 2 increased to 44.8 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min (p=0.04) and percent body fat decreased to 25.8 ± 6.2% (p=0.033). The study concluded that on-site afterschool programming focusing on fitness improved body composition and cardiovascular fitness, in elementary school children. Combined with prior studies, these data demonstrate that afterschool-based fitness curricula can benefit both obese and non-obese children. It was therefore recommended that, partnerships with schools to promote fitness even outside of school time should be a part of a school approach to improving children's health.

  16. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  17. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mekel S.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  18. Parental School Involvement in Relation to Children's Grades and Adaptation to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edwin T.; Goldberg, Wendy A.

    2008-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, it is important to examine linkages among key settings in the child's life. The current study focuses on parents' involvement in children's education both at school and at home. Ninety-one families with school-aged children (91 fathers and 91 mothers) participated in a survey study assessing the levels of parental…

  19. Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

  20. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets: Children's Perspectives on School Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-06-25

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9-10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children's favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children's motivation to actively participate. Children's suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children's perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children's wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption.

  1. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  2. Availability of school health services for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, A M; Malakoff, M E

    1997-10-01

    A survey to assess availability of school health services was distributed to 221 directors of Schools of the 21st Century, an educational model that provides integrated services to children and families. Of this distribution, 126 (57%) surveys were returned; 88% of respondents reported they provided some type of school health services for their students; 75% of schools had access to school nursing services, yet only 33% had a school nurse on-site; 50% had less than daily access to a school nurse. Despite a high reported prevalence of physical and mental health problems, other services such as acute care, nutrition counseling, dental screenings, or mental health services were provided less frequently. Barriers perceived as problematic for schools providing health services included inadequate funding, limited parental awareness, and opposition by school or community members. Respondents believed transportation, limited financial resources, and inadequate health insurance were barriers to care for children and families. Among this sample of schools, school health services varied in availability and comprehensiveness. Educators, health providers, and parents must work together to provide improved school health services for children.

  3. Mental Health Problems in a School Setting in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2016-03-18

    10-20% of children and adolescents have a mental health problem of some type. Manifestations such as attention deficits, cognitive disturbances, lack of motivation, and negative mood all adversely affect scholastic development. It is often unclear what factors associated with school affect children's mental development and what preventive measures and interventions at school might be effective. This review is based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases. The prevalence of hyperkinetic disorder is 1-6%. Its main manifestations are motor hyperactivity, an attention deficit, and impulsive behavior. Learning disorders such as dyscalculia and dyslexia affect 4-6% of children each, while 4-5% of children and adolescents suffer from depression, which is twice as prevalent in girls as in boys. Mental health problems increase the risk of repeating a grade, truancy, and dropping out of school. The risk of developing an internalizing or externalizing mental health problem can be lessened by changes in the school environment and by the implementation of evidencebased school programs. Physicians, in collaboration with school social workers and psychologists, should help teachers recognize and contend with mental health problems among the children and adolescents whom they teach, to enable the timely detection of stress factors at school and the initiation of the necessary measures and aids. In particular, the school-entrance examination and screening for risk factors at school can make a positive contribution. Evidence-based preventive programs should be implemented in schools, and beneficial changes of the school environment should be a further goal.

  4. A school-based physical activity promotion intervention in children: rationale and study protocol for the PREVIENE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tercedor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.

  5. Does School Mobility Place Elementary School Children at Risk for Lower Math Achievement? The Mediating Role of Cognitive Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children’s math achievement in fourth grade and that children’s cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children’s math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children’s early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children’s math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children’s math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children’s cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children. PMID:26436870

  6. Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

  7. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, Nadia M; Rasheed, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)

  8. Measure for measure: curriculum requirements and children's achievement in music education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Trevor; Bond, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Children in all public primary schools in Queensland, Australia have weekly music lessons designed to develop key musical concepts such as reading, writing, singing and playing simple music notation. Their understanding of basic musical concepts is developed through a blend of kinaesthetic, visual and auditory experiences. In keeping with the pedagogical principles outlined by the Hungarian composer, Zoltan Kodaly, early musical experiences are based in singing well-known children's chants - usually restricted to notes of the pentatonic scale. In order to determine the extent to which primary school children's musical understandings developed in response to these carefully structured developmental learning experiences, the Queensland Primary Music Curriculum was examined to yield a set of over 70 indicators of musical understanding in the areas of rhythm, melody and part-work,the essential skills for choral singing. Data were collected from more than 400 children's attempts at elicited musical performances. Quantitative data analysis procedures derived from the Rasch model for measurement were used to establish the sequence of children's mastery of key musical concepts. Results suggested that while the music curriculum did reflect the general development of musical concepts, the grade allocation for a few concepts needed to be revised. Subsequently, children's performances over several years were also analysed to track the musical achievements of students over time. The empirical evidence confirmed that children's musical development was enhanced by school learning and that indicators can be used to identify both outstanding and atypical development of musical understanding. It was concluded that modest adjustments to the music curriculum might enhance children's learning opportunities in music.

  9. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Methods This study is based on prospective data from 10 public schools, six intervention and four control schools matched according to the uptake area of the schools and socio-economic position of the parents. Intervention schools provided four additional PE lessons per week, where as control schools...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans......, Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, pubertal stage and fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010). Information on parental education level, household income and birth weight were collected from questionnaires during the first school year. Results...

  10. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  11. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  12. [Weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in first-year primary school children: the AVall study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llargués, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Anna; Vila, Maria; José Pérez, M; Martínez-Mateo, Francesc; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Castells, Conxa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in children attending the first year of primary school in the city of Granollers (Spain). We performed a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in the schools of the city of Granollers. All the children were born in 2000. Data were collected from September to October 2006. Weight and height were measured in each schoolchild. The parents completed a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and physical activity and the Krece Plus test. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index were used to define overweight and obesity. A total of 566 schoolchildren were included. The prevalence of overweight was 19.6% and that of obesity was 8.5%. Only 3.8% of the children had an adequate breakfast and 17.1% ate five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Some families consumed a low amount of fruit (22%), vegetables (37%), bread/pasta/ rice/cereals (14%), fish (32%), legumes (13%) and nuts (9%). Children who had lunch at school ate more fruits (38% vs 29%), vegetables (35% vs 25%) and fish (82% vs 73%) than those who did not have lunch at school. A total of 82% of the schoolchildren exercised regularly. A quarter of the children who participated in the study were overweight. The schoolchildren who had lunch at school had better dietary patterns. Inappropriate family habits can determine children's dietary habits.

  13. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  14. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  15. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  16. Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Riia; Huotilainen, Minna; Välimäki, Vesa; Esquef, Paulo A A; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2008-02-15

    The main focus of this study was to examine the relationship between musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills. We investigated whether children with superior performance in foreign language production represent musical sound features more readily in the preattentive level of neural processing compared with children with less-advanced production skills. Sound processing accuracy was examined in elementary school children by means of event-related potential (ERP) recordings and behavioral measures. Children with good linguistic skills had better musical skills as measured by the Seashore musicality test than children with less accurate linguistic skills. The ERP data accompany the results of the behavioral tests: children with good linguistic skills showed more pronounced sound-change evoked activation with the music stimuli than children with less accurate linguistic skills. Taken together, the results imply that musical and linguistic skills could partly be based on shared neural mechanisms.

  17. Measuring School Foodservice Workers’ Perceptions of Organizational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    School foodservice workers (SFW) are a direct link to children eating school meals. SFW who perceive positive and supportive organizational culture at their school nutrition departments also may perceive that such environments foster their own promotion of healthful food choices by students. To date...

  18. No More Bullying: An Analysis of Primary School Children's Drawings of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…

  19. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  20. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status have powerful influences on a child's ... well-being and cognitive development of school children. Students who ... Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria. Abstract.

  1. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  2. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  3. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant gender difference in prevalence between boys. (67.8%) ... species were identified in DRSTP school children, of which 9 species were pathogenic and the remaining 3 were ... with lower scores on tests of mental performance and.

  5. Frequency of bedwetting among primary school children in Benha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf H. Mohammed

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... Objectives: The overall objective was health promotion of school children, and the specific .... A Chinese study reported that the prevalence .... The attitudes of ... Pelvic floor exercises should be done and the child had to be.

  6. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  7. Antibiotics detected in urines and adipogenesis in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Wang, Bin; Fang, Hong; Fu, Chaowei; Tang, Chuanxi; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Ying; He, Gengsheng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Although antibiotic use during early life has been demonstrated to be related to the altered adipogenesis in later life, limited data are available for the effect of antibiotic exposure in school children on adiposity from various sources, including from the use or contaminated food or drinking water. To explore the association between the internal exposure of antibiotics from various sources and adipogenesis in school children using the biomonitoring of urinary antibiotics. After 586 school children aged 8-11years were selected from Shanghai in 2013, total urinary concentrations (free and conjugated) of 21 common antibiotics from six categories (macrolides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and phenicols), including five human antibiotics (HAs), two antibiotics preferred as HA, four veterinary antibiotics (VAs), and ten antibiotics preferred as VA, were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of antibiotics were used to assess their exposure. Overweight or obesity was determined by the body mass index or waist circumference-based criteria deriving from national data. All 21 antibiotics were found in urines with the overall detection frequency of 79.6%. The multinomial logistic regression analyses showed the significant associations of overweight and obesity with the exposure to VAs and antibiotics preferred as VA, but not with HAs or antibiotics preferred as HA. After adjusted for a number of obesity-relevant variables, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of BMI-based obesity risk of tertiles 2 and 3 of urinary concentrations relative to tertile 1 were respectively 2.54 (1.27, 5.07) and 2.92 (1.45, 5.87) for florfenicol, 0.57 (0.12, 2.63) and 3.63 (1.41, 9.32) for trimethoprim, and 3.00 (1.56, 5.76) and 1.99 (0.99, 4.01) for sum of veterinary antibiotics. Similar results were found when the outcome used WC-based obesity

  8. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  9. Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, Eva; Schuez, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children

  10. Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435-449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399-1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development.

  11. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Niclasen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use. Design. The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11–12 year-olds, and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23–2.06 (p<0.001, for reporting physical symptoms 1.34 (95% CI 1.06–1.68 (p=0.01 and for medicine use 1.79 (95% CI 1.42–2.26 (p<0.001. Stratification on age groups suggested that children in different age groups experience different health consequences of food insecurity. The oldest children reported food insecurity less often and experienced less negative health effects compared to the younger children. Conclusions. All 3 measures of health were negatively associated to the occurrence of food insecurity in Greenlandic school children aged 11–17. Food security must be seen as a public health issue of concern, and policies should be enforced to prevent food poverty particularly among boys, younger school children and children from low affluence

  12. Unique contributions of dynamic versus global measures of parent-child interaction quality in predicting school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Herbers, Janette E; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the unique contribution of microsocial and global measures of parent-child positive coregulation (PCR) in predicting children's behavioral and social adjustment in school. Using a community sample of 102 children, ages 4-6, and their parents, we conducted nested path analytic models to identify the unique effects of 2 measures of PCR on school outcomes. Microsocial PCR independently predicted fewer externalizing and inattention/impulsive behaviors in school. Global PCR did not uniquely relate to children's behavioral and social adjustment outcomes. Household socioeconomic status was related to both microsocial and global measures of PCR, but not directly associated with school outcomes. Findings illustrate the importance of using dynamic measures of PCR based on microsocial coding to further understand how the quality of parent-child interaction is related to children's self-regulatory and social development during school transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kaufman-Shriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.

  14. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children--A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar R; Havik, Toril; Havik, Odd E

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the external correlates of RAD/DSED in this sample? The study sample included 122 foster children aged 6-10 years. Foster parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the RAD/DSED-scale from the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Child protection caseworkers completed a questionnaire regarding exposure to maltreatment and placement history. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the RAD/DSED items identified a good fit for a model with a two-factor structure, which is congruent with the DSM-5 definition of RAD and DSED. A new CFA model, which included the RAD and DSED factors together with the four problem factors of the SDQ (emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems), also demonstrated a good fit with our data. RAD and DSED were associated with the SDQ Impact scale and help seeking behavior. This was partly explained by the SDQ externalizing and peer problem subscales. Our findings lend support for the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD and DSED as separate dimensions of child psychopathology. Thus, the assessment of RAD and DSED provides information beyond other mental health problems.

  15. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia Among School Children in Kenitra, Northwest of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M

    2015-04-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.

  16. Color Vision Defects in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.

  17. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Measuring emotional intelligence of medical school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrothers, R M; Gregory, S W; Gallagher, T J

    2000-05-01

    To discuss the development, pilot testing, and analysis of a 34-item semantic differential instrument for measuring medical school applicants' emotional intelligence (the EI instrument). The authors analyzed data from the admission interviews of 147 1997 applicants to a six-year BS/MD program that is composed of three consortium universities. They compared the applicants' scores on traditional admission criteria (e.g., GPA and traditional interview assessments) with their scores on the EI instrument (which comprised five dimensions of emotional intelligence), breaking the data out by consortium university (each of which has its own educational ethos) and gender. They assessed the EI instrument's reliability and validity for assessing noncognitive personal and interpersonal qualities of medical school applicants. The five dimensions of emotional intelligence (maturity, compassion, morality, sociability, and calm disposition) indicated fair to excellent internal consistency: reliability coefficients were .66 to .95. Emotional intelligence as measured by the instrument was related to both being female and matriculating at the consortium university that has an educational ethos that values the social sciences and humanities. Based on this pilot study, the 34-item EI instrument demonstrates the ability to measure attributes that indicate desirable personal and interpersonal skills in medical school applicants.

  19. Mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy and children's adjustment in grade school: The role of children's sustained attention and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore

    2017-09-01

    On the basis of longitudinal data across 9 years, this study examined the contribution of sustained attention and executive function to the poor cognitive and socioemotional adjustment of school-age children whose mothers had depressive symptoms during the child's infancy. Mothers (N = 1,364) reported depressive symptoms across their child's infancy and early childhood. Maternal sensitivity was observed during laboratory interactions at 36 months. At school entry children's sustained attention and executive function were measured with computer-generated tasks. In third grade, cognitive and socioemotional adjustment was assessed with standardized tests and the reports of fathers and teachers. Using structural equation modeling, findings showed that (a) exposure to mothers' depressive symptoms during the child's infancy, independent of later exposure, uniquely predicted children's poor sustained attention and executive function at school entry; (b) deficits in children's sustained attention and executive function occurred because of depressed mothers' tendencies to display insensitive parenting behavior; and (c) these deficits explained in part relations between exposure to mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy and children's poor cognitive and socioemotional adjustment in third grade. Findings highlight the potential importance of children's exposure to mothers' depressive symptoms specifically during the child's infancy for disrupting the development of fundamental cognitive processes that may underlie the adjustment problems children of depressed mothers display in middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. School Bus Transportation of Children With Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2018-05-01

    School systems are responsible for ensuring that children with special needs are safely transported on all forms of federally approved transportation provided by the school system. A plan to provide the most current and proper support to children with special transportation needs should be developed by the Individualized Education Program team, including the parent, school transportation director, and school nurse, in conjunction with physician orders and recommendations. With this statement, we provide current guidance for the protection of child passengers with specific health care needs. Guidance that applies to general school transportation should be followed, inclusive of staff training, provision of nurses or aides if needed, and establishment of a written emergency evacuation plan as well as a comprehensive infection control program. Researchers provide the basis for recommendations concerning occupant securement for children in wheelchairs and children with other special needs who are transported on a school bus. Pediatricians can help their patients by being aware of guidance for restraint systems for children with special needs and by remaining informed of new resources. Pediatricians can also play an important role at the state and local level in the development of school bus specifications. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Phonemic Awareness Skills of Cochlear Implant Children and Children with Normal Hearing in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dashtelei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.

  3. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  4. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  5. Prevalence of obesity among the school-going children of Lahore and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Javaid, A.; Mehmood, M.; Anwar, A.; Anwar, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Joiya, H.U.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity among the school- going children (6 and 7 grade) of Lahore and ascertain the associated factors. Method: A descriptive study with sample size of 293 children conducted over a period of four months in two private sector schools of Lahore. Information was gathered by the help of a pre designed questionnaire after getting formal consent from parents. Children included in the study were healthy with no reported chronic illness. Body weight was measured in minimal clothing using a weight scale; body height was measured in erect posture without shoes using a stadiometer. Obesity, underweight and overweight were defined by plotting BMI against age (in months and years) on WHO BMI-for-age (5-19 years [percentiles]) charts. Results: Out of 293 children 11.9% were obese (more than 97 percentile) while 21.8% were overweight (85 97 percentile). Among obese children 74.3% were found to watch TV for 1-2 hours daily while 25.7% watch TV for 3-4 hours. 48.6% of obese children did not participate in any field sports while 34.3% have less than 3 hours participation in field sports. Among parents of obese children, 60% were found to have little or no influence on their children's food intake at school whereas 22.9% parents of obese children never advise them against eating junk food. Parents think that ban on advertisements promoting unhealthy foods (75.1%) and use of popular media characters in promoting healthy foods (83.6%) and exercise can help in preventing obesity in children. Conclusion: This study shows that high prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in private schools has direct relationship with decreased physical activity and other factors like watching TV, role of media and lack of diet control by parents. (author)

  6. Active Living: development and quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-centered physical activity intervention for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, M W J; de Vries, S I; de Vries, N K; Kremers, S P J

    2015-12-29

    The worldwide increase in the rates of childhood overweight and physical inactivity requires successful prevention and intervention programs for children. The aim of the Active Living project is to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior of Dutch primary school children by developing and implementing tailored, multicomponent interventions at and around schools. In this project, school-centered interventions have been developed at 10 schools in the south of the Netherlands, using a combined top-down and bottom-up approach in which a research unit and a practice unit continuously interact. The interventions consist of a combination of physical and social interventions tailored to local needs of intervention schools. The process and short- and long-term effectiveness of the interventions will be evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design in which 10 intervention schools are matched with 10 control schools. Baseline and follow-up measurements (after 12 and 24 months) have been conducted in grades 6 and 7 and included accelerometry, GPS, and questionnaires. Primary outcome of the Active Living study is the change in physical activity levels, i.e. sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and counts-per-minute (CPM). Multilevel regression analyses will be used to assess the effectiveness of isolated and combined physical and social interventions on children's PA levels. The current intervention study is unique in its combined approach of physical and social environmental PA interventions both at school(yard)s as well as in the local neighborhood around the schools. The strength of the study lies in the quasi-experimental design including objective measurement techniques, i.e. accelerometry and GPS, combined with more subjective techniques, i.e. questionnaires, implementation logbooks, and neighborhood observations. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25497687 (registration date 21

  7. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  8. New York City's Children First: Lessons in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…

  9. 'We are never invited': School children using collage to envision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws on a study with school children in rural KwaZulu-Natal and explores their constructions of care and support in the age of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). A qualitative approach using collage, a visual arts-based method was used with 20 school ...

  10. Foodborne illness among school children in Ga east, Accra | Malm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A food borne illness was reported in Ga- East district of Greater Accra Region among school children in May, 2007 after eating food provided at school. The objective of the investigation was to determine the source, mode of contamination and the causative agent. Methods: A case-control study was conducted, ...

  11. Children and Learning Climate at Home and at School: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the factors which affect the learning climate of children both at home and school. A total sample of 373 students, comprising 118 males and 185 females from various basic and secondary schools in the regions of Ghana were randomly selected for the study. The instrument was a 25 ...

  12. Oral health status of school children in Mbarara, Uganda | Batwala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The oral hygiene of school children was poor with high plaque prevalence demonstrating a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to ...

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Methods: In April 2003, fresh stool samples were collected from 259 students enrolled in two primary schools located in southeast of Lake Langano.

  14. Children's Rights, School Exclusion and Alternative Educational Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…

  15. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  16. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.

    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of

  17. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  18. Ergonomics evaluation of school bags in Tehran female primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Mokhtarinia, Hamidreza; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Scuffham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    More than 90% of the elementary school students in the world and most of the Iranian students use backpacks. Heavy school bags, failure to apply ergonomics standards in student's backpacks, and also mismatch between anthropometrics dimensions and schoolbag size are important issues for children's health. The purpose of this study was to gather baseline information on the average weight carried by female primary students. It also aimed to evaluate ergonomics standards for student backpacks. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 212 Iranian girl students aged 6- 11 years. Body weight and bag weight were measured with electronic scales and body mass index calculated with WHO software 2007. A questionnaire was constructed to gather information about the backpacks. Body dimensions were measured with VICON motion Analyze system (460). Ergonomics factors were recorded using a checklist. 80.8% of the students used a backpack at a higher weight than recommended by the standards of 10% of body weight. The most common type of schoolbag used was double strap packs (92.5%). The majority of the students carried packs on their backs; however, most of them did not make any adjustments (79.8%). The results have shown a mismatch between the anthropometric measures and the student's backpack dimensions. Parents, students and school staff should be informed about these critical issues as well as suitable controls should be implemented in buying and using the bags.

  19. The contribution of schools to supporting the well being of children affected by HIV in eastern Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pufall, Erica L.; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:Schools are often cited as a source of support for orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS in populations experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and severe poverty. Here we investigate the success of schools at including and supporting the well being of vulnerable children in rural Z...... quality may enhance the well being of primary school-age children in eastern Zimbabwe. Local community context also plays an important role in child well being....... measures of school quality (one general and one HIV-specific) and use multivariable regression to test whether these were associated with improved educational outcomes and well being for vulnerable children. Results:School quality was not associated with primary or secondary school attendance...

  20. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  1. Emergent Technological Literacy: What Do Children Bring to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, W. B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been very little research into children's technological practice in early childhood settings. This article describes four typical examples of the technological activity that occurs on a daily basis in New Zealand early childhood settings. It is suggested that children come to compulsory schooling with well-developed technological…

  2. Children's Time Use: Labor Divisions and Schooling in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Worker and Iron Status Evaluation are used to examine gendered patterns in children's time in market and nonmarket work, schooling, and leisure in Indonesia (N = 2,929). Boys spend more time in market work; girls spend more time in nonmarket work. Work responsibilities increase with age as well as gender differentials in children's…

  3. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  4. Nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu, Nigeria using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition in children can co-exist as under- and over-nutrition in the same population with varying attendant medical risks. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu North LGA, using anthropometry. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study ...

  5. Changes in the Nutritional Status of School Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...

  6. What Kind of School Board Member Would Help Homeless Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in every part of the United States. Federal legislation requires state plans for educating homeless children, but will provide less than $23 per child. Summarizes some of the state plans and suggests steps school boards can take to provide homeless children with public education. (MLF)

  7. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  8. Exploratory Talk, Argumentation and Reasoning in Mexican Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Zapata, Margarita Peon

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the effects of training primary school children in the use of a linguistic tool called "Exploratory Talk" (ET) on their capacity for argumentation. ET allows for reasoned confrontation and negotiation of points of view, making the reasoning visible in the talk. Eighty-eight Mexican children from the 5th and 6th grades…

  9. Health-related knowledge and behaviour of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a serious need for children to be informed about the negative influence of unhealthy living which has become part and parcel of the post-industrial contemporary society. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related knowledge and behaviour of senior primary school children in the Honeydew area, and ...

  10. Children of Incarcerated Parents: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, Priscilla; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent increase in prison populations has given rise to an unprecedented number of children in the school system with incarcerated parents. To cope with stressors before, during, or after parents' incarceration, children can exhibit a range of problematic and maladaptive behaviors. This article explores the negative behaviors these children…

  11. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  12. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  13. Sex Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among School Children in Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...

  14. Ramifications of Absent Parenting on School-going Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to explore the psycho-educational implications of parental migration on school going children in Masvingo, urban. The study further explored how these children adjust to parental migration. This study used a mixed methods approach to collect data, particularly employing the descriptive case study. A total ...

  15. Academic Performance of School Children With Epilepsy | Ibekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.

  16. Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

  17. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  18. Developing Children's Language Learner Strategies at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show…

  19. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind...... the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital...

  20. Behaviour problems of children from care homes and special schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kaffemanas, Romanas

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents and analyzes data on the behaviour peculiarities, similarities and differences of students from 24 special schools and Care Homes in Lithuania. Most children with or without mental disability in institutional care have mild emotional and behaviour difficulties. However, slight emotional deviations, anti-social behaviour and school adjustment problems are more characteristic of the special school students. The inmates of Care Homes without mental disability are characterized...

  1. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  2. BODY MASS STATUS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmala khan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: School going children is important part of our society. Their growth, development and body weight is of utmost significance and presents general health status of a community and nation as a whole. For the assessment of nutritional status WHO Asian cuts-off BMI for age recommended BMI less than 18.5 kg/m considered underweight, 18.5-24.9 normal weight, more than 25 overweight. The objective of this study is to access body mass status among primary school going children of Hyderabad. Methods: The study design was cross sectional study in which different school of Hyderabad were selected to collect data (semi government and private sector.This study has assessed the body mass index between 7-14 years old age group of both genders of primary school going children of Hyderabad. BMI has calculated with the help of weight and height of the body. Result: In this study out of 100 children 10%were 7-8 year old 20% were 9-10 year old, 20% were 11-12year old and 30% were 13-14 year old. The analysis shows 80% were underweight (below 18.5, 18% were normal weight (18.5-24.9 and only 2% overweight (above 25 according to the Asian cut-off value of BMI for Asian children. When it was analyzed by gender 62% of the boys and 18% of the girls were underweight, 6% of boys and 12% out of girls were normal weight, 2% of the boys were overweight no girl found overweight in the study. In the above study 80% found underweight, 18% normal weight, 2% overweight. Conclusion: Under nutrition among the school going children is currently a health problem faced by Hyderabad school going children. There is need to be taken address these problems in order to prevent nation from nutritional deficiency among school going children and buildup a strong and healthy nation in future.

  3. Stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese school children: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Zhen, Yan; Lu, Li; Dong, Zhou Xu; Jun, Ye Xu; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2010-02-01

    The Chinese educational system is highly competitive from the start of primary school with great emphasis on academic performance and intolerance of failure. This study aimed to explore the pressures on primary schoolchildren, and to determine the relationship between these pressures and psychosomatic symptoms: abdominal pain and headache. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. 9- to 12-year-olds in primary schools in urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. Proportion of children with defined school-related stressors and frequency of psychosomatic illness. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2191 children. All stressors were common in boys and girls and in urban and rural schools. Eighty-one per cent worry 'a lot' about exams, 63% are afraid of the punishment of teachers, 44% had been physically bullied at least sometimes, with boys more often victims of bullying, and 73% of children are physically punished by parents. Over one-third of children reported psychosomatic symptoms at least once per week, 37% headache and 36% abdominal pain. All individual stressors were highly significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms. Children identified as highly stressed (in the highest quartile of the stress score) were four times as likely to have psychosomatic symptoms. The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently.

  4. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  5. Prevalence of trachoma in school children in the Marajó Archipelago, Brazilian Amazon, and the impact of the introduction of educational and preventive measures on the disease over eight years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Favacho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world and is associated with precarious living conditions in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of trachoma in three municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. In 2008, 2,054 schoolchildren from the public primary school system of the urban area of the region and their communicants were clinically examined; in 2016, 1,502 schoolchildren were examined. The positive cases seen during the clinical evaluation were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF laboratory tests. The presence of antibodies against the genus Chlamydia was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, and the serotypes were determined by microimmunofluorescence (MIF. In 2008, the prevalence of trachoma among schoolchildren was 3.4% (69 cases and it was more frequent in children between six and nine years of age and in females; among the communicants, a prevalence of 16.5% was observed. In 2016, three cases of trachoma were diagnosed (prevalence of 0.2%, found only in the municipality of Soure. The results of the present study showed that in 2008, trachoma had a low prevalence (3.4% among schoolchildren in the urban area of Marajó Archipelago; eight years after the first evaluation and the introduction of control and prevention measures (SAFE strategy, there was a drastic reduction in the number of cases (0.2%, demonstrating the need for constant monitoring and effective measures for the elimination of trachoma.

  6. Prevalence and etiological profile of short stature among school children in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaravel Velayutham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.

  7. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  8. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English...

  9. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P family characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P < .05). The results indicated that certain socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  10. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Children's Executive Function Attenuate the Link Between Maternal Intrusiveness and Internalizing Behaviors at School Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Bedford, Rachael; Wagner, Nicholas J; Propper, Cathi B

    2017-10-20

    The goal of this study was to examine the independent and interactive roles of harsh-intrusive maternal behaviors and children's executive function in the development of internalizing behaviors across the first years of school. A diverse sample (58% African American, 42% European American) of 137 children (48% female) was followed from kindergarten (age 5 years) through school entry (ages 6-7 years). At age 5, maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors were rated from a mother-child structured play task, and children completed 3 executive function tasks that measured inhibitory control, working memory, and attention set-shifting. Teachers reported on children's internalizing behaviors at ages 5, 6, and 7. Harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors at age 5 years were positively related to internalizing behaviors in the first years of school, whereas high executive function abilities at age 5 years were related to lower internalizing behaviors in the first years of school. In addition, executive function buffered the association between parenting behaviors and internalizing behaviors such that the link between harsh-intrusive parenting and child internalizing behaviors was evident only among children with low executive function and not among children with high executive function. Interventions that focus on reducing negative parenting behaviors and improving children's executive function may prevent internalizing behaviors from increasing during times of social and academic challenge.

  12. Malnutrition and clinical manifestations in school going children at district tharparkar, sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.; Channa, N.A.; Soomro, A.M.; Tunio, S.A.; Khand, T.U.; Memon, N.

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and clinical manifestation in school going children of Tharparkar District Methodology: The study subjects were school going children of class VI to X from different boys and girls schools at Mithi, District Tharparkar. A total number of 300 children with age range of 12-17 years, were included, out of which 150 (50%) were girls and 150 (50%) were boys. General physical examination was carried out for all the subjects. Estimated nutrient intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and iron was calculated by one week recall method. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, and height, were taken by using the standard operating procedures. Results: General physical examination revealed generalized weakness, recurrent infection and anemia were the most commonly seen in the school going children at district Tharparkar. Nutritional status of children according to the age for height showed 32% girls and 34% boys were stunt whereas the of age for weight showed 34% girls and 39% boys were underweight. The body mass index for age showed 16% girls and 34% boys were thin. Only 2.6 % girls and boys were overweight, but we didn't find any obese children. Conclusion: It is concluded that energy (caloric) carbohydrates, protein, and iron are below recommended daily allowance, which reflects the malnutrition in children. Inadequate intake of nutrients has the effect on height, weight and body mass index. (author)

  13. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eRoden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  14. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  15. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  16. Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børrestad L, Anita Bjørkelund; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    , b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling. Methods: A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study....... Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire. Results: Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33......Background: To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer...

  17. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school. The exemption set forth in 49 U.S.C. 13506(a)(1) shall not be construed as being inapplicable to...

  18. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF OBESITY IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN A RURAL POPULATION IN SOUTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesamony Maneksh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is defined as having excess body fat due to ‘calorie imbalance’ -too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on health and well-being. This study is aimed to highlight the burden of obesity among school children. The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of obesity among school children aged 11-15 years and to compare prevalence of obesity among school children of government and private schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS School-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2 private and 2 government schools of a rural area in Trivandrum district. Total 800 students (200 from each school aged 11-15 years in 6 th to 10 th standards were selected by systematic random sampling and consent were obtained. Height (cm and weight (kg were measured using stadiometer and standardised weighing machine, respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated and categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. The prevalence is expressed in percentages. RESULTS In this study, the total prevalence of overweight and obesity among the total 800 school children is found to be 4% and 1%, respectively. An alarming incidental finding is that the underweight prevalence is 61%, which is significantly high and should be addressed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity is 4.25% and 1.75%, respectively in private schools, whereas it is 3.5% and 1%, respectively, in government schools. There is not a significant difference between private and government school children. This may be due to the awareness about problems of obesity and its effects among school children and also timely health checkups in the schools. CONCLUSION This study done in a rural area found that there is a significant prevalence of obesity and overweight as well as a very high prevalence of underweight. It indicates that childhood obesity is an emerging health problem in rural areas

  19. Quality of Life and School Absenteeism in Children With Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Natacha D; Distelberg, Brian; Morrell, Holly E R; Williams-Reade, Jackie; Tapanes, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Children and adolescents with a chronic illness (CI) tend to demonstrate diminished physical and social functioning, which contribute to school attendance issues. We investigated the role of social and physical functioning in reducing school absenteeism in children participating in Mastering Each New Direction (MEND), a family-based psychosocial intervention for youths with CI. Forty-eight children and adolescents with a CI (70.8% female, M age = 14.922, SD = 2.143) and their parent(s) completed a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure pre- and postintervention. Using multiple mediation, we examined whether parent- and child-rated physical and social HRQOL mediated the relationship between school attendance before and after MEND. Once the mediational model was not supported, we investigated whether HRQOL moderated the relationship between missed school days pre- and postintervention. Neither physical nor social functioning mediated or moderated the relationship between missed school days pre- and postintervention. Instead, higher parent-rated physical functioning directly predicted decreased number of missed school days, while lower parent-rated social and child-rated physical functioning predicted increased missed school days. Parent-perceived HRQOL may have a direct effect on health-related behaviors such as school attendance. Future research should determine whether gains in parent-rated QOL are maintained in the long term and whether these continue to impact markers of functional well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Measurement of children's creativity by tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After over a 50-year permanent development of tests designed to measure creativity and the results they produced, a question is raised if creativity can be measured by tests at all. A special problem are procedures for measuring creative potential in younger children because children, unlike adults, do not possess creative products that are a single reliable evidence of creativity in the real world. The paper considers test reliability and validity in measuring creativity as well as the dilemma: how much justifiable it is to measure children's creativity by tests if it is not clear what they measure and if there is not a significant relationship between creativity scores and creativity in life. Unsatisfactory creativity test reliability and validity does not mean those tests should be given up the majority of researchers agree. Of the tests of creativity administered in work with the young, the status of Urban-Jellen Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production (TCT-DP is given prominence due to the fact that over the past ten years or so it has been used in a larger number of studies as well as in some studies carried out in this country. In TCT-DP scoring is not based on statistical uncommonness of the figures produced but on a number of criteria derived from Gestalt psychology. The factor analyses of the defined criteria of creativity, applied on samples in various settings yielded that the test contains an essential factor of creativity "novelty".

  1. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

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    Rahel Bürgi

    Full Text Available Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences.Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5% and on school grounds (33.4%. The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%, at other schools (19.2% and on streets (18.6%. Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p < 0.05 and showed a significantly higher proportion of time in MVPA at own school and outside of Winterthur (p < 0.05.The results indicate the importance of streets and school grounds as activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited

  2. The prevalence of mental disorders among upper primary school children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mutiso, Victoria; Musyimi, Christine; Mokaya, Aggrey G; Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame; Musau, Abednego

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among upper primary school children in grades five through seven in Kenya. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use in Kenyan schools and administered to 2267 school children in grades five through seven from 23 randomly selected schools. We estimated the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders, and used logistic regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder among Kenyan school children was 37.7 % (95 % CI = 35.7-39.7 %). Somatic complaints were the most prevalent (29.6 %, 95 % CI = 27.8-31.5 %), followed by affective disorders (14.1 %, 95 % CI = 12.7-15.6 %) and conduct disorder (12.5 %, 95 % CI = 11.2-13.9). The presence of one or more comorbid mental disorder was seen among 18.2 % (95 % CI = 16.6-19.8 %) of children. Male sex, living in a peri-urban vs. rural area, being held back in school, having divorced or separated parents, and having an employed mother were associated with an increased likelihood of having most of the mental disorders examined, whereas increasing age was associated with a reduced likelihood. We observed a high prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kenya. If not detected early, these disorders may interfere with children's psychological, social, and educational development. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing screening measures in schools that can detect single and multiple disorders in order to improve the mental health and well-being of the next generation.

  3. Intervention study on school meal habits in Norwegian 10-12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IlløKken, Kristine E; Bere, Elling; Øverby, Nina C; Høiland, Renate; Petersson, Kirsten O; Vik, Frøydis N

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a free school meal every day was associated with children's intake of healthy food during school. A non-randomized study design with an intervention and a control group was used to measure change in children's meal habits at lunchtime. In total, 164 children participated; 55 in the intervention group and 109 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were served a free, healthy school meal every school day. Participating children completed a questionnaire at baseline and at 6 months' follow up. Possible associations were evaluated with a healthy food score, which was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire on lunch habits at school. Chi-square and Independent Samples t-test were used to analyse the data. At baseline, there was no significant difference in the healthy food score between the intervention and the control group ( p = 0.08). Children in the intervention group increased their healthy food score significantly compared with children in the control group after 6 months ( p ⩽ 0.01). Change in the healthy food score was mainly due to an increase in the intake of fruit ( p ⩽ 0.01), vegetables ( p ⩽ 0.01) and fish spread ( p = 0.02); all in favour of the intervention group. A serving of a free school meal every day for 6 months increased children's intake of healthy food at lunchtime compared with the control group. Further studies are needed to establish possible long-term effects.

  4. Psychological disturbance in atopic eczema: the extent of the problem in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolon, C M; Cottrell, D; Eldridge, S M; Glover, M T

    1997-08-01

    Although psychological factors are widely considered to be important in atopic eczema, there have been few controlled studies to assess the extent of disturbance in affected children and the problems experienced by their parents. This study was designed to find out the degree of psychological difficulty experienced by children with atopic eczema, whether their mothers show higher levels of mental distress than a comparison group, and whether the families of children with atopic eczema have less social support than the comparison group. We investigated 30 school-aged children with atopic eczema for psychological problems using the Rutter parent scale and compared them with 30 children with relatively minor skin lesions such as viral warts. Mental distress in mothers was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. The Family Support Scale was used to get a measure of the social support experienced by the families. We found twice the rate of psychological disturbance in children in the eczema group compared with the control group. This difference was statistically significant for children with moderately severe eczema and severe eczema, but not for children with very mild eczema. Levels of mental distress were no greater in mothers of children with eczema than in parents of the control group and there was no difference in the degree of social support experienced by their families. These findings indicate that school-aged children with moderate and severe atopic eczema are at high risk of developing psychological difficulties, which may have implications for their academic and social development.

  5. Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2017-08-01

    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left-behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labor migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labor out-migration. Results show that fathers' economically successful labor migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non-migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared to sons of non-migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation no different than daughters of non-migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labor migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys' schooling, but not girls'. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.

  6. Comparison of Mental Health Status in Mothers of Primary School Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder and Mothers of Normal Children in Yazd city (2015- 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Nodoushan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common disorders among school children throughout the world. Parents of these children are faced with more conflicts than normal children's parents. The Purpose of his study was to evaluate and compare the mental health status of mothers having children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder versus mental health of mothers having normal primary school children, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 160 mothers of primary-school children who were selected through random cluster sampling; 80 of them had children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder and the remaining half had normal children. Also, for the diagnosis of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, the Conners test as well as test of General Mental Health (GHQ were used to measure mothers' mental health. The data were then analyzed in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test and analysis of variance Results: Comparison of mental health and its subscales indicated that mothers of children with ADHD disorder were lower in all aspects of mental health than mothers of normal children. Conclution: According to the research results, mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder have lower levels of mental health than mothers of normal children. So, it is recommended that education and health officials provide training courses for these parents to promote their mental health status and consequently their quality of family life.

  7. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  8. Perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamizadeh, N; Ghasemi, M; Saeedi, A; Kazemnejad, A

    2008-11-01

    Although educational main streaming of children with special needs formally began in Iran since 1992 there is little information whether hearing impaired children feel competent in regular schools. To determine the perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings, the self-perception profile was administered to 60 mainstreamed hard of hearing children and 60 classmates with normal hearing matched for gender by a single interviewer. The instrument comprised 28 items, 23 of which were similar to those of 'adapted test Image for children with cochlear implants' asking children about their feelings about their own cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the instrument was 0.93. Hard of hearing children rated their competence significantly poorer than their hearing classmates for all domains. Mean differences for the five domains ranged from 0.48 (for physical competence) to 0.90 (for school adjustment) on a scale of 1-4. There were no significant differences between girls' and boys' competence, in either the hearing or the hearing impaired groups. Classifying overall scores for perceived competence into four groups ('poor competence', 'low competence', 'moderate competence' and 'high competence'), 23.4% of hearing impaired children but none of the hearing classmates rated themselves as having low or poor competence. On the other hand 85% of hearing children and only 18.3% of hearing impaired children rated themselves as highly competent. We suggest that periodical assessments of mainstreamed children might help to identify those children who are having difficulty adapting to their environment.

  9. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  10. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J; Elkhodary, Heba M; Merdad, Leena A; Farsi, Najat M A; Alaki, Sumer M; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Bakhaidar, Haneen A; Alolayyan, Mohammed A

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child's caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results: Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p less than 0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p less than 0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC.

  11. School children with neuropsychological handicap: coping strategies and parents' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krener, P; Cranston, C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors.

  12. Aerosol particles generated by diesel-powered school buses at urban schools as a source of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Heather A; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina; Ryan, Patrick H; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2011-03-01

    Various heath effects in children have been associated with exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM), including emissions from school buses. In this study, the indoor and outdoor aerosol at four urban elementary schools serviced by diesel-powered school buses was characterized with respect to the particle number concentrations and size distributions as well as the PM2.5 mass concentrations and elemental compositions. It was determined that the presence of school buses significantly affected the outdoor particle size distribution, specifically in the ultrafine fraction. The time-weighted average of the total number concentration measured outside the schools was significantly associated with the bus and the car counts. The concentration increase was consistently observed during the morning drop-off hours and in most of the days during the afternoon pick-up period (although at a lower degree). Outdoor PM2.5 mass concentrations measured at schools ranged from 3.8 to 27.6 µg m -3 . The school with the highest number of operating buses exhibited the highest average PM2.5 mass concentration. The outdoor mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were also highest at the school with the greatest number of buses. Most (47/55) correlations between traffic-related elements identified in the outdoor PM2.5 were significant with elements identified in the indoor PM2.5. Significant associations were observed between indoor and outdoor aerosols for EC, EC/OC, and the total particle number concentration. Day-to-day and school-to-school variations in Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios were related to the observed differences in opening windows and doors, which enhanced the particle penetration, as well as indoor activities at schools. Overall, the results on I/O ratio obtained in this study reflect the sizes of particles emitted by diesel-powered school bus engines (primarily, an ultrafine fraction capable of penetrating indoors).

  13. Evaluation of Moyers mixed dentition analysis in school children

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    Durgekar Sujala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study is to test the reliability of Moyers mixed dentition analysis in school children. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on a sample of 150 school children within the age group of 13 to 16 years old who had all permanent teeth that were fully erupted. Dental impressions were taken with alginate impression material and immediately poured with dental stone. Mesiodistal dimensions of permanent mandibular incisors, maxillary and mandibular canines, and premolars were measured using a digital caliper with a resolution of 0.01 mm. Statistical Analysis: The coefficient of correlation (r was calculated to find the correlation between the sums of the canine, premolars in both arches, and mandibular incisors. A Student′s unpaired t test was calculated to compare the tooth dimension between male and female subjects. The actual measurements were compared with the predicted values obtained with the Moyers prediction tables at the 35 th , 50 th , and 75 th percentile confidence levels. A Student′s t test was calculated to compare the actual and predicted values. Using this data, linear regression equations were formulated for tooth size prediction. The coefficient of determination [r2] was calculated to find the accuracy of the formulated prediction equations. The standard error of estimate (SEE was calculated to determine the validity of the proposed equations. Results: Moyers prediction tables are not an accurate method to estimate tooth dimension in our samples. The mesiodistal crown dimension in the buccal segment of the mandibular arch was larger in males (p=0.04 than in females. Conclusion: The differences noted between predicted values from the Moyers tables and that of the present investigation is the result of racial and ethnic diversity. The accuracy of the prediction equation should be tested in a larger sample.

  14. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Çiçek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens Hj; de Vries, Tjalling W; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko

    2017-03-29

    There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various parameters of methylphenidate use. We linked children from a pharmacy prescription database with standardized achievement test results at the end of primary school. We explored differences in test scores between current methylphenidate users versus never users and methylphenidate users who stopped treatment at least 6 months before the test, early versus late starters, different dosage of methylphenidate, and concurrent antipsychotic or asthma treatment. Out of the 7736 children, 377 (4.9%) children were treated with methylphenidate at the time of the test. After adjusting for confounders the methylphenidate users (532.58 ± .48) performed significantly lower on the test than never users (534.72 ± .11). Compared with late starters of methylphenidate treatment (536.94 ± 1.51) we found significantly lower test scores for the early starters (532.33 ± .50). Our study indicates that children using methylphenidate still perform less at school compared to their peers. Our study also suggests that earlier start of methylphenidate treatment is associated with a lower school performance compared to children starting later with the treatment. This result could either indicate a limited effect of long term treatment or a more strongly affected group of early starters.

  15. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.

  16. Intestinal parasitosis in school children of Lalitpur district of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Sarmila; Ansari, Shamshul; Adhikari, Nabaraj; Shrestha, Anisha; Gautam, Jyotshana; Sharma, Binita; Rajbhandari, Deepak; Gautam, Shikshya; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Sherchand, Jeevan B

    2013-11-09

    Enteric parasites are the most common cause of parasitic diseases and cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries like Nepal. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among school going children of Lalitpur district of Nepal. A total of 1392 stool samples were collected from school children of two government, two private and two community schools of the same district. The stool samples were examined for evidence of parasitic infections by direct microscopy and confirmed by concentration methods (formal ether sedimentation technique or floatation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution). Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed for the detection of coccidian parasites. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 16.7%. The highest prevalence rate was seen with Giardia lamblia (7.4%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica (3.4%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (1.6%). Children aged 11-15 years and the ones belonging to family of agriculture workers were most commonly affected. Hand washing practice and type of drinking water also showed significant difference. The burden of parasitic infections among the school children, coupled with the poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be regarded as an issue of public health priority and demands for effective school health programs involving periodic health education and screening.

  17. Refractive error and visual impairment in private school children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumah, Ben D; Ebri, Anne; Abdul-Kabir, Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdul-Sadik; Koomson, Nana Ya; Aikins, Samual; Aikins, Amos; Amedo, Angela; Lartey, Seth; Naidoo, Kovin

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in private school children in Ghana. A random selection of geographically defined classes in clusters was used to identify a sample of school children aged 12 to 15 years in the Ashanti Region. Children in 60 clusters were enumerated and examined in classrooms. The examination included visual acuity, retinoscopy, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and examination of anterior segment, media, and fundus. For quality assurance, a random sample of children with reduced and normal vision were selected and re-examined independently. A total of 2454 children attending 53 private schools were enumerated, and of these, 2435 (99.2%) were examined. Prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 3.7, 3.5, and 0.4%, respectively. Refractive error was the cause of reduced vision in 71.7% of 152 eyes, amblyopia in 9.9%, retinal disorders in 5.9%, and corneal opacity in 4.6%. Exterior and anterior segment abnormalities occurred in 43 (1.8%) children. Myopia (at least -0.50 D) in one or both eyes was present in 3.2% of children when measured with retinoscopy and in 3.4% measured with autorefraction. Myopia was not significantly associated with gender (P = 0.82). Hyperopia (+2.00 D or more) in at least one eye was present in 0.3% of children with retinoscopy and autorefraction. The prevalence of reduced vision in Ghanaian private school children due to uncorrected refractive error was low. However, the prevalence of amblyopia, retinal disorders, and corneal opacities indicate the need for early interventions.

  18. The trajectories of school: perceptions of children / students and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ponce Bellido Giraldi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that there are two central themes that underlie the concept of childhood. The first is the socialization, linked mainly to social institutions such as the school and the family, where adults teach ways of being and acting in society for the maintenance and cohesion of the same. And the second is the individualization, in which the child is a subject of rights and a social protagonist. Pervaded by the socialization and individualization, understanding the perceptions that children / students can make on their own educational process has become an axis of fundamental importance for the understanding of school trajectories. So, the aim of this paper is to learn the perception of two children / students on school experiences and performances presented by them during part of the elementary school and to relate these perceptions of teachers who gave classes for them. This study has provided data a master's and doctoral research that followed in 2009, 2011 and 2012 - the 2nd, 4th and 5th year, a girl and a boy, with seven to ten years old, who were appointed in the 2nd year by the teacher responsible for their class as students who had middling performances. It appears as a qualitative longitudinal study that used as data collection instrument analysis of school documents, lesson observations and interviews with teachers and students (in this case playful strategies were employed. In addition, students also answered a questionnaire and produced an autobiographical text to report the experiences they had with the school. It was concluded that the two students expressed their perceptions about school performance and life experiences in the school context from the 2nd year of schooling, which not always corroborated indications given by teachers. The two students / children have shown concern with the possibility of access to certain schools at the expense of others, following the schooling process.

  19. Influence of parental perception of school safety and gender on children's physical activity in Mexico: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Amy; Soltero, Erica G; Barquera, Simón; Lévesque, Lucie; Jauregui, Edtna; López Y Taylor, Juan; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children's physical activity (PA) levels. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children's PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (p<0.001). Results suggest the need for additional interventions promoting physical activity in girls in Mexico.

  20. Foods in schools: Children with diabetes can make wise meal choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students, parents, and school staff often believe there are no healthful foods available in schools for children with diabetes. This paper explains modern school food environments and how children with diabetes can eat school foods. National School Lunch Program meals usually consist of an entree, t...

  1. Socioeconomic Status of Parents and the Achievement of Children on Readiness for School Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Hasanagic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status is often determined like the academic background of parents, and it can be determined like the place of living, village or town, city, as well. Socioeconomic status is an important factor in many aspects of living as in academic achievement as well. Problem in this research paper was to examine whether there are differences between children from different socio-economic status (level of education of parents and between children from villages and towns, on Readiness for school tests. The sample was constituted 296 kids, half from villages, and half from towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tests that were used are: Differences test, Similarities test, Numerical test, Trace test, Knowledge Test, Questionnaire for measuring socio-emotional maturity, and Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test. Results show that there are statistically significant differences between children from different socio-economic background. Children whose parents are low educated have lower results on Readiness for school test, comparing with children whose parents have finished high school or university level. There were differences between village and town children only on Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test and on Similarity test, while on other instruments place of living was not important factor for achievement on Readiness for School Test.

  2. Evaluation of validity of Tanaka-Johnston analysis in Mumbai school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambire, Chaitali Umesh; Sujan, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the mesiodistal dimensions of the unerupted canines and premolars in the early mixed dentition is a necessary diagnostic aid in space management. Tanaka-Johnston analysis was developed for North American children. Anthropological study reveals that tooth size varies among different ethnicities. The present study was performed to evaluate the validity of Tanaka-Johnston method of mixed dentition arch analysis in Mumbai school children. (1) To determine the correlation between the sum of the mesiodistal widths of the permanent mandibular incisors and combined mesiodistal widths of the permanent mandibular and maxillary canines and premolar in Mumbai school children. (2) To examine the applicability of Tanaka-Johnston method of prediction. Dental casts of maxillary and mandibular arches of 300 children, 147 boys and 153 girls within the age group of 12-15 years, with permanent dentitions were fabricated. The mesiodistal crown dimensions of teeth were measured with a dial caliper. Tanaka-Johnston method of mixed dentition arch analysis was performed for the study population, and statistical analysis was done. Descriptive statistics including the mean, standard deviation, range, and standard error were calculated and tabulated. Tanaka-Johnston's equation when applied to the data available for Mumbai school children, it was observed that it slightly overestimates the tooth size. (1) There was a positive correlation between the width of mandibular incisors and mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars. (2) The Tanaka-Johnston prediction method was not accurate for a sample of Mumbai school children.

  3. Peer Victimization Trajectories from Kindergarten through High School: Differential Pathways for Children's School Engagement and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2017-01-01

    This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…

  4. Registered Indian Children's School Success and Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schooling in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Senécal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.

  5. Predictors of Language Gains among School-Age Children with Language Impairment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A.; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The…

  6. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C. E.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of

  7. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.; Fries, M.C.E.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Smit, H.A.; Koppelman, G.H.; Wijga, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of

  8. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Wilkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  9. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  10. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problem Space Matters: The Development of Creativity and Intelligence in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous research showed that in primary school, children's intelligence develops continually, but creativity develops more irregularly. In this study, the development of intelligence, measured traditionally, i.e., operating within well-defined problem spaces (Standard Progressive Matrices) was compared with the development of intelligence…

  12. Spinal pain in Danish school children – how often and how long?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hestbæk, Lise; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Spinal pain in children and adolescents is a common condition, usually transitory, but the picture of spinal pain still needs elucidation, mainly due to variation in measurement methods. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of spinal pain in 8-15 year-old Danish school ...

  13. Public perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, P.M.; Vuuren, van C.L.; Crawford, D.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate lay perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected sample of adults in a shopping centre. SUBJECTS: 315 adults in Melbourne, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects completed a

  14. The Impact of Physical Education on Obesity among Elementary School Children. NBER Working Paper No. 18341

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Frisvold, David; Meyerhoefer, Chad

    2012-01-01

    In response to the dramatic rise in childhood obesity, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and other organizations have advocated increasing the time that elementary school children spend in physical education (PE) classes. However, little is known about the effect of PE on child weight. This paper measures that effect by instrumenting for child…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Laterality Expression and Teacher Evaluation of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Sarah S.

    1978-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study conducted to assess the incidence of mixed laterality in elementary school children showed that thirty-seven percent of the eighty-two subjects had mixed laterality. No relationship was found between perceptual motor and academic achievement as measured by teacher ratings and mixed laterality. (MF)

  16. Reliability of Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition Scores with Young Children in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mira B.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Clark, Teresa P.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively provide early interventions to children, identifying those who are in need of these interventions is essential. In India, several problems hinder the process of early identification, including a lack of standardized measures for assessment. This study investigates the utility of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition…

  17. Risky-Play at School. Facilitating Risk Perception and Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrysen, Ann; Bertrands, Els; Leyssen, Leene; Smets, Lieve; Vanderspikken, Anja; De Graef, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that risk competence and perception can be improved through the learning environment. The project "Riscki" examined how risk perception and risk competence in young children between three and eight years of age can be observed and measured within the classroom and school context. An intensive package of…

  18. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  19. The transition from primary to secondary school in mainstream education for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David

    2016-01-01

    The transition from primary to secondary education (hereafter 'school transition') is a major ecological shift that poses considerable social, emotional, academic and organisational challenges. It is commonly assumed that this school transition is especially difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, but that idea is mainly based on anecdotal evidence and requires systematic investigation. We describe change and continuity for children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 28, mean age = 11.29 years, mean full-scale IQ = 87.86) transitioning in mainstream education from primary to secondary school. Levels of psychopathology, adaptive functioning and peer victimisation were measured by parent, self and teacher report in the last year of primary school, and again after one term of secondary school. At follow-up, all participants were still in their secondary school, and there was no evidence for a marked escalation of difficulties during the transition. Instead, we observed high levels of psychopathology and maladaption at baseline which persisted across the transition and were in some cases under-recognised. By parent report, levels of bullying fell from primary to secondary school. Future research should investigate factors, such as school characteristics, that influence the move to secondary education in autism spectrum disorder, to inform the development of interventions to promote successful school transition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. How Home Gets to School: Parental Control Strategies Predict Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Aimee Kleisner; MacPhee, David

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families' control style (autonomy support and coercive control) was examined in relation to children's school readiness; children's social skills and mastery motivation were hypothesized mediating variables. In two different, low-income samples from diverse ethnic backgrounds, one preschool sample recruited from Head Start (N = 199) and a…

  1. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  2. Vulnerability of school children exposed to traffic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Results revealed that not all schools, particularly those schools that are very close to the roadside, are intensely affected by such high pitch noise and subsequently teaching - learning process were also greatly affected by such activities. Therefore, it is highly recommended that village committee and municipality authority should coordinate with the school authority for taking measures for such irreversible damaged.

  3. Screening 5 and 6 year-old children starting primary school for development and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Bayar-Muluk, Nuray; Bayoğlu, Birgül; İdil, Aysun; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    Beginning school is an important milestone for children. Children's readiness for school involves cognitive, physical, and emotional development. Certain school programs allow children to start first grade after 66 months of age, together with 72 month-old children. In order to estimate school readiness, we screened children before starting first grade and compared their school performance according to their age and socio-demographic characteristics. Marmara School Readiness, Denver II developmental screening, and language assessment tests were applied. Language delays were more frequent and school readiness test scores were lower in the younger group compared to older children. However, school achievement did not differ between the two age groups. Preschool education, parental income and education affected performance in most tests. Preschool screening seems effective in detecting children with lower than average developmental skills, and the school system may provide a practical opportunity for providing support to those children.

  4. Factors associated with motor performance among overweight and nonoverweight Tyrolean primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, Gerhard; Greier, Klaus; Kirschner, Werner; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is often associated with motor deficits. Motor performance among children partly depends on modifiable factors, for example, weight status, electronic media use, sports club participation, and on nonmodifiable factors, for example, sex, age, migration background, or socio-economic status. To evaluate factors associated with motor performance among overweight and nonoverweight Tyrolean primary school children. Height, weight, and sport motor performance of primary school children were measured using the German motor performance test DMT 6-18. In addition, children were asked about migration background, sports club participation, and electronic media use in their room. A total of 304 children (48.7% girls) with a mean age of 8.0 ± 1.2 years were tested. In total, 61 (20.1%) children were overweight or obese. Regarding motor performance, nonoverweight children showed significantly higher total z-scores (106.8 ± 5.7 vs. 102.4 ± 6.8). For the total cohort, results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0.20) revealed that factors male sex (β = 0.12), nonoverweight children (β = 0.28), higher school grade (β = 0.23), sports club participation (β = 0.18),and > 2 weekly lessons of physical education (β = 0.26) were associated with an increased motor performance. For nonoverweight children results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0.09) found that a higher school grade (β = 0.17), sports club participation (β = 0.16),and more than 2 weekly lessons of physical education (β = 0.22) were associated with an increased motor performance. For the overweight children, results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0 .43) showed that no migration background (β = 0.23), a higher school grade (β = 0.55), sports club participation (β = 0.33) and more than 2 weekly lessons of physical

  5. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Møller, Niels Christian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    2015-01-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activit...

  6. [Children with learning disabilities and handicaps in inclusive schools or in special schools? The view of parents and professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, H; Hirner, V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the view of parents and professionals on sending children with special educational needs to inclusive schools. 54 preschool children in the year before school entry and 155 school children attending a Social Pediatric Center. They displayed motor-, mental-, speech- or sensory handicaps, learning or behavioral disabilities. Questionnaires for parents of preschool- and of school children and questionnaires for the professional caring for the child were evaluated and compared. Parental expectations, experiences concerning school and the severity of disability were determined. 135 pupils attended special schools and 20 integrative schools. The parents were generally very content with both types of schools despite the fact that 33% of parents had not have a free choice of the school. They had a positive attitude to inclusive education. Preference for inclusive schooling decreased with increasing severity of the child's disability. The severity of disability was rated similar by parents and by professionals. Parents of preschool children tended more often and parents of school children less often than professionals towards sending the individual child to an inclusive school. Some parents of children with special educational needs would like to send their child to a special school, others prefer inclusive schools. It is paramount to improve the professional advice and guidance to parents since parental options to choose the school for their child are increasing in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  8. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  9. Elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es salaam, Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhihi, Alfa J; Njelekela, Marina A; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Bikolimana G; Anaeli, Amani; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Lujani, Benjamin; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis

    2018-02-13

    Whilst the burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in developing countries, little data is available on blood pressure among Tanzanian children. This study aimed at determining the blood pressure profiles and risk factors associated with elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among 446 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. We measured blood pressure using a standardized digital blood pressure measuring machine (Omron Digital HEM-907, Tokyo, Japan). We used an average of the three blood pressure readings for analysis. Elevated blood pressure was defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile for age, gender and height. The proportion of children with elevated blood pressure was 15.2% (pre-hypertension 4.4% and hypertension 10.8%). No significant gender differences were observed in the prevalence of elevated BP. Increasing age and overweight/obese children were significantly associated with elevated BP (p = 0.0029 and p < 0.0001) respectively. Similar associations were observed for age and overweight/obesity with hypertension. (p = 0.0506 and p < 0.0001) respectively. In multivariate analysis, age above 10 years (adjusted RR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.03-7.82) was significantly and independently associated with elevated BP in this population of school age children. We observed a higher proportion of elevated BP in this population of school age children. Older age and overweight/obesity were associated with elevated BP. Assessment of BP and BMI should be incorporated in school health program in Tanzania to identify those at risk so that appropriate interventions can be instituted before development of associated complications.

  10. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  11. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children...

  12. Bullied Children: Parent and School Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Family interviews were conducted with 28 7-12-year-old children who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, as well as with their parent and with an older sibling. Interviews explored possible supportive strategies of older siblings, parents, and teachers. All bullied children reported negative feelings…

  13. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  14. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy

    2011-03-01

    To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children. Children (8-11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N= 27) and low (N= 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and perceived control). High and low worry groups differed significantly on measures of anxiety and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and control) but not on problem-solving skills. Consistent with findings with adults, worry in children was associated with cognitive distortions, not skills deficits. Interventions for worried children may benefit from a focus on increasing positive problem-solving beliefs. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-05-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two children with ASD and 34 controls were assessed with the Childhood Joint Attention Rating Scale (C-JARS). The C-JARS exhibited internally consistency, α = 0.88, and one factor explained 49% of the scale variance. Factor scores correctly identified between 88 and 94% of the children with ASD and 62-82% of controls. These scores were correlated with the ADOS-2, but not other parent-report symptom measures. The C-JARS appears to assess a unique dimension of the social-phenotype of children with ASD.

  16. Children, childhood and schooling: adjustment in the transition from kindergarten to primary school nine years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Barcelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.

  17. Comparison of Nutritional Status Among, Flood Affected and Unaffected School Aged Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.; Ghous, R.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters like floods affect large human populations by not only displacing them temporarily but also poses nutritional issues to women and children. Objectives: To determine the long term effects of floods, on the nutritional status of school going children in Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A cross sectional study which was conducted in public schools of district Nowshera which is a large district of province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from February 2012 to March 2014. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 children aged 6-14 years were enrolled. There were 190 children from flood affected areas and 163 controls from unaffected areas. Using height, weight, age and gender, malnutrition indicators like acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and underweight were calculated to evaluate effect of flood on these children after 20 months of the calamity. Weight for age (WAZ) was used to measure underweight, height for age (HAZ) to measure stunted growth, and weight for height (WHZ) to measure wasting or acute malnutrition. The malnutrition indicators which were positively associated with floods were further evaluated for associated factors. Results The frequency of acute malnutrition or wasting (WHZ) among flood affected children was 23.7 percent as compared to 16.5 percent among unaffected children while the frequency of underweight (WAZ) in flood affected areas was 42.1 percent as against 36.8 percent in unaffected areas (both were not significant). The frequency of chronic malnutrition or stunting (AZ) was 35.8 percent in affected and 27.6 percent in unaffected children (p< 0.041) and was the only positively associated indicator with exposure to floods. Factors associated with chronic malnutrition were age of the child, maternal education, history of fever, administration of de-worming medication and diarrhea. Conclusion: Floods had a long term effect on nutritional status of school aged children as shown by chronic malnutrition

  18. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  19. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  20. Predicting Handwriting Legibility in Taiwanese Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-I; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni

    This study investigates handwriting characteristics and potential predictors of handwriting legibility among typically developing elementary school children in Taiwan. Predictors of handwriting legibility included visual-motor integration (VMI), visual perception (VP), eye-hand coordination (EHC), and biomechanical characteristics of handwriting. A total of 118 children were recruited from an elementary school in Taipei, Taiwan. A computerized program then assessed their handwriting legibility. The biomechanics of handwriting were assessed using a digitizing writing tablet. The children's VMI, VP, and EHC were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Results indicated that predictive factors of handwriting legibility varied in different age groups. VMI predicted handwriting legibility for first-grade students, and EHC and stroke force predicted handwriting legibility for second-grade students. Kinematic factors such as stroke velocity were the only predictor for children in fifth and sixth grades. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a “school-based” prediction of IR to a “laboratory-based” prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children (n=82 performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing (VO2 max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index [HOMAIR]. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with VO2 max/kg (rs = 0.83, P<.001 and with HOMAIR (rs = −0.60, P<.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using VO2 max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  2. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen DavidB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a "school-based" prediction of IR to a "laboratory-based" prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children ( performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing ( max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index []. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with max/kg ( = 0.83, and with ( = , . Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  3. Children Writing Ethnography: Children's Perspectives and Nomadic Thinking in Researching School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohti, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This article makes a connection between narrative ethnography, childhood studies and new materialist theories in studying children's perspective on school. It presents "children writing ethnography" as an approach based on complexity and involving participatory research. The question of "what is happening in the classroom" is…

  4. [State school children's opinions regarding violence in the media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita S, Laura E

    2009-01-01

    To describe the opinion of schoolage children, from a public school, regarding the violence they perceive in the media. Descriptive-exploratory research with a sample, selected according to the child's age in a public school. Quantitative data were collected. There were found common issues related to the child's opinion about the violence present in the media such as frequent exposure to the media violence and lack of parental supervision. Social context and constant exposure to the media violence affect the children's opinion about the violence phenomenon and their predisposition to it.

  5. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  6. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  7. Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Homeschool versus Public School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Laura S; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2017-08-01

    The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children. Homeschool children ages 8-11 years old (n = 75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Comparisons to public school children (n = 75) were made using t tests and chi-square tests. Homeschool children showed significantly lower abdominal (t(148) = -11.441, p fitness by total PACER laps (t(108) = 0.879, p = .381) or estimated VO 2max (t(70) = 1.187, p = .239; χ 2 (1) = 1.444, p = .486). Homeschool children showed significantly lower levels of both abdominal and upper body muscular fitness compared with their age and gender matched public school peers but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness.

  8. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  9. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  10. Improving Primary Education in Pakistan: An Examination of the Association between School Autonomy and Children's Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the delegation of financial authority to public primary schools through Parent-Teacher Councils (PTCs) on learning outcomes of primary school children in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. The learning outcomes were measured in three subject areas (Urdu, English, and Mathematics).…

  11. Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintanar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

  12. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  13. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  14. Cross-Country Comparisons of Inattentive, Hyperactive and Impulsive Behaviour in School-Based Samples of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Christine; Styles, Irene; Jones, Paul; Tymms, Peter; Wildy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the Rasch measurement model to analyse data collected on children's attention, activity and impulsiveness at the end of their first year at school by teachers in England, Scotland and Australia. The analysis offers insights into differences in teachers' perceptions of children's behaviour between countries and changes with age. The…

  15. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  16. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  17. Parents' perceptions of their children's schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Items 1 - 10 ... South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 2, May 2015. 1 .... theories dealing with the role of two-way home- school .... view of parent perceptions on the designated topics for 2012 and ..... Unpublished DEd thesis.

  18. Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...

  19. Perspectives of South African school children on HIV/AIDS, and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS education programmes and messages to fit the needs of the young people in their care. Keywords: attitudes, children and youth, developmental phases, health knowledge, misconceptions, myths, school children, school health education

  20. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...