Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.
Reviews basic principles and practices of child behavioral assessment. Examines the effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of school refusal. Concludes that these interventions can be enhanced by a prescriptive treatment approach in which assessment information is used to tailor treatment to the specified problem of a given…
Paulus, Frank W; Ohmann, Susanne; Popow, Christian
School-based interventions (SBIs) are well-established and effective treatments for improving child mental health. Specific school-based topics include prevention (Tier I-III) and interventions (e.g. cognitive-behavioural programmes and daily report cards). We performed a systematic literature search in five commonly used online databases (ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX) for English-language articles published between 1993 and 2015. Additional sources included reference lists of relevant articles and book chapters. We identified a number of successful behavioural or cognitive-behavioural programmes yielding moderate to strong effects for a range of emotional and behavioural problems. The implementation of these programmes and the collaboration of the involved settings (school and home) and persons are important factors for their effectiveness under real-life conditions. Effective SBIs are valuable tools for students with mental health problems if evidence-based cognitive-behavioural interventions are applied and rules of translational algorithms and implementation science are respected. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Mathis, Erin T. B.; Bierman, Karen L.
200 preschool children in Head Start (55% girls; 20% Hispanic, 25% African-American, 55% European American; M age = 4.80 years old) participated in a randomized-controlled trial of a home visiting intervention designed to promote their emergent literacy skills (the Research-based Developmentally Informed parent [REDI-P] program). This study explored concurrent changes in levels of parent support and child literacy skills that occurred over the course of the intervention, and examined the impact of pre-intervention parent support and child literacy skills as potential moderators of parent and child outcomes. Cross-lagged structural equation models and follow-up analyses indicated that intervention had the strongest impact on child literacy skills when parents were high on support at the pre-intervention assessment. Conversely, the REDI-Parent program promoted the greatest gains in parent support when parents entered the program with low levels. These findings suggest that families may benefit from home visit school readiness interventions in different ways: child skill acquisition may be greatest when parents are initially high in support, whereas parenting may improve most when parents are initially low in support. PMID:27279678
Mathis, Erin T. B.; BIERMAN, KAREN L.
200 preschool children in Head Start (55% girls; 20% Hispanic, 25% African-American, 55% European American; M age = 4.80 years old) participated in a randomized-controlled trial of a home visiting intervention designed to promote their emergent literacy skills (the Research-based Developmentally Informed parent [REDI-P] program). This study explored concurrent changes in levels of parent support and child literacy skills that occurred over the course of the intervention, and examined the impa...
Miller, David N.
Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…
Annette Quinto Romani
Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.
Friend, Mary; Morrison, Amber
Improvement of medication adherence in the school-age child can lead to improvement in quality of life, decreased morbidity, and a potential decreased risk of deferred academic, social, and emotional development. The objective of this article is to review barriers to asthma medication adherence and identify evidence-based techniques that improve medication management of the asthmatic child 5 to 12 years of age. A literature review was performed and articles were obtained through database searches within Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and PubMed. Research indicates that barriers to the adherence of medication regimens required for asthmatic children include poor understanding of the medication regimen, substandard education on symptom recognition and environmental triggers, rejection of the diagnosis, and a lack of support or understanding within the community. Researched techniques aimed to improve medication management in 5- to 12-year-olds include: computer-based education; workshops for parents, teachers, and children; incorporation of asthma education into classroom lessons; use of case managers; the introduction of a nurse practitioner in the school to provide care, including medication prescriptions for the asthmatic child; and assessment and evaluation of environmental and emotional triggers in the home and school. Collaboration of current data may help lead to a successful interventional model that can improve asthma management in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus
to 180 min/week), training of PE-teachers, and upgrading of physical education and playing facilities. Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. VO2peak was directly measured and PA assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A composite...... risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteins cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-score), skinfolds, and inverse VO2peak. RESULTS: The HOMA-score of intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to post...... and HOMA-score in boys, but not in PA, VO2peak, fatness and the other measured CVD risk factors. Our results indicate that a doubling of physical education and providing training and equipment may not be sufficient to induce mayor improvements in CVD risk factors in a normal population....
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Hodder, Rebecca K; McElwaine, Kathleen; Tremain, Danika; Bartlem, Kate; Bailey, Jacqueline; Small, Tameka; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John
To examine the effect of universal, school-based, resilience-focused interventions on mental health problems in children and adolescents. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of universal, school-based interventions that included strategies to strengthen a minimum of 3 internal resilience protective factors, and included an outcome measure of mental health problems in children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years. Six databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Results were pooled in meta-analyses by mental health outcome (anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, hyperactivity, conduct problems, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and general psychological distress), for all trials (5-18 years). Subgroup analyses were conducted by age (child: 5-10 years; adolescent: 11-18 years), length of follow-up (short: post-≤12 months; long: >12 months), and gender (narrative). A total of 57 included trials were identified from 5,984 records, with 49 contributing to meta-analyses. For all trials, resilience-focused interventions were effective relative to a control in reducing 4 of 7 outcomes: depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and general psychological distress. For child trials (meta-analyses for 6 outcomes), interventions were effective for anxiety symptoms and general psychological distress. For adolescent trials (meta-analyses for 5 outcomes), interventions were effective for internalizing problems. For short-term follow-up, interventions were effective for 2 of 7 outcomes: depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. For long-term follow-up (meta-analyses for 5 outcomes), interventions were effective for internalizing problems. The findings may suggest most promise for using universal resilience-focused interventions at least for short-term reductions in depressive and anxiety symptoms for children and adolescents, particularly if a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based approach is used. The limited number of
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wiggers, John
base for the effectiveness of universal school-based resilience-focussed interventions and in doing so provide an opportunity to better inform the development of interventions to potentially prevent mental health problems in child and adolescent populations. PROSPERO CRD42015025908.
Neal, S; Rice, F; Ng-Knight, T; Riglin, L; Frederickson, N
School transition at around 11-years of age can be anxiety-provoking for children, particularly those with special educational needs (SEN). The present study adopted a longitudinal design to consider how existing transition strategies, categorized into cognitive, behavioral or systemic approaches, were associated with post-transition anxiety amongst 532 typically developing children and 89 children with SEN. Multiple regression analysis indicated that amongst typically developing pupils, systemic interventions were associated with lower school anxiety but not generalized anxiety, when controlling for prior anxiety. Results for children with SEN differed significantly, as illustrated by a Group × Intervention type interaction. Specifically, systemic strategies were associated with lower school anxiety amongst typically developing children and higher school anxiety amongst children with SEN. These findings highlight strategies that schools may find useful in supporting typically developing children over the transition period, whilst suggesting that children with SEN might need a more personalized approach. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten
SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS OF THE COPENHAGEN SCHOOL CHILD INTERVENTION STUDY (CoSCIS) ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS Anna Bugge, Bianca El-Naaman, Karsten Froberg and Lars B. Andersen. Centre for Research in Childhood Health, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense, DK This study assessed...... from 1st- 3rd grade and consisted of an increase in number of weekly PE lessons, training of PE-teachers, and upgrading of PE and playing facilities. Participants: 695 at Kindergarten class (mean age 6.7 yr), 606 post intervention (mean age 9. 5 yr in 3rd grade) and 510 at 4-years follow-up (mean age...... samples were obtained and subsequently analyzed for CVD risk factors. The intervention group (IG) had a higher increase in S4SF, but a more favorable change in WHR, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose compared to controls (CG). Furthermore IG-boys had a more favorable development in HOMA-IR compared...
Miller, Lynn D; Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Liu, Yan; March, John S; Thordarson, Dana S; Garland, E Jane
The present research examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based intervention program, FRIENDS, for children from grades 4 to 6, using random assignment at the school-level and an attention-control design in two longitudinal studies. The first study targeted children with anxiety symptoms (N=191, mean age=10.1) as screened with self, parent, and teacher-reports; the second study took a universal approach with full classrooms of children participating (N=253, mean age=9.8). The results showed no intervention effect in both studies, with children's anxiety symptoms decreasing over time regardless of whether they were in the story-reading (attention control) or FRIENDS condition. The findings also indicated that girls reported a higher level of anxiety than boys and children in higher grades reported lower anxiety relative to younger children in both studies. In addition, similar patterns were found using a subgroup of children with high-anxiety symptoms from both studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on this topic.
Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Packman, Ann
In this study, the immediate and extended effects of the Lidcombe Program were investigated for the first time in Iran. Treatment in the Lidcombe Program is carried out by the child's parent (or carer) in the child's everyday environment. The program has been shown to be effective with preschool children who stutter (i.e. younger than 6 years) and to a lesser extent with older children. PARTICIPANT AND METHOD: The participant was a bilingual (Baluchi-Persian) boy aged 8 years 11 months. Treatment was conducted in both languages. Stuttering severity was measured in Baluchi with the parental rating scale, and in Persian with percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS). The child completed stage 1 of the program in 13 weeks. %SS was less than 1 during the last 3 clinic visits and severity ratings made by the parent indicated no stuttering (severity rating = 1) for all days of the final week. Speech recordings made beyond the clinic in both languages also indicated stuttering at below 1%SS. The child met all criteria for stage 2 in both languages, over 10 months. This case report suggests that the Lidcombe Program could be suitable for bilingual Iranian children who stutter.
Lore, Millicent D.; Wang, Aubrey H.; Buckley, M. Toni
Catholic social teaching affirms the primary role of parents in their children's education, as well as the importance of forging a positive home-school partnership. The purpose of this article is to provide empirical evidence for further cultivating a collaborative, home-school relationship aimed at improving the mathematics performance of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-level, longer-term obesity prevention interventions that focus on inequalities are scarce. Fun ‘n healthy in Moreland! aimed to improve child adiposity, school policies and environments, parent engagement, health behaviours and child wellbeing. Methods All children from primary schools in an inner urban, culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged area in Victoria, Australia were eligible for participation. The intervention, fun ‘n healthy in Moreland!, used a Health Promoting Schools Framework and provided schools with evidence, school research data and part time support from a Community Development Worker to develop health promoting strategies. Comparison schools continued as normal. Participants were not blinded to intervention status. The primary outcome was change in adiposity. Repeated cross-sectional design with nested longitudinal subsample. Results Students from twenty-four primary schools (clusters were randomised (aged 5–12 years at baseline. 1426 students from 12 intervention schools and 1539 students from 10 comparison schools consented to follow up measurements. Despite increased prevalence of healthy weight across all schools, after 3.5 years of intervention there was no statistically significant difference between trial arms in BMI z score post-intervention (Mean (sd: Intervention 0.68(1.16; Comparison: 0.72(1.12; Adjusted mean difference (AMD: -0.05, CI: -0.19 to 0.08, p = 0.44. Children from intervention schools consumed more daily fruit serves (AMD: 0.19, CI:0.00 to 0.37, p = 0.10, were more likely to have water (AOR: 1.71, CI:1.05 to 2.78, p = 0.03 and vegetables (AOR: 1.23, CI: 0.99 to 1.55, p = 0.07, and less likely to have fruit juice/cordial (AOR: 0.58, CI:0.36 to 0.93, p = 0.02 in school lunch compared to children in comparison schools. More intervention schools (8/11 had healthy eating and physical activity policies compared with comparison schools (2/9. Principals and
Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Tadic, Maryanne; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Magarey, Anthea; Okely, Anthony D; de Silva, Andrea; Armit, Christine; Green, Julie; O'Connor, Thea; Johnson, Britt; Swinburn, Boyd; Carpenter, Lauren; Moore, Graham; Littlecott, Hannah; Gold, Lisa
Multi-level, longer-term obesity prevention interventions that focus on inequalities are scarce. Fun 'n healthy in Moreland! aimed to improve child adiposity, school policies and environments, parent engagement, health behaviours and child wellbeing. All children from primary schools in an inner urban, culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged area in Victoria, Australia were eligible for participation. The intervention, fun 'n healthy in Moreland!, used a Health Promoting Schools Framework and provided schools with evidence, school research data and part time support from a Community Development Worker to develop health promoting strategies. Comparison schools continued as normal. Participants were not blinded to intervention status. The primary outcome was change in adiposity. Repeated cross-sectional design with nested longitudinal subsample. Students from twenty-four primary schools (clusters) were randomised (aged 5-12 years at baseline). 1426 students from 12 intervention schools and 1539 students from 10 comparison schools consented to follow up measurements. Despite increased prevalence of healthy weight across all schools, after 3.5 years of intervention there was no statistically significant difference between trial arms in BMI z score post-intervention (Mean (sd): Intervention 0.68(1.16); Comparison: 0.72(1.12); Adjusted mean difference (AMD): -0.05, CI: -0.19 to 0.08, p = 0.44). Children from intervention schools consumed more daily fruit serves (AMD: 0.19, CI:0.00 to 0.37, p = 0.10), were more likely to have water (AOR: 1.71, CI:1.05 to 2.78, p = 0.03) and vegetables (AOR: 1.23, CI: 0.99 to 1.55, p = 0.07), and less likely to have fruit juice/cordial (AOR: 0.58, CI:0.36 to 0.93, p = 0.02) in school lunch compared to children in comparison schools. More intervention schools (8/11) had healthy eating and physical activity policies compared with comparison schools (2/9). Principals and schools highly valued the approach as a catalyst
Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Kerns, Connor M.; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child…
Background: Children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups affected by natural and man-made disaster. To better understand research and practice concerning mental health and psychosocial support efforts in humanitarian settings, the authors conducted a comprehensive review of all intervention ...
Md Iqbal Kabir
Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation.This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model.None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001 higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model.These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on
Curry, Whitney B; Dagkas, Symeon; Wilson, Marcia
The Newman's Every Child a Sports Person (NECaSP) intervention aspires to increase sport and physical activity (PA) participation among young people in the United Kingdom. The aims of this article are to report on a summative process evaluation of the NECaSP and make recommendations for future interventions. Seventeen schools provided data from students aged 11 to 13 years (n = 1226), parents (n = 192), and teachers (n = 14) via direct observation and questionnaires. Means, SDs, and percentages were calculated for sociodemographic data. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and main themes identified. Findings indicate further administrative, educational, and financial support will help facilitate the success of the program in improving PA outcomes for young people and of other similar intervention programs globally. Data highlighted the need to engage parents to increase the likelihood of intervention success. One main strength of this study is the mixed-methods nature of the process evaluation. It is recommended that future school-based interventions that bridge sports clubs and formal curriculum provision should consider a broader approach to the delivery of programs throughout the academic year, school week, and school day. Finally, changes in the school curriculum can be successful once all parties are involved (community, school, families).
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.
Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra
In this Chapter the transition from day care into primary school is investigated from the point of view of cultural-historical developmental psychology, mainly the works by L. Vygotsky, L. Bozhovich and M. Hedegaard. The central point is that starting school and the transition to becoming...... for institutional transitions and exemplified with cases from an empirical material. The general tendency in the Danish - and international context - to regard the school transition as a problem for the child and the practice following from this, i.e. minimizing differences between day care and primary school...... and organizing the transition into a step-by-step process is discussed critically from the point of view of cultural-historical developmental psychology....
van Roosmalen, Marc; Gardner-Elahi, Catherine; Day, Crispin
Over the last 15 years, policy initiatives have aimed at the provision of more comprehensive Child and Adolescent Mental Health care. These presented a series of new challenges in organising and delivering Tier 2 child mental health services, particularly in schools. This exploratory study aimed to examine and clarify the service model underpinning a Tier 2 child mental health service offering school-based mental health work. Using semi-structured interviews, clinician descriptions of operational experiences were gathered. These were analysed using grounded theory methods. Analysis was validated by respondents at two stages. A pathway for casework emerged that included a systemic consultative function, as part of an overall three-function service model, which required: (1) activity as a member of the multi-agency system; (2) activity to improve the system working around a particular child; and (3) activity to universally develop a Tier 1 workforce confident in supporting children at risk of or experiencing mental health problems. The study challenged the perception of such a service serving solely a Tier 2 function, the requisite workforce to deliver the service model, and could give service providers a rationale for negotiating service models that include an explicit focus on improving the children's environments.
Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.
Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect ...
Kipping, R R; Jago, R; Lawlor, D A
Little is known about the effectiveness of parent involvement in school-based obesity prevention interventions. A qualitative study with parents of children aged 9-10 years was conducted to identify possible methods to involve them in a school-based obesity prevention intervention, followed by a process evaluation of homework and school newsletters to involve parents. Qualitative study: parents supported the use of homework and school newsletters to involve them and overcome the main barriers of their work and time. Process evaluation: Ten homeworks and inserts for the school newsletter about the obesity prevention intervention were developed and delivered. The majority of homeworks were given out (73%), completed by children (84%) and recalled by parents (60-68%). The majority of homeworks were enjoyed by parents and children. All the schools put information about the project in the newsletter and this was recalled by parents. Most parents felt the homeworks were a practical way of involving them. Homeworks are routinely given to children and provide a means of engaging potentially all parents if parental support is required. Homeworks which are novel, fun and involve activities and social contact are enjoyed by parents and children and may increase awareness of healthy diet and physical activity.
Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Astrøm, Anne N; Skeie, Marit S; Masalu, Joyce R
This study aimed to examine the evaluative properties of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) inventory and to estimate treatment-associated changes in the OIDP and self-reported oral health following atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and oral health education (OHE). A total of 1,306 school attendees in Kilwa, Tanzania, completed the Child-OIDP inventory before, and 6 months after, treatment. The post-treatment questionnaire assessed change in perceived oral health. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained for 104, 117, and 1,085 participants who received, respectively, ART fillings (Group A), ART fillings and tooth extraction (Group B), and OHE only (Group C). The longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and treatment-associated changes were calculated using anova, effect sizes, and repeated general linear models (GLM). The follow-up prevalence was 73.8%. The mean changes in the OIDP total- and subscale scores were negative within those who reported 'worsened' oral health, and positive in subjects reporting 'improved' oral health. Effect sizes for the total OIDP score ranged from -0.2 within the category 'worsened' to 0.4 within the category 'improved'. Changes following treatment were more extensive in Group B compared with Groups A and C, and in Group C compared with Group A. The Child-OIDP showed promising evaluative properties and responsiveness to change following ART fillings, ART fillings and tooth extraction, and OHE. © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
The situation of school crisis intervention in Japan was reviewed in this article. Recently, we have increasing numbers of crimes in schools. Several examples of school crisis intervention were demonstrated. Unfortunately, school crisis intervention is not well organized in Japan. Therefore, school crisis intervention system must be developed in the near future.
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Why is it that parents with more schooling tend to have children with better outcomes? We use unique Danish administrative data for identical and fraternal twin parents and their children to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes for their children....... By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...
Bastug, Muhammet; Demirtas, Gonca
Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in…
Child Maltreatment In Nigeria: Implications For Intervention. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... This paper argues that when professionals are conversant with forms of child abuse in their environment and understand the emotional, psychological, physical and developmental problems that ...
Muhammet BAŞTUĞ; Gonca DEMİRTAŞ
Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple s...
Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat
..., which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation...
Md Iqbal Kabir; Bayzidur Rahman; Wayne Smith; Mirza Afreen Fatima Lusha; Abul Hasnat Milton
..., which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation...
Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David
To qualitatively describe interventions by schools to meet children's needs after the May 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Qualitative exploratory study conducted six months after the tornado. Key informant interviews with school staff (teachers, psychologists, guidance counselor, nurse, principal), public health official, and physicians. After the tornado, school staff immediately worked to contact every enrolled child to provide assistance and coordinate recovery services. Despite severe damage to half of the city's schools, the decision was made to reopen schools at the earliest possible time to provide a safe, reassuring environment and additional services. An expanded summer school session emphasized child safety and emotional wellbeing. The 2011-2012 school year began on time, less than three months after the disaster, using temporary facilities. Displaced children were bused to their usual schools regardless of their new temporary residence locations. In just-in-time training sessions, teachers developed strategies to support students and staff experiencing anxiety or depression. Certified counselors conducted school-based, small-group counseling for students. Selective referrals were made to community mental health providers for children with greatest needs. Evidence from Joplin adds to a small body of empirical experience demonstrating the important contribution of schools to postdisaster community recovery. Despite timely and proactive services, many families and children struggled after the tornado. Improvements in the effectiveness of postdisaster interventions at schools will follow from future scientific evidence on optimal approaches.
Harrison, Sayward E.; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, JiaJia; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Children affected by parental HIV/AIDS are at-risk for poor school outcomes including reduced attendance, lower grades, and lower school satisfaction compared to unaffected peers. Resilience-based interventions offer promise to improve functioning across a number of domains. A four-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted with 790 children…
Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.
depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed...... by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed...... in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education (
Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.
Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…
Marfo, Kofi; And Others
This study examined child developmental, program, family ecological, and demographic variables from 200 families with mentally retarded or developmentally delayed toddlers, to identify predictors of child developmental progress and parental satisfaction following participation in early intervention. Child developmental progress correlated…
Brewer, Stephanie; Gleditsch, Shannon L; Syblik, Dorothy; Tietjens, Mary E; Vacik, Heidi W
Although many hospitals offer a surgical preparation program to children and families, minimal research has been conducted specifically on preparation by child life specialists. The purpose of this double-blind intervention study was to determine if children prepared for day surgery by a child life specialist exhibited less anxiety than those who received routine standard of care. One hundred forty-two children, aged between 5 and 11 years old, undergoing elective otolaryngology surgery completed the study. The "Child Drawing: Hospital" instrument developed by Clatworthy, Simon, and Tiedeman [Clatworthy, S., Simon, K., & Tiedeman, M. E. (1999). Child Drawing: Hospital - An instrument designed to measure the emotional status of hospitalized school-aged children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 14, 2-9] was used to determine children's anxiety levels preintervention and postintervention. Eighty children received formal preparation for their surgeries by a child life specialist and 62 received no intervention. The data were analyzed using a repeated-measures model with intervention, age, sex, and level of surgery for main effects. The anxiety score change was significantly better for the patients in the child life intervention group than for those in the nonintervention group, F(1,135) = 4.24, p = .04. The increase in anxiety scores in the nonintervention group suggests that children could benefit from preoperative preparation. Health professionals, including nurses, may impact children's abilities to cope with a surgical process. The information in this study will be useful in deciding whether all children, not just those with a perceived need, should be prepared prior to an elective day surgery.
Maleš, Dubravka; Kuševic, Barbara; Širanovic, Ana
This paper discusses the cooperation between families and schools from the perspective of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Given that the principal purpose of the cooperation between families and schools is children's well-being, it is reasonable to expect the child's participation in situations of direct parent-teacher…
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is neede...
Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen
An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how...
Hargett, Melissa Q.; Webster, Raymond E.
Describes a graduated reentry behavioral intervention to treat a child with school refusal. Following a multimethod evaluation, an initial graduated exposure to school combined with positive reinforcement for staying in school was chosen. The mother's influence prompted a change to rapid exposure to school, which proved effective. (RJM)
... duration among boys and girls in the two groups (p = 0.93 and 0.81 respectively). It is concluded that child labour does not increase significantly school absence rates in school children when such economic roles are performed outside school hours. Key Words: Child labour, child abuse, school children, school absence.
Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol
This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…
McEvoy, Alan W.
Discusses the following aspects of child abuse laws and the policies derived from them: (1) vagueness of the laws; (2) implications for school policy and liability; (3) staff training requirements; (4) confidentiality; (5) protection teams; (6) abuse by school staff; (7) corporal punishment as abuse; and (8) prevention programing. (JS)
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Kennedy, Allison M.; Gust, Deborah A.
The school system plays an important role in a child's vaccination status, whether by directly offering immunization services, maintaining immunization records, or providing an incentive for up-to-date immunizations through the enforcement of school entry laws. Within the American educational system, however, children do not all attend the same…
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
Warsh, J; Rothman, L; Slater, M; Steverango, C; Howard, A
To analyse the relationships between factors related to school location and motor vehicle versus child pedestrian collisions. Data on all police-reported motor vehicle collisions involving pedestrians less than 18 years of age that occurred in Toronto, Canada, between 2000 and 2005 were analysed. Geographic information systems (GIS) software was used to assess the distance of each collision relative to school location. The relationships between distance from school and collision-related factors such as temporal patterns of school travel times and crossing locations were analysed. Study data showed a total of 2717 motor vehicle versus child (school zones and decreased as distance from schools increased. The highest proportion of collisions (37.3%) occurred among 10-14-year-olds. Within school zones, collisions were more likely to occur among 5-9-year-old children as they travelled to and from school during months when school was in session. Most collisions within school zones occurred at midblock locations versus intersections. Focusing interventions around schools with attention to age, travel times, and crossing location will reduce the burden of injury in children. Future studies that take into account traffic and pedestrian volume surrounding schools would be useful for prevention efforts as well as for promotion of walking. These results will help identify priorities and emphasise the importance of considering spatial and temporal patterns in child pedestrian research.
Bresee, S; Caruso, B A; Sales, J; Lupele, J; Freeman, M C
As part of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in low-income settings, it is frequently assumed that pupils can disseminate information and catalyze change at home, yet this assumption has not been rigorously assessed. We employed qualitative research methods in two phases to assess the potential for children to be change agents in five schools in rural Zambia. Phase 1 included role-play and focus group discussions among pupils on their percieved ability to serve as change agents. Children were then given 'homework' that included information on health messages and on how to build a handwashing station, and were encouraged to engage their family. In Phase 2, we conducted separate focus group discussions with pupils and mothers on their experiences with the 'homework'. We found that, in general, pupils were enthusiastic about engaging with parents-typically male heads of household-and were successful at constructing handwashing stations. Mothers reported high levels of trust in children to relay health information learned at school. Pupils were able to enact small changes to behavior, but not larger infrastructure changes, such as construction of latrines. Pupils are capable of communicating knowledge and behaviors to family members; however, discrete activities and guidance is required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.
School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…
Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido
This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…
Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Feeser, Cindy Jo; King, Rebecca
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that prevention, early recognition, intervention and treatment of child maltreatment are critical to the physical well-being and academic success of students. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the recognition…
Simon, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, J.M.
This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a
... to ﬁnd out all of your rights under the law. The school or district must help explain all ... May Affect Your Child at School What is the law called? No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Individuals with ...
Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen
Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…
Hussein, S. A.; Vostanis, P.
School-based interventions involving teacher training programmes have been shown to benefit teachers' ability to identify and manage child mental health problems in developed countries. However, very few studies have been conducted in low-income countries with limited specialist services. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the…
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...
Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.
In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological
Chinitz, Susan; Stettler, Erin M.; Giammanco, Denise; Silverman, Marian; Briggs, Rahil D.; Loeb, Joanne
Infants most vulnerable to trauma are often the least able to access interventions. Universal child-serving systems, such as primary pediatrics, early care and education, and the child welfare system, can offer a port of entry for millions of children annually for trauma-related supports and services. However, practitioners in these systems have…
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a social skills intervention plan for a preschool child who is blind and has no additional disabilities. After the plan was implemented, the child demonstrated an increased frequency and range of play behaviors and social interactions. (Contains 3 figures.)
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen
An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.
Full Text Available The authors develop in this work, a model for intervention in school health, and reinforce the benefits of a global medical examination at the end of pre-school.They had done a research of pedagogic general objectives defined to pre-school education and the objectives of education for a pre-school health. They also reflect about an intervention in children with special needs of education.
Bryant, Jill K.
A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter
The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A; Shaw, Jon A; Chrisman, Allan K; Nitiéma, Pascal
This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas.
Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj
The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.
Melinda J. Ickes
Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.
Sachs, Marjorie B.
For the child with cancer, return to school signals a return to normal living and provides a sense of future. Cooperation among the patient, family, medical staff, and school personnel is important for successful school reentry. (CJ)
Comer, James P.; Emmons, Christine
The Yale Child Study Center School Development Program (SDP) practices an action research approach to look into obstacles to good teaching and learning in schools, and to reduce or eliminate them. A discussion on the SDP explains how the pilot, field-test and dissemination aspects of the work evolved, the intervention methods used and their…
Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.
Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…
Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan
We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Bresee, S.; Caruso, B. A.; Sales, J.; Lupele, J.; Freeman, M. C.
As part of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in low-income settings, it is frequently assumed that pupils can disseminate information and catalyze change at home, yet this assumption has not been rigorously assessed. We employed qualitative research methods in two phases to assess the potential for children to be change agents in five…
Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna
Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…
Fox, Michele I.
Response to Intervention has the potential to help schools reach the goals of both the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) 2004. The course of action with the Response to Intervention model is to apply instructionally sound practices based on students' needs, monitor students'…
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H
Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping
This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents' child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents' knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention.
Fuengfoo, Adidsuda; Sakulnoom, Kim
Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health is a tertiary institute of children in Thailand, where early intervention programs have been provided since 1990 by multidisciplinary approach especially in Down syndrome children. This aim of the present study is to follow the impact of early intervention on the outcome of Down syndrome children. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children was compared between regular early intervention and non-regular early intervention. The present study group consists of 210 Down syndrome children who attended early intervention programs at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between June 2008 and January 2012. Data include clinical features, school attendance developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 years of age using Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Developmental milestones have been recorded as to the time of appearance of gross motor, fine motor, language, personal-social development compared to those non-regular intervention patients. Of 210 Down syndrome children, 117 were boys and 93 were girls. About 87% received regular intervention, 68% attended speech training. Mean DQ at 3 years of age was 65. Of the 184 children who still did follow-up at developmental department, 124 children (59%) attended school: mainstream school children 78 (63%) and special school children 46 (37%). The mean age at entrance to school was 5.8 ± 1.4 years. The school attendance was correlated with maternal education and regular early intervention attendance. Regular early intervention starts have proven to have a positive effect on development. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children receiving regular early intervention was statistically and significantly higher than the number of Down syndrome children receiving non-regular early intervention was. School attendance correlated with maternal education and attended regularly early intervention. Regular early intervention together with maternal
Coombe, Jacqueline; Mackenzie, Lisa; Munro, Robyn; Hazell, Trevor; Perkins, David; Reddy, Prasuna
This review sought to identify, describe and assess the effectiveness of teacher-mediated interventions that aim to support child and adolescent recovery after a natural or man-made disaster. We also aimed to assess intervention applicability to rural and remote Australian school settings. A systematic search of the academic literature was undertaken utilising six electronic databases (EBSCO, Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and CINAHL) using terms that relate to: teacher-mediated and school-based interventions; children and adolescents; mental health and wellbeing; natural disasters and man-made disasters. This was supplemented by a grey literature search. A total of 20 articles reporting on 18 separate interventions were identified. Nine separate interventions had been evaluated using methodologically adequate research designs, with findings suggesting at least short-term improvement in student wellbeing outcomes and academic performance. Although none of the identified studies reported on Australian-based interventions, international interventions could be adapted to the Australian rural and remote context using existing psychosocial programs and resources available online to Australian schools. Future research should investigate the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of implementing interventions modelled on the identified studies in Australian schools settings.
Werner, Claudia Denise
The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in center child care and to answer the question whether narrow-focused caregiver interventions are effective in improving child care quality. The reported meta-analysis shows that narrow-focus interv...
Dumont, Elisabeth; Syurina, Elena V; Feron, Frans J M; van Hooren, Susan
Research on the impact of music interventions has indicated positive effects on a variety of skills. These findings suggest musical interventions may have further potential to support educational processes and development of children. This paper reviews the latest evidence on the effect of musical interventions on the development of primary school-aged children. Four electronic databases were searched from January 2010 through June 2016 using music, music instruction, music education, music lesson, music training, development, child, student , and pupil as key words for the search. Two reviewers independently evaluated the studies to determine whether they met the stated inclusion criteria. Studies were compared on study setup, methodological quality, intervention components, outcome variables, and efficacy. A review of these selected studies ( n = 46) suggestive beneficial effects of music intervention on development of children, although clear conclusions cannot be drawn. Possible influencing factors that might contribute to the outcome of intervention are reviewed and recommendations for further research are made.
Dumont, Elisabeth; Syurina, Elena V.; Feron, Frans J. M.; van Hooren, Susan
Research on the impact of music interventions has indicated positive effects on a variety of skills. These findings suggest musical interventions may have further potential to support educational processes and development of children. This paper reviews the latest evidence on the effect of musical interventions on the development of primary school-aged children. Four electronic databases were searched from January 2010 through June 2016 using music, music instruction, music education, music lesson, music training, development, child, student, and pupil as key words for the search. Two reviewers independently evaluated the studies to determine whether they met the stated inclusion criteria. Studies were compared on study setup, methodological quality, intervention components, outcome variables, and efficacy. A review of these selected studies (n = 46) suggestive beneficial effects of music intervention on development of children, although clear conclusions cannot be drawn. Possible influencing factors that might contribute to the outcome of intervention are reviewed and recommendations for further research are made. PMID:29033877
Full Text Available Research on the impact of music interventions has indicated positive effects on a variety of skills. These findings suggest musical interventions may have further potential to support educational processes and development of children. This paper reviews the latest evidence on the effect of musical interventions on the development of primary school-aged children. Four electronic databases were searched from January 2010 through June 2016 using music, music instruction, music education, music lesson, music training, development, child, student, and pupil as key words for the search. Two reviewers independently evaluated the studies to determine whether they met the stated inclusion criteria. Studies were compared on study setup, methodological quality, intervention components, outcome variables, and efficacy. A review of these selected studies (n = 46 suggestive beneficial effects of music intervention on development of children, although clear conclusions cannot be drawn. Possible influencing factors that might contribute to the outcome of intervention are reviewed and recommendations for further research are made.
Burchard, Falk; Diebenbusch, Teresa
Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In the past years the pressure in society and psychological problems in Germany have risen up. This can especially be verified by the great influx of utilization of child and adolescent psychiatric clinics through the admission of crisis. In this connection social disadvantaged female adolescents with a low socio-economic status, students of the secondary school, children in care and the ones whose parents have to manage their upbringing alone are preferentially affected. These developments require a fast adaptation of the supply system to the transformed demands, in particular in terms of outpatient treatment, as well as a closely and structured cooperation between the youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in their function as systems of help. In the script statistical data and adaptive approaches of a supply department of child and adolescent psychiatry are presented.
Rasberry, Catherine N; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K; Valois, Robert F
The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and organizations, was reviewed and synthesized to describe (1) the historical context for CSH and a whole child approach, and (2) lessons learned from the implementation and evaluation of these approaches. The literature revealed that interventions conducted in the context of CSH can improve health-related and academic outcomes, as well as policies, programs, or partnerships. Several structural elements and processes have proved useful for implementing CSH and a whole child approach in schools, including use of school health coordinators, school-level and district-level councils or teams; systematic assessment and planning; strong leadership and administrative support, particularly from school principals; integration of health-related goals into school improvement plans; and strong community collaborations. Lessons learned from years of experience with CSH and the whole child approaches have applicability for developing a better understanding of the WSCC model as well as maximizing and documenting its potential for impacting both health and education outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.
Epstein, Richard A; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Potter, Shannon; Rizzone, Katherine H; McPheeters, Melissa
Disruptive behavior disorders are among the most common child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and associated with significant impairment. Systematically review studies of psychosocial interventions for children with disruptive behavior disorders. We searched Medline (via PubMed), Embase, and PsycINFO. Two reviewers assessed studies against predetermined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by 1 team member and reviewed by a second. We categorized interventions as having only a child component, only a parent component, or as multicomponent interventions. Sixty-six studies were included. Twenty-eight met criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis. The effect size for the multicomponent interventions and interventions with only a parent component had the same estimated value, with a median of -1.2 SD reduction in outcome score (95% credible interval, -1.6 to -0.9). The estimate for interventions with only a child component was -1.0 SD (95% credible interval, -1.6 to -0.4). Methodologic limitations of the available evidence (eg, inconsistent or incomplete outcome reporting, inadequate blinding or allocation concealment) may compromise the strength of the evidence. Population and intervention inclusion criteria and selected outcome measures eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis may limit applicability of the results. The 3 intervention categories were more effective than the control conditions. Interventions with a parent component, either alone or in combination with other components, were likely to have the largest effect. Although additional research is needed in the community setting, our findings suggest that the parent component is critical to successful intervention. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Peter K Smith
Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years...
Tesfaye Alemayehu Gebremedhin
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population.
Gebremedhin, Tesfaye Alemayehu; Mohanty, Itismita
This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population.
Lindeboom, Maarten; Llena-Nozal, Ana; van der Klaauw, Bas
This paper investigates the impact of parental education on child health outcomes. To identify the causal effect we explore exogenous variation in parental education induced by a schooling reform in 1947, which raised the minimum school leaving age in the UK. Findings based on data from the National Child Development Study suggest that increasing the school leaving age by 1 year had little effect on the health of their offspring. Schooling did however improve economic opportunities by reducing financial difficulties among households.
Christian, Danielle; Todd, Charlotte; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools are repeatedly utilised as a key setting for health interventions. However, the translation of effective research findings to the school setting can be problematic. In order to improve effective translation of future interventions, it is imperative key challenges and facilitators of implementing health interventions be understood from a school's perspective. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in primary schools (headteachers n = 16, deputy headteacher n = 1, healthy school co-ordinator n = 2). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. The main challenges for schools in implementing health interventions were; government-led academic priorities, initiative overload, low autonomy for schools, lack of staff support, lack of facilities and resources, litigation risk and parental engagement. Recommendations to increase the application of interventions into the school setting included; better planning and organisation, greater collaboration with schools and external partners and elements addressing sustainability. Child-centred and cross-curricular approaches, inclusive whole school approaches and assurances to be supportive of the school ethos were also favoured for consideration. This work explores schools' perspectives regarding the implementation of health interventions and utilises these thoughts to create guidelines for developing future school-based interventions. Recommendations include the need to account for variability between school environments, staff and pupils. Interventions with an element of adaptability were preferred over the delivery of blanket fixed interventions. Involving schools in the developmental stage would add useful insights to ensure the interventions can be tailored to best suit each individual schools' needs and improve implementation.
The current state of service delivery to bilingual children, including those with first languages other than English or Afrikaans, is not known. This study was undertaken to ascertain how SLTs in South Africa adapt their assessment and intervention practices to cope with the multilingual and multicultural nature of the local child ...
Goldstein, Howard; Hockenberger, Elaine Hontz
This review identifies five themes of child language intervention: (1) development of augmentative and alternative communication systems; (2) provision of language stimulation to take advantage of observational learning; (3) teaching of various language functions; (4) teaching of language as a means of environmental and self-control; and (5) study…
The rise in child labour and the negative effect of it on child schooling outcomes is an important policy issue in developing countries. However, despite almost universal agreement that child labour is undesirable, there is wide disagreement on how to tackle the problem. The formulation of policies that are effective in curbing ...
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016
The Missouri State Board of Education and the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education are dedicated to ensuring that all children have access to good schools that prepare them for college and career success. The Missouri School Improvement Program: Support and Intervention Plan takes a differentiated approach to state support based on…
Peter K. Smith
Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.
Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…
Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L
Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H
This second of two articles describes the application of disaster mental health interventions within the context of the childs social ecology consisting of the Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. Microsystem interventions involving parents, siblings, and close friends include family preparedness planning andpractice, psychoeducation, role modeling, emotional support, and redirection. Mesosystem interventions provided by schools and faith-based organizations include safety and support, assessment, referral, and counseling. Exosystem interventions include those provided through community-based mental health programs, healthcare organizations, the workplace, the media, local volunteer disaster organizations, and other local organizations. Efforts to build community resilience to disasters are likely to have influence through the Exosystem. The Macrosystem - including the laws, history, cultural and subcultural characteristics, and economic and social conditions that underlie the other systems - affects the child indirectly through public policies and disaster programs and services that become available in the child's Exosystem in the aftermath of a disaster The social ecology paradigm, described more fully in a companion article (Noffsinger Pfefferbaum, Pfefferbaum, Sherrieb, & Norris,2012), emphasizes relationships among systems and can guide the development and delivery of services embedded in naturally-occurring structures in the child's environment.
Conclusions: This study provided important contextual data on where the emphasis should be placed in developing the childhood obesity prevention interventions for the school children in Tehran. The findings further highlight the importance of involving a wide range of stakeholders, and including multiple components to maximise the chances of success. Keywords: Child, Obesity, Prevention, Intervention, Qualitative research, Iran
Hatfield, Bridget E; Williford, Amanda P
Supportive and close relationships that young children have with teachers have lasting effects on children's behavior and academic success, and this is particularly true for children with challenging behaviors. These relationships are also important for children's developing stress response system, and children in child care may be more likely to display atypical cortisol patterns at child care. However, warm, supportive relationships with teachers may buffer these negative effects of child care. While many relationship-focused early childhood interventions demonstrate changes in child behavior, associations with children's stress response system are unknown. This study assessed children's activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via salivary cortisol as a function of their participation in a dyadic intervention intended to improve a teacher's interaction quality with a particular child. Seventy teachers and 113 preschool children participated who were part of a larger study of teachers and children were randomly assigned at the classroom level across three intervention conditions: Banking Time, Time-Control Comparison (Child Time), and Business-as-Usual. At the end of the school year, children in the Banking Time condition displayed a significantly greater decline in cortisol across the morning during preschool compared to children in Business-as-Usual condition. These pilot results are among the first to provide preliminary evidence that school-based interventions that promote sensitive and responsive interactions may improve young children's activity in the stress response system within the child care/early education context.
Amao, Ifeoluwapo O.; Oni, Omobowale A.; Yusuf, Sulaiman A.; Omonona, Bolarinwa T.
Child labour interferes with proper schooling and negatively affects the pace of economic growth by preventing full realization of positive externalities associated with human capital formation. The study examined the determinants of child labour and schooling in rural northeastern Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 969 children. Information was collected on child, parent/household and community characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (F...
Stetsenko Anatolij Ivanovich
Full Text Available The article provides data on the functioning of child-youths sports schools in current condition. Were studied the characteristics of powerlifting distribution in system Ukrainian child-youths sports schools and made a comparative analysis of representation in national competitions. It was established, that are taking part in these competitions not all powerlifting branches of child-youths sports schools. Ways of further development of powerlifting in the system child-youths sports schools in Ukraine are presented. Proposed a unified form of control over their activities in conjunction with the National Federation of Ukraine Powerlifting for increase the efficiency of the powerlifting branches of child-youths sports schools.
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
. By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...
Nettles, Saundra Murray; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.
Examining recent research on neighborhood influences on child development, this review focuses on social influences on school adjustment in the early elementary years. A model to guide community research and intervention is presented. The components of the model of integrated processes are neighborhoods and their effects on academic outcomes and…
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for teenagers. The rate has increased by 300% since the 1950s. By establishing a comprehensive, well-organized crisis intervention program, schools can do a great deal to prevent teenage suicide, and to help the school community survive if a tragedy cannot be averted. This book provides professionals…
Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B
An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless
Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan
PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Merry, Michael S; Voigt, Kristin
In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is simplistic once the broader context is taken into account. We also show that parents not only enjoy important relational prerogatives worth defending, but that children, too, are beneficiaries of that relationship in ways difficult to match elsewhere. Finally, against the backdrop of growing public concern and pressure to intervene earlier in the life cycle, we examine the perhaps unintended stigmatizing effects that labeling and intervention can have and consider a number of risks and potential harms occasioned by state interventions in these cases.
Pal, Rani; Edge, Julie
Poorly controlled diabetes adversely affects a child's education, with concentration difficulties, alterations in mood, behaviour and fatigue associated with high or low blood glucose levels. Between years 2004-6 we started all toddlers and children on intensive insulin regimens (multiple dose injection or pump) making it imperative that they received support during the school day. This required close monitoring of blood glucose levels and counting carbohydrate intake to adjust rapid-acting insulin dose or pump bolus at every meal. We report our experience of formulating a sustainable structure of support in primary schools based on trained volunteers who partake in the daily 'Individualised Care Plan (ICP)'. After overcoming multiple barriers, an acceptable system was negotiated with our Primary Care Trust (PCT) and Local Education Authority (LEA). In 2009, the PCT confirmed 3 years funding for a Paediatric Diabetes specialist nurse (PDSN) for schools. In 2010, the first full school year with agreed protocols was in place. By July 2012, our nurses had trained a total of 342 volunteers who provide care for 132 children. The Oxfordshire Schools Intervention Programme ensures that legal obligations are met. A risk assessment allows the LEA to provide indemnity to their school staff to give injections and do blood tests, after training and competency sign-off by a PDSN. Parents, volunteers and PDSN jointly agree a comprehensive 'ICP' and utilise a hand-held communication record book. Diabetes control improved (age 4-11 years cohort from 2004 onwards: Mean (SD) HbA1c in 2001-4 = 8.38 (1.09)%; in 2005-8 = 7.74 (0.81)%; in 2009-12 = 7.58 (0.69)%; ANOVA pdays per month). The cost-benefits are discussed. We advocate that our programme supports each child's ICP, use of intensive insulin regimes in school-day and reassures parents that schools can deliver this safely.
Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura
This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…
Alfred Raymund C. Panopio
Full Text Available This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top performing public schools in Batangas City , Philippines . The parents and teachers of the said child were the respondents to assess the ability of the child. A total of 215 students from grades 4 to 6 were selected as the target sample. Descriptive correlational design was utilized to determine the relationship between the child care practices and school performance. A self - made questionnaire was formulated and used face validity and content reliability to come up with the most appropriate instrument. Frequency distribution, weighted mean and chi square were th e statistical tests utilized to aid the analysis of data. Based on the result of the study, breastfeeding, proper hygiene, allowing the child to participate in family conversation and providing monetary allowance were among the practices that lead to child ren’s good school performance. Having knowledge on these practices will guide parents in giving their child a better and assured future, and eventually benefit their children as they become parents themselves.
Wulczyn, Fred; Smithgall, Cheryl; Chen, Lijun
The authors argue for closer collaboration between public schools and the public child welfare system, on behalf of children placed at risk, with respect to whether they will do as well in school as their abilities suggest they might, all else being equal. The need for closer collaboration is tied to two developments affecting schools and the…
Mohammad Hossein Kaveh
Full Text Available Children need adequate and healthy nutrition for sufficient mental development and physical growth. Children also need nutrition education to gain the required skills for correct food selection. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the child-to-child approach based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB on the eating behaviors of elementary school students in Iran. In this quasi-experimental, interventional study with pretest/posttest design and a control group, 173 fourth grade female students of public elementary schools were selected using multistage random cluster sampling. Educational intervention was performed for the intervention group through the child-tochild approach. The research data were collected in the two groups using a 5-scale researcher-made questionnaire based on the constructs of TPB with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.86 before and one and six weeks after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using chi-square test, repeated measures ANOVA, and independent t-test. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean scores of attitude, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention before and one and six weeks after the intervention. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean score of subjective norms. Moreover, the educational intervention resulted in improvement of the intervention group’s eating behaviors. The findings of this research suggested the child-to-child approach and the TPB as effective methods in improvement of correct eating behaviors in children.
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…
Skibinski, Gregory J.
Examines problems related to child sexual abuse assessment and intervention methods, especially in instances of intrafamilial offenses. Discusses the benefits of alternative strategies in use today, and the adaptations that child welfare workers, social workers, and other professionals have made to enhance intervention effectiveness. Suggests that…
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Child poverty is a global issue that affects around half the children in the world; it is inextricably bound to the poverty experienced by their parents and families and has been identified by the United Nations as a human rights issue. Child poverty can be a barrier to children and young people accessing school education or achieving any form of…
Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil
Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…
Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen
A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…
The problem addressed in this paper is the school based factor such as curriculum bias, sex stereotyping in learning materials, teachers and student factors which hinder girl-child access to quality education. It is observed that these factors impede the girl-child equality of access to quality education. To solve this problem it ...
Ford, Harriett H.; Schindler, Claudia B.; Medway, Frederic J.
Reports the results of two studies comparing school professionals' attributions of blame to a child victim, a father/perpetrator, and a nonparticipating mother in hypothetical vignettes of father-daughter incest. Results indicate that all professional groups assigned some degree of blame to the child victim and nonparticipating mother and very…
Fieldman, Jonathan P.; Crespi, Tony D.
This paper explores the characteristics of the child sexual offender and the devastating impact of sexual abuse on children. It discusses the importance of a child's disclosure of victimization and its significance in the treatment process. Recommendations are presented on ways to improve school-based sexual abuse programs since they are in a…
BOJE: Botswana Journal of Economics. 16 the child's employment skills encourage parents to take their children out of schools and put them into employment. However, despite almost universal agreement that child labour is undesirable, there is wide disagreement on how to tackle the problem. Therefore, the formulation.
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...
When CHN students engage with communities through service learning, a school-readiness intervention may serve as a powerful tool to provide parents with the support that is needed to empower them with the skills to contribute towards their children’s early childhood development. It may improve the parent–child relationship which is critical in the development of children.
Lucy A Tully; Patrycja J Piotrowska; Daniel A J Collins; Kathleen S Mairet; Nicola Black; Eva R Kimonis; David J Hawes; Caroline Moul; Rhoshel K Lenroot; Paul J Frick; Vicki Anderson; Mark R Dadds
.... Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems...
M. Luisa Martínez
Full Text Available Child-parent Violence (hereinafter CPV is an increasingly evident problem in the social, health, and judicial protection systems which, however, continue to show a number of major deficiencies with respect to the main characteristics of CPV, the people involved, the underlying factors, and efficacious interventions. Nevertheless, there is a consensus regarding its devastating consequences. The present bibliographical review is focused on analysing the problem of CPV with the aim of offering useful data for future research and intervention proposals. Specifically, this paper provides a definition of CPV and its types, some data on prevalence, the main characteristics of aggressive children and abused parents, and the most important individual, family, school and community risk factors highlighted in the current scientific literature. The keys areas of intervention with this group are also presented.
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
Hegde, A; Shetty, A
We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 schools in Karkala Taluk, Karnataka to evaluate whether they met the 10 criteria of Child Friendly School Initiative as recommended by Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Data were collected using a predesigned proforma by talking to the headmaster and school teachers and inspection of the premises for various facilities. We found that none of the schools met all the criteria; 90% of the schools did not have adequate toilet facilities, 90% did not have safe transportation for the students, children in 82% schools had excess baggage, 72% did not have access to safe drinking water, 57% did not have properly ventilated and illuminated classrooms, and physical punishment was being administered in 45% of schools. 72% of schools did have periodic health checkup, 60% of schools had clean kitchen/ dining room, 60% had adequate facilities for games, and 57% had facilities for first aid facility at school.
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families.
Lindeboom, M.; Llena Nozal, A.; van der Klaauw, B.
This paper investigates the impact of parental education on child health outcomes. To identify the causal effect we explore exogenous variation in parental education induced by a schooling reform in 1947, which raised the minimum school leaving age in the UK. Findings based on data from the National
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
This study investigates the causes and consequences of child abuse on Secondary School students in the learning of Science subjects in Karu Local Government Area, a suburb of the FederalCapitalCity, Abuja, Nigeria. The survey sample consists of five (5) Secondary Schools across the entire study area, where students, ...
Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.
Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with…
Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia
To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.
Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany
Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M.
The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used t...
Weist, Mark D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Whitaker, Kelly; Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stanley; Larsen, Torill; Holsen, Ingrid; Cooper, Janice L.; Geroski, Anne; Short, Kathryn H.
All around the world, partnerships among schools and other youth-serving systems are promoting more comprehensive school-based mental health services. This article describes the development of international networks for school mental health (SMH) including the International Alliance for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Schools (INTERCAMHS)…
Lawson, Karla A; Yuma-Guerrero, Paula J; von Sternberg, Kirk; Duzinski, Sarah V; Garcia, Nilda M; Brown, Carlos V; Wakefield, Sarah M; Crawford, Natalie M; Velasquez, Mary M; Maxson, R Todd
Injury is the leading cause of death for those aged 1 year to 44 years in the United States, with motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) the leading cause of injury-related deaths. Little data exist on the relationship between caregiver alcohol and drug use at the time of MVC and child passenger outcomes. We examined the relationship between caregiver substance use in MVCs and a number of demographic, crash severity, and medical outcomes for caregivers and children. We identified family groups treated in the emergency department of a regional Level II trauma center after an MVC in a 1-year period from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. The distribution and means of characteristics for substance and nonsubstance users were compared using χ analysis and Student's t tests, respectively. One in 10 vehicles contained an intoxicated caregiver at the time of MVC. In 363 identified caregivers, intoxication was associated with being male (p caregivers were related to child ejection (p = 0.009), the need for child hospital admission (p caregiver. Findings support the need for prevention programs focusing on substance use and driving for male caregivers, and further investigation on the need for screening and intervention for caregivers' risky alcohol and drug use after a child's MVC.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M
The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M.
The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:25380194
Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak
Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.
Morita, Tomohiko; Godfrey, Samuel; George, Christine Marie
To review and synthesise the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting unsafe child faeces disposal in reducing this behaviour and improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed and key information on study methodologies and outcomes were extracted. A total of 1048 articles were screened, and eight studies representing five countries were included for the review. Three were randomised controlled trials, and five were prospective cohort studies. There was wide variability across studies in the definition of 'safe disposal' of child faeces. Six studies reported the change in child faeces disposal practices associated with safe child faeces disposal interventions. However, only one study found a significant improvement in this behaviour. Two of the six studies that evaluated the health impact of delivered interventions found significant reductions in childhood diarrhoea associated with safe faeces disposal practices, and one study reported a positive effect on child growth and ascariasis. Only one study was identified that delivered a single intervention solely focused on safe child faeces disposal. Unfortunately, this study did not investigate the impact of this intervention on child health. There are major methodological limitations in studies that assessed the impact of safe child faeces disposal interventions. The health impact of these interventions is inconclusive because the quality of the current evidence is poor. Randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to assess the impact of safe faeces disposal interventions on child health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that can result in several damages including developmental delay and intellectual disability of the affected child. This case study describes the occupational therapy intervention in a child with Cri-du-chat syndrome that was followed from two to four years old, in weekly sessions, at a school hospital in the state of São Paulo. Data from medical records, family reports, and occupational therapy sessions were used for case description. The initial assessment showed that the child was hypotonic, stood up only with support, and explored objects by taking them to the mouth. Occupational Therapy assistance aimed to stimulate sensorimotor performance skills (perceptual, neuromuscleskeletal and motor processing and cognitive integration and components (attention spectrum, sequencing, and learning, through make-believe activities and participation in the activities of daily living (ADL. Moreover, it was also necessary to intervene directly in the school context and the child’s family, advising parents to avoid overprotection. Through the jointffort of the multidisciplinary team and the child’s family, it was possible to contribute to the improvement of bodily functions, allowing an increase in activities and participation, considering the child’s personal factors and environmental conditions, with consequent discharge from ambulatory attendance of occupational therapy.
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily
There is little research on the role of school composition in young children's behaviour. School composition effects may be particularly important for children in disadvantaged circumstances, such as those growing up in poverty. We explored the role of school academic and socio-economic composition in internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour at age 7 years, and tested if it moderates the effect of family poverty on these outcomes. We used data from 7225 7-year-olds of the Millennium Cohort Study who attended state primary schools in England and for whom we had information on these outcomes. In multiple membership models, we allowed for clustering of children in schools and moves between schools since the beginning of school, at age 5. Our school academic and socio-economic composition variables were school-level achievement and % of pupils eligible for free school-meals, respectively. Poverty (family income below the poverty line) was measured in all sweeps until age 7. We explored the roles of both timing and duration of poverty. The effects of poverty were strong and robust to adjustment. School socio-economic composition was associated with individual children's internalising and externalising problems, even in adjusted models. School composition did not interact with poverty to predict any of the outcomes. Neither the academic nor the socio-economic composition of the school moderated the effect of family poverty on children's behaviour in primary school. However, children attending schools with more disadvantaged socio-economic intakes had more internalising and externalising problems than their counterparts.
Llargues, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa
Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5-6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.8 kg/m(2) higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity.
Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde
The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test.
Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola
The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.
Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira
The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…
Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk
Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away......In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Policies and practices around school work, operating within and beyond the family, are fundamentally rooted in and perpetuate a particular generational order. Working from a temporal perspective this article focuses on "school work" in order to demonstrate how time operates across spheres as a key means of constructing generation, making…
Federal Trade Commission, 2012
Back to school--an annual ritual that includes buying new notebooks, packing lunches, coordinating transportation, and filling out forms: registration forms, health forms, permission slips, and emergency contact forms, to name a few. Many school forms require personal and, sometimes, sensitive information. In the wrong hands, this information can…
The history of ADHD is in part a history of children who have not fitted in at school. Yet until recently, surges in diagnostic levels had not prompted a questioning of the school's complicity in the trend. Through an analysis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM), the principal diagnostic guideline relating to ADHD,…
Matte, Rebecca L.; Messmore, Carol
At an alarming rate, preschoolers are being expelled from child care centers because of disruptive behavior, and elementary schools are dealing with social-emotional behaviors that affect the entire classroom. The authors share the story of a child who would have been one of those expelled from child care and at risk in the elementary school…
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…
Mampane, Ruth; Huddle, Christelle
This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of students in a rural school was used as an…
Bates, Stacey L.
Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…
Pettigrew, Simone; Borys, Jean Michel; du Plessis, Hugues Ruault; Walter, Lea; Huang, Terry T-K; Levi, Jeffrey; Vinck, Jan
While it is acknowledged that child obesity interventions should cover multiple ecological levels (downstream, midstream and upstream) to maximize their effectiveness, there is a lack of evaluation data to guide the development and implementation of such efforts. To commence addressing this knowledge gap, the present study provides process evaluation data relating to the experiences of groups implementing the EPODE approach to child obesity prevention in various locations around the world. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to program implementation in program sites around the world to assist in developing strategies to enhance program outcomes. An online survey that included open-ended questions was distributed to the 25 EPODE programs in operation at the time of the survey (May 2012). The survey items asked respondents to comment on those aspects of program implementation that they found challenging and to suggest areas for future improvement. Eighteen programs representing 14 countries responded to the request to participate in the survey, yielding a 72% response rate. The responses were analyzed via the constant comparative method using NVivo qualitative data analysis software. The main concerns of the various EPODE programs were their ability to secure ongoing funding and their access to evidence-based intervention methods and policy advice relating to relationships with third parties. These issues were in turn impacted by other factors, including (i) access to user-friendly information relating to the range of intervention strategies available and appropriate evaluation measures; (ii) assistance with building and maintaining stakeholder relationships; and (iii) assurance of the quality, independence, and transparency of policies and practices. The findings are facilitating the ongoing refinement of the EPODE approach. In particular, standardized and tailored information packages are being made available to
Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…
Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus
Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism. In-depth…
Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…
This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…
Burgess-Champoux, Teri L; Chan, Hing Wan; Rosen, Renee; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla
The aim of the present study was to pilot-test a school-based intervention designed to increase consumption of whole grains by 4th and 5th grade children. This multi-component school-based pilot intervention utilised a quasi-experimental study design (intervention and comparison schools) that consisted of a five-lesson classroom curriculum based on Social Cognitive Theory, school cafeteria menu modifications to increase the availability of whole-grain foods and family-oriented activities. Meal observations of children estimated intake of whole grains at lunch. Children and parents completed questionnaires to assess changes in knowledge, availability, self-efficacy, usual food choice and role modelling. Parent/child pairs from two schools in the Minneapolis metropolitan area; 67 in the intervention and 83 in the comparison school. Whole-grain consumption at the lunch meal increased by 1 serving (P < 0.0001) and refined-grain consumption decreased by 1 serving for children in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention (P < 0.001). Whole-grain foods were more available in the lunches served to children in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention (P < 0.0001). The ability to identify whole-grain foods by children in both schools increased, with a trend towards a greater increase in the intervention school (P = 0.06). Parenting scores for scales for role modelling (P < 0.001) and enabling behaviours (P < 0.05) were significantly greater for parents in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention. The multi-component school-based programme implemented in the current study successfully increased the intake of whole-grain foods by children.
Full Text Available A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16, this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.
González-García, Carla; Lázaro-Visa, Susana; Santos, Iriana; Del Valle, Jorge F; Bravo, Amaia
A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16), this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.
Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…
McCombie, Sally M.
The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…
Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela
This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…
Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma Town. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... RESULTS: Majority (80.0%) of the studied children encountered some form of physical punishment of which 21.0% had abusive punishment as evidenced by bruises, lacerations or swelling reported as a result ...
Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M; Yusupova, Stella
The present study examined changes in child and family mealtime patterns before and after intensive behavioral feeding intervention at a multidisciplinary hospital-based program for 50 children. At preintervention and postintervention, caregivers completed surveys to report child feeding goals and the About Your Child's Eating scale (AYCE). In addition, at postintervention, each caregiver rated intervention effectiveness for his or her child's feeding goals identified at preintervention and provided intervention satisfaction ratings. Results revealed that caregivers perceived all three AYCE family mealtime patterns to improve from preintervention to postintervention, the majority of caregivers rated intervention as being effective for improving the specific child feeding goals identified at preintervention, and caregivers gave high satisfaction ratings for the intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.
Silva, Kassondra M; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J; Valiente, Carlos; Huerta, Snjezana; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D; Kupfer, Anne S; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Wilson, Shauna B; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul R; Assel, Michael A; Taylor, Heather B
RESEARCH FINDINGS: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of children's effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring (ns = 823, 722, and 758, respectively) for 2 cohorts of 3- to 5-year-olds (collected during 2 different school years). Children's effortful control was assessed in the fall with parents' and teachers' reports and 2 behavioral measures. Teacher-child relationship quality was assessed mid-year with teachers' reports of closeness and conflict. Attitudes toward school were assessed in late spring using teachers' and students' reports of school avoidance and liking. Effortful control, in general, was positively correlated with teacher-child closeness and school liking and negatively correlated with conflict and school avoidance. Using structural equation modeling and controlling for sex and ethnicity, we found that effortful control was positively related to teacher-child relationship quality, which in turn was positively related to school attitudes. Furthermore, the relation of effortful control to school attitudes was mediated by teacher-child relationship quality. PRACTICE OR POLICY: Results provide evidence for the importance of relational processes that take place within the classroom context and have implications for teachers and clinicians working to increase school success in ethnic minority and low-income children.
Many children in Africa drop out of the country¿s formal educational system before finishing elementary school. Young students in Africa are often saddled with household chores, including taking care of the youngest children in the household while their mothers manage other household responsibilities. However, many problems and accidents can occur while the mother leaves her children at home. The best way to help these school-aged children take care of their younger brothers and sisters is to train them for that function. The ¿Child-to-Child¿ approach aims to teach children typical scholastic disciplines, but also to train them in hygiene, health, and disease prevention so they can apply what they learn in the community with their families and friends. 8000 students in 43 Mayumbe primary schools, their 315 teachers and heads, and community members were trained accordingly. The intervention took place in the Lukula area of Congo. The project was made possible through the financial support of 3 nongovernmental organizations. Project implementation, motivating teachers, and project evaluation are discussed. Project evaluation demonstrated students¿ capacity to differentiate between facts and beliefs, and that this educational approach is a valid, long-term investment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Saine, Nina L; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki
The aim of the longitudinal study was to investigate whether a computer application designed for remedial reading training can enhance letter knowledge, reading accuracy, fluency, and spelling of at-risk children. The participants, 7-year-old Finnish school beginners (N=166), were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (a) regular remedial reading intervention (n=25), (b) computer-assessed reading intervention (n=25), and (c) mainstream reading instruction (n=116). Based on the results, computer-assisted remedial reading intervention was highly beneficial, whereas regular type of intervention was less successful. The results indicated that at-risk children require computer-based letter-name and letter-sound training to acquire adequate decoding and spelling skills, and to reach the level of their non-at-risk peers. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Weegar, Kelly; Guérin-Marion, Camille; Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa
This study explored how physical punishment (PP) and other parenting approaches may predict school readiness outcomes. By using the Canada-wide representative data, 5,513 children were followed over a 2-year period. Caregivers reported on their use of PP and other parenting approaches (i.e., literacy and learning activities and other disciplinary…
Johnson, B A; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A; de Silva-Sanigorski, A M
The Be Active Eat Well (BAEW) community-based child obesity prevention intervention was successful in modestly reducing unhealthy weight gain in primary school children using a multi-strategy and multi-setting approach. To (1) examine the relationship between changes in obesity-related individual, household and school factors and changes in standardised child body mass index (zBMI), and (2) determine if the BAEW intervention moderated these effects. The longitudinal relationships between changes in individual, household and school variables and changes in zBMI were explored using multilevel modelling, with measurement time (baseline and follow-up) at level 1, individual (behaviours, n = 1812) at level 2 and households (n = 1318) and schools (n = 18) as higher levels (environments). The effect of the intervention was tested while controlling for child age, gender and maternal education level. This study confirmed that the BAEW intervention lowered child zBMI compared with the comparison group (-0.085 units, P = 0.03). The variation between household environments was found to be a large contributor to the percentage of unexplained change in child zBMI (59%), compared with contributions from the individual (23%) and school levels (1%). Across both groups, screen time (P = 0.03), sweet drink consumption (P = 0.03) and lack of household rules for television (TV) viewing (P = 0.05) were associated with increased zBMI, whereas there was a non-significant association with the frequency the TV was on during evening meals (P = 0.07). The moderating effect of the intervention was only evident for the relationship between the frequency of TV on during meals and zBMI, however, this effect was modest (P = 0.04). The development of childhood obesity involves multi-factorial and multi-level influences, some of which are amenable to change. Obesity prevention strategies should not only target individual behaviours but also the household environment and family practices. Although z
Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F.G.
Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child
Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha Chukwunyere; Wake, Melissa
To determine the feasibility of screening for child sleep problems and the efficacy of a behavioral sleep intervention in improving child and parent outcomes in the first year of schooling. A randomized controlled trial was nested in a population survey performed at 22 elementary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention involved 2 to 3 consultations that covered behavioral sleep strategies for children whose screening results were positive for a moderate/severe sleep problem. Outcomes were parent-reported child sleep problem (primary outcome), sleep habits, psychosocial health-related quality of life, behavior, and parent mental health (all at 3, 6, and 12 months) and blinded, face-to-face learning assessment (at 6 months). The screening survey was completed by 1512 parents; 161 (10.8%) reported a moderate/severe child sleep problem, and 108 of 136 (79.2% of those eligible) entered the trial. Sleep problems tended to resolve more rapidly in intervention children. Sleep problems affected 33% of 54 intervention children versus 43% of 54 control children at 3 months (P = .3), 25.5% vs 46.8% at 6 months (P = .03), and 32% vs 33% at 12 months (P = .8). Sustained sleep-habit improvements were evident at 3, 6, and 12 months (effect sizes: 0.33 [P = .03]; 0.51 [P = .003]; and 0.40 [P = .02]; respectively), and there were initial marked improvements in psychosocial scores that diminished over time (effect sizes: 0.47 [P = .02]; 0.41 [P = .09]; and 0.26 [P = .3]; respectively). Better prosocial behavior was evident at 12 months (effect size: 0.35; P = .03), and learning and parent outcomes were similar between groups. School-based screening for sleep problems followed by a targeted, brief behavioral sleep intervention is feasible and has benefits relevant to school transition.
Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C
In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.
Wise, Anna E.; Delahanty, Douglas L.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017) and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS), adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender) and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child. PMID:28878711
Anna E. Wise
Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.
Full Text Available Eczema and asthma are common conditions in childhood that can influence children's mental health. Despite this, little is known about how these conditions affect the well-being of children in school. This study examines whether symptoms of eczema or asthma are associated with poorer social and mental well-being in school as reported by children and their teachers at age 8 years.Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures of child well-being in school were child-reported (n = 6626 and teacher reported (n = 4366: children reported on their enjoyment of school and relationships with peers via a self-complete questionnaire; teachers reported child mental well-being using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [binary outcomes were high 'internalizing' (anxious/depressive and 'externalizing' (oppositional/hyperactive problems (high was >90th percentile]. Child rash and wheeze status were maternally reported and symptoms categorised as: 'none'; 'early onset transient' (infancy/preschool only; 'persistent' (infancy/preschool and at school age; and 'late onset' (school age only.Children with persistent (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.63 and late onset (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.14 rash were more likely to report being bullied, and children with persistent wheeze to feel left out (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84. Late onset rash was associated with high teacher-reported internalising behaviours (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.54, and persistent rash with high externalising behaviours (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.84. Child sleep and maternal mental health explained some of the associations with teacher-reported mental well-being.Symptoms of eczema or asthma can adversely affect a child's social and mental well-being at primary school. This suggests interventions, such as additional support or education of peers, should begin at early stages in schooling.
Christensen, Torben Spanget
This article analyses microprocesses within an intervention project at a Danish upper secondary school, which aims to develop teachers’ understanding of student notes and subsequently their way of dealing with them in their teaching practice. Focus is on how teachers formulate and reformulate...... the project ideas. These formulations and reformulations are assumed to be caused by the teachers’ experience of contradictions between new ideas and established practices, attempts to make sense of the new ideas, resistance, misunderstandings etc. By using ethnographic methods teacher reflections......, understandings and development of aims and means are studied. By applying activity theory as an analytical framework, reformulations or formative reformulations are interpreted as the dynamic and creative force in the project. They function as drivers of change and what he calls expansive learning and concept...
Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.
It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…
One of the most beautiful reading-pice for education with ethical and esthetical value for the children in the early child education at the family and in the kindergarten is the story. The story has big importance for education process in early childhood and for the school period of child development. As a meter of fact on that age with specifically language and statement the story offers possibility to see the beauty of art expression, to wake up the esthetical sense and with that procedure ...
Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.
City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…
Schuster, Lisa; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms. This suggests marketers should nurture caregivers' perception that important others approve of walking to school.
Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.
Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Tessema, Solomon; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Miljeteig, Ingrid
Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 1...
Endo, Kaori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko
A child's death is one of the most stressful events that parents and siblings may experience. Interventions for bereaved families following a child's death have been examined over the last several decades. However, there is little high-quality evidence to support any rationale for determining optimal interventions for bereaved parents and siblings. This study objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for bereaved parents and siblings following a child's death, to collect empirical evidence of the quality of these intervention studies, and to identify methodological challenges. A systematic review of data from randomized controlled trials of interventions for parents or siblings bereaved after a child loss. We searched MEDLINE (from 1949), PsycINFO (from 1806), and CINAHL (from 1806) databases for key terms and checked the reference lists of potentially relevant articles. We identified nine articles describing eight eligible trials from which we extracted data. The four types of intervention included support groups, counseling, psychotherapy, and crisis intervention. Most intervention trials showed some effect on participants in at least one outcome measure. However, we identified many severe methodological issues and outcome sets in these trials. Very little evidence of sufficient quality is available to confirm the effects of intervention measures on bereaved parents and siblings following a child's death. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to improve our understanding of the efficacy and implementation of interventions targeting bereaved parents and siblings. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cappellini, A C; Mancini, S; Zuffellato, S; Bini, F; Polcaro, P; Conti, A A; Molino Lova, R; Macchi, C
This study had the following aims: to verify whether children living in different environmental areas present a different development degree of the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity; to test whether a targeted psychomotricity education program could favourably modify the potential differences which may be observed; to investigate the relationship, if any, between the anthropometric differences and the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity. One hundred and sixty-five Italian children, 83 males and 82 females, 6-7 years old were enrolled in this study. Based on the provenance area, the children were subdivided into two groups: the urban one (N=85) and the rural one (N=80). Both groups underwent an initial psychomotor assessment including standardised psychomotor tests aimed at evidencing the general dynamic coordination ability and the static and dynamic balance capacity of every child. The findings of this research point out that children living in an urban setting selectively showed a lower degree of balance development, if compared to children living in rural areas; a targeted psychomotor education program favourably modified the differences in the balance development between the two examined groups, up to their disappearance. In the urban group the body mass index had a trend towards a negative relationship with balance development. Children grown up in an urban environment showed a delay in balance development, if compared to children of the same age grown up in rural areas. This study also clearly proves that such a delay may be regained by means of a targeted psychomotor education program.
Brezis, Rachel S; Weisner, Thomas S; Daley, Tamara C; Singhal, Nidhi; Barua, Merry; Chollera, Shreya P
In many low and middle income countries where autism-related resources are scarce, interventions must rely on family and parents. A 3-month Parent-Child Training Program (PCTP) at Action For Autism, New Delhi, India is aimed at empowering and educating parents, encouraging acceptance of their child, and decreasing parent stress. Forty couples were asked to describe their child with autism using the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS), an open-ended narrative method, before and after the program. Parents described a wide range of child behaviors, primarily social and cognitive skills. While all families were of a relatively affluent strata compared to the general Indian population, there were nonetheless significant differences in parents' narratives based on their income levels. Coming into the program, parents with relatively less income focused on their child's immediate and material needs, while higher income parents discussed their parental roles and vision for society. After the PCTP, parents were more likely to reflect on their child beyond comparisons to 'normality,' and beyond the here-and-now. Mothers were more likely than fathers to reflect on themselves and their relationships with their child. Understanding parents' experiences and narratives is essential for the evaluation of interventions such as the PCTP, as Indian parents are incorporated into a growing global network of 'parents of children with autism.'
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Thousands and thousands of middle school students around the world participate in reading intervention programs, many that are very expensive with limited effectiveness. We wanted to know if an after-school intervention focused on close reading procedures could improve student achievement. Close reading of complex text involves annotations,…
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Newsome, W. Sean; Nay, Stephanie
This study builds on two studies that explored the effect of a social skills intervention on problem behaviors displayed by elementary school children during recess. Findings conclude that social skills intervention significantly decreased problem behaviors among school children at recess. Implications for behavioral management and healthy school…
Jaksec, Charles M., III
Despite their best and frequently heroic efforts, school crisis intervention teams often find themselves unprepared for the many types of tragedies they face. This timely text prompts crisis intervention team members to reevaluate their beliefs and practices and consider a new approach to dealing with school crises. The author, a longtime school…
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
Villarreal, Victor; Ponce, Christopher; Gutierrez, Heveli
Treatment acceptability (TA) is critical when selecting and implementing an intervention, as TA is associated with treatment outcomes. The significance of TA is reflected in school psychology models for services that state that school psychologists should address TA during development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. However, the…
The impact of a primary school physical activity intervention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a physical activity intervention incorporated within classroom-based lessons, during lunch-breaks and after school.
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
.... Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children...
Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Verschueren, Karine; Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde
Social relationships can serve as important risk or protective factors for child development in general, and academic adjustment in particular. This study investigated the role of teacher-child interactions in academic adjustment among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour, using a randomized controlled trial study with Playing-2-gether (P2G), a 12-week indicated two-component intervention aimed at improving the affective quality of the teacher-child relationship and teacher behaviour management. In a sample of 175 preschool boys showing signs of externalizing behaviour (Mage = 4 years, 9 months, SDage = 7 months) and their teachers, we investigated P2G effects on academic engagement as well as on language achievement. Academic engagement was rated by teachers at three occasions within one school year (T1 = pretest, T3 = post-test, and T2 = in-between intervention components). Language achievement was assessed by researchers at pre- and post-test, using a standardized test. Cross-lagged path analyses revealed a direct intervention effect of P2G on academic engagement at Time 2. In addition, a significant indirect intervention effect was found on academic engagement at Time 3 through academic engagement at Time 2. Finally, academic engagement at Time 2 was found to predict language achievement at post-test. A marginally significant indirect intervention effect was found on language achievement at Time 3, through academic engagement at Time 2. This intervention study suggests that teacher-child interactions predict academic engagement over time, which in turn improves language achievement among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769
Lee, Jiwoo; Kubik, Martha Y
This study examined the response of parents of elementary school-aged children to a school-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification program conducted in one Minnesota school district in 2010-2011 and whether parent's response was moderated by child's weight status. Randomly selected parents (N = 122) of second- and fourth-grade students completed a mailed self-administered anonymous survey. Child's weight status was determined using measured height and weight. Most parents read the BMI notification letter and considered it helpful, independent of child's weight status. Parents of overweight children were significantly more likely than parents of normal weight children to report healthy lifestyle changes. This low-intensity intervention has the potential to support children, especially overweight children, and their parents to make healthy lifestyle changes. Future studies should investigate whether parent's response contributes to improved short- and long-term health outcomes for children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Simon, Ellin; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M
Anxiety in children is highly frequent and causes severe dysfunction. Various studies have used screening procedures to identify high-anxious children and offer them indicated prevention, but the cost-effectiveness of these screening procedures in combination with a preventive intervention has never been examined. This study compared four potential strategies in relation to the prevention of child anxiety: (1) a one-time school-based screening which offers a child-focused intervention, (2) the screening and offering of a parent-focused intervention, (3) the screening and differentially offering a child- or parent-focused intervention, depending on whether or not the parents are anxious themselves, and (4) or doing nothing. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective (i.e. including direct healthcare costs, direct non-healthcare costs, indirect costs, and out-of-pocket costs), using a decision-analytic model. The model was based on the real-world 2-year participation rates of screening and intervention, and real-world costs and effects of high- and median-anxious children (aged 8-12) from regular primary schools. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated, and several secondary and one-way sensitivity analyses were performed. The strategy of doing nothing and the strategy of screening and differentially offering the child- or parent-focused intervention, depending on parental anxiety levels were both worthwhile, with the latter strategy costing relatively little extra money compared to doing nothing. In conclusion, some evidence for the cost-effectiveness of screening and intervening was found. Screening and offering a parent-focused intervention to children of anxious parents, and a child-focused intervention to children of non-anxious parents, were found to be the most cost-effective approach.
The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.
In the process of pluralisation queer families are arising. In definition, a queer family has at least one of the parents social and not also biological. According to concern to the children in the heteronormative society, I explore the role of lesbian mothers raising an adolescent child which goes to Primary School. Dealing with the case of study, I collect data on descriptive level. The findings demonstrate that lesbian relationship is not lasting short and due to that threatening for a chi...
"Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, and labor market opportunities play equal or even greater roles in the decision to have children work. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence ...
In an environment where children's time has an economic value and employment opportunities for educated workers are scarce, parental investments in their children's education may not be driven entirely by poverty and credit constraints. We offer evidence that children's participation in child labor and schooling responds to economic returns to education in India, which suggests implementing policies that raise the economic benefits of education - such as creating more high-skilled jobs and im...
Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan
Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.
Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.
McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and youth have the possibility of strengthening protective factors for children. The aims of this study were to (1) adapt an evidence-based parent-child communication intervention (Mission Possible) for cultural relevance for low-income, low-literacy Mexican immigrant mothers and their children and (2) assess feasibility of delivering the adapted intervention in a school setting. Adaptation took place in a series of focus groups of mother-child dyads. The revised intervention was delivered to 27 mother-child dyads in two elementary schools. Feasibility was supported by high participant satisfaction, 80% attendance rate, and 75% retention rate. This preliminary work suggests strategies for school nurses to partner with immigrant families and outlines a potential intervention that expands the school nursing role.
Vincenzo Atella; Mariacristina Rossi
The paper develops a simple two-period model relating child labor, child school attendance and child health care access in LDCs showing that child labor is positively correlated to access to health care services. In fact, higher medical expenditure generates better health and, therefore, higher child productivity. Accumulation of human capital, which generates higher future utility, comes at the expense of current productivity and consumption. The optimal choice of child labor is such that th...
Huber, Anna; McMahon, Catherine; Sweller, Naomi
This study examined the efficacy of the attachment-based Circle of Security 20-week intervention in improving child behavioural and emotional functioning. Participants were 83 parents of children (1-7 years) referred to a clinical service with concerns about their young children's behaviour. Parents (and teachers, when available) completed questionnaires assessing child protective factors, behavioural concerns, internalizing and externalizing problems, prior to and immediately after the intervention. The following were considered as potential moderators: child gender and age, parent representations, reflective functioning, child attachment indices and severity of presenting problems, prior to treatment. Results showed significant improvement for parent ratings of child protective factors, behavioural concerns, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, all ps < .05, and children with more severe problems showed most improvement. Teachers also reported improvements, but change was significant only for externalizing problems (p = .030). Findings suggest Circle of Security is effective in improving child behavioural and emotional functioning in clinically referred children aged 1-7 years.
Kristine Husøy Onarheim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Tessema, Solomon; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Miljeteig, Ingrid
The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015). We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health)). We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015). Interventions are scaled-up to 1) government target levels, 2) 90% coverage and 3) 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health)). Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health)) substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health)).
Merry, M.S.; Voigt, K.
In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is
Parker, Roses; McKeever, Stephen; Wiseman, Theresa; Twycross, Alison
To identify interventions aimed at helping parents manage their child's pain at home and to establish which aspects of interventions were effective. Integrative narrative review. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, AMED, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases were searched in 2016. This narrative synthesis followed Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Economic and Social Research Council guidance. Reasons attributed to intervention success were analyzed using content analysis. From 2,534 papers, 17 were included. A majority were randomized controlled trials (n = 13) and most addressed postoperative pain (n = 15). A range of interventions were found that directly targeted parents, including child-parent interactions and health care professional-parent interactions, as well as complex interventions. Three studies were successful in reducing child pain at home and seven in increasing appropriate analgesic drug administration. Analysis of reasons attributed to interventions success revealed characteristics of interventions, components of parental pain management, and key features of research that aid researchers in designing and evaluating interventions. Risk of bias was present because of inadequate randomization, lack of a control group, and underpowered studies. Nurses should be aware that targeting parents directly is the most effective way of reducing child pain at home. Nurses need to advocate for effective analgesics for their child patients because the ineffectiveness of many interventions was attributed to inadequate analgesic drugs. Once this is achieved, success in increasing analgesic drug administration is most likely reached via parent-targeted interventions and those targeting health care professional-parent interactions. Successful interventions will be tailored to the child and adequately powered. Including a measure of sedation will ensure sedation is not mistaken for analgesic effectiveness. Interventions should address
Little, Suzanne; Marrs, Heath; Bogue, Heidi
The implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) in elementary schools may have important implications for school psychologists. Therefore, it is important to better understand how elementary school psychologists perceive RTI and what barriers to successful RTI implementation they identify. Although previous research has investigated the…
Knox, Karen S.; Roberts, Albert R.
The need for crisis intervention plans and programs in schools has become more evident during the past decade with the increased incidence of school violence and other traumatic situations experienced by students, educators, school personnel, parents, and relatives of those involved. This need has resulted in an increase of professional…
Chaffin, Mark; Valle, Linda Anne; Funderburk, Beverly; Gurwitch, Robin; Silovsky, Jane; Bard, David; McCoy, Carol; Kees, Michelle
A motivational orientation intervention designed to improve parenting program retention was field tested versus standard orientation across two parenting programs, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and a standard didactic parent training group. Both interventions were implemented within a frontline child welfare parenting center by center staff. Participants had an average of six prior child welfare referrals, primarily for neglect. A double-randomized design was used to test main and interaction effects. The motivational intervention improved retention only when combined with PCIT (cumulative survival = 85% vs. around 61% for the three other design cells). Benefits were robust across demographic characteristics and participation barriers but were concentrated among participants whose initial level of motivation was low to moderate. There were negative effects for participants with relatively high initial motivation. The findings suggest that using a motivational intervention combined with PCIT can improve retention when used selectively with relatively low to moderately motivated child welfare clients.
Review Of Interventions To Prevent Mother –To- Child Transmission And Seroprevalence Of Hiv Infection Among Paturients Advent To The Era Of Antiretroviral Therapy In Nigeria- Experienec From A Mission Hospital In Benin City, Nigeria.
Esteban Gómez; Bernardita Cifuentes; Catalina Sieverson
A descriptive study is presented, about the characteristics of boys and girls served between 2006 and 2009 in a child maltreatment and sexual abuse intervention program, implemented by Protectora de...
Nelson, Michael; Golley, Rebecca; Baines, Ed; Bassett, Paul; Wood, Lesley; Pearce, Jo
Abstract Background/Objectives: In addition to the nutritional benefits of healthier school food, anecdotes describe improvements in children's behaviour and educational outcomes when school food or the school dining room environment is improved. This study hypothesised that a school food and dining room intervention would improve pupils' learning-related classroom behaviour. Subjects/Methods: A controlled intervention trial involving six primary schools matched in triplets and ...
Dittus, Patricia J; Harper, Christopher R; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Donatello, Robin A; Ethier, Kathleen A
Adolescent males are less likely to receive health care and have lower levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge than adolescent females. The purpose of this study was to determine if a school-based structural intervention focused on school nurses increases receipt of condoms and SRH information among male students. Interventions to improve student access to sexual and reproductive health care were implemented in six urban high schools with a matched set of comparison schools. Interventions included working with school nurses to improve access to sexual and reproductive health care, including the provision of condoms and information about pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention and services. Intervention effects were assessed through five cross-sectional yearly surveys, and analyses include data from 13,740 male students. Nurses in intervention schools changed their interactions with male students who visited them for services, such that, among those who reported they went to the school nurse for any reason in the previous year, those in intervention schools reported significant increases in receipt of sexual health services over the course of the study compared with students in comparison schools. Further, these results translated into population-level effects. Among all male students surveyed, those in intervention schools were more likely than those in comparison schools to report increases in receipt of sexual health services from school nurses. With a minimal investment of resources, school nurses can become important sources of SRH information and condoms for male high school students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.
This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…
Mindrila, Diana L.
To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…
Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.
Gentry, Charles E.
Intended for child welfare caseworkers and others working with children and families in crisis, this guide presents principles and techniques of crisis intervention with child abuse or neglect cases. After an overview of the manual, the first section considers a definition of crisis, the elements and phases of crises, and the psychological effects…
Trautman, Retta C.; Ryley, Anderia Trail
A case study of a 3-year-old autistic child and her family is presented, following the child through a 3-year intensive intervention program with a multidisciplinary team in a day treatment program. The day treatment program plan included academic goals, language goals, parental goals, and home training goals. A major component of the program was…
Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne
Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…
Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan
Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…
Dennis-Small, Lucretia; Cohen, Miye
An evaluation was made of the Multidisciplinary Institute for Child Sexual Abuse Intervention and Treatment, a project established mainly to develop a curriculum for interdisciplinary child sexual abuse training, change attitudes and increase knowledge and skills of trainees, and promote a team approach toward training and case management among…
Lucy A. Tully; Patrycja J. Piotrowska; Daniel A. J. Collins; Kathleen S. Mairet; Nicola Black; Eva R. Kimonis; David J. Hawes; Caroline Moul; Rhoshel K. Lenroot; Paul J. Frick; Vicki Anderson; Mark R. Dadds
Abstract Background Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father part...
Dogini, Eric U.
Bullying behavior has reached pandemic proportions and is a growing concern in primary school. Most intervention programs in primary school are focused on bullying prevention or principally on the behavior of the bully. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a school-based bullying intervention program is an effective method for reducing…
Threlfall, Jennifer M; Auslander, Wendy; Gerke, Donald; McGinnis, Hollee; Myers Tlapek, Sarah
This study investigated the association between mental health problems and academic and behavioral school functioning for adolescent girls in the child welfare system and determined whether school engagement and future orientation meditated the relationship. Participants were 231 girls aged between 12 and 19 who had been involved with the child welfare system. Results indicated that 39% of girls reported depressive symptoms in the clinical range and 54% reported posttraumatic symptoms in the clinical range. The most common school functioning problems reported were failing a class (41%) and physical fights with other students (35%). Participants reported a mean number of 1.7 school functioning problems. Higher levels of depression and PTSD were significantly associated with more school functioning problems. School engagement fully mediated the relationship between depression and school functioning and between PTSD and school functioning, both models controlling for age, race, and placement stability. Future orientation was not significantly associated with school functioning problems at the bivariate level. Findings suggest that school engagement is a potentially modifiable target for interventions aiming to ameliorate the negative influence of mental health problems on school functioning for adolescent girls with histories of abuse or neglect.
Drake, Kelly L; Stewart, Catherine E; Muggeo, Michela A; Ginsburg, Golda S
Excessive anxiety is among the most common psychiatric problems facing youth. Because anxious youth tend to have somatic complaints, many seek help from the school nurse. Thus, school nurses are in an ideal position to provide early intervention. This study addresses this problem and describes the plans to develop and test a new intervention (Child Anxiety Learning Modules; CALM), delivered by school nurses, to reduce child anxiety and improve academic functioning. An iterative development process including consultation with an expert panel, two open trials, and a pilot randomized controlled study comparing CALM to usual care is proposed. Feedback will be solicited from all participants during each phase and data on outcome measures will be provided by children, parents, teachers, and independent evaluators. Data will be collected on intervention satisfaction and feasibility. Primary outcomes that include child anxiety symptoms, classroom behavior, and school performance (e.g., attendance, grades, standardized test scores) will be collected at pre- and post-interventions and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation. Pediatric anxiety is a common problem that school nurses frequently encounter. Consequently, they are well positioned to play a key role in enhancing access to behavioral health interventions to reduce anxiety and may therefore make a significant positive public health impact. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Unschoolers, and those who practice democratic, free, and progressive education philosophies, are often uncomfortable with a particular choice their children make: as Summerhill’s A. S. Neill observed: “Every child under freedom plays most of the time for years” (1964, p. 116. Those who see children as active, motivated learners can be disappointed when, given an environment rich with fascinating choices, their children spend most of their time in fantasy. The families’ discomfort can result in a reversion to more conventional schooling. Beginning with an early encounter with educational democracy during the 1970s at Toronto’s ALPHA Alternative School, supported with commentary from educators from schools that took a parallel path, and from psychologists and education critics both historic and contemporary, this article gathers arguments that support play as not only a pleasure but a necessity for growth, learning and mental health.
Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y
Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
... Gateway Search Menu Home Topics Family-Centered Practice Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family- ... Responses to Child Abuse & Neglect Supporting & Preserving Families Introduction to Family Support and Preservation In-Home Services ...
This quasi-experimental study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of an early nursing intervention program to support mothers of children aged 0-3 yr living in poverty. In this study, mothers who received financial support from the government were recruited from one city and assigned to an intervention group (24) and comparison group (18). They completed a baseline questionnaire about depression, child rearing burden, agreement on physical punishment, and child temperament. Also, Denver II screening of the children was performed by the researcher. Mothers in the intervention group received a home visit intervention every two weeks for three months. At 3-months post-baseline, questionnaire and Denver II screening were reused to compare these two groups. Mother's depression, child rearing burden, agreement on physical punishment, and child temperament were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the percentage of depression declined only in the intervention group. Mothers in the intervention group showed higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores than mothers in the comparison group. The findings of the study show that this nursing intervention is an effective parenting program. The early nursing program for mothers with infant and toddlers in poverty is effective in promoting HOME, the child rearing home environment.
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…
De Coutere, I A
The pre-school period is one in which behavior disorders may develop, especially if the child has certain constitutional faults and especially if the parents react unsuitably. Temperamental characteristics are discussed and the cluster of characteristics of the difficult child described in some detail to illustrate how trouble can be avoided if the parents can adapt healthily to the challenge of such a child. The concept of the emotionally disturbed child is examined. The specific syndromes are reviewed with emphasis on mental retardation, the hyperkinetic syndrome and childhood psychosis. Reactive behavior disorders, neurosis in childhood, special symptoms, excessive emotionality and depression are discussed.In management, the family doctor can fortunately be most effective, but only if he can spare the time and patience, concentrate on listening well, take a good history and give practical advice in which he believes. Medication is of secondary importance. If the community lacks facilities need to help these children further, then the physician can add a strong voice to those seeking them and can often provide the needed informed leadership. Some suggestions for further reading are made and are found in the footnotes.
In this paper, using the "2005-2006 National Family Health Survey" dataset from India, we study the likelihood of a school-age child working, combining work with schooling or being idle, rather than attending school full time. Our analysis finds that with the inclusion of household chores in the child labour definition, boys are…
Finn, Katherine; Lori, Jody; Lee, Maurgan; Giordani, Bruno
Severe malaria (SM) is the leading cause of pediatric cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CCRT), a promising intervention for children suffering from SM related cognitive delay, targets areas impacted by the disease (memory, attention, and executive function), but has yet to be implemented for daily use. This paper explores the perspectives of Ugandan professionals regarding CCRT implementation in the academic setting of Uganda. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken to conduct interviews with Ugandan professionals directly or indirectly aware of an ongoing CCRT intervention trial. Eight individuals were consented and interviewed. Responses were analyzed thematically. Question topics included knowledge of malaria and CCRT, perspectives on implementation feasibility, and experience engaging in a global collaborative research endeavor. Facilitators included perceived value and environment. Potential barriers were geography and resource availability. Perceived value is seen, expected, and/or hoped for outcomes by adults involved in the child's development. Environment speaks to the internal environment of the CCRT program as well as the external environment of the school setting. Geography presents as a barrier due to the difficulty of accessing CCRT in rural settings. Resource availability was a consistently identified barrier to implementation including aspects of technological, financial, and understanding deficits leading to difficulties in CCRT dissemination. Results demonstrate optimism and hope of Ugandan professionals for CCRT in children who have survived SM. Professionals identify and prioritize needs for implementation uniquely, pointing to the value in interdisciplinary collaboration to ensure effective implementation of CCRT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
, medication but CBT has been the most studied intervention and most prior reviews have focused on CBT and/or behavioral interventions. While prior reviews have found some support for CBT and behavioral interventions for reducing anxiety and/or improving attendance, the reviews have been mixed (Maynard et al., 2013. Prior reviews have also been limited to published research, have not adequately assessed the quality of evidence, and have primarily employed either qualitative or vote-counting methods for synthesizing study outcomes. No prior meta-analysis of interventions targeting school refusal has been located. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this review was to inform practice and policy by evaluating the effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal. The following research questions guided this study: 1 Do psychosocial interventions targeting school refusal reduce anxiety? 2 Do psychosocial interventions targeting school refusal increase attendance? SEARCH METHODS Electronic searches were conducted in 15 databases and 4 research registers, and internet searches were conducted for conference proceedings and other grey literature. Searches were conducted using the following keywords: (anxiety OR “school refus*” OR “school phobia” AND (attendance OR absen* AND (evaluation OR intervention OR treatment OR outcome OR program AND (student* OR school* OR child* OR adolescen*. Reviews of reference lists of included studies and prior reviews and personal contact with authors of prior studies of school refusal were also conducted to identify potential studies for this review. SELECTION CRITERIA Published or unpublished studies assessing effects of psychosocial interventions to improve attendance or reduce anxiety with school-age youth who met criteria for school refusal were included in this review. To be eligible for inclusion in this review, studies must have been conducted or reported between January 1980 and November 2013 and employed an experimental or quasi
Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.; Camare, Marianne
We evaluated contact desensitization (reinforcing approach responses) as intervention for specific phobia with a child diagnosed with autism. During hospital-based intervention, the boy was able to encounter previously avoided stimuli. Parental report suggested that results were maintained postdischarge. (Contains 1 figure.)
Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.
This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD…
Tharinger, Deborah J.; Vevier, Ellen
A review of descriptive and demographic data pertaining to intervention strategies with child sexual abuse victims presents an intervention framework delineating six role functions: becoming knowledgeable about abuse; responding sensitively to disclosures of abuse; detecting possible indicators of abuse; reporting suspected abuse; seeking…
DeGarmo, David S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; Price, Joe
Objective: The authors conduct a within intervention group analysis to test whether caregiver engagement (e.g., participation, homework completion, openness to ideas, apparent satisfaction) in a group-based intervention moderates risk factors for foster child outcomes in a state-supported randomized trial of caregiver parent training. Methods: The…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Tucker, Phebe; Newman, Elana
Background: The need to establish an evidence base for early child disaster interventions has been long recognized. Objective: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the empirical research on early disaster mental health interventions delivered to children within the first 3 months post event. Methods: Characteristics and findings of the…
Ozcan Dagdemir; Hakan Acaroglu
Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-200...
Alulis, Sarah; Grabowski, Dan
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity trends are rising throughout the world, revealing treatment difficulties and a lack of consensus about treatment. The family system is broadly viewed as a potential setting for facilitation of behaviour change. Therefore, family-based interventions have come...... into focus. However, the use of theoretical frameworks to strengthen these interventions is rare and very uneven. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To conduct a qualitative meta-synthesis of family-based interventions for child and adolescent obesity to identify the theoretical frameworks applied, thus understanding how...
Andrews, Jac J. W.; Syeda, Maisha M.
School psychologists typically conduct psychological and psychoeducational assessments, provide prevention and intervention services, and consult and collaborate with allied professionals (e.g., teachers, physicians, psychiatrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, and nurses) and parents toward better understanding and…
Wembonyama, O; Mbuy, B
In Gecamines, Zaire, a coordination unit examines ways to introduce medical education in 90 business schools in order to promote and protect health with and through children and in favor of the community. Its activities include analyses of the causes of failure to implement medical education in the past; proposing solutions and strategies allowing the unit to succeed at proposed activities; initiating a training program for physicians, teachers, social workers, and all persons promoting the program; introducing the child-to-child pedagogy at schools and for health education for children; informing teachers about screening methods for certain abnormalities and early detection of illnesses; and helping teachers control the vaccination status of children and participate in increasing vaccination coverage. School-based activities are personal hygiene; general cleanliness of class rooms, halls, and rest rooms; screening for illnesses, especially sight, hearing, and walking anomalies; children-organized health education conferences; and transmission of health education messages via drama, songs, conferences, and drawings. Out-of-school activities include relay of new health information to families and the community through children and surveillance of schools to prevent window thefts (source of air currents leading to upper and lower respiratory infections). The oldest children care for the health of other children, especially those who live near them; inform their parents about community health resources; serve as health volunteers (e.g., growth monitoring); and actively help control and evaluate the progress of health activities in their neighborhoods. After one year of primary health care coordination activities, the results are encouraging. Children play a substantial role favoring the promotion and protection of health. They can give life to prevention activities and even care for the youngest children. They can be excellent health volunteers in their community
Rispens, J; Aleman, A; Goudena, P P
The aim of this article was to provide data about the effects of child sexual abuse prevention programs. A more specific aim was to estimate the contribution of potential moderator variables such as age, program duration, or sample size to effect size. A meta-analytic approach was used to calculate post-test and follow-up effect sizes of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization. Tests of categorical models were used in the analysis of moderator variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine their association with effect sizes. Significant and considerable mean post-intervention (d = .71) and follow-up (d = .62) effect sizes were found, indicating that victimization prevention programs are successful in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Intervention characteristics such as duration and content of the program, and child characteristics such as age and SES were important moderators of effect size. Our findings corroborate and refine the positive conclusions of traditional narrative reviews. Programs that focus on skill training, allowing sufficient time for children to integrate self-protection skills into their cognitive repertoire, are to be preferred. Future evaluation research should focus on transfer of training.
Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Worldwide, 250,000-280,000 women die during pregnancy and childbirth every year and an estimated 6.55 million children die under the age of five. The majority of maternal deaths occur during or immediately after childbirth, while 43% of child death occurs during the first 28 days of life. However, the progress in limiting these has been slow and sporadic. In this supplement of five papers, we aim to systematically assess and summarize essential interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health from relevant systematic reviews. This paper is an introductory paper detailing the background and methodology used for grading interventions. The following three papers summarize the evidence on essential interventions for pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, postnatal (mother and neonatal) and child heath while the last paper describes the essential interventions as per the level of health care delivery and their proposed packages of care.
Cavalcante, Agueda Maria Ruiz Zimmer; Brunori, Evelise Helena Fadini Reis; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Silva, Andréa Braz Vendramini; Herdman, T Heather
To describe the nursing clinical judgment as a basis for ND identification and development of a NIC treatment plan for a child after cardiac surgery under intensive care. A case study with data retrospectively collected from charts. Three nurses identified NANDA-I diagnoses and NIC interventions. A 6-month-old child submitted to cardiac surgery, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the postoperative period. Four main nursing diagnoses were identified, towards which ten interventions were directed. The proposal of interventions to respond to the priority human responses of the child was optimized by the use of standard terminologies. Every nursing diagnosis was supported by diagnostic indicators; every intervention was scientifically supported. There must be an expectation that nurses address not only physiological responses, but also those within psychosocial domains.
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kim, Jiyoung; Barolak, Michael; Citerman, Barbara; Laudel, Cindy; Essma, Angie; Fezzi, Nancy; Green, Deborah; Kontak, Dot; Mueller, Nancy; Thomas, Cheryl
Research has documented the educational difficulties that maltreated children face. No work exists, however, that examines how maltreated children are provided services by school social workers or how these services overlap and interface with services provided by child welfare. This article attempts to fill that gap by presenting data from the…
Richards, Randi Burke
â No Child Left Behindâ (NCLB) has generated considerable attention within the education world. The purpose of this thesis is to question how local governments, i.e., local Boards of Education, have reacted to the current involvement and demands of the federal government. NCLB has only started to have an impact on local schools in the last few years as they have begun to fall into various categories of being â in need of improvementâ based on failing to meet established goals. Schoo...
Full Text Available : Starting school is an important developmental step / task not only for the child but also for their parents and family in which to grow up. The accomplishment of this task expands the boundaries of family / parent and the child's functioning in social, emotional and cognitive sense. The aim of this paper is to highlight the need to educate the parents of the child going to school, which would contribute to parents with awareness and sensitivity to the nature of long-term process of entering the child's entry into school, to a child's socialization process related to school and proceeded in a favorable direction. The author emphasizes the importance of having a separate program prepares parents for the child starting school, as part of the annual program of preschools / schools that educators / teachers should realize and thus improve their educational work with one hand, while on the other hand its value will be reported in a balanced relation between child-school-family, but also to avert the potential emotional difficulties, or, the child's dysfunctional behavior. Participation of professional services and school teachers / teachers in the implementation of such programs can enhance compliance of educational values that are placed in front of the child in the family and in the school environment.
Werner, Claudia Denise
The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in
McLackland, Brenda; Channon, Sue; Fowles, Kathryn; Jones, Laura Ashley
Comfort Zone for Children is an intervention that practitioners in a range of settings can use in their work with parents, with the aim of enhancing parental emotional attunement to their child. This article describes the development and evaluation of the intervention using preliminary outcomes, focus groups and interviews with staff and parents. The ongoing development of the intervention in the light of the feedback and future development is discussed.
Power, Thomas J; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F
Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School Success (FSS), designed to improve the family and educational functioning of students in Grades 2-6 who meet criteria for ADHD combined and inattentive types. Key components of FSS were conjoint behavioral consultation, daily report cards, and behavioral homework interventions. FSS was provided over 12 weekly sessions, which included 6 group sessions, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Participating families were given the choice of placing their children on medication; 43% of children were on medication at the time of random assignment. Children (n = 199) were randomly assigned to FSS or a comparison group controlling for non-specific treatment effects (Coping With ADHD Through Relationships and Education [CARE]). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. The analyses controlled for child medication status. FSS had a significant effect on the quality of the family-school relationship, homework performance, and parenting behavior. The superiority of FSS was demonstrated even though about 40% of the participants in FSS and CARE were on an optimal dose of medication and there were significant time effects on each measure. This relatively brief intervention produced effect sizes comparable to those of the more intensive Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) behavioral intervention. © 2012 American Psychological Association
Sørlien, Anders Lerdahl
This paper investigates determinants of school participation in northern Ethiopia using cross-sectional data from 2010, giving particular attention to the role of health and nutrition. It attempts to solve the problem of endogeneity in child health, and by doing so compliments on many of the previous studies which have failed to consider this. Instrumental variable and recursive bivariate probit models are used in order to assess the robustness of the estimates of the effect of child nutritio...
Macvean, Michelle; Shlonsky, Aron; Mildon, Robyn; Devine, Ben
Objectives: To scope evaluations of Indigenous parenting programs designed to improve child psychosocial outcomes. Methods: Electronic databases, gray literature, Indigenous websites and journals, and reference lists were searched. The search was restricted to high-income countries with a history of colonialism. Results: Sixteen studies describing…
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel; Gulis, Gabriel
Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational intervention in schools. We sought to suggest a framework underpinned by psychosocial theories towards bridging this knowledge gap. Furthermore, we sought to propound a more comprehensive definition of hand hygiene which could guide the conceptualisation of hand hygiene interventions in varied settings. Literature search was guided by a standardized tool and literature was retrieved on the basis of a predetermined inclusion criteria. Databases consulted include PubMed, ERIC, and EBSCO host (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, etc.). Evidence bordering on a theoretical framework to aid the design of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools.
Ginsburg, Golda S.
The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a…
Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S
Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40 households to care as usual. Parenting, family unity, and child mental health during the process of disclosure were studied using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Many of the families had at least one caregiver who had not disclosed their HIV status at baseline. Immediately post-intervention, children reported lower parenting and family unity scores compared with those in the usual-care group. These changes resolved at 3-month follow-up. Qualitative reports from clinical counselor intervention sessions described supported parenting during disclosure. Overall findings suggest adjustments in parenting, family unity, and trust surrounding the disclosure process. Family-based intervention may support parenting and promote child mental health during adjustment to caregiver HIV status disclosure. Further investigation is required to examine the role of family-based intervention in supporting parenting and promoting child mental health in HIV status disclosure.
Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad
Child abuse is an issue that has many physical and psychological consequences. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the current situation regarding child abuse, which can be used as a guideline for planning future interventions. This was a descriptive, analytic cross-sectional study on 700 Yazd secondary school students in 2013, using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS v.19 software and appropriate statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. P values of Child abuse frequency was 93.5% (92.2% of boys and 94.4% of girls). The most common domains of child abuse among all students were neglect (83.8%), psychological (76.1%), physical (36.1%) and sexual (28.8 %), respectively. The most common domains of child abuse among female students were neglect (84.9%), psychological (82.3%), physical (32.5%) and sexual (31.5 %), and among male students, these were neglect (82.3%), psychological (67.9%), physical (41%) and sexual (25.3%). Demographic variables included substance abuse of parents, father's education, parents living status and having other jobs, which were significantly related variables to child abuse and neglect (P value < 0.05). Our study is the first investigation performed on patients with LCH and its possible association with EBV in Iran. Considering the P = 0.004, which is statistically significant, the findings do support the hypothesis of a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of LCH. These results are in accordance with several previous investigations, with positive findings.
Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu
Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374
Foster, Gary D; Linder, Barbara; Baranowski, Tom; Cooper, Dan M; Goldberg, Linn; Harrell, Joanne S; Kaufman, Francine; Marcus, Marsha D; Treviño, Roberto P; Hirst, Kathryn
We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [+/- SD] age, 11.3 [+/- 0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. There was a decrease in the primary outcome--the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity--in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P=0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P=0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.)
Lai, Betty S; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Lowe, Sarah R; Peek, Lori
This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health assessment and intervention for children. We argue that schools offer a central location and trusted institutional space for mental health assessment and intervention after disasters. We also examine the important linkages between schools, child mental health, and household and family recovery. We conclude with recommendations for filling gaps in research and practice related to ensuring the safety of schools and the associated health and well-being of children in the face of future disasters.
Johnson, Evelyn S.; Smith, Lori A.
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a tiered model of service delivery being implemented in many middle grades schools. The authors provide an overview of RTI and describe the experience and outcomes of RTI implementation at Cheyenne Mountain Junior High. A discussion of lessons learned and implications for other middle schools considering RTI…
Couvillon, Michael; Peterson, Reece L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; Scheuermann, Brenda; Stegall, Joanna
Recent advocacy organization reports, Congressional hearings, and proposed federal legislation have called attention to the abusive use of physical restraint procedures in school settings. As a result, administrators and school officials wonder whether they should purchase "crisis intervention" training for staff and faculty members from outside…
Everhart, D. Erik
The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…
Goodman, Jennifer; Medaris, Jessica; Verity, Kimberley; Hott, Brittany
Bullying is a prevalent problem in school systems in the United States and abroad. This literature review focuses on elementary school-based bullying interventions for students published between 2005-2012. Ten studies reviewed included students from the first grade through the eighth grade from five countries. There were many common themes among…
Bullying is a major concern in education worldwide, particularly in countries such as New Zealand that are reported to have high rates of bullying in schools. In this article it is proposed that, in order to effectively prevent or substantially reduce bullying in schools, a systemic approach needs to be adopted, with interventions organized at…
King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Hill, David R.
Secondary school administrators are increasingly finding themselves in the position of implementing Response to Intervention (RTI). This system of providing progressively intensive levels of intervention for the purposes of preventing academic failure and identifying children with learning disability may be useful at the secondary level. However,…
Hemelt, Steven W.; Roth, Kimberly B.; Eaton, William W.
This study exploits a randomized trial of two light-touch elementary school interventions to estimate long-run impacts on postsecondary attendance and attainment. The first is a classroom management technique for developing behavioral skills in children. The second is a curricular intervention aimed at improving students' core reading skills. We…
Allen, Melissa; Burt, Karen; Bryan, Eric; Carter, David; Orsi, Ralph; Durkan, Lisa
Explores school counselors' preparation for and participation in crisis intervention. Results indicated that almost 36 percent of counselors are entering the profession with no formal coursework on or supervised experiences of crisis intervention in their practica or internships. Provides specific recommendations on strengthening counselor…
Furthermore, all best practice studies were grounded on a firm theory of behaviour, such as social cognitive, social marketing or stages of change. Most of the interventions that included a food service component had best practice behavioural outcomes. Conclusions: Numerous school-based nutrition interventions have ...
The degree of affiliation which pupils develop towards their schools is an important factor in their engagement and success. It has also been a matter of concern at the time of transfer from primary to secondary school. This article describes the development of a brief method for identifying the degree of affiliation which pupils feel, and also…
Dockery, Donna J.
School counselors are expected to develop programs that promote academic success for all students, including those at risk for dropping out of school. Knowledge of key indicators of potential dropouts and current trends in dropout prevention research may assist school counselors in better understanding this complex issue. Implementing recommended…
Fung, Annis Lai Chu
This study was the first to evaluate the effectiveness of three different group interventions to reduce children's reactive aggression based on the social information processing (SIP) model. In the first stage of screening, 3,734 children of Grades 4-6 completed the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) to assess their reactive and proactive aggression. Respondents with a total score of z ≥ 1 on the RPQ were shortlisted for the second stage of screening by qualitative interview. Interviews with 475 children were conducted to select those who showed reactive aggression featuring a hostile attributional bias. Finally, 126 children (97 males and 29 females) aged 8 to 14 (M = 9.71, SD = 1.23) were selected and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: a child group, a parent group, and a parent-child group. A significant Time × Intervention effect was found for general and reactive aggression. The parent-child group and child group showed a significant drop in general aggression and reactive aggression from posttest to 6-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline scores, sex, and age. However, the parent group showed no treatment effect: reactive aggression scores were significantly higher than those in the child group at 6-month follow-up. This study has provided strong evidence that children with reactive aggression need direct and specific treatment to reconstruct the steps of the SIP involving the selection and interpretation of cues. The intervention could help to prevent severe violent crimes at the later stage of a reactive aggressor. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Nicholls, S G; Pohlabeln, H; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Chadjigeorgiou, C; Gwozdz, W; Hebestreit, A; Lauria, F; Lissner, L; Molnár, D; Santaliestra-Pasías, A M; Veidebaum, T; Williams, G
From April 2008 to August 2010 the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) intervention aimed to encourage healthier diets, higher physical activity levels and lower stress levels among European children and their families. While the intervention was intended to improve children's health, we also wished to assess whether there were unwelcome aspects or negative side-effects. Therefore all parents of children who participated in the IDEFICS intervention were asked for their views on different aspects of the intervention. A total of 10,016 parents of children who participated in the IDEFICS survey and who were involved in the intervention were invited to complete a questionnaire on positive and negative impacts of the intervention. Responses to each of the statements were coded on a four point Likert-type scale. Demographic data were collected as part of the baseline (T0 ) and first follow-up (T1 ) surveys; intervention exposure data was also collected in the T1 follow-up survey. Anthropometric data was collected in the same surveys, and child's weight status was assessed according to Cole and Lobstein. After initial review of the univariate statistics multilevel logistic regression was conducted to analyse the influence of socio-economic factors, child's weight status and intervention exposure on parental responses. In total 4,997 responses were received. Approval rates were high, and few parents reported negative effects. Parents who reported higher levels of exposure to the intervention were more likely to approve of it and were also no more likely to notice negative aspects. Less-educated and lower income parents were more likely to report that the intervention would make a lasting positive difference, but also more likely to report that the intervention had had negative effects. Parents of overweight and obese children were more likely to report negative effects - above all, that 'the
Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls
Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.
Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming
.... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...
Saarikoski, A; Koppeli, R; Salanterä, S; Taskinen, S; Axelin, A
Daytime incontinence and enuresis are common problems in otherwise healthy children, and negatively influence their social lives and self-esteem. Motivation for treatment is often a real clinical problem. Children's experiences of their incontinence treatments have not been previously described. The aim of this study was to describe children's experiences of the Voiding School intervention as a treatment for their incontinence. A qualitative, descriptive focus-group study with a purposive sample was conducted at a Finish university hospital in 2014. Children aged 6-12 years participated in the Voiding School at an outpatient clinic. The intervention included two 1-day group visits 2 months apart. The educational content was based on the International Children Continence Society's standards for urotherapy. The education was delivered with child-oriented teaching methods. At the end of the second visit, 19 children were interviewed in five groups. Data were analysed with inductive content analysis. The children described incontinence as an embarrassing problem, which they had to hide at any cost. They had experienced bullying and social isolation because of it. Normal outpatient visits emphasized adult-to-adult communication, which made the children feel like outsiders. The children perceived the Voiding School as a nice and child-oriented experience. Making new friends was especially important to younger boys who felt that the Voiding School day was too long and issue-oriented. In the Voiding School, videos and 'learning by doing' helped the children to understand the basis of given advice, and they were able to learn new habits, which gave them control over the incontinence; this helped them to become 'the boss of the bladder'. Sharing experiences and improvements in their incontinence with their peers supported the children's self-esteem and encouraged them to do new things, such as staying overnight with friends. These experiences helped them to acquire control
S.J. te Velde (Saskia); M. Wind (Marianne); C. Perez-Rodrigo (Carmen); K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge); J. Brug (Hans)
textabstractBackground: Several school-based fruit and vegetable interventions include activities to involve parents, but not much is know about the effectiveness of such a family component on child and parent intake levels. The current study evaluated the effects of the multi-component school-based
Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna
To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.
The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported - an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers. Comparison pupils came from both intervention and comparison schools (n = 385). Intervention teachers attended three continuing professional development days, in which they received information, engaged with resource packs and involved themselves in cooperative learning. Measures included both general and specific tests of science, attitudes to science, sociometry, self-esteem, attitudes to cooperative learning and transferable skills (all for pupils) and observation of implementation fidelity. There were increases during cooperative learning in pupil formulation of propositions, explanations and disagreements. Intervened pupils gained in attainment, but comparison pupils gained even more. Pupils who had experienced cooperative learning in primary school had higher pre-test scores in secondary education irrespective of being in the intervention or comparison group. On sociometry, comparison pupils showed greater affiliation to science work groups for work, but intervention pupils greater affiliation to these groups at break and out of school. Other measures were not significant. The results are discussed in relation to practice and policy implications.
Schols, Manuela W A; de Ruiter, Corine; Öry, Ferko G
Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers' child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed.
Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V
Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development
Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Cowgill, Burton O; Klein, David J; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Uyeda, Kimberly; Schuster, Mark A
This study examined the long-term effects on BMI of a randomized controlled trial of Students for Nutrition and Exercise, a 5-week, middle school-based obesity prevention intervention combining school-wide environmental changes, encouragement to eat healthy school cafeteria foods, and peer-led education and marketing. We randomly selected schools from the Los Angeles Unified School District and assigned 5 to the intervention group and 5 to a wait-list control group. Of the 4022 seventh-graders across schools, a total of 1368 students had their height and weight assessed at baseline and 2 years' postintervention. A multivariable linear regression was used to predict BMI percentile at ninth grade by using BMI percentile at seventh grade, school indicators, and sociodemographic characteristics (child gender, age, Latino race/ethnicity, US-born status, and National School Lunch Program eligibility [as a proxy for low-income status]). Although the Students for Nutrition and Exercise intervention did not exhibit significant effects on BMI percentile overall, intervention students who were classified as obese at baseline (in seventh grade) showed significant reductions in BMI percentile in ninth grade (b = -2.33 percentiles; SE, 0.83; P = .005) compared with control students. This outcome translated into ∼9 pounds (∼4.1 kg) lower expected body weight after 2 years for an obese student in the intervention school at the mean height and age of the sample at baseline. Multilevel school-based interventions can have long-term effects on BMI among students who are obese. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which school-based obesity interventions can affect BMI over time. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Taal, Margot; Ekels, Elles; van der Valk, Cindel; van der Molen, Maurits
The current study presents a review of intervention studies conducted in the Low Countries (i.e., The Netherlands and Flanders) focusing on social-emotional behaviors in the school. The primary purpose of this review was to assess whether studies included an operational definition of the intervention under study and reported data on the…
Tully, Lucy A; Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Collins, Daniel A J; Mairet, Kathleen S; Black, Nicola; Kimonis, Eva R; Hawes, David J; Moul, Caroline; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Frick, Paul J; Anderson, Vicki; Dadds, Mark R
Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers' experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2-16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child's behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems. Almost two-thirds of fathers of children with high
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…
Prell, Hillevi C; Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Lena M; Lissner, Lauren
This study examined the effect of 2 school-based interventions on adolescents' consumption and knowledge of fish with the hypothesis that home economics education would enhance the effect of modifications in the school canteen. The school lunch intervention (SL) focused on changes in the school canteen, and the school lunch + home economics intervention (SL + HE) in addition consisted of changes in the home economics syllabus. Pupils in the 8th grade (n = 228) from 3 schools in Göteborg, Sweden, participated (control, n = 83; SL group, n = 58; SL + HE group, n = 87). A controlled design was used in which behavior and knowledge were assessed before and after the intervention. In contrast to much previous research of this type, measurement of behavior was based primarily on direct observation as opposed to self-reported intakes. Behavior (fish consumption) was measured individually by structured observations in the school canteen 5 times (once a week) when fish was served. Nutritional knowledge was measured by means of 10 items in a questionnaire. To analyze changes in behavior, a nonparametric statistical method assessing systematic change in paired ordered categoric variables was used. At follow-up evaluation, consumption had increased significantly in the SL + HE group, a change that also differed from the control group. In addition, significant positive changes in knowledge were observed in both intervention groups, but not in controls. The results suggest that dietary change was achieved by modifying conditions in the school canteen together with changing the home economics syllabus. This study shows the importance of the school in the promotion of dietary change among adolescents.
Leijten, Patty; Melendez-Torres, G J; Knerr, Wendy; Gardner, Frances
Children's disruptive behavior problems place children at high risk for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and carry a high burden for individuals and society. Policy makers and service providers aiming to reduce children's disruptive behavior problems must often choose between importing an intervention developed abroad or instead developing or using a "homegrown" (i.e., local) intervention. No comprehensive comparison of these interventions exists. We performed a multilevel meta-regression of 129 randomized trials (374 effect sizes) of transported and homegrown parenting interventions. We identified trials by searching the included trials lists of systematic reviews, found through searches in 6 databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE). Trials that had not yet been reviewed were found by searching the same databases. Primary outcome was the mean difference in effectiveness between transported and homegrown interventions to reduce disruptive child behavior. We also compared this differential effectiveness for various intervention "brands" (e.g., Incredible Years and Triple P Positive Parenting Program) and geographical regions (e.g., North America and Europe). Transported and homegrown interventions did not differ in their effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior (d = 0.10, not significant). Results were robust across intervention brands and geographical regions. Six trials on transported interventions in Hong Kong, Iran, and Panama suggest promising results for transporting interventions to "nonwestern" countries, whereas one trial in Indonesia does not. Parenting interventions based on the same principles led to similar outcomes, whether transported or homegrown. This finding supports the selection of interventions based on their evidence base rather than on cultural specificity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.
The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a school-initiated cognitive and behavioral program to reduce childhood obesity. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z scores were obtained at the beginning and end of the school year at an intervention school (n=1022)and at a con...
Miller, Nicholas J.
This paper examines the implementation of the Pyramid of Interventions (POI) at a suburban Georgia Middle School through an examination of teacher understanding, assessment of overall effectiveness, and the need for further professional development. The Pyramid of Interventions is the response to intervention (RTI) component of the Individuals…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.
This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…
Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Thompson, Ronald W.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Gross, Thomas J.
This study examined how child and parent reports of parenting were related to early adolescent substance use and school suspensions. Data were from two time points 6 months apart on 321 families with an eighth-grade student attending one of five schools in the Pacific Northwest. Child- and parent-report measures of family management practices were…
Preisler, Gunilla; Palmer, Christina
Blind children in Sweden are integrated with sighted children in nursery school from the age of two-three years. This paper describes the child's transition to the nursery school environment, play activities, parents' and teachers' reactions to the blind child's behavior, and use of videorecordings to provide feedback to teachers. (JDD)
Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…
Golley, R; Baines, E; Bassett, P; Wood, L; Pearce, J; Nelson, M
In addition to the nutritional benefits of healthier school food, anecdotes describe improvements in children's behaviour and educational outcomes when school food or the school dining room environment is improved. This study hypothesized that a school food and dining room intervention would improve pupils' learning-related classroom behaviour. A controlled intervention trial involving six primary schools matched in triplets and randomly assigned to a 12-week intervention (promotion of healthier school food at lunchtime and changes in the school dining environment) or 12-week wait-listed control group. Study outcome was learning-related behaviours measured in a random sample of 146 pupils in years 3-5. On-task and off-task behaviours were observed and used as proxy measures for concentration and disengagement (disruption), respectively. Teacher-pupil on-task engagement was 3.4 times more likely in the intervention schools compared with the control schools (adjusted model odds ratio (OR)=3.40 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56, 7.36), P=0.009). However, on-task pupil-pupil behaviour was less likely in the intervention group (adjusted model OR=0.45 (95% CI=0.28, 0.70), Pschool food and dining room intervention can have a positive impact on pupils' alertness. However, if raised alertness is not channelled and supervised, it may result in increased off-task behaviour when pupils are working together.
Shadick, Nancy A; Zibit, Melanie J; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K; Cui, Jing
Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Students in grades 2-5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00594997.
Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Spittle, Alicia J; Barton, Sarah; Treyvaud, Karli; Molloy, Carly S; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J
To examine the child and parental outcomes at school age of a randomized controlled trial of a home-based early preventative care program for infants born very preterm and their caregivers. At term-equivalent age, 120 infants born at a gestational age of intervention (n = 61) or standard care (n = 59) groups. The intervention included 9 home visits over the first year of life focusing on infant development, parental mental health, and the parent-infant relationship. At 8 years' corrected age, children's cognitive, behavioral, and motor functioning and parental mental health were assessed. Analysis was by intention to treat. One hundred children, including 13 sets of twins, attended follow-up (85% follow-up of survivors). Children in the intervention group were less likely to have mathematics difficulties (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.98; P = .045) than children in the standard care group, but there was no evidence of an effect on other developmental outcomes. Parents in the intervention group reported fewer symptoms of depression (mean difference, -2.7; 95% CI, -4.0 to -1.4; P parents in the standard care group. An early preventive care program for very preterm infants and their parents had minimal long-term effects on child neurodevelopmental outcomes at the 8-year follow-up, whereas primary caregivers in the intervention group reported less depression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Williams, Kate E; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Abad, Vicky
The positive relationship between parent-child interactions and optimal child development is well established. Families of children with disabilities may face unique challenges in establishing positive parent-child relationships; yet, there are few studies examining the effectiveness of music therapy interventions to address these issues. In particular, these studies have been limited by small sample size and the use of measures of limited reliability and validity. This study examined the effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents of children with disabilities and explored factors associated with better outcomes for participating families. Participants were 201 mother-child dyads, where the child had a disability. Pre- and post-intervention parental questionnaires and clinician observation measures were completed to examine outcomes of parental wellbeing, parenting behaviors, and child development. Descriptive data, t-tests for repeated measures and a predictive model tested via logistic regression are presented. Significant improvements pre to post intervention were found for parent mental health, child communication and social skills, parenting sensitivity, parental engagement with child and acceptance of child, child responsiveness to parent, and child interest and participation in program activities. There was also evidence for high parental satisfaction and that the program brought social benefits to families. Reliable change on six or more indicators of parent or child functioning was predicted by attendance and parent education. This study provides positive evidence for the effectiveness of group music therapy in promoting improved parental mental health, positive parenting and key child developmental areas.
Suresh, B S; Ravishankar, T L; Chaitra, T R; Mohapatra, A K; Gupta, V
Children under the age of 5 years generally spend most of their time with their parents and guardians, especially mothers, even when they attend pre-schools or nurseries. It has been found that young children's oral health maintenance and outcomes are influenced by their parent's knowledge and beliefs. This study was done to assess the mother's knowledge about the oral health of their pre-school children in Moradabad, India. Mothers of children aged 1-4 years, attending the hospital for vaccination or regular checkups in the pediatric division of government hospitals, were invited to participate in the study. A 20-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, dietary practices, oral hygiene practices and importance of deciduous teeth, was distributed to their mothers, during their visit to the hospital. Responses of the mothers were recorded on a Likert Scale. The sample comprised 406 mothers, with the mean age of children being 3.8 years. Three hundred (73.8%) mothers had a good knowledge about diet and dietary practices, while only 110 (27.1%) and 103 (25.4%) mothers were found to have a good knowledge about the importance of oral hygiene practices and importance of deciduous teeth, respectively. Mothers with higher educational qualification and information gained through dentist had a better knowledge about child's oral health. Oral hygiene habits and dietary habits are established during pre-school days and the parents, especially mothers, function as role models for their children.
Larsen, Anna Folke; Lilleør, Helene Bie
the impact on early childhood nutrition, measured as height-for-age, of an agricultural intervention that improved food security among smallholder farmers by providing them with a “basket” of new technology options. We find that height-for-age measures among children from participating households increased...
Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…
Kaslow, Nadine J.; Broth, Michelle Robbins; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Collins, Marietta H.
Emotional and behavioral symptoms and disorders are prevalent in children and adolescents. There has been a burgeoning literature supporting evidence-based treatments for these disorders. Increasingly, family-based interventions have been gaining prominence and demonstrating effectiveness for myriad childhood and adolescent disorders. This article…
Frerichs, L; Ataga, O; Corbie-Smith, G; Tessler Lindau, S
A growing number of childhood obesity interventions involve children and youth in participatory roles, but these types of interventions have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to identify child and youth participatory interventions in the peer-reviewed literature in order to characterize the approaches and examine their impact on obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours. We searched PubMed/Medline, psychINFO and ERIC for quasi-experimental and randomized trials conducted from date of database initiation through May 2015 that engaged children or youth in implementing healthy eating, physical activity or weight management strategies. Eighteen studies met our eligibility criteria. Most (n = 14) trained youth to implement pre-defined strategies targeting their peers. A few (n = 4) assisted youth to plan and implement interventions that addressed environmental changes. Thirteen studies reported at least one statistically significant weight, physical activity or dietary change outcome. Participatory approaches have potential, but variation in strategies and outcomes leave questions unanswered about the mechanisms through which child and youth engagement impact childhood obesity. Future research should compare child-delivered or youth-delivered to adult-delivered health promotion interventions and more rigorously evaluate natural experiments that engage youth to implement environmental changes. With careful attention to theoretical frameworks, process and outcome measures, these studies could strengthen the effectiveness of child and youth participatory approaches. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.
BACKGROUND The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. METHODS The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and organizations, was reviewed and synthesized to describe (1) the historical context for CSH and a whole child approach, and (2) lessons learned from the imple...
Goldman, Eliot E; Bauer, Daliah; Newman, Denise L; Kalka, Elaine; Lochman, John E; Silverman, Wendy K; Jensen, Peter S; Curry, John; Stark, Kevin; Wells, Karen C; Bannon, William M
The current study presents the implementation of a set of school based interventions in a greater New Orleans school district one year following Hurricane Katrina. The interventions included adaptation and implementation of evidence based treatments in a crisis situation with at-risk youth which involved training and clinical challenges. 386 students found to have significant depressive and/or disruptive disorder symptoms received treatment from the School Therapeutic Enhancement Program (STEP). Further, a district-wide mental health needs assessment of middle and high school students (N = 11,861) screened for behavioral and emotional difficulties at the beginning and end of the school year provided a benchmark for community youth's emotional and behavioral distress. High-need intervention students demonstrated clinically significant lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems, depression and inattention in comparison to pre-treatment levels as indicated by multiple informants (i.e., self, parent, teacher). Self-reported distress levels were also lower than screening group students at post-test. These findings support the efficacy of a school-based intervention for youth struggling with the aftereffects of a highly disruptive natural disaster. Implications for utilizing a flexible adaptation of an evidence-based training model involving coaching and consultation are discussed.
Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri
Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coleman, Karen J; Tiller, Claire Lola; Sanchez, Jesus; Heath, Edward M; Sy, Oumar; Milliken, George; Dzewaltowski, David A
To assess the impact on children's health of translating an evidence-based national intervention trial (Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health [CATCH]) to low-income elementary schools with primarily Hispanic students. An untreated, matched control group design with repeated dependent pretest and posttest samples was used. Four El Paso CATCH and 4 control elementary schools in El Paso, Tex, along the US-Mexico border region. All had Title I status (most were low-income students). Participants were 896 third-grade children (473 control schools [224 girls and 249 boys] and 423 CATCH schools [199 girls and 224 boys]); 93% were Hispanic. Community-based implementation of the national CATCH program. Risk of overweight or overweight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, yards run in 9 minutes, passing rates for Fitnessgram national mile standards, moderate to vigorous physical activity and vigorous physical activity in physical education class, and percentage of fat and sodium in school lunches. Girls in control schools had significant increases in percentage of risk of overweight or overweight from third (26%) to fifth (39%) grades, as did girls in CATCH schools (30%-32%); however, the rate of increase for girls in the CATCH schools was significantly lower (2%) compared with the rate for control girls (13%). A similar pattern was seen for boys, with a rate of increase for boys in CATCH schools of 1% (40%-41%), which was significantly less than the 9% increase (40% to 49%) for control boys. The translation of the national CATCH program to low-income schools with Hispanic students successfully slowed the epidemic increase in risk of overweight or overweight seen in control school children. An emphasis should be placed on community organizing and evaluation feedback when implementing evidence-based school health programs in low-income Hispanic communities.
Graves, Janessa M; Finsness, Erica D; Quick, Robert; Nyando Integrated Child Health And Education Project Niche Study Team; Harris, Julie R; Daniell, William E
School-based handwashing programs are challenging to establish and sustain, especially in low-resource settings. This qualitative study described teacher perspectives associated with implementing and sustaining a handwashing program in primary schools participating in the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education (NICHE) project. Structured key informant interviews were conducted with teachers. Prevalent concepts and themes were grouped into themes and topic areas using an iterative, open coding approach. Forty-one teacher respondents reported favorable expectations and benefits of handwashing programs. The importance of available resources (e.g., reliable water) was cited as a primary concern. Other challenges included time and personal or institutional financial commitment necessary to ensure program sustainability. Handwashing programs in low-income, rural schools, where infrastructure is lacking and "student ambassadors" extend the intervention to the surrounding community, hold great promise to improve community health. Teachers must have adequate support and resources to implement and sustain the programs.
Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D; Solari, Emily F
This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS I and/or II). The efficacy of PALS was previously demonstrated for improving mother and child behaviors within play contexts, everyday activities, and standardized measures of child language. We hypothesized that PALS effects would generalize to influence maternal and child behaviors during a shared reading task even though this situation was not a specific focus of the intervention and that this would be similar for children who varied in biological risk. Participation in at least PALS II was expected to have a positive effect due to children's increased capacity to engage in book reading at this age. Four groups of randomized mothers and their children (PALS I-II, PALS I-DAS II, DAS I-PALS II, DAS I-II) were observed in shared reading interactions during the toddler-preschool period and coded for (a) mother's affective and cognitive-linguistic supports and (b) child's responses to maternal requests and initiations. Support was found for significant changes in observed maternal and child behaviors, and evidence of mediation was found for the intervention to affect children's behaviors through change in maternal responsiveness behaviors. These results add to other studies supporting the importance of targeting a broad range of responsive behaviors across theoretical frameworks in interventions to facilitate children's development.
Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J
As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.
Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica
Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…
Rinaldi, Claudia; Stuart, Shannon
... and services. Recently, collaborative planning structure examples have been adopted into the IDEIA that encourage the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RtI) model as a way of ensuring appropriate instruction and continual monitoring. RtI refers to a multi-tier model for addressing the individual needs of students experiencing academ...
Al Aloola, Noha A; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
To explore, in depth, the literature for evidence supporting asthma interventions delivered within primary schools and to identify any "gaps" in this research area. A literature search using electronic search engines (i.e. Medline, PubMed, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase and Informit) and the search terms "asthma", "asthma intervention" and "school-based asthma education program" (and derivatives of these keywords) was conducted. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria; of these eight were Randomised Controlled Trials. There was much variety in the type, content, delivery and outcome measures in these 23 studies. The most common intervention type was asthma education delivery. Most studies demonstrated improvement in clinical and humanistic markers, for example, asthma symptoms medication use (decrease in reliever medication use or decrease in the need for rescue oral steroid), inhaler use technique and spacer use competency, lung function and quality of life. Relatively few studies explored the effect of the intervention on academic outcomes. Most studies did not report on the sustainability or cost effectiveness of the intervention tested. Another drawback in the literature was the lack of details about the intervention and inconsistency in instruments selected for measuring outcomes. School-based asthma interventions regardless of their heterogeneity have positive clinical, humanistic, health economical and academic outcomes.
Lucy A. Tully
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers’ experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. Methods A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2–16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child’s behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems
Black, Maureen M
As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
On the basis of ethnographic work with women from different economic and educational backgrounds in Santiago, I describe the experiences of labor and birth from the point of view of women's priorities, socioeconomic constraints, and relationships with the medical system. I specifically focus on their desires expressed during the late prenatal period and their narratives of the actual birth. Class and the differences in opportunities resulting from educational and class inequalities melt down into near invisibility as vulnerability rises and women become increasingly subjected to medical decision making. The long-standing Chilean focus on child centeredness, while shown to benefit bonding, can work to obliterate women's own desires and choices by encouraging them to "sacrifice their all" for the sake of the baby. This kind of sacrifice defines the meaning of the maternal body in Chile. I suggest further analysis of these factors is essential for an understanding of the hypermedicalized Chilean context.
Chin, D; Myers, HF; M. Zhang; Loeb, T; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE; Carmona, J
The Healing Our Women Program, an 11-week integrated trauma/HIV intervention designed for HIV-positive women with child sexual abuse histories, has been found to reduce psychological distress in treatment groups compared with wait-list controls (Chin, Wyatt, Carmona, Loeb, & Myers, 2004; Wyatt et al., 2011). This study examines the characteristics of participants who improved versus those who did not improve among participants who received the active intervention (N = 78) at post, 3-, and 6-m...
Wycisk, Jowita; Kleka, Paweł
Objectives:The aim of paper was to explore the attitudes of Polish psychology students towards lesbian mothers whose children undergo psychological intervention, in an imaginary situation of providing professional support to the child. The authors found 3 types of psychologist behaviour: contact omission (withdrawal from the intervention, mother’s partner exclusion), apparent appreciation of mother’s partner and authentic appreciation of mother’s partner (with women comparable participation)....
Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.
Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho
to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.
Verrotti, A; Penta, L; Zenzeri, L; Agostinelli, S; De Feo, P
Two crucial aspects of obesity prevention are early childhood and school-based interventions. The main purpose of this systematic review wass to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of school-based interventions performed in primary schools. All pertinent data from the literature have been critically examined and reviewed to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of different strategies of interventions. In particular, many studies have been performed in school-aged children. Data from literature suggest that educational interventions toward healthy eating habits and physical activity at school could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity, because it has been shown that is difficult to treat obesity in adults through changes in the lifestyle rather than during childhood. Recent advances in technology, especially web-based interventions, have been used to provide a specific content addressing healthy lifestyle with regard diet and exercise. These data suggest the opportunity to use web-interactive programs as a new challenging technique of communication in order to promote healthy behaviors. The early detection and treatment of obesity in children may be the best approach to prevent future increases in morbidity, as well as healthcare costs that will likely occur as overweight and obese children age.
Despite the importance of breakfast, summer, and after-school child nutrition programs, coverage in these programs in Massachusetts is low. This report describes the barriers facing the states School Breakfast, Summer Food Service, and After-School Snack Programs and suggests many innovative solutions and resources that program sponsors can use to…
Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J
The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J
This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms.
Driscoll, Katherine C.; Pianta, Robert C.
Research Findings: This exploratory study encompassed a collaboration to implement and evaluate the early efficacy of Banking Time, a dyadic intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Banking Time is a set of one-on-one meetings between a teacher and a child consisting of child-led play and teacher facilitation…
Full Text Available Background: Family structure and union dissolution has been one of the most thoroughly studied determinants of children's wellbeing worldwide. To date, however, few of these studies have examined sub-Saharan Africa, especially countries in West Africa where marital breakdowns are not uncommon. Objective: We attempt to examine the effects of a mother's divorce and widowhood on children's risk of mortality under age 5 and on their probability of entering primary school. Methods: Survival data analysis methods, specifically Kaplan-Meier and piecewise exponential models, are used for analysis, based on data come from the 2000 Migration and Urban Integration Survey of Burkina Faso. Results: Compared to those of intact families, children of divorced parents experience higher estimated mortality risks under age 5 and a lower probability of entering school, even after controlling for various other factors. This effect is large and significant during the first two years after the divorce. The death of the father is also found to greatly reduce a child's likelihood of entering school, but its effect on mortality is not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that the family context plays an important role in determining two important aspects of children's welfare: their probabilities of dying before age 5 and of entering school. Comments: Children of divorced parents or a deceased father are living in precarious situations and their specific needs should be taken into account in policies in order to improve the wellbeing of all children. Attention must be directed to the first two years following the union dissolution.
Ortiz, Gabriela S; OʼConnor, Todd; Carey, Jessa; Vella, Adam; Paul, Audrey; Rode, Diane; Weinberg, Alan
Child life specialists and music therapists have a unique and integral role in providing psychosocial care to pediatric patients and families. These professionals are trained to provide clinical interventions that support coping and adjustment and reduce the risk of psychological trauma related to hospital visits and health care encounters. The researchers devised a multimodal approach using a combined child life and music therapy intervention to address procedure-related distress in patients receiving intravenous (IV) placement in the pediatric emergency department. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this collaborative intervention by evaluating parental perception of their child's distress. This study was a prospective analysis investigating the impact of a child life and music therapy intervention on children aged 4 to 11 years old receiving an IV placement in the pediatric emergency department. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing scores between a 4-question pretest and subsequent 4-question posttest that asked the child's parent to evaluate how they anticipated their child would respond to the procedure, and then to evaluate how they perceived their child to have responded after the procedure. Qualitative data were collected in the form of open-ended comments, which were accommodated at the end of the posttest. Data were analyzed by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method for testing repeated ordinal responses and the PROC GENMOD procedure in the SAS system software. A total of 41 participants were enrolled in this study. Results of the statistical analysis revealed significant differences between all pre- and posttest scores (P child life and music therapy intervention. Improvement was demonstrated across all 4 questions, suggesting that the child life and music therapy intervention supported healthy, adaptive coping and helped to minimize distress experienced by patients during IV placement. These results underscore the importance and
Omokhodion, F O; Omokhodion, S I
This cross sectional study was designed to compare the characteristics of working and non-working school children. Two hundred and thirty one working and 236 non-working children were interviewed. The socio economic factors associated with child labour were trading as mother's occupation, father's educational status, religion, family type (monogamous vs polygamous) and type of residence. Family type (OR = 0.562, 95% C.I. 0.353-0.897, p = 0.016), religion (OR = 0.559, 95% C.I. 0.361-0.867, p = 0.009) and trading as mother's occupation (O.R = 2.49, 95% CI 1.68-3.68, p = 0.000) were sustained on logistic regression analysis. With regard to attitude to child work, 186 (40%) of all respondents thought that children should be allowed to work. The majority of those who held this opinion 150, were child workers. Ten percent of working children had themselves chosen to work without any parental influence to do so. Seventy five respondents had ever repeated a class. Forty nine of these were working children a prevalence of 21% of repeaters compared to 26 non working children, (11%.) p = 0.004. Sixty eight percent of children aspiring to careers in artisan trades were child workers. Road traffic accidents and poor school performance were the commonest adverse effects of child labour indicated by school children. Parents should be educated about the adverse effects of child labour on child development. As poverty is one of the major root causes of child labour, free and compulsory primary education may help to reduce the notion of child work as an option for survival in poor families.
Moore, Erica R.; Sabousky, Richard; Witzel, Bradley S.
When discussing the eligibility determination of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs), the legal obligation to identify, locate, and evaluate all children in need of specially designed instruction--child find--should also be in the forefront. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires public schools to initiate…
Parents influence children's dietary intake in part through general parenting styles, feeding styles, and/or food parenting practices. Interventions aimed at improving child diet often include parent components. A systematic review was conducted to assess the effect of targeting parenting styles and...
... within the South African context are explored. The limitations of the approach are addressed and recommendations for a case series, more rigorously exploring the application of this approach are made. Keywords: child, trauma, brief-term intervention, narrative, art. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2005, 15(2): 155–163 ...
Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie
Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…
Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer
Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…
Ukrainetz, Teresa A.
Purpose: This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Method: Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this…
Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions.
Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Weintraub, Naomi
We examined the efficacy of a crisis-based intervention in improving mother-child interaction and children's play functioning for families who had experienced domestic violence. Using a pretest-posttest two-group control study design, we assigned the intervention group (n=20 mother-child dyads) to the Family Intervention for Improving Occupational Performance (FI-OP) program and the control group (n=17 dyads) to a playroom program. Both programs consisted of eight 30-min sessions. We videotaped dyads during free play and used standardized tools to assess interactions, play skills, and playfulness. After the intervention, mother-child interaction was significantly better in the FI-OP group than in the playroom group. The children in the FI-OP group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in play skills, but not in playfulness. FI-OP is a promising program for improving aspects of mother-child interaction and children's play functioning among survivors of domestic violence. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Whitney, Rondalyn V.; Smith, Gigi
This study examines emotional disclosure through the activity of journaling as a means of coping with maternal stress associated with parenting a child with disruptive behaviors. Through a randomized control and pre-test post-test study design of an online journal writing intervention, change to maternal stress and quality of mother-child…
Davis Bowman, Jennifer
This study focused on the experience of parents concerned with child social behavior and the perception of bibliotherapy as an intervention. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, four families raising children between the ages of 4-12 participated in a series of interviews. The children's social needs varied, but parent concerns were…
Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.
This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…
Haight, Wendy L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah; Black, James; Szewczyk, Margaret; Schoppe, Sarah; Giorgio, Grace; Madrigal, Karen; Tata, Lakshmi
Mothers of young children recently placed in foster care participated in an intervention to enhance parent-child interaction during visits. The mothers all reported substantial loss and trauma histories. Immediately prior to the visits, the mothers were coached on strategies for separating from their children at the visit's end. The mothers…
Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao
Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…
Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry
Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Wallace, Aaron; Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Nandy, Robin; Durry, Elias; Everard, Marthe
Child Health Days (CHDs) are increasingly used by countries to periodically deliver multiple maternal and child health interventions as time-limited events, particularly to populations not reached by routine health services. In countries with a weak health infrastructure, this strategy could be used to reach many underserved populations with an integrated package of services. In this study, we estimate the incremental costs, impact, cost-effectiveness, and return on investment of 2 rounds of CHDs that were conducted in Somalia in 2009 and 2010. We use program costs and population estimates reported by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to estimate the average cost per beneficiary for each of 9 interventions delivered during 2 rounds of CHDs implemented during the periods of December 2008 to May 2009 and August 2009 to April 2010. Because unstable areas were unreachable, we calculated costs for targeted and accessible beneficiaries. We model the impact of the CHDs on child mortality using the Lives Saved Tool, convert these estimates of mortality reduction to life years saved, and derive the cost-effectiveness ratio and the return on investment. The estimated average incremental cost per intervention for each targeted beneficiary was $0.63, with the cost increasing to $0.77 per accessible beneficiary. The CHDs were estimated to save the lives of at least 10,000, or 500,000 life years for both rounds combined. The CHDs were cost-effective at $34.00/life year saved. For every $1 million invested in the strategy, an estimated 615 children's lives, or 29,500 life years, were saved. If the pentavalent vaccine had been delivered during the CHDs instead of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, an additional 5000 children's lives could have been saved. Despite high operational costs, CHDs are a very cost-effective service delivery strategy for addressing the leading causes of child mortality in a conflict setting like Somalia and compare
Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy; Holck, Ulla
of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families...... (n = 9). Observational measures for parent-child interaction, self-reported measures for parenting stress and parent-child relationship were completed at baseline and 4 months post-baseline assessment. Results: Results of the study showed that dyads who received music therapy intervention...... significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking...
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Jamila Reid, M; Stoolmiller, Mike
School readiness, conceptualized as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young children's future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased emotional dysregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent-school involvement would seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children's school readiness, leading to later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur homework to encourage parents' involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of lesson objectives through the teachers' continual use of positive classroom management skills focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers and 1,768 students are presented. Children and teachers were observed in the classrooms by blinded observers at the beginning and the end of the school year. Results indicated that
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline
To gain insight into the special issues confronting parents when accessing early intervention for children with physical disabilities where child and/or family characteristics indicate complex needs within the unique Australian context. Qualitative interviews with families receiving early intervention for their children with physical disabilities (N=10). Families with complex circumstances such as having children with high support needs, those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and single-parent families were recruited to the study. Families where parents had mental or health issues, parents/other family members had an identified disability, and/or where families lived in regional or rural locations were also purposively sampled. Participants highlighted issues around (i) the nature of early intervention services provided; (ii) the ways in which services were structured; and (ii) managing their child's needs/planning into the future. Parents stressed the importance of having access to a variety of early intervention services aside from therapy. They also emphasised the need for greater clarity about what to expect from services, the intensity of therapy, other services they could access and how long they would be able to receive these. Despite their complex circumstances and needs, participants' experiences of accessing early intervention services were largely consistent with the broader research literature. Of the parents interviewed, those with health problems and single mothers expressed most apprehension about managing their child's needs and planning for the future. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre
Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review.
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.
Spieker, Susan J.; Oxford, Monica L.; Kelly, Jean F.; Nelson, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Charles B.
We conducted a community based, randomized control trial of Promoting First Relationships (PFR; Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008) to improve parenting and toddler outcomes for toddlers in state dependency. Toddlers (10 – 24 months; N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized to 10-week PFR or a comparison condition. Community agency providers were trained to use PFR in the intervention for caregivers. From baseline to post-intervention follow-up, observational ratings of caregiver sensitivity improved more in the PFR condition than in the comparison condition, with an effect size for the difference in adjusted means post-intervention of d = .41. Caregiver understanding of toddlers’ social emotional needs and caregiver reports of child competence also differed by intervention condition post-intervention (d = .36 and d = .42) with caregivers in the PFR condition reporting more understanding of toddlers and child competence. Models of PFR effects on within-individual change were significant for caregiver sensitivity and understanding of toddlers. At the 6-month follow-up 61% of original sample dyads were still intact and there were no significant differences on caregiver or child outcomes, although caregivers in the PFR group did report marginally (pchild sleep problems (d = −.34). PMID:22949743
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James
Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027
Anderson, Mark E; Freas, Michelle R; Wallace, Andrea S; Kempe, Allison; Gelfand, Erwin W; Liu, Andrew H
Because children attend school daily, school-based interventions for children with persistent asthma could provide effective disease management for inner-city asthmatic children. The Kunsberg School in Denver, Colorado, enrolls children with chronic diseases, including asthma, into a daily program of school-based disease management. This study sought to determine the impact of the Kunsberg program on asthma utilization. Children attending Kunsberg (n=18) who received primary care at Denver Health were compared with a group of matched control children who also received primary care at Denver Health, but did not attend Kunsberg (n=36). Asthma-related utilization for an average of 2.9 years before and after Kunsberg enrollment was assessed. The 18 Kunsberg and 36 control subjects were mostly minority children in low-income families, without significant demographic differences between groups. Compared with controls, the Kunsberg cohort experienced fewer hospitalizations (0.5 vs. 0.9 hospitalizations/subject/ year, p=0.05), fewer emergency department (ED) visits (1.4 vs. 2.8 ED visits/ subject/year, p=0.04), and fewer follow-up visits for asthma (3.7 vs. 5.0 visits/subject/ year, p=0.01) in the time period (mean 2.9 years; range 1-6 years) following the intervention. Hospital- and clinic-based asthma utilization costs decreased 80% following enrollment in the school (8122 dollars/year to 1588 dollars/year per child), compared to a 19% decrease in the control group. Among the Kunsberg children with hospitalizations prior to school enrollment (n=8), hospital days decreased from 3.5 days to 0.1 days annually (pmanagement. Directly observed controller therapy at school can be an important component of a school-based program for children with chronic conditions.
Malti, Tina; Noam, Gil G; Beelmann, Andreas; Sommer, Simon
This special issue examines essential challenges and successes for developing, implementing, and disseminating evidence-based psychological interventions for child and adolescent development and mental health. The main aims are to identify what evidence is "good enough" for roll-out, if and how interventions need to be adapted to developmental diversity and contextual variation, and how they relate to complex systemic contexts. Themes of the special issue are twofold and first include questions about adoption versus adaptation, in terms of both developmental tailoring and cultural adaptation of existing intervention programs. Second, the issue tackles questions about what systems of support are needed to ensure the system readiness for child and adolescent mental health interventions. We argue that moving from simple adoption to dynamic adaptation and from programs to collaborative systems offers new perspectives for developing and implementing flexible protocols and strategies that allow adapted intervention. The special issue raises broader questions of whether current intervention programs and practices are good enough in moving us from mere adoption to innovation in system readiness, or whether we need to do more before we can claim that interventions are good enough for roll-out.
Pate, R R; O'Neill, J R
Most children and adolescents do not meet the recommended 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. One attractive approach to increasing physical activity in young people is providing activity through structured after-school programmes. This paper provides a review of the scientific literature on the effects of after-school programmes on physical activity in children and adolescents. After-school physical activity interventions provided mixed results; some increased children's physical activity, others did not. Although after-school programmes have the potential to help children and adolescents engage in regular, enjoyable physical activity, the research on these programmes is limited and, in some cases, methodologically weak. Additional, well-controlled studies are needed to identify the components of after-school programmes that promote physical activity and to determine the level of activity that can be attained when children and adolescents participate in these programmes.
Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186
Knollmann, Martin; Knoll, Susanne; Reissner, Volker; Metzelaars, Jana; Hebebrand, Johannes
A considerable percentage of children and adolescents who avoid school have mental illnesses. This article reviews the typical manifestations, classification, development, course, and treatment of school-avoiding behavior. Based on a selective review of recent literature, we present findings on the psychopathologically relevant features of school-avoiding children and adolescents, including psychiatric diagnoses, developmental, family-related, and psychological test variables. The emphasis is placed on our own studies of the subject. Although the evidence from the studies that have been performed to date is not definitive, the available findings show that school avoidance is associated with poor mental health and with unfavorable consequences onward into adulthood. Its causes include a number of individual and social stressors that place excessive demands on the affected children and adolescents and lead them to avoid school as a coping attempt. Many preventive and therapeutic interventions are now available, but the existing measures need to be better coordinated, and more effort needs to be directed to the early recognition and treatment of school-avoiding behavior. Physicians should consider the possibility of mental illness. Rather than writing sick notes or prescribing mother-child treatments at health resorts, which rather tend to sustain the problem, they should refer patients promptly to a child and adolescent psychiatrist.
uddin Mian, Naeem; Malik, Mariam Zahid; Iqbal, Sarosh; Alvi, Muhammad Adeel; Memon, Zahid; Chaudhry, Muhammad Ashraf; Majrooh, Ashraf; Awan, Shehzad Hussain
Pakistan is far behind in achieving the Millennium Development Goals regarding the reduction of child and maternal mortality. Amongst other factors, transport barriers make the requisite obstetric care inaccessible for women during pregnancy and at birth, when complications may become life threatening for mother and child. The significance of efficient transport in maternal and neonatal health calls for identifying which currently implemented transport interventions have potential for scalability. A qualitative appraisal of data and information about selected transport interventions generated primarily by beneficiaries, coordinators, and heads of organizations working with maternal, child, and newborn health programs was conducted against the CORRECT criteria of Credibility, Observability, Relevance, Relative Advantage, Easy-Transferability, Compatibility and Testability. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) techniques were used to analyse seven interventions against operational indicators. Logical inference was drawn to assess the implications of each intervention. QCA was used to determine simplifying and complicating factors to measure potential for scaling up of the selected transport intervention. Despite challenges like deficient in-journey care and need for greater community involvement, community-based ambulance services were managed with the support of the community and had a relatively simple model, and therefore had high scalability potential. Other interventions, including facility-based services, public-sector emergency services, and transport voucher schemes, had limitations of governance, long-term sustainability, large capital expenditures, and need for management agencies that adversely affected their scalability potential. To reduce maternal and child morbidity and mortality and increase accessibility of health facilities, it is important to build effective referral linkages through efficient transport systems. Effective linkages between
Karon, Andrew J; Cronin, Aidan A; Cronk, Ryan; Hendrawan, Reza
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools are important for child health, development, and educational performance; yet coverage in Indonesian schools remains low. To address this deficiency, UNICEF and partners conducted a WASH intervention in 450 schools across three provinces in Indonesia. A survey evaluating the sustainability of infrastructure and behavioral interventions in comparison to control districts was conducted one year after completion of the intervention. The survey data were also compared with national government data to assess the suitability of government data to report progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Logistic regression was used to explore associations between WASH conditions and behaviors. Intervention schools were more likely to have handwashing stations with soap and water. In multivariable analyses, schools with a toilet operation and maintenance fund were more likely to have functional toilets. Students who learn hygiene skills from their teachers were less likely to defecate openly, more likely to share hygiene knowledge with their parents, and more likely to wash their hands. Survey data were comparable with government data, suggesting that Indonesian government monitoring may be a reliable source of data to measure progress on the SDGs. This research generates important policy and practice findings for scaling up and sustaining WASH in schools and may help improve WASH in schools programs in other low-resource contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Christian, Danielle; Todd, Charlotte; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Background Schools are repeatedly utilised as a key setting for health interventions. However, the translation of effective research findings to the school setting can be problematic. In order to improve effective translation of future interventions, it is imperative key challenges and facilitators of implementing health interventions be understood from a school?s perspective. Methods Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in primary schools (headteachers n?=?16, deputy headteache...
Eisenman, Laura T.
This brief synthesis of theory, research, and practice examines the role of self-determination as a factor in school completion and considers the importance of teaching self-determination skills for all youth. Self-determination interventions can help students to develop the internal motivational architecture they need to achieve success in school…
Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia
Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…
Orlowski, Marietta; Lee, Miryoung; Spears, William; Narayan, Roopsi; Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Kennel, Julie; Krafka, Erin; Patton, Susan
Background: Vegetable consumption is a challenging behavioral target; consumption rates are below recommended levels and when interventions produce improvements, increases in vegetable consumption are typically a fraction of the change in fruit consumption. We describe vegetable consumption within Ohio school meals and examine how fruit selection,…
Objective: Parental divorce affects approximately 30 000 South African children annually. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Children of Divorce Intervention Programme (CODIP) at two South African schools. CODIP is a preventively oriented group programme which was developed to foster resilience ...
Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael
Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.
One of the key barriers to participation seems to be a hierarchical and authoritarian school management style. The ethos of control, discipline and authority stifles the process of child participation at the school. The main role of the prefects appears to be 'policing' and 'reporting' to the school hierarchy. Children's pursuit of ...
Slesaransky-Poe, Graciela; Ruzzi, Lisa; DiMedio, Connie; Stanley, Jeanne
This article describes what followed after a mother wondered if the school in her neighborhood was the right elementary school for her gender nonconforming young child. It includes collective and individual narratives from four key players: the mom and teacher educator (Slesaransky-Poe), the school's guidance counselor (Ruzzi), the principal…
Raitio, Katja; Kaunonen, Marja; Aho, Anna Liisa
The aim of this study was to produce information about parental grief intervention and its impacts on maternal grief. The grief after death of a child is a lifelong process. Social support is often stated as the most important factor in coping after the death of a child. A single measure post-test control group design was used to evaluate whether there are differences in the grief reactions between the mothers in the intervention program (n = 83) and the mothers in the control group (n = 53). The data were collected by using a questionnaire which included background variables and Hogan Grief Reactions Checklist 6 months after the child's death. The data were analysed by statistical methods. There were no significant differences in the grief reactions between the intervention group and the control group. However, greater support from the healthcare professionals was associated with stronger personal growth. The mothers' age, self-perceived health status and the age of deceased child were associated with the grief reactions. This study emphasises the importance of social support to grieving mothers. Health care professionals are in an important role when considering support for grieving mothers; the given support may relieve the mothers' grief reactions. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M
This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A
Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Ashlyn L.; Hustad, Katherine C.
The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26, 2-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language. PMID:26401966
Full Text Available Sally E Findley,1 Omolara T Uwemedimo,2 Henry V Doctor,1,3 Cathy Green,4 Fatima Adamu,5 Godwin Y Afenyadu61Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2Pediatric Global Health Program, Cohen Children’s Medical Centre of New York, Division of General Pediatrics, New Hyde Park, NY, USA; 3Operations Research Unit, Programme for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria-Maternal Newborn and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH, Abia State House, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Health Partners International, Waterside Centre, Lewes, East Sussex, United Kingdom; 5Social Development and Community Engagement Unit, 6Operations Research Unit, PRRINN-MNCH Programme, Nassarawa GRA, Kano State, NigeriaBackground: In Northern Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three Northern Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of community-based service delivery (CBSD with a network of community volunteers and community health workers (CHWs, who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs.Methods: We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009 and follow-up (2011 to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in
Graves, Janessa M; Daniell, William E; Harris, Julie R; Obure, Alfredo F X O; Quick, Robert
The Nyando Integrated Child Health Education (NICHE) project was a collaborative effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and local partners to assess the effectiveness of multiple interventions for improving child survival in western Kenya. To increase handwashing in schools, NICHE trained teachers and installed handwashing stations with treated water and soap in 51 primary schools. This cluster-randomized trial evaluated an additional educational strategy (a poster contest themed, "Handwashing with Soap") to improve handwashing behavior in 23 NICHE primary schools. Pupils were engaged in the poster development. Pupil handwashing behavior was observed unobtrusively at baseline and after four months. Intervention schools displayed a significant increase in the number of handwashing stations and proportion of teacher-supervised stations over the study period. No significant between-group differences of intervention in handwashing frequency, soap availability, or visibility of handwashing stations was observed. Despite finding a limited effect beyond the NICHE intervention, the trial appeared to promote sustainability across some measures.
Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M
The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the date for achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs approaching fast, there is a heightened concern about equity, as inequities hamper progress towards the MDGs. Equity-focused approaches have the potential to accelerate the progress towards achieving the health-related MDGs faster than the current pace in a more cost-effective and sustainable manner. Ghana's rate of progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 related to reducing child and maternal mortality respectively is less than what is required to achieve the targets. The objective of this paper is to examine the equity dimension of child and maternal health outcomes and interventions using Ghana as a case study. Methods Data from Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2008 report is analyzed for inequities in selected maternal and child health outcomes and interventions using population-weighted, regression-based measures: slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality. Results No statistically significant inequities are observed in infant and under-five mortality, perinatal mortality, wasting and acute respiratory infection in children. However, stunting, underweight in under-five children, anaemia in children and women, childhood diarrhoea and underweight in women (BMI Conclusion Significant Inequities are observed in many of the selected child and maternal health outcomes and interventions. Failure to address these inequities vigorously is likely to lead to non-achievement of the MDG targets related to improving child and maternal health (MDGs 4 and 5. The government should therefore give due attention to tackling inequities in health outcomes and use of interventions by implementing equity-enhancing measure both within and outside the health sector in line with the principles of Primary Health Care and the recommendations of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health.
Full Text Available The case of an eleven-year old child with an obsessive compulsive disorder is described. He was coward since he was a baby, with temperamental characteristics of inflexibility and persistence. The symptoms appeared from a negative family event and increased over the last two years. At the moment of evaluation the disorder interfered negatively in the child's family, personal, and social dynamics. A diagnosis of his difficulties was made by means of a clinical interview, observation, and standard tests. An intervention consisting of cognitive behavioral training was carried out, with the participation of parents and teachers. The case's evolution and follow up are described.
Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…
Anyon, Yolanda; Gregory, Anne; Stone, Susan; Farrar, Jordan; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; McQueen, Jeanette; Downing, Barbara; Greer, Eldridge; Simmons, John
A large urban district (N = 90,546 students, n = 180 schools) implemented restorative interventions as a response to school discipline incidents. Findings from multilevel modeling of student discipline records (n = 9,921) revealed that youth from groups that tend to be overrepresented in suspensions and expulsions (e.g., Black, Latino, and Native…
Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E
Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. In this community-based, cluster randomised trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a manualised, parenting intervention in Lira, Uganda. We selected and randomly assigned 12 parishes (1:1) to either parenting intervention or control (inclusion on a waitlist with a brief message on nutrition) groups using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Within each parish, we selected two to three eligible communities that had a parish office or a primary school in which a preschool could be established, more than 75 households with children younger than 6 years, and at least 15 socially disadvantaged families (ie, maternal education of primary school level or lower) with at least one child younger than 36 months. Participants within communities were mother-child dyads, where the child was 12-36 months of age at enrollment, and the mother had low maternal education. In the parenting intervention group, participants attended 12 fortnightly peer-led group sessions focusing on child care and maternal wellbeing. The primary outcomes were cognitive and receptive language development, as measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edn. Secondary outcomes included self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and child growth. Theoretically-relevant parenting practices, including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, and mother-care variables, such as perceived spousal
Pfiffner, Linda J; Villodas, Miguel; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; McBurnett, Keith
This study evaluated educationally relevant outcomes from a newly developed collaborative school-home intervention (Collaborative Life Skills Program [CLS]) for youth with attention and/or behavior problems. Participants included 17 girls and 40 boys in second through fifth grades (mean age = 8.1 years) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. CLS was implemented by 10 school-based mental health professionals at their schools and included 3 integrated components over 12 weeks: group behavioral parent training, classroom behavioral intervention, and a child social and independence skills group. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, organizational skills, and homework problems, and teacher-rated academic skills, report card grades, academic achievement, and classroom observations of student engagement were measured before and after treatment. Significant pre-post improvement was found for all measures, with large effect sizes for ADHD symptoms, organizational skills, and homework problems, and medium to large effects for teacher-rated academic skills, report card grades, academic achievement, and student engagement. Improvements in organizational skills mediated the relationship between improvement in ADHD symptoms and academic skills. Significant improvement in both ratings and objective measures (achievement testing, report cards, classroom observations) suggests that improvement exceeded what might be accounted for by expectancy or passage of time. Findings support the focus of CLS on both ADHD symptom reduction and organizational skill improvement and support the feasibility of a model which utilizes school-based mental health professionals as providers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C
Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J
Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weinstein, P; Raadal, M; Naidu, S; Yoshida, T; Kvale, G; Milgrom, P
While the psychological literature shows that perceptions of uncontrollability contribute to anxiety and other pathologies, interventions that enhance perceived control have been shown to reduce anxiety. This study attempted to assess a brief videotape to enhance child perceived control in a dental setting. 101 children aged 7-9 years completed warm-up procedures and viewed either: a) the experimental intervention, a 2 minutes video of a dentist explaining what an injection will feel like and proposing hand raising as a signal mechanism; or b) the control condition, a 2 minutes video of Disneyland. Fear of dental injections was assessed on a 10 cm visual analogue scale before and after the intervention. In the experimental group there was a significant fear reduction from pre- to post-intervention, while this was not the case in the control group. Children with higher pre-existing levels of fear benefited more from the intervention than children with lower levels of fear. The results of this pilot study suggest that intervention packages that impact child control have promise in lowering anxiety.
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Soltis, Kathryn; Davidson, Tatiana M; Moreland, Angela; Felton, Julia; Dumas, Jean E
Perceived parental stress has been consistently shown to negatively impact child functioning and ability to cope with stressful situations. Utilizing data from the parenting our children to excellence program, the current study examined the relationships among perceived parenting stress, coping competence, and school readiness in a sample of African American and Caucasian parents of preschool children (age 3-6) considered at high risk for child physical abuse. We hypothesized that child competence would mediate the relation between perceived parental stress and children's school readiness. We tested a longitudinal latent variable model and found that parent-reported (but not teacher-reported) child competence mediated the relation between perceived parental stress and school readiness, controlling for family income, parent's education level, and child's sex. These results suggest that parents' perceived stress plays a role in both how they view their children's competence and how children perform academically.
Jaakkola, Johanna M; Pahkala, Katja; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Lagström, Hanna; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli
Background The child-oriented dietary intervention given in the prospective Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) has decreased the intake of saturated fat and lowered serum cholesterol concentration in children from infancy until early adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether the uniquely long-term child-oriented intervention has affected also secondarily parental diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods The STRIP study is a longitudinal, randomized infancy-onset atherosclerosis prevention trial continued from the child's age of 8 months to 20 years. The main aim was to modify the child's diet towards reduced intake of saturated fat. Parental dietary intake assessed by a one-day food record and cardio-metabolic risk factors were analysed between the child's ages of 9-19 years. Results Saturated fat intake of parents in the intervention group was lower [mothers: 12.0 versus 13.9 daily energy (E%), p cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar in the study groups. Conclusions Child-oriented dietary intervention shifted the dietary fat intakes of parents closer to the recommendations and tended to decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intervention mothers. Dietary intervention directed to children benefits also parents.
TWINE, RHIAN; COLLINSON, MARK A.; POLZER, TARA J.; KAHN, KATHLEEN
Background: In April 1998, the South African government introduced the child-support grant as a poverty-alleviation measure to support the income of poor households and enable them to care for the child. Aims: This research aimed to measure equity of access to applications for the child-support grant in an area characterized by poverty. Three questions were addressed: (i) How does socioeconomic status affect the probability of a household applying for a child-care grant? (ii) What household and caregiver characteristics are associated with child-care-grant application? (iii) What barriers to access are experienced by households that do not apply for the child-care grant? Methods: The study population of 6,725 households with at least one age-eligible child was drawn from the Agincourt field site, a rural sub-district of South Africa. Data used were obtained from health and demographic surveillance, a child-grant questionnaire, and a household-asset survey. Descriptive cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results: Although these grants are intended as a pro-poor intervention, the poorest households are less likely to apply for grants than those in higher socioeconomic bands. Households in lower socioeconomic bands experienced barriers in accessing grants; these related to lack of official documentation, education level of the caregiver and household head, and distance from government service offices. Conclusions: Enhancing access will require improved provision of birth certificates and identity documents, efficient coordination and service provision from a range of rural government offices, and creative methods of communication. PMID:17676512
Twine, Rhian; Collinson, Mark A; Polzer, Tara J; Kahn, Kathleen
In April 1998, the South African government introduced the child-support grant as a poverty-alleviation measure to support the income of poor households and enable them to care for the child. This research aimed to measure equity of access to applications for the child-support grant in an area characterized by poverty. Three questions were addressed: (i) How does socioeconomic status affect the probability of a household applying for a child-care grant? (ii) What household and caregiver characteristics are associated with child-care-grant application? (iii) What barriers to access are experienced by households that do not apply for the child-care grant? The study population of 6,725 households with at least one age-eligible child was drawn from the Agincourt field site, a rural sub-district of South Africa. Data used were obtained from health and demographic surveillance, a child-grant questionnaire, and a household-asset survey. Descriptive cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. Although these grants are intended as a pro-poor intervention, the poorest households are less likely to apply for grants than those in higher socioeconomic bands. Households in lower socioeconomic bands experienced barriers in accessing grants; these related to lack of official documentation, education level of the caregiver and household head, and distance from government service offices. Enhancing access will require improved provision of birth certificates and identity documents, efficient coordination and service provision from a range of rural government offices, and creative methods of communication.
Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth
Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…
Neuenschwander, Regula; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Raver, Cybele; Blair, Clancy
Research Findings: Recent research has explored relations between classroom quality and child executive function (EF), but little is known about how teachers' well-being, including stress, relates to child EF--a crucial component of self-regulation. We hypothesized that teacher stress is negatively or curvilinearly related to child EF and…
Ling, Jiying; King, Kristi M; Speck, Barbara J; Kim, Seongho; Wu, Dongfeng
Childhood obesity has become a national public health crisis in America. Physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviors may contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. School-based healthy lifestyle interventions play a promising role in preventing and controlling childhood obesity. A comprehensive school-based healthy lifestyle intervention was implemented in 4 rural elementary schools in Kentucky. The intervention included 4 goals: improving physical education, health education, family/community involvement, and school wellness policies. Children's physical activity was assessed by pedometer, and nutrition was assessed by a previous day recall survey in January (baseline), February (t1), March (t2), April (t3), and May (t4) of 2011. The intervention had significant effects on increasing the percentages of children meeting physical activity (1% vs 5%, p school, grade, and age of the children. There was an increasing linear trend of physical activity and an increasing quadratic trend of nutrition over time among children. The intervention had beneficial effects in improving healthy behaviors among children. Further studies are needed to assess its long-term effects and cost-effectiveness. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Fricke, Silke
While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children identified as having poor oral language skills in preschool classes. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 13 UK nursery schools. In each nursery, eight children (N = 104, mean age = 3 years 11 months) with the poorest performance on standardized language measures were selected to take part. All but one child were randomly allocated to either an intervention (N = 52) or a waiting control group (N = 51). The intervention group received a 15-week oral language programme in addition to their standard nursery curriculum. The programme was delivered by trained teaching assistants and aimed to foster vocabulary knowledge, narrative and listening skills. Initial results revealed significant differences between the intervention and control group on measures of taught vocabulary. No group differences were found on any standardized language measure; however, there were gains of moderate effect size in listening comprehension. The study suggests that an intervention, of moderate duration and intensity, for small groups of preschool children successfully builds vocabulary knowledge, but does not generalize to non-taught areas of language. The findings strike a note of caution about implementing language interventions of moderate duration in preschool settings. The findings also highlight the importance of including a control group in intervention studies. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James
The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were…
Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy
Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dalma, Archontoula; Zota, Dina; Kouvari, Matina; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Veloudaki, Afroditi; Ellis-Montalban, Paloma; Petralias, Athanassios; Linos, Athena
To qualitatively evaluate the optimal intervention (food-voucher approach vs. free daily meal distribution), aimed at reducing food insecurity and promoting healthy eating among students attending public schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. We randomly assigned 34 schools to one of the two interventions: students in 17 schools received a daily lunch-box and parents in the other 17 schools received a food voucher of equal value once a month. All students were offered the opportunity to participate. We conducted 30 focus groups in all participating schools (17 in the meal distribution and 13 in the food voucher schools). Eligible participants included parents (n = 106), educators (n = 66) and school principals (n = 34). We qualitatively evaluated their perceptions and attitudes towards the program. Important differences were observed between the two approaches, with more favourable perceptions being reported for the meal distribution approach. More specifically, social stigmatization was minimized in the meal distribution approach, through the participation of all students, compared with the food-voucher participants who reported feelings of embarrassment and fear of stigmatization. Secondly, the meal distribution approach alleviated child food insecurity through the provision of the daily meal, while the food-voucher intervention helped manage household food insecurity, as vouchers were mainly used for purchasing food for family meals. Furthermore, the educational and experiential nature of the meal distribution approach intensified healthy eating promotion, while the food-voucher intervention was efficient mainly for conscious parents regarding healthy eating. The meal distribution intervention was considered more effective than the food-voucher one. Hence, for interventions aiming at tackling food insecurity of children and adolescents, public health focus could be oriented towards school-based in kind food assistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt
Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…
It emphasizes the role of the library and government in developing the girl child. It also highlights areas where the library can support the girl – child education and how it can enhance reading habit among children by providing relevant information. It ends with recommendations that will help make school libraries relevant in ...
Lambie, Glenn W.
Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…
This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…
Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.
The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…
Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.
Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…
Barbour, Nancy, Ed.; McBride, Brent A., Ed.
Child development laboratory schools are found on college and university campuses throughout the U.S. Over the last century, they have acquired a long, rich history. Originally seen as settings for the new field of child study in the early 1900s, their functions have evolved over time. These programs often play a central role in supporting…
Langlais, Amanda G.
Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…
Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.
The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…
Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga M.; Lakmini, Chamila; Subasinghe, Vindya; de Silva, D. G. Harendra; Benninga, Marc A.
Child abuse leads to multiple physical and psychosomatic sequelae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between child abuse and constipation among schoolchildren. Children 13 to 18 years of age were selected from 4 semiurban schools in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. A
Jernbro, Carolina; Tindberg, Ylva; Lucas, Steven; Janson, Staffan
The aim of this study was to examine the overlap between child maltreatment types and their association with quality of life among school children. A national cross-sectional study of 3202 grade nine Swedish pupils of 15 years of age was carried out in 2011 with an 84% response rate. Data were analysed using Pearson chi-square and multiple linear regression analyses. Of the total sample, 650 children (20%) reported at least one type of maltreatment. There was a large degree of overlap between maltreatment types. In particular, neglect and witnessing intimate partner violence overlapped with most other types of maltreatment. There was a significant relationship between the degree of abuse and multitype maltreatment. Results showed a linear relationship between the number of types of maltreatment and quality of life (p children's lives and highlight the importance of taking the broad spectrum of child maltreatment into account in both research and practice. A more comprehensive assessment of the width of maltreatment among professionals may help to identify the most seriously maltreated children and lead to an improved ability to target intervention and prevention at these children. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A descriptive study is presented, about the characteristics of boys and girls served between 2006 and 2009 in a child maltreatment and sexual abuse intervention program, implemented by Protectora de la Infancia and fi nanced by the National Service of Children of Chile. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 100 clinical records randomly selected (76 women and 24 men, all of them less than 18 years old. The results show that they are mostly girls between 8 and 12 years old, from low income families, and with appropriate levels of development except on the socio-emotional and psycho-sexual sphere. The main intake motive is sexual abuse, intra-familial, chronic, perpetrated on their own home, and by a masculine figure close to the child, on most cases. The complexity of this situations demand an integral eco-systemic approach to the intervention
This thesis on "Computer at home and at school, having regard to the risks to the child's personality development", discusses how to use computers in school, especially in the education, home and leisure of the child. Work emphasizes the risks resulting from improper use of information and communication technology (especially computers and the Internet) and offers solutions to minimize these risks. The aim is to acquaint the reader with the emerging phenomena due to using computers, such as t...
Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as access to credit, school quality and labor market opportunities, play equal or even greater roles in child labor and schooling decisions. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence from Nepal, P...
Tillman, Kathleen S.; Prazak, Michael D.; Burrier, Lauren; Miller, Sadie; Benezra, Max; Lynch, Lori
This study sought to explore possible child abuse reporting problems for children, including both disparities among school counselors. The participants in this study were elementary school counselors (N = 398) from across the United States. Each participant read a series of vignettes and completed a survey regarding their inclinations about…
Parenting interventions are relevant to many touch points of the child welfare system. This paper describes a multilevel system of parenting interventions called "Triple P" that matches intervention intensities to families, builds on a strong scientific base, provides multiple access points for parents, and offers a destigmatized, cost-efficient…
Browne, Kevin D; Jackson, Vicki
The Government in England has recognized the importance of early intervention to promote positive child development and prevent maltreatment. In doing so, efforts have been made to increase the implementation of the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) to target a greater number of families who require intensive secondary intervention. This paper presents an argument that the FNP can be targeted more effectively to yield a greater return on investment. This is based on the re-analysis of data collected by the largest cohort study carried out into risk factors for child maltreatment in England. Currently, around 315 health visitors are estimated to be implementing this programme, projected to increase to around 585 health visitors in 2015. However, targeting the programme towards first-time, young vulnerable mothers with low socio-economic status means that around 1350 health visitors would be needed. Critically, targeting only this population is estimated to prevent only 10% of cases of child abuse and neglect. By targeting risk factors which are less common in the general population but which are more prevalent amongst abusive families, fewer specialist health visitors would be needed to prevent a higher percentage of child maltreatment.
Heath, Melissa Allen; Sheen, Dawn
When a student is in dire need of emotional support, caring adults in the school can make a difference. This essential resource helps practitioners prepare all school personnel to respond sensitively and effectively to children and adolescents in crisis. Packed with user-friendly features--including over 50 reproducible tools--the book provides…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Liles, Brandi D; Tett, Robert P; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal
In the last decade, the development of community-based and clinical interventions to assist children and adolescents after a disaster has become an international priority. Clinicians and researchers have begun to scientifically evaluate these interventions despite challenging conditions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress. This scientifically rigorous analysis used standards for methodological rigor of psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to examine 29 intervention studies. This analysis revealed that further refinement of methodology is needed to determine if certain intervention approaches are superior to other approaches and if they provide benefit beyond natural recovery. Most studies (93.1%) clearly described the interventions being tested or used manuals to guide application and most (89.7%) used standardized instruments to measure outcomes, and many used random assignment (69.0%) and provided assessor training (65.5%). Fewer studies used blinded assessment (44.8%) or measured treatment adherence (48.3%), and sample size in most studies (82.8%) was not adequate to detect small effects generally expected when comparing two active interventions. Moreover, it is unclear what constitutes meaningful change in relation to treatment especially for the numerous interventions administered to children in the general population. Overall, the results are inconclusive about which children, what settings, and what approaches are most likely to be beneficial. © 2014.
In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school...... study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...
Zere, Eyob; Kirigia, Joses M; Duale, Sambe; Akazili, James
With the date for achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaching fast, there is a heightened concern about equity, as inequities hamper progress towards the MDGs. Equity-focused approaches have the potential to accelerate the progress towards achieving the health-related MDGs faster than the current pace in a more cost-effective and sustainable manner. Ghana's rate of progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 related to reducing child and maternal mortality respectively is less than what is required to achieve the targets. The objective of this paper is to examine the equity dimension of child and maternal health outcomes and interventions using Ghana as a case study. Data from Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2008 report is analyzed for inequities in selected maternal and child health outcomes and interventions using population-weighted, regression-based measures: slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality. No statistically significant inequities are observed in infant and under-five mortality, perinatal mortality, wasting and acute respiratory infection in children. However, stunting, underweight in under-five children, anaemia in children and women, childhood diarrhoea and underweight in women (BMI obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among women reveals a different trend - there are inequities in favour of the poorest. In other words, in Ghana overweight and obesity increase significantly among women in the wealthiest quintile compared to the poorest. With respect to interventions: treatment of diarrhoea in children, receiving all basic vaccines among children and sleeping under ITN (children and pregnant women) have no wealth-related gradient. Skilled care at birth, deliveries in a health facility (both public and private), caesarean section, use of modern contraceptives and intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy all indicate gradients that are in favour of the wealthiest. The poorest use less of these interventions
山口, 祐子; Yamaguchi, Yuko
The present article reviews preventive intervention of depression in junior high school students utilizing the school counselor. Results of preventive intervention program in Japanese schools are not constant. ①absense of professional staff, ②criticism towards the students being supported by the intervention, ③a need to reconsider intervention contene, are the suggested challenges. Future direction as ①use of SC, ②SC offering assistance consultaion to teachers using questionnaire as a media, ...
Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann
In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.
Wycisk, Jowita; Kleka, Pawel
The aim of paper was to explore the attitudes of Polish psychology students towards lesbian mothers whose children undergo psychological intervention, in an imaginary situation of providing professional support to the child. The authors found 3 types of psychologist behaviour: contact omission (withdrawal from the intervention, mother's partner exclusion), apparent appreciation of mother's partner and authentic appreciation of mother's partner (with women comparable participation). The authors explored an interaction between these attitudes and the support for gay and lesbian rights, the origin of the child (from a previous heterosexual relationship or present, homosexual one) and demographic variables. 97 students of psychology were examined at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, using the custom survey. Respondents were most likely to include mother's partner to intervention, and the least - to avoid contact. Based on cluster analysis we found three types of attitude: unconditional acceptance, conditional acceptance, dependent on whether the child was born due in heterosexual or lesbian relationship and avoidance / rejection. The attitude of participants was associated with the declared support for gay rights, there was no correlation with gender and age. Due to the significant level of social prejudice against gays and lesbians in Poland, the issue of homosexual parenting and social functioning of gay and lesbians' children should become an area of research and scientific debate. There is a necessity ofthe introduction of this issue to the curricula of higher education and the implementation of formal, systematic training on sexual diversity for the professionals supporting families.
Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Oswald, Sylvia; Comassetto, Júlia Obst; Kieling, Christian; Gonçalves, Renata Rocha; Rohde, Luis Augusto
School dropout rates are staggeringly high in developing countries, even for elementary school children. This study aims to assess the feasibility and initial efficacy of a package of interventions tailored to reduce school dropout in public schools in an urban city in Brazil. Two public schools with similar high rates of dropout in elementary grades were selected. In one of them, a package of universal preventive interventions was implemented during a school year, including two workshops with teachers, five informative letters to parents, three meetings with parents at school, a telephone helpline at school, and a 1-day cognitive intervention. For children who stayed ten consecutive days out of school without reason, mental health assessment and referral to mental health services in the community were offered. In the second school, no intervention was implemented. After this 1-year intervention, there were significant differences between the two schools in rates of both dropout (P school, 18 (45%) youths returned to school after intervention among the 40 at-risk students. Moderate engagement of school staff was the main logistic problem. Our findings suggest that programs combining universal primary preventive strategies and interventions focused on at-risk students can be implemented and useful in developing countries to reduce school dropout.
Cliff, D P; Okely, A D; Morgan, P J; Jones, R A; Steele, J R
Efforts to treat obesity in childhood and adolescence would benefit from a greater understanding of evidence-based strategies to modify physical activity behaviour. A systematic review was conducted to examine the impact of child and adolescent obesity treatment interventions on physical activity. Studies included were randomized controlled trials or controlled trials, with overweight and obese youth (aged physical activity at pretreatment and post-treatment. Two independent reviewers assessed each study for methodological quality. Seventeen child and three adolescent studies were retrieved, half of which were conducted in the USA. Studies were characterized by small samples of limited cultural and economic diversity. Fifteen studies reported an increase in at least one physical activity outcome at post-test or follow-up. Overall, study quality was rated as low (child median score = 3/10, range = 0-9; adolescent median score = 3/10, range = 2-5) with three child studies classified as high quality (>or=6/10). Research evaluating the effect of child and adolescent obesity treatment trials on physical activity is limited in both quantity and quality. Studies testing innovative, theoretically driven treatment approaches that use robust methodologies are required to better understand generalizable approaches for promoting physical activity participation among obese youth.
Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Despite recent growth in research highlighting the potential of teacher-child relationships to promote children's development during the early years of school, questions remain about the importance of these relationships across elementary school. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364), this study examines between- and…
Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri
The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus' work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools' goals, focussing on pupils' cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools' existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers' use of intervention cooking kits. The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration.
Deneca Winfrey Avant
Full Text Available School social workers (SSWs are known for serving students with social, emotional, and academic needs. Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI/Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS is one avenue in which SSWs play an integral role by guiding the development and implementation of student interventions. RTI/MTSS requires substantive and multifaceted system changes that involve more than simply adopting new approaches. This paradigm shift brings change which may not be desired or easily accepted by school systems. However, developing collaborative relationships and using effective leadership strategies throughout the RTI/MTSS transformation can be a pathway to success. A survey of 192 SSWs in Illinois revealed the challenges that SSWs experienced as the process of implementing RTI/MTSS transformed them into change leaders. This revelation was viewed as an opportunity to closely align social and emotional practices with students’ academic achievement.
Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent
This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208
Walley, Susan Chu; Chime, Chioma; Powell, Jamie; Walker, Karlene; Burczyk-Brown, Jennifer; Funkhouser, Ellen
Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) increases the risk for respiratory-related disease and hospitalizations. The hypothesis of this study was that a brief intervention (which included a motivational video) provided to parents and caregivers during their child's hospitalization would be associated with improved knowledge and behavior changes that may reduce the child's TSE. Parents and caregivers of children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses with TSE were recruited between June and December 2012. They completed a questionnaire to determine baseline knowledge regarding the health effects of smoke exposure. The intervention included a motivational video, written smoking cessation materials, and referral to the state quitline. The questionnaire was repeated after the intervention; telephone follow-up at 1 and 3 months included knowledge questions and assessed behavior changes. Paired t tests were used to compare preintervention and postintervention knowledge scores. A total of 167 parents/caregivers were enrolled. The mean preintervention knowledge score was high at 5.4 of 6, which improved for 60 parents/caregivers (36%, P smoked (95% confidence interval: 7-21). Other behavior changes reported included initiating home and vehicle smoking bans, discussing reduction of the child's smoke exposure, and showing the video to others. Improvement in knowledge after this brief intervention was associated with reported initiation of home and vehicle smoking bans (P smoke-exposed children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses had high baseline knowledge of the effects of TSE. A brief intervention that included a motivational video was associated with reported behavior changes in parents/caretakers that decreased second- and third-hand smoke. Improvement of knowledge was associated with institution of home and vehicle smoking bans. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
: Starting school is an important developmental step / task not only for the child but also for their parents and family in which to grow up. The accomplishment of this task expands the boundaries of family / parent and the child's functioning in social, emotional and cognitive sense. The aim of this paper is to highlight the need to educate the parents of the child going to school, which would contribute to parents with awareness and sensitivity to the nature of long-term process of enterin...
Ayşe Rezan Çeçen
Child sexual abuse is a complex and serious phenomenon that causes short and long term debilitating effects on individuals and their quality of life and life satisfaction. Last three decades child sexual abuse (prevalence, effects and prevention methods) has been very important multidisciplinary topic in academic field in North American developed countries but In our country, Turkey there are not sufficient studies related to prevalence, effects and prevention of child sexual abuse. In this s...
Full Text Available The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals. Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.
Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid
The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.
Stein, M T; Zentall, S; Shaywitz, S E; Shaywitz, B A
During a health supervision visit, the father of a 7.5-year-old African American second-grader asked about his son's progress in reading. He was concerned when, at a recent teacher-parent conference to review Darren's progress, the teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up with reading skills compared with others in his class. She said that he had difficulty sounding out some words correctly. In addition, he could not recall words he had read the day before. The teacher commented that Darren was a gregarious, friendly child with better-than-average verbal communication skills. His achievement at math was age-appropriate; spelling, however, was difficult for Darren, with many deleted letters and reversals of written letters. A focused history did not reveal any risk factors for a learning problem in the prenatal or perinatal periods. Early motor, language, and social milestones were achieved on time. Darren had not experienced any head injury, loss of consciousness, or chronic medical illness. He had several friends, and his father denied any behavioral problems at home or at school. His teacher completed a DSM-IV-specific behavioral survey for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It did not show any evidence of ADHD. Darren's father completed 1 year of college and is currently the manager of a neighborhood convenience store. His mother had a high school education; she recalled that she found it difficult to complete assignments that required reading or writing. She is employed as a waitress. Darren does not have any siblings. The pediatrician performed a complete physical examination, the results of which were normal, including visual acuity, audiometry, and a neurological examination. It was noted that Darren seemed to pause several times in response to questions or commands. On two occasions, during finger-nose testing and a request to assess tandem gait, directions required repetition. Overall, he was pleasant and seemed to enjoy the visit. His
Pinkelman, Sarah E.; McIntosh, Kent; Rasplica, Caitlin K.; Berg, Tricia; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen
The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports completed an open-ended…
Mercer, Sterett H.; Idler, Alyssa M.; Bartfai, Jamie M.
This study is an investigation of the extent to which school psychology intervention research is guided by theory and addresses theoretical implications of findings. Intervention studies published during 2007-2012 in four journals, "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology…
Borick, Timothy J.
This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…
Schonfeld, D J; Kappelman, M
The young child's immature understanding of the concepts related to death serves to heighten anxiety about death and interferes with successful adjustment to loss. This study was a randomized trial of the efficacy of a 3-week school-based educational program in the promotion of the concepts of death in 4- to 8-year-old children (prekindergarten through second grade). The Smilansky Death Concept Questionnaire, a validated and published structured interview, was administered pre- and postintervention phase to all study participants (N = 184). The experimental group received three interventions: (1) a series of six 30 to 45-minute presentations about concepts of death, (2) teacher educational presentation, and (3) parent educational presentation. Significant mean gains were noted for the experimental group as compared to the control group in the total death concept score, the total score for human death, the total score for animal death, and two of the four factors studied, that of causality and that of inevitability and old age. The gain in total death concept score as a result of the 3-week educational program was equivalent to the amount of conceptual development that is seen in one year in the absence of intervention.
Audu, Olukemi; Daly, Carol
There is limited evidence to fully justify the use of standing interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This case report describes the impact of an 8-week standing program on motor function in a child with severe CP living in western Africa. The subject was diagnosed with ischemic - hypoxic encephalopathy shortly after birth and with CP at 12 months of age. Gross Motor Function Classification of CP was level IV. Early attempts at physical therapy were interrupted by limited access to medical services. At 18 months, a standing program using a locally constructed standing frame was initiated. The standing intervention was completed at home 5 times a week for 8 weeks. Motor skills were assessed at baseline and post-intervention using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). Scores on the GMFM-66 increased from 28 at baseline to 37.4 in 8 weeks. Improvements in motor function included improved head control, improved upper extremity function, and increased sitting ability. Implementation of a home-based standing program may have contributed to improved motor skills for this child. Further research is needed to determine the effect of standing interventions on functional motor development for children with severe CP.
Kostas A. Fanti
Full Text Available The current investigation examines longitudinal differences between bullies, victims, and bully victims in terms of the quality of their relationship with their parents and school performance. We also investigate the transactional association between the quality of the parent-child relationship and bullying behavior, after taking into account the longitudinal association among bullying, victimization, and school performance. The sample consisted of 895 mothers and their children who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. According to the findings, children in the cooccurring bully victim group were at higher risk to experience continuous conflict with their mothers and to perform worse academically. The findings also offer support for the hypothesized transactional association between bullying and parent-child conflict and closeness. Further, a positive longitudinal transactional association between victimization and parent-child closeness was identified. Finally, school performance was positively related to victimization but was unrelated to bullying behavior.
Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard
Many studies have described associations between childhood psychiatric disorder and characteristics of the child, and their family, school and neighbourhood, but few studies have studied them simultaneously. Also, most investigators have failed to allow for the extent to which different exposures are correlated, or for clustering at different levels of observation. Our objective was to establish which correlates were independently associated with psychiatric disorder. Data on DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, as well as child and family characteristics, were obtained on 8772 English 5- to 15-year-olds included in a large British prevalence survey of mental health. These data were supplemented by independent measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage. We entered child and family variables with the measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage into a logistic regression analysis to establish which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder. No variables were associated with all types of disorder. Poor general health and life events were related to emotional disorders, while conduct disorders were most closely associated with family variables, and ADHD was only related to child characteristics. Disadvantaged schools, deprived neighbourhoods, low socioeconomic status, parental unemployment, cohabiting, large family size, and poverty were not independently associated with disorder. Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors. Different disorders have distinctive correlates. Many of the best known "risk factors" are not independently related to childhood psychiatric disorder, and are, therefore, acting distally in the causal pathway or irrelevant.
Bock, Marjorie A.
This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…
Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai
Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…
Murray, Tinker D; Eldridge, James; Silvius, Pete; Silvius, Erik; Squires, William G
Texas Senate Bill 530 (2007) mandated fitness assessment as part of the annual K-8 Physical Education (PE) curricula, yet no studies have reported interventions designed to improve and quantify individual student passing rates or individual school performance. Students (Total 2008-2010 N=1484; 729 females, 755 males; mean age = 11.85 y; mean BMI = 22.69 or > 90%-tile, overweight) were evaluated on individual FITNESSGRAM® performances in a cross-sectional analysis of 6th graders comparing baseline scores (year 1) with outcomes of a physical activity intervention in years 2 and 3. Students participated in regular PE classes (including campus wellness center activities) with a once a week focus (FITNESSGRAM® Friday) on improving mile run scores and other assessment scores. Students significantly improved FITNESSGRAM® scores following the PE intervention to levels similar to state reported averages. On average, boys improved their pushups by 32.7%, trunk lift by 17.4% and mile run times by 29.5%. Averages for girls improved by 15.4% for pushups, 6.7% for truck lift, and by 38.6% for the mile run. The percentage of boys in our study achieving all six FITNESSGRAM® tests in the HFZ was 3% at baseline and 22% following intervention. The percentage of girls meeting the criteria for the HFZ on all six FITNESSGRAM® tests was 4.5% at baseline and 20% following intervention. This study provides a potential model for fitness success in other middle school PE interventions, in Texas and the nation.
Rana, Leanne; Alvaro, Rita
To assess the effectiveness of using a Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework to deliver a nutrition intervention in schools. 'CREATE healthy eating in schools' used a HPS framework to assist key school health stakeholders to increase healthier food and drink choices across 68 schools in South Australia. Data were collected on a range of measures including workshop feedback, resource evaluation, canteen menu assessments and case studies. Twenty-nine workshops were provided across 10 metropolitan and rural locations. Overall, 254 participants from 60 schools attended workshops, with an average of three people from each school. An average of 90% of all respondents found workshops useful/very useful, with most participants reporting they had increased knowledge and skills of healthy eating, healthy eating guidelines and menu planning at the end of workshops. At the completion of the program, many participants reported increasing healthy food choices across the school. Menu assessments of a small selection of participating school menus (n=10) supported these findings, with the majority of menus (n=9) showing increases in healthy food choices from 2005 to 2006. Implementation of the 'CREATE healthy eating in schools' program resulted in self-reported improvements in healthy eating activities and increases in healthy food choices in a number of schools.
Pearce, Natasha; Cross, Donna; Monks, Helen; Waters, Stacey; Falconer, Sarah
In 2004, a set of validated guidelines for school bullying prevention and management was released by the Child Health Promotion Research Centre in Australia to guide schools' action to prevent and manage bullying behaviours. At this time little was known about cyber and other forms of covert bullying behaviours. These guidelines were updated in…
Akseer, Nadia; Bhatti, Zaid; Rizvi, Arjumand; Salehi, Ahmad S; Mashal, Taufiq; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q) gaps (Q5-Q1) and the slope index of inequality (SII), while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1) and the concentration index (CIX). The lives saved tool (LiST) modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS), skilled birth attendance (SBA), and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4) where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the more urbanised East, West and Central regions
Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Methods Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q gaps (Q5-Q1 and the slope index of inequality (SII, while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1 and the concentration index (CIX. The lives saved tool (LiST modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Results Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS, skilled birth attendance (SBA, and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4 where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the
Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S
Several decades of research have informed our knowledge of children's reactions to disasters and the factors that influence their reactions. This article describes the system of care for child disaster mental health services using population risk to determine needed services and a stepped care approach built on assessment and monitoring to advance children to appropriate services. To assess the evidence base for disaster interventions, recent reviews of numerous child disaster mental health interventions are summarized.
Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth
This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)
Hinkelman, Lisa; Bruno, Michelle
The purpose of this article is to summarize aspects of theory and research on child sexual abuse that suggest best practices for identifying and addressing abuse involving elementary school children. Teachers and school counselors often have the most interaction with children this age, yet they may feel inadequately prepared to intervene…
Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati
This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…
Das, Saswati; Mukherjee, Diganta
This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th round (1999-2000), to show that for urban male children there exists significant wage incentive for schooling, though school dropout rate and child labour incidence are not so small. The parents' level of education plays an important role in…
This paper draws on literature that has theorised child participation within the sociology of childhood framework to examine how children participate in governance within school spaces. Four children aged between 13 and 17 (in grades six and seven) who serve as prefects at a primary school in Lesotho were participants in ...
Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael; Murray, Julie; Ost, Jason; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Herwantoro, Shinta
The demographics of U.S. elementary and secondary schools are changing rapidly as a result of record-high immigration. These demographic shifts are occurring alongside implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the landmark 2002 federal law that holds schools accountable for the academic performance of limited English speaking children…
The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in chil...
To throw light on the challenge of providing education to pastoral households in the context of social and economic change, this study investigates the effects of herd migration on child schooling in Northern Kenya. Specifically, the analysis uses both household panel data and community-level focus-group data to identify the barriers to schooling,…
Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old…
The need to provide research information about the prevalence of street hawking, its effects and educational factors was the focus of this research. The focus of this study is on street hawking as an aspect of child labour, abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who ...
The need to provide research information about the prevalence of street hawking, its effects and educational factors was the focus of this research. The focus of this study is on street hawking as an aspect of child labour, abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who ...
estimates that 1/5,000 to 1/10,000 children under five years die each year from physical violence (1). According to different studies and reports, child maltreatment has several forms in Ethiopia. It can be in the form of excessive corporal punishment by parents, teachers or others; excessive child labor; harmful traditional.
... facilities, the staff simply cannot care for a sick child due to space or staff limitations, although in others, the child can be kept comfortable and allowed to rest as needed in a separate area of the room where they have already exposed the other children. ...
Carla Menêses Hardman
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p25 Few interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in youth have been successful and have had only subtle effects. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits on screen time indicators in students. This was a randomized controlled intervention study of high school students (15–24 years of age who attended evening classes in the public schools of 2 Brazilian capital cities, Florianópolis and Recife. Data collection was performed via a questionnaire at the beginning (March and end (December of the 2006 school year. Students who reported spending 2 or more hours per day watching television or playing videogames/using the computer on weekdays or weekend days were considered exposed to screen time. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the 2,155 students included in the baseline sample, 989 were evaluated during the post-intervention period. The intervention group showed significantly reduced exposure to videogame/computer time on weekend days compared with the control group (29.8% vs. 35.6%; p=0.004. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the results showed that the intervention had no significant effect on reducing the exposure to screen time in the surveyed students. The intervention model adopted in the Saúde na Boa project was not effective in reducing the screen time exposure of high school students.
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter
The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…
Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours) in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain) conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES) and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women). Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home-based. Conclusions Parents want to
Van Lippevelde Wendy
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women. Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home